The Complete

As offered in 1982 at Steubenville, OH in the Servants of
Christ the King, a Branch of the Sword of the Spirit. Includes
the “Death Oath” as well as other handouts used to reinforce
the teachings of the Sword of the Spirit Training Course.

Many, many thanks to Mr. Tony Corasaniti for his permission to use and
present these materials. His meticulous note taking is clear and legible. Tony
was a “Servant” in the Servants of Christ the King Covenant Community and
functioned directly under the Coordinators for many years. He participated in
the presentation of the Training Course in 1982. He worked at Franciscan
University during much of that time as well.
I am also enclosing a picture that has hung on the wall of my office for many
years. The Sword of the Spirit used fear to control its membership: fear of
displeasing God, fear of the end of the world and fear of everything in the
world. Many of us who experienced the community would agree that we lived
in a cocoon of fear. So please keep in mind as you read…

John Flaherty, Grand Island, NE
Posted at on July10, 2012
I T~H\N\we rF20G-£f16\;\
~Jn+ey- 19Z5a
~~~ o., ~.~.
, ~ \~
G JS L ~. o:k ~.
I~I,D ~~~~~~
,D-t-d~ ~ ~. <:> <,
I~~ UJe-~:
~~~.~L ~ ~-
-r- --~~I
WiD-.. ~
Cc0-~ ~~
c0Uv~~ ') *---;tcJ~ ~ )
I lJJf'-.lL A.-L l~ ~ {- ~~
!~ '.~O-~~
,~b- __ ~~
~ ,
~ ~ L 0-G -v~ ~ ~ ~ 0-6 '-.-/
~ Lv-e- ~ ~ CL QJL ~
I·Lu-~'/~ ~.
I.P~~0+O~ ~~,
l!k-~~~~ o--~ ~ ~
j ~~~~
:~~ 0-"'-' ~ -h ~ ~
I ~~~
,~~~-~ ~+-~~~
~L .~~;
."- ~\A.JL 'W( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
6>L P-(r~~ ~( ~
rv~~ ~ ~ _ - j : : : ; c - vv.'_4-D ~ ~ -\-0 ,-,~~'-.u-..
~VL-D I ~ W~Ck..- , .
- l.~ U---"-€- ~<[, @Q--~ f ~ \~ /~
~() ~~Q ~-~\~
~ ~ L ~ ~~~~:&:~
0-- ~~~)() ,
~~ ~~v~ ~ ~~~L ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~ Jl~&J~ ~
~cf-~ ~Q.. .
-~~ ~~~ ci~
d--Lr'~ --L.r).~ Lv~~ u ---"--e. .. ~ a-c ~
~~ - ~±Q/-.~ - ~ ~
~J- -b g;=k- .AAA ~a~c ,~ ~.o ~;-A'
, l.- ~ .~ ~~~J.-.i..L ~'-.u .
j (qg'a ~G ~ .
LG eL ~"--v'- ~ d-~LC""':'" ~-t-- /'-"-~'-e-<'- ~
(:~__ fr~~~ ~ ~ ~ '--n~
~-h~' (-6 ~
.. ~ ~ ~~) - l
'tJ~~ - h.,~ \ tJ"Y'-f2.- ~ ~
I '
~ 2 S 1
t-A-u -~~ ~U~
~ ~ ~ ~ '-'~ O-A-O-
l~-ei). 0
, - ~ O--rr'-- ~~ -r--
I~JL~~L c~0 ;~~~
qq g--}77'sf 000
~vl~\~ (f'0(pu -ta:ft'ol-1
~2 ) . C~../YV~~
~ Gee 0'00
, I '
~~ I Cx>:» r
lLL(;CC (00
\ ---Y-, , c
4-:lr CC6000 I
q ,
1()3 ooe
'C ~
Y - r r ' ( c . v . . . . .
A~ .
~ 0~.~~L~~'''.j )
l,~ L ,~0)
lSC 000
L ·~~ ~'-"- ~~~~~ 0...) --~~ eY
~ l>--~ ~ +0 c...~y~ CO~--t- ~J~
~~~0 cr-u -'-c'- ~~~~
~ 1 0 l - 1 ;L - ~ a.
I ~ c:!t4 Cry HS)
. 1 \
Lo--n~j)~~' ~ \,~CL A---~ I,
~~:.:::::"~~. - ~. ~~ ~ ~M
~~- ~c-.c
~ J), .
I ~~iJ
~11f: ~ cr-* ~ ~~
~ ~j ~ ~ o--cd:
· i _f ', I
( ,-.~. --to ,~)
~ '~L
L0~ nouj .Q e~?
IW~ cL ,,~.u --~ 0-- ~., f-~M
I~.+O~~~. .
.-~~ ~ ~fL ~ ~ &6 ~
~ ~ C6--vL ~ ~ .-Q,~~
~ C+4~fj ~ c~~
I~~ Qfh\,/Y Y '_L-\/'v~0 ~~ (I"J) ~JJ~ ~
~0~.- _ ~~~~. C0-'<- l~~
-\-0 ~~ ~~ ~ ~.J~ ~ ~
~ 1 3
~ 14-
~~{-v . ~. ~
~~.~~~vv ,~~.
~i-- ~I
~.l~)g--d-~ J~ ~~~
LF. 4: IJ-l9 I ~ ~~, C-
.J.-- ../'-...5:L -
~ f S
, 1-/3-8~
·~*Co (TLlc)
-~, ~~~.~~~)
I-~.=-.. '~.~
'-I 1_ (\ _f _\
r>. ,~I!
I, - 14-~c2
I~ , #g CR;JC)
'~;; : d-~ 1U:t ~ ~"
>~~u \~."lO~6-b
I-\~~~,~~~ c~.~~
~ (R~\J - ~ ~JJ t--ert ~
~~ c-~\')J
-~x~~-£l LD~~~ ~~
. l)'~
I~~ --t -e -G o u ..-~ -to
~-U~ ~~~~
~, (5 ~I-'O
~~ ~ JL L ~ LG :-x J:JL " q G C / / . J _
)- ~~~ -~~ ~ cl:0 ~ ~t_k~ /1~~c-
~ -!-- ~ ~ ~ L ~ lL -'-G ..A-
,'- ~'-- ~~ r» .
: 1- ('5-S $';)
(Jdou ~~~nd:--v~)
(BS ~~~
I 0L -6 ~ '-.§-~ ~
-----. Q.Z 'I
~ \- \lo-9~
I~ ~I/ (TL\()
· ~ "6 ~cU p~" (~ #LLU-'<AX)
. ~Y L
W~ v
C~(;f lA:!d )
.x~-c--cl ~ ~') '+ D ~
~ .~ ~ '--'\A-J
~.~/ ~~~-\:
~>L-~ ~ 10.j± ~~ -+ -
(~=:::'~ ~
· (~d)
,-.:- ~) ~ ~t- -t- ~
! ~~~~~
---- 5 J.
, .
~ ~ CL-~-& c"* r'~ CIA- ~
CY~7 \) ~:J 1-'
, ~ J ~ ~ cG ,~ ~-L --b s-<- c~ 1J~ ,
'p~ ~l~Kt~
/.J--D~) Ct.- f ~-cL.. 0'1 ...... ~fl~-t: 6"'-..·~
G ..-~ ~ \J Cj - -0- ,- --
~~J J s----Ic 1:. ~ ,I'~~ ~~ -:.: ~'--)
c;.....~ \ ~t~;r-'Y~ ~--Lr 1~Lc ,
-f (
I _
.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ D .:~ TP~
i --JL,"-£..- c~ --h.ute ~ ~ ~
I. J-o ,-",,-,",~~'-h' ~ ~-Y\'-~f)EY-.~-,t
,~'--'~ ~ ~,
-~~ ~J2 . ~~~L €.-
I .~~ v..-~~ ~~~c.4
-~ -~~,~--
cr-o~ ~~ ~ 0-- ~ -I- ~
~ G .-~ ~~~.:to
!l~ . .;1'. (-4
-~ ~~~~~~~~
L't~ cJ~ .
~ ~ ./~ -+z > ~
~" .~c;cSL ~')
~'-JLYu-$ ~ ~ ~ .~.~ ~~ ~
~ --rR..-~ ~ -tP .
.Q 0-l)~+o ~~ '--U~ ~ u -~
~ . ~ ~ ~ ') ~ 0-_ _ _ L ~,- I C~~ I
.J-.x-~ ~~
- -'-~ J= U~ ~ '~* A-"---'~L L . C>(i
c-k~ ~_ ~ ~ ~ L -G -<---L C
~"yY~ ~ ~ ~ T ',~ l~--k
J-<-~-+ C ~ ~JU/C ~~
u -'J ~ I~ -\c 6.<, ~~-
~4.c~~ ~.~ l'~ ~ ~'~
L ..:.~~ u .;~J..L ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~
~ if :
CG !f~\....'--'C- .../~""-l..-'v~ 0..-- .~/'-"-<./~ e1' ~---''---<::~ ~~f .--
~--L~-t';\ ~\... \..-'-'~.-f ~~ ~Oct I~ f
~ / r .. ~ I 0 . (
r;:,- 1J-~ ~s:~_t6-:~ "-~ ~'- -I- .~
\.....'--~'L - )
+ ~ ~~ ....J.-->L-I ~~ ~ ~
- (~/~
~~,-~~"scw k~):
I. i,,~---<-- / ,-'" ~(r'~- ~~)
,f J )
d,. ~"'~ ~- ,I. , (0000.6C - 1" ¥C - o's
~.'~~'~j~ ~~J (1IJG 0" - y ~)
~~ JL~/t ,~~~ ,j-~~~
~ =- ~ S ::b~~ ~
,- .'
c~ ~ -L -)
H~ ~~ ~ ~ ~-'~"";'-"'''-1 J
--~ . ~~~
, ~ ~ ~ :L . ~ \~- ~~-e:..AJ.-V
( /I~i~,
--~ ~ ~ "J'-
-~~~ + o~+ SUL~
6-() ~ O-U ~ ~ ~.-
I ~D-- ~ ~-~~
I ~ ~{~~
~ 41 .
ci- \-g',~
~~ -4F ICo (-\ Ltc)
I -'~~k-n.
·l~+ •.. ~~~~)
I -
Q.Q~ - ~ -I--~ -l-SW .c-: CL ~
~~~~ ~~'+~ r~ ~~
CTL .\.A.- ~-~--A __ C-~ Q+
- &~ O-A-Q- ~ ~ ~ Q~,
~~ ~ J ~ ~-~~ k<J2
,,'- - 'L- ,,\'" ~ ~ ~ G -~ ~~
~~ L~K ~ ~~ ~~-
~ L Cl-~ .
- c..n~/}~L rLC.-~LD ,J- ',!vv~~V"'~"----'~ ..f-- 4>\..-
~~6:~Cj )~,
-'r L~e- ~~-~ +Z~ D-->-~ O~-'d---c_A__ 0b 0-
-to~~~ QA ~ ~ ~
.2 )~ CLJl', ' .
.• ...
lj ~ ~ -kt ~ CL J1 _. ,~
~v . '-l-. ~ c::UL .Q
o-~ "t-.":": .Q~,
/" '4 Q I
~~ - <;3' ...-2 5" ~
: ~ -:±bJ C l (TL K)
·O-e . ~~~ \
lc~ U-~ ~l)~ I) L ~ ~~n
, ~/ ~ ~ ~ .~ /"-.Q_~ ,
.~12 - ~ ~I...€.., ~~ ~ 6-L..,,-,-
I~~ •
. LJJL. ~ ~ ~ ~~~.c l~~+- ~j
G :)cn.l} J ~ ~ ~-: -- (J
en~ \~I , ~ •
Vy '\ n ed . ciQc+1 nl C
~ \ 0 :
'\ f ~ \~ 'V1cL -t-i 0 '\ ~ E\rrt-eytz t. ') rllE,.I-\.+
+- ~-'Ci:'<)T'--' ,
I H-61J-'L '<- ~~~ t-i01..b-1.J
L0!~ ~u-~~~-tD~
- ~~ ~\.J.J C I -~, 5: f /)
- ~w.L'-G.-~M +- L L r-~_-t.-~ (i P~ 3,I ~l; ~ ,S:
;t\ ~ 03 ; .p;Uj L), 0\ ',31)
- QcL~~ ,• ... -x:~ +- ~~~. (;~j'-_L~..l/ 7 : ~r7 ~ -:J-!5 :)
- ~ - ~~~ 1.1 ~~, '::l ',\ ~) .
- .. ~ ':j--- ~kv~v"vYl~vt (I P.ct.. ~: II)
- ~".--- &e:l'--"--"-/~-iJ ~~ l~\.I I,;{: 10 )
I - <:«. r---'~tt LI • . ,c:~ ; (7)
I - cU..Y.. -H"-..-<--vLr -+f~ C~G ~ }~L . ~-eJL :±0
I -4Jl ~ a ~,C-L ~(J ,...ctc,.. )
~ lliD~ ~~
~ ~~
-. c:t:a ~ wi ~ w::- ~ JJ.:t-.
~ ()-uJL /' . L0J~
6-U-fA.- ",L-G D
w~'iL L 5V.~ -:;te C~Q/)ct:~
. I5'Jl- ~~')~, '. 'i-- U~ -e~ OX-
I f P-~ "- . (~.
ctJ~ OUL Q .. ~ u -,~ p~ ~ fL
~~~t ~e:L , f I1 -e/,-,~),
Q~~~ Q~ pft.~ ~ ~ O...D --twL
CVJ ~~~~t-~ J~.&Q
'-*-£ d-e')~ C,/LD=tLC, ~~ u.; Q./~~ ~LJ.LL, a~
~t--fu :.A ~-t )) -u r-::al!.. ~£) ~ .l,'-L~ J-~cI::::o
~~ . ~L tt-u ..AL ~ ~~~ f
- = -» ,~rn'--t LK0~ '-*~ CL~ I t 'LbcC
tM..I.-LLek ~t ~l.~
@Cu i-~db U~
~~ !~~ J__ 't ~ O-elL ~ L t-~
0--t.7 c1 ~ ~~ ~ 0- U-'~~~"--3l
~~tc;t.J ~~~ O-'~-' c ~~ .i-.~~~ '+- ~~~~/J
~ - ~ 6. --t _ _"V--n-- ..0 __--k= :o ~~'-6'G ~J~
~(j., iL5 ~.' ")L "-~~ (~~ 7j"'---'--' v~ ~~
~ UC~J)
,~ 5(0
®~ ~ lAt:6YNV&
~L ~ 6YL c:~ ~ on
~ ~.U-J . u J j o., ~
~~~(:...~ )
C-~~.) ~~ ~ w/ c~
@ HLLM~ ~ LUL.u~
-'-~~ ~&c~:f 2 ~ ~
. ~61Lj~~~~,~U)
~~~{)~'l-~ cn~
i~L (/l.....- _
- ~ ~0~'- cD ~'L ~ /~~-
- ·x'fb'~-L .. ,
,- Cina:-~~ L ~ ~, ~; l~
- oJ..R- ~ ~ '-0 ~--vL -tb ~
® lu ~~ Jt:b ~
-r~ ~-+o ~L ~ <,»:';
- ~j __ k~ r~ = :Y ',
,--,-.c:L -~''-Q~ c~ Q.L) ~ -C~A-A-a_)
I u :~ CfL . cG o~ -L ~ -:-z s ~ o-u -~
~ Q.,.4) ~ ~ ~"'Y'\....;
Q..,.o--J-- -lu 'e...-
~~~1-~~ ~
~~~ 0-)/ ~.~
!O...L~~ GG'--C l..-~ ~ JL ~:Jd~ ~'-- +--
~~ ~j...)d) ..-p JL ~ ~ ~
~'-- ~ ~ ~-d- 0-~ ~ ~
~ OJ) ~~ ~ -+- l....-v~~"
w~ ~C£:-O~L D/~~
'~, ~~~~-
I~ ~
-UJ--e~3:;o ~ ~~ ~
~.~~~ktD ~-,6IL-~
~ ~.:U~ - ~~
~L ~~~ c::Lb/Q..D ~ ~
~rJ-- C-~I
C'l_k--~k L-G'-(;~ I ~;,--t-
;Vy ~( ~r~~ = :»
....-1&· --£ t ,<-'-C 1.J C J ~~.~
.;c1L.j t~ J'--O~{..L ~ .J
1~.O:19-~~~,0c ~~
~U>-v'-' trtJ~- ~. ~, , .
-~~ ~
~ (Pet,
~-- --- ~-------).
~. r 'f l
,CL~~.~~ .. ~~
~ 0, ~ ~T --jrcQ~ rY-- -r-~ I
.~&~~~~~~ f \X)/~
:~~ JL IU- )Jon ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
I ~ :6~ ~JJJ/~'.
~ CQ~ ~~~ w/~ ~~ot:J~~QoJl,
o 'L I' U(j (j '\ " (f ~~~.
@ /( q Ie Il ~f !f ~'
• ...
• ...
®~ ~ ~~-yG .J- u .>-to..X ~ '-.-/
~ +- ~ ~D ~.~Q£L ~(
C'.-L A.-.~ I
~- - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - -
3 -dq-3 ~
~ +F ~q ,(l2JcJ
I ~~,~ 6IL c.A~ t-(/-*-
~~~4 -
I - ~~ ef--. ~ ~-t.y trf-. ~. ~ f ~
"-~~<0F ~O~~\(~
~'( ~ ~ ~~-k ~J'~
-- '-~ c~ ~- ••. ~ ~, ~': IC\.J-ao ~ -±a ~
I ~6~~~~~~L L .~,
-~~, 4- .- CL ob lV-€_ ~ ~ ;U, ~ ~6lil"j- ~
u rts0G .j l>J-c\J--SL ~~ ~ ~ ccl-~Q ~~ CL
~~M ~ A-W -kb C-~~ b ~ G ----vJl
cd:-~~~-~~ ~ -=to H*'
+-tl)w ~~ ~~L Uv~,~ B~--~~~ .:«.
CG~ J ~J-~~ ~L ct I ~N~ PCLLJ:/~
~UJ) .34:1o~1 - __ ~.( ~~ .~ ~~.I n~j'
~ c..t-'~~"-' ) .~ct t-le- --<.-->'--~tJ u --~ 6-X_
LA-' '-~"'-~ ~ ..•~)
- ~ I~, -~71 ~-v.~ ~~ t G~
- ~~.IJ-;L L 1,1 t--;;.g'~ d. 4-0 ~
'- ~'--rk~.~,I ~'5- 10 - ~i ~ c..~o.~-L A-CL~
~ JL cv-e i-- ~~
~ if15
<, I 4-5-~a
1~~*2 ?-~(~ R
.~~ ~-~
.L ~~~~lJ~~
, '
~ f (CJ
'\ 1()LuL~ ~~.~~
~-a--*-~O~k~-bcl. '--
WQ., ~t ~ ~~ o::t., ~ (
I~'~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ '~
~ ~ ~~ -+- ~~ Q-....JL
~,H(~-~ ~'---'~ ~'- _A-Q~ ~ /~
~ '--1j--o-"L ~ .
- "": ~QJL 6~ I\J-Q... ~ ~ "- ~ ~CL
~) ~- ~ ~ ~,,--{yl~
4. ~ ~~--~ ~ ~b ~'7IL -,:" -~d <R
/~_ -p., J~~ CL A.-L --t~~, _
- lJ.-'~ I.J.-L ~~ oJ:! * D -..-<..--; ~- ~ ~- ~
~L ..---
: r r LO Ll -L ~ ~ j:Ib ~-.JG r-y~J<.~ ._
( ~O ~"-- -+L ,,-- -~ ~'t4. C'~~).
~~~~ _JI-~-t Q4-LA- ~ ~ - ~
s----.~~') - ~ ~-~ ~~-~ Cl -A. JL o-LLA-
Jl--v~~ I ~...::t. ~ a-Q.JL ~ ~ o...--yY'-~
I ~ ~ 9.--v'---~~_J"):
~~o ~ ~ ~~ {-"'--lL-
~~ ~\).
-, ~ ~OL.,LA. £Q~Dl_~ __
Ci ~ ~ l:-U..Jl.A.") OJ) ~ +/'--Q.O'± L<..D
~ - o->e, ~j ~ty c~ +- X~ ~ .
@IWJL cle ~ ~ '--/Y'L c.JL .-k, ~-d-...L.- D--L'---<-
I (~M
G;IWQ..- e.o:»: ~ 'if~ ~ ~
~.~~ 0
\- ~. ~ ~. ~ -=*=0 JJ.-!Lf<...
..JL ~~ ~l-C--L 6-1.-- ~ ,-A--1,L -,CO '
~o~ ~ ~- OL U~~_
~I-..... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rv-si»:
'~JJ/ ~ ~ 0-() v.-~ ~-
I--~&-~ ~:Q) .
~ ~~-~ '~~' ~ <::»
-0.-j Q. t.A>e-(~ ~
~-., J ~),
L ~<..A ~ dbV~ ~ o.:±-U~
_~~D {~~)~
~_I- -~~
-~~' U
,_-'7, d- - ~ - ,~ ~ ereJl
1 -- n ~"-- .
- ~e.A-.Q.~ -.M 1JJ -- ~J~~~~
_ ",J jj2 ?~ ~",,/~-L
~ _ ~ -5-\;2,. _ .
- O-k.,)~~- ~~-L o~'- -t&-~ j_o-,L~~-
;~ L ~_~~
-- clQ~U c'~ ---- ~ ~ ~
z :
?,,,OV, 'O J
,;,2.. M..tL-c. 7
" ,;)S!.}A
,. sa . IS
e~,s· .~\-U
CcL 3,.1&,-1'1
ecd...Cu .~
,w.~L L ~,---l ~ J2 ~ oY-~. -j:::b ,~~U ~ ~L ~
; J--vL- CA- V--~ ~ C~J v%J Lt L ~ ~~
I ~ (}-0~ ~~~ -)c-o ~ d-~j
I f ~, q :':H-&-6
ih--~ ~~ -L cr-c-~ ~~ ~~, L ~' ~
---'-~ O__ Q.'~ ~ Jl..z- ~ L~ ~~
, c-J)CL.c~ P ~ d-.tJLIl, A-••. ~ ~~,
- Jl~ ~ +-- "'---"---~-U.. ~ ..Q,;-- ~-
~ h ~~ ~ ~'-* l1r~~
~-'~~~ ~ ~ ~oJL* - a>-«: ~)
+ lVC b Lr..e___

·t. ...
*1r &(j 1J

- I
qry l
-, P
-;. H
I '.....,-
1 -·---
c1- TP
Oi. J..·--e_ ().._.- 6f '
,,, ;./' . - ------
~ - -- - /"'
"- qz l
C Ll_/'1..- f\..J._y± l {j-u:;bu_ '--L ) !'
- I)-c. .A.- n\._(__ : .
"-) r . . · .::t?c-<-v cc.u__, . "6 T f' {-f:_t:u_:-c ";3 /c.< c{o ,,:; /
IM:..vL /- U0LL'Cct.
- (CL!J (L
uA lJJ'Q

1 P '
TP ( rd::-

/ ;·'" . - ··-- -... ---
/_- -·

. ........__..·
Handouts List: Ser v ants of God' s Lov e Tr aining Pr ogr am I
Date Talk Handouts
'>\ 1/12 /82
X 1/13/82 Sec ular Humanism
Communism and Chr istianity ( 10 pgs)
Moder n Sec . Humanism ( page 4 only)
Sec ular Sic kness ( Hitc hc oc k)
Communism &Chr isty
J 1/15 /82
Disc ipleship I Letter and pr ophec y
The New Feminism Papa ar tic le~il~~
The Way of Wic c a r epr int
Two Feminists tell how they wor k
"/ 2 /1/82
/ 4/12 /82
Our Contr ibution Nation at War pr ophec y
Pastor al func ioning of M/W gr oups Cluster Life I I
Manly Char ac ter
Str ategy- Conc luding
How an Amer ic an boy is feminised
Statement of Commitment
Communic ating to people outside
the c ommunity
40 c opies.
\ - \:1..- <6J..
The Muslim Wor ld I e Mov ing Next Door
( Exoer pted fr om an ar tic le by Jac k Wintz, U. S. Catholic )
I slam- - Some Basio Data
I slam is an Ar abic wor d whic h means submission to Goq. • • lelam also
means oac e the eac e that flows fr om suc h sub . Adher ente to
r eligion of' I slam ar e c alled Muslims r M slems - - those who submit to
God ( Allah, in Ar abic l.
I slam is the thir d nnd most r ec ent of the thr ee Semitic monotheism t
Judaism and Chr istian~v Y eing the other s. Just as Chr istians see Chr istianity
as the c ulmination of Judaism, 80 Muslims see themselv es as a c ulmination
of Judaism and Chr istianity& I slam, too, tr ac es its or igin bac k to the
faith of Abr aham and beyond to Noah and Adam. Thus l- I uslimado not see their
r ~2igion as a new r eligion but the same r eligion God r ev ealed to all the
pr ophets. The Kor an ( the sac r ed book of I slam believ ed to c ontain GodJs
r ev elatione c ommunic ated thr ough Muhammad) announc es: "We believ e in God
and that whioh was r ev ealed to us and that whioh was r ev ealed to Abr aham
and I shmael and I saao and Jaoob and the tr ibes and that whic h wa iyen
Moses an 0 esus and the pr op eta fr om their Lor d. And we make no dis-
tinc tion between any of them and to him we shall submit ( i. e. , be Muslims). "
Jesus is ac oepted and r ev er ed as a gr eat pr ophet, bor n of the Vir gin
Mar y- - another esteemed figur ~ in tho Kor an. Jesus, howov er , is not c onsider ed
div ino by Muslims. Sinc e they do not hold to the doc tr ine ot or igi~al sin,
they see no n~od for a r edeemer . Muslims believ e that it was to the pr ophet
Muhammad that the message of I slam w&ar ev ealed in ita c ompr ehensiv e and
final for m. In their view, MuhammEl. d ia the c ulmina. tion and "seal or th~
pr ophets, " and ther e will be none after him.
Both Jews and Ar abe, as Semitic peoples! ar e desc endants of Abr aham.
While JSl. 11S tr ac e their desc ent thr ough I saac , thG son of Abr aham and Sar ah, .
the Ar abs ( and th~r efor e Muhammad) tr ac e their o thr ough I shmael, the son of
Abr aham and Hagar . Ac c or din~to the Kor an. I shm. a~l went to Meoc a in Ar abia
( now Saudi Ar abj) wher e Abr aham and he built a house for wor shiping God, the
anc ient Kuaba of Moc c a- - oenter of I slamic wor ship.
Huha. mmad at Hec c a
Muhammad was bor n ar ound 570 A. U- to a poor . mer c hant of a leading
tr ibe at Mec c a • • • • Or phaned ear ly, Muhammad her ded sheep for his unc le,
later got into the c ar av an business, then enter ed the ser v ic e ot a wealthy
mer c hant' s widow, Khadija. At the age of 24 he mar r ied her , though she
was 15 year s his senior .
Mec c a, his c ity, lay in a stony v alley of the Ar abian deser t. An
anc ient, well- water ed c enter of c ommer c e, it is on the anc ient spic e- and-
inc ense r oad that c ar r ied tr ade fr om the I ndian Oc ean ac r OSB the deser t
to the Hedi ter-r-aneen wor Ld , I t was a lawless c ity with gambling, dr unken
or gies and bloody quar r els between r iv al tr ibes.
(Servants of God's Love would change its name to

Servants of Christ the King in late 1982.)
The Muslim World Ie Moving Next Door
\ - \2.:- '6~
(Exoerpted from an article by Jack Wintz, U.S. Catholic)
Islam--Some Basic Data
Islam is an Arabic word which means submission to God ••• Islam aleo
means noace, the eaoe that flows from suoh sub" Adherent~ to
religion of Islam are called Muslims r Moslems --those who submit to
God (Allah, in Arabic2e
Islam is the third und most recent of the three Semitic monotheism,
Judaism and Christian~ty eing the others. Just as Christians see Christianity
as the culmination of Judaism, so Muslims see themselves as a culmination
?f Judaism and ChristianitY$ Islam, too, traces its origin back to the
fai thof Abraham and beyond to Noah and Adam. Thus Nuslims do not I!.H.H' their
rQligion as a new religion but the same religion God revealed to all the
p~ophet8oThe Koran (the sacred book of Islam believed to contain Godts
revelation$ communicated through Muhammad) annou~cas: "We believe in God
and that which was revealad to us and that which was revealed to Abraham
and Ishmael and Iemmc and Jacob and the tribes and that which wa
MOGes an 0 asue and the prop eta from their Lord. And we make no dis-
tinction between any of them and to him we shall submit (ioe., be Muslims)."
Jesus is accepted and revered as a great prophet, born of the Virgin
Mary--another esteemed figur~ in the Koran. Jesus, howover, is not considered
divine by Muslimso Since they do not hold to the doctrine ot origi~el sin,
they see no neodfor a redeemer. Muslims believe that it was to the prophet
!1uhammad that the tn0SSl!geof Islam ',.raarevealedin ita oomprehensi Vel and
:final form. In their view, Muhammmd is the culmine,tion and "seal of the
prophets, II and there 'd.ll benone after him.
Both Jews and Arabs, as Semitic peoples, are descendants of Abraham.
WhilG Jews trace their descent through Iaaac, thG son of Abraham and Sarah,
the Arabs (and therefore Muhammad) trace thoiro through Ishmael, the Bon of
Abraham and Hagar. According to the Koran, Ishma~l went to Mecca in Arabia
(now Saudi Arabi) where AbrD~am and he built a house for worshiping God, the
ancient Kaaba of Mecca--centor of Islamic worship.
l1uh.!iJ!lmad at }Iocca
Muhammad was born around 570 A.D. to a poor merchant of a leading
tribe at Meccaeee.Orphaned early, -Muhammad herded sheep for his uncle,
later got into the caravan business, then entered the service of a wealthy
merchant's widow, Khadija. At the age of 24 he married her, though she
was 15 years his seniore
Xecca, his city, lay in a stony valley of the Arabian deeert. An
ancient, well-watered center of commerce, it is on the anc~ent apice-and-
incense road that carried trade from the Indian Ocean across the desert
to the Hedi tez-r-anean t••• or-Ld, It \\IS.S a lawless city with gambling, drunken
orgies and bloody quarrels between rival tribes.
All kinds of religious sects with superstitious rite~ and shrines to
over 300 gods found a home in Mecc~. Scattered communities ot Jews and
Christiane lived there at Muhammad's time, but most of the Arabians clung
to the idols of their ancestors.
The tribe to which Muhammad beionged controlled much df the trade of
Mecca, as \!le1¥tsthe temple called the Kaaba where all the gods were
honored, but where the creator, Allah, seen as the king of the other Bods,
received special homage.
When Muhammad was 40 years old and driven to ponder life's meaning
in a crave on Mount Hira on the outskirts of Becca, he ex erienced the first
of a Berie.a of divine revelations. A1 a s reality gradually became for
Huhammad so impressive that aoon the cry of the Islamic faith would sound
out to the world: "La ;.laha i11a Allah! There is no God but Allah 1 "
!lthough his wife and various relatives embraced his teaching, he
what is now the city of Medina some 250 miles north of Mecca), This
historic flight, called Hegira, marks the be innin calendar.
·At Me ~na where a community of followers had alread settled, he welded
his disc; ..' 0 a heocratic state and a -military power from which the
great Muslim empire was to quickly grow. His orces eventually clashed
~ith Mecca, and 1t fell to h1m w1thout a fight in 630 A.D.
When Muhammad died in 632 AeD. in Medina, all of Arabia was virtually
under--his control. He had succeeded as no other Arab had ever done in
und ting his countrymen. b century 1star, his follo\\'erE!had conquered most
,of the Middle East and were masters of an empire stretching from the shores
of the Atlantic to the borders of China. The Huslims had conquered Spain
and started to cross the Pyrenees into France. If Charles Hartel and hi om
Christian forces had not stopped them in the Battle of Tours in 732 A.Do,
"the entire \Jestern wox-Id rnight today be Muslim," according to Huston Smith.
The Five Pillars of Islam
The religious responsibilities of Huslims are divided into five cate-
gories, the familiar "Five pillars" of the Islamic religion.
The C!'eed. The Muslim's profession of faith is contained in the simple
statement: "The r-e is no god but God, and t·luhammadis his prophet." The
sincere recitation of this formula is sufficient to make one a Muslim.
Islam has no priests or sacraments,
Pra.;yer. The MU5~im is obliged to pray five times a day according to Islamic
t!'adition and law: at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and before retiring.
, i
Muslims are oalled to publio pray~r by a orior. oallod a muezzin. who
stande, aocording to the tr~dition, in tb~ mineret (or slender tower)
of the mosquo. Many Muslims pray at the mosque only at noon on Friday,
w ioh 10 thair day of worship.
Er* jl~e Muslims must fast during the entire month of Ramadan,which bec~use
of the Islamic calendar can fall nt anytime during the 1ear ••• ~Voluntary
fasting ia encouraged during other times of the year. especialiy for expi-
<:l.tio~of sinso
~o Muslims are onjoined to give two and one-halt peroent ot their
annual income to the poorer m0mb~r6 of the communityo It's a kind of wGlfnrc
£ to Mecca. Th~ final and fifth "pillar" of Islam is the pilgrimt\ge
to MeccD.o All MuiS:1imsare expected to journey there once in tliier lifetim~
provided they have the me~~Bo The focal point of Mecca ie the black-draped
shrine kno\~ as the Kaaba. In the Kaaba is the sacred Black stono, believed
to be the only ~iece of Abrahames original shrino.
When Muslims pray they always face Mecca, a praotice whioh conve,e a
Rreat sanse of solidarity and unity of faith with Muolims around the glnbc ••
eeSome Muslims point to their concept of. jihad or hol~ war as a kind of
sixth "pillar" of Islam.
Black Muslims
V!0 can turn now to the so-oalled Blaok Muslim movement in the U.S
whioh simco 1975 is officiaJ_ly call®d th~ World Community of nl-Islam in~,
the I'oct .rw ..delni~SI co~e 150,000 mombo!"s. Tho name "Black Muslims," never
ace~ptod by ita memberm as its official title, was apparently imposed oa
them by thQ Dedia and the popular mind.
Itc best-~~own leader, Elijah Muhammad, wa~ born in Georgia in 1897
snd inherit~d lGnd0rship of the movement from its founder, Wallace D. Fard.
Elijah e~tabliehod tho cult's heaclquartor~ in Chicago in 1934. At that
time it ltJaC3 called the Na"i;ion of Islam, and Eli.jah Huhammad ran it as a
black separatist movement that c1~imed racial nuperiorityo It coneidorod
wili'!;oG inherently (;1 1 1 1 and lab~led thorn "bluG-oyccl devils."
Elijah Muham~ad died in 1975, 1®aving ma~y of.his followers disillusioned
because of conflicts within the movement and allegations about Elijah's
personal life. The movement was ta!r.enover in 1975 by his son Wallace D.
Huhamoad, \<JhoC!ulckly instituted a number of drrur.e.tic l?'.nd important reforms,
such as dropping the anti-whi to ~tancl!t its doors to white members
and changing to its ourrG!n·t name.
Those fundamental ohangoB have brouaht the organization closer in line
t-l'iththe practice of orthodox Islam. Its members are apparently consider$d
authentic Huslim51 who could be welcomed in mosques around tho wor-Ld &51
brothers and sisters of the Barne religion.
The black nationalist Malcolm X. though he had a fa11ing-out with Elijah
Muhammad before bGing assassinated in 1965, had be0n one of the most f'orca-
ful loaders of the black Muslim movemente
(A)= Arabic word
(E )= English word
(A) Alavi or Alawite (French): n~me for extreme Shiite sect foUnd in modern Turkey
and modern Syria recently in conflict with Sunnis
(A) al-Ik..hi-7an al-Muslimun: The Muslim Brotherhood .
(A) aI-Lan or "Allah": the deity, or "God" of Islam
(A) amir or emir: prince, commander of Muslim forces
(E) Assassins: westernized form of "He.shshashin" (Le. one who' 'U$ed hakhish), name
applied to medieval Nizari Shiite of Iran and Syria that used
assassination as a political and strategic weapon
ayatollah: Er'an'Lanword for Shiite leader and scholar (eg., Ayatollah Khomeini)
(E) Bedouin: Near Eastern pastoral nomads whose language and culture are Arabic
(E) Berber: pastoral nomadic tribes in North Africa that are not Arabic
(A) de_~ish or dervish (Iranian):
initiate of a Sufi ot-der (hence, ."whirli!'!..g dervish"
known for "ecstatic" prayer); literalzy "poor"
Druze: small Islamic sect found chiefly in Syria whose faith is based on
medieval Egyptian doctrines
(A) imam: the religiov.s head of the community or prayet leader in Sunni mosque]
in Shiism Imams were the descendants of Ali Who led the Shiites
(A) Isle..m: literally " subnd ssdon" (;t.e. to Allah) .
(A) jihad: literally. "striving" on behalf of IsJ,am; the Isle_'!l,ic "~~ly war"
(A) kb.alifa or caliph (E): 8u...'1...11i successor to Muharnmad' IS se.cU.liu:' ~u.thor;i;t;y as Leader-
of Islam; the caliphate was abolished in the thirteenth
cen,t1.1'1; 'y .
(A) Kurd: person identi:t"iedwith the IK\lrdish J,ingu,istie group 'Who~e t;t'aditiona;J. home
has been northern Iraq,.i;s0'ttheasternTurkey, and north.western Iran; Most
Kurds have been pastoral n~mads and are 8u...'1...11i Muslims known for strong
folk culture end fierce wa~riors.
I. (A) M9.d:i.,na..h: m,ty;i,n eastern 8auc1,:1, Arabia, second holiest c:l,ty:l.nIslam as it Was
Muhammad's home for a f~N years
(A) Mecca: the holy city of Islam in eastern 8aud:i., Arabia
.(A) Mu.slim: "one who submits"; adher-ent; of the Islamic rel,;tg:l,on
(A) Qora.." t or Koran. (E): Muslimb,oJ z y' book
(A}Ramadane ninth. morrth <; >1'the Isl8-ro.:1 ,c year wb,enMu.s:limsfast fr6m, dawn,
to sunset, dail.y
(E) Saracen: Muslim, usually referr:!,r..g to Arab Muslimsin the Neai- East
(A) Sharia.: Islamic law code based on, the Q.oran, haditb., qiyas, and ijma (see below)
(A). hadith:
(A). qiyas:
the " sayings" of Islam; formal, t:t'aditional, Islamic teachings
process of juridical reasoning by analogy that is accepted
by Sunnis as one of the sources of the Shari a (not accepted
by the Shiites)
Consensus of scholarly communityof Muslimson a religious
regulation, a principal source of the Shari a
(A) ijma:
(Ar:shaykh or .:sheik (E): chief, leader of Sufi order or tribe (hence, " shaykh a.1 -Islamf1:
chief official for Islam, formal office in the Ottoman
(A) Shie.t Ali:" partisa..T1 S" of Ali, the fourth caliph who formed the Shiite sect
(hence " Shiism" and " Shiite" ); the majority of Iran,ian,s are " Shiite"
(A) Sufism: title by which Islamic mysticism is known(" Sufi" is the adjective)
(A) Sultan,: literally " possessor of ultimate a'l'1 .thority" ; king (especially ottoma...'l)
(A) S'l'1 .nni:the adjective which denotes the doctrinal positions of the first generation
and the historical communitywhich descended from it, often mistranslated
" orthodox" ; ninety percent of all M1 .ls1 ims are Sunni
Muslim" dissimulation" , practice by which individUals can deny their
faith (especially under " persecution" )
(A) collective body of Mu.slimtheologians, scho.lars, j'idges within a
given .society
(A) te.qiye.:
- (A) Umme.:the Isla'llic cO!l'1 J!I!.L'1 ity whenused in a religious sense; " nation" or
people Lr:l. modernnationalism
I, -
. ;,; . • . .
. . h : _ _ _ . . I· :.ill!, 'U,II
RELld±oN ,nt c ~ M M c i t~ S T . tDEOIDGY
r.!Oj~t!!lUni3ts are materi~t1..;.sts. They deny the e~istetic<!b : r dbjeotitv~·sl"h:1ihual
reality. Thus; explanations for the human condd tIon , whether c1escr1:ptive. or
hf s tor -Lc a. L, ar -e to be derived only from within the material realm. The l'l'll.terialist
explanations of (;ommunism are socio-economic. Spiritual forces are totally out
I)!' ti'.!:! picture - for they do not exist. Marx asser t s that" •..consciousness
[ifl., the en soc i . a), :Legal, political, philosophical, and religious thinking
of mf:r1]must •.. be exp La Lr.ed from the contradictions of material life; from the
existing conflic\:,between the social forces of production and the relations of
. d ti 1t1
pro uc .on. -
It follows that Communists are atheists. They categorically deny the objective
existence of God. Religibn, Marx asserted, was an illusion, the product of human
imagination: "Man makes relig:Lon, religion does not make man. tr2 Re:Ligion is only
the illusory sun that revolves around man so long as he does not4revolve around
himself. "3 Lenin says, "God are not sought - they are created. II
How, then, 0. 0 Communists explain the phenomenon of religious faith? According to
jo.hdr ideology, religion is the natural outgrowth of oackward human aocfo-eccnomre-
'Political systems, like feudalism and capitalism. Lenin says, "The deepest root
of religion today is the socially down-trodden condition of the working masses and
their apparently complete helplessness in face of the blind forces of capitalism •••
.- cuch is the root of modern religion which the materialist must bear in mind first
. 1 1 5
and foremos t ••.
In societ~es that are stiil capitalist, relig~on f~nctioris as ~ narc~tic, The ru11n~
classes of such a society', b'y playing upon the sup~rstitions o:e'the people, use
religion to keep the people content under subjection. Thus, the rUling class can
more easily oppress and exploit the people. During the feudal society of the
Middle Ages, the aristocrats did thus with the peasants; and now in the modern world,
capitalists do thus with the workers, the proletariat. 6
"Re Li.gdon ," declared Marx, "Ls the opium of the peo;ple."
"Religion," asserts Lenin, !tis one of the forms of spiritual QPJ'ression which
everywhere weighs down heavily upon the masses of the people, overburdened by their
perpetual work for others~ by want and isolation ...• Those who to~~ and live in
want all their lives are taught by religion to be suom~ssive and pat~ent wh~le here
on earth, and to take comfort in the hope of a heavenly reward. .••Religion is
opium fo,r the 1,)eo1';l.e. Religion is a sor t of spiritual booze, in which the slaves
of carrltal drown the ir human image, the tr demand for a life more or l,es s worthy of
man. It?
WhCl.t,then, is the task of the Communist in liberating th e peo1'le from their cruel
,:- oppre s s Lon? He must oring the people to an at••• arene ss of the root, source of their.
oppression: the socio-economic-political system of ~~italism. And he must incite
the peo1,)le(the proletariat) to overthrow their capitalist oppressdrs in a violent
revolution. Lenin~ liThe combating of religion cannot be confined to abstract
ideological preaching, and it must not be reduced to such preaching. It must be ,
linked up with the concrete practice of the class movement, which aims at elimina.ting
" .....
. . 1. -
I "
. th e soo: l. ?: !.r oots ot ~ ~ : I. ;tgt9q. 1t8, L. en,;tna,ga: l. n: " N~ e. ~ 1,l,o. $. t. l,Ql",~ ~ '~o'bkCi ;1,b , er Aqi c e,te
r el,i gi on, fr om th e mi n,ds of masses wh oa. r e C;Y: 'tl,sh eti 3, O Y ' c a;p: l,. ta. ;l,: l,S ~ h a. ,r d lab our , and
wh o ar e at th e mer c y of th e b l,i nd des tz-ucttve f'or ee a of c ap~ ta,l,~ sm, \lnt: i ,J, th ose
masses th emse1,ves l. ~ e,r n to f~ gh t th : l,. sr oot pf r e~ ~ g: i ,9n, fi gn4 th e r ule of c api tal'
i n al,l :i,1;. sfor ms, i n a \lni ted" or ganf. aed , Pla. nneg, and c onae Lous way. "9
Out of th e vi o;I. en,t ;!?r ol,etar : i . an r evol,uti on w;l),J. e)lle;r ge t1'),el'1oo. : i . al. : l,st $tate, th e
i nfant c ommun: i . ,st soc de ty, S i nc e th i s "e Iaas Ies a soc te ty" h as no oppr e r ul,: l. ng
c lass, r eli gi on wi ll no 1,onger b e 'tl,sefu~ as a weapon of QPpl'ess: l,. on. Fur th er mor e,
th e soc i o-ec onomi c r oots of r el;i ,g~ on w: Ul. h ave di sl3,ppear ed . 'r h e r oots of super -
sti ti on wi 1,l h ave b een r eplac ed b y th e r oots of sQ: !,enc e. A n /l. so, wi th a li ttle
educ at Ion i n sc i enti fi c ath ei sm, r eli gi on w;i ,1. J. s;i ,m;plyd: l,. eout , Len: !. n: "Our pr op-
aganda nec essar i ly i nc lUdes th e pr opaganda of ath e: l,. sm; th e p'Jb J. i c at: !. on of th e '
appr opr i ate sc i ent: !,fi c li ter atu: l: 'e . •• must nowf'or m one. of th e f: Lelds of' our Par ty'
wor k. ~ . ;r esh all nowpr ob ab ly h ave to foJ. ;Lowth e advi c e EngeLs onc e gave to th e
Ger man S oc i ali sts: to tr anslate and wi dely di ssemi nate th e l. i ter atur e of th e
e tgh teenb h -c entur y Fr enc h Enli gh tene. r s and ab h e i . s us. 1110
Communi st i deology i s h osti le to r eli gi on, and h osti l. e to Ch r i st: l. ~ . ni ty. Agai n~
Vladi mi r Leni n : Lsc lear : "Ever -y r eli gi ous i dea, ever y i dea. 01' God, even fli r ti ng
w: i . th th e Ldea of God, i s unut ter ab 'l. e vi leness of th e most danger ous ki nd, c ontag: l,on
of th e most ab omi nab le ki nd. M i lli ons of si ns, fi lth y deeds, ac ts of vi olenc e and
ph ysi c al c ontagi on ar e far less danger -ous th an th e sub tle, spi r i tual i dea of God. "
1. T h e Justi fi c ati on of Amor ali ty
~ > C
.~~ ,
,'I j" :"
, I
. In r efer enc e to th e ab ove di agr ~ , Communi sts b ei i e~ d th at i n: o~ der to get fr om
poi nt A (c api tali st soc i ety) to poi nt C (soc i ali st S OCi ety •. i st stage of Communi st
soc i ety), h uman soc i eti es must fi r st str uggle t. h r ough poi nt B (vi olent r evoluti on).
T h e goe. l - Communi st soc i ety - i s c onc ei ved of as e. h appy, h ar moni ous, nonvi olent,
almost utopfan end. Li u S h ao-c h i i n h i s b ook, Howto B e . a Good Communi st, wr i tes:
!tIs a Communi s t wor ld good or not? We all knowth at i t Ls ver y good. In suc h a.
·. . ,or ld th er e wi l~ b e no exploi ter s, oppr essor s, landlor ds, c api tali sts, i mper i ali sts
or fasc i sts. T h er e wi ll b e no oppr essed and exploi ted people, no dar kness, i gnor -
anc e, b ac kwar dness, etc . In suc h a soc i ety all h uman b ei ngs wi ll b ec ome unselfi sh
and i ntelli gent Communi sts wi th a h i gh level of c ultur e and tec h ni que. T h e spi r i t
of mutual assi stanc e-and mutua. ; love wi ll I)r evai l amongmankfnd , T h er e wi ll b e no
suc h i r r a. ti onal th i ngs as mutual dec epti on, mutual antagoni sm, mutua. l slaugh ter
and war , etc . S uc h a soc i ety wi ll, of c our se, b e th e b est, th e most b eauti ful and
th e most advanc ed soc i ety i n th e h i stor y of manki nd. t!12 T h eor eti c ally well-i nten-
;--ti oned, Commund st s adh er e to th e pr . i nc i ple: th e end justi fi es th e means - any means.
Wh at h as b een th e r esult of th i s appr oac h ? S ystemati c vi olenc e of ever y magni tude:
ter r or i sm, assasi nati ons, mur der , c onc entr ati on c amps, i J!lpr i sonments, tor tur i ng,
, " I
revolutionarY' tribun~is ~exedud.6rls ~ ma~s eit~rmida.~i6nS, tfi c ke~ y, 6alcuiated
deception, social manipulation, intimidation, brainwashing, etc., e~ c . Communism
is a disciplined force, a powerful machine, calculated and efficient; but with
,absolutely no moral regard. This is a fearful combd.n at Lori;
In his defense of Bolshevik terrorism, Leon Trotsky writes: ' It ••• the revolution
does require of the revolutionary class that it should its end'by all
methods at its disposal - if necessary, by an armed rising: if required, by ter~ ',', .
ro:cism."13 "Over all the criteria of bourgeois society - ~ts law"its morality, ',4
;,its religion - is now raised the fist of iron necessity. 'Necessity knows no law' .,,1,:'"
, ,
2. Exposing the Justific,ation
.' r.oIDmunistshold that the end justifi~s the means. But h~ db Cbintlhih1Sts'jUstify
revolutionary violence even after the end is achieved, even after the Marxian " '
sodalist state is established, as in so many countries in the world? "
In State and Revolution, Lenin speaks of the "dictatorship of the prbletariat
, a
temporary revolutionary socialist state under which the last vestiges of capitalism
were to be crushed. After this, the state itself (ie. any oppressive ruling force)
is supposed th Itwither away", leaving a peaceful Communist society, in which no
state, no violence, would be needed.
Nowhere has anyone yet seen the harmonious Communist sbciety as dreamed of by Marx,
by Lenin, and by all Communists. It is doubtful t.hat anyone evEhr will see it. It
has seemed to many to be an utopian fiction. Even in the U.S.S.R., after years of
"the dictatorship of the proletariat", and even after many more years of having
been proclaimed as a Communist society, people find not the CO!ll!ll.unist utopia, but
its opposite: the totalitarian police state.
Alot of critically-minded Marxists, who though themselves are hopefui of r~alizing
socialism and communism, do not condone many of the Marxist socialist soci~ties,
(ie. the infant Communist societies) existent today. They see them ab being gross
pretenses. Leszek Kolakowski is the leader and hero of the young Polish Mar.Xist
':intelligentsia. In regard to many socialist countries, he remarks with bitterness
and sarcasm:
ItSocialism is not:
state which has more spies than nurses and more people in prls~m than in
h ospi tals. I, . ' . " I • I ' ••• ,I I, I ' i
state whose government determlnes the rlgHts of lts cltlzens but whose
citizens have no say in dete:rming the :rights of the government.
state Which always knows the will of the people before it asks them.
state in which the results of elections are always predictable.
state in which the workers ha"re no way of influencing the government.
state which thinks it is always right. "
state that does riot care if people hate : ttJ~ a.S loti-k; as pebple feat it.,'
state that decides who may critic:U!:eit arid how they may do it.
state in which ~eople are required on one day to say the opposite bf what
they were required to say the day before ani are required to believe
that they are still saying the same thing." 5
, . ,
In fact, Communism's systematic, amo~al violence is not simply a means to a peace-
ful end.' In actual historical fact, amoral violenc~ i:3;or has become, integral
to Communi sm i tsell'. In every esta. b li sh ed CommunLsb country violence :i,semployed,
I i
" . .." ..
wi th out mor al r egar d, i n th ~ n&. lJle of' c omb ati ng h i dter no. l C~ Uh ter -;~ ~ Oluh onar y
r or c es'", "b our geots th i nki ngl!, "vesti ges of c api ta. i i sm". Communi sts seem always
. I
unab le to sh ake off T r otsky's sei ge mentali ty; to not feel th e nec essi ty for vi o-
lent st. r uggl,e , T er r or i sm, c onc entr ati on c amps, i mpr i sor . . ments, i nti mi dati on, th e
poli c e state - seem always to ac c ompany th e Communi st movemeh t, at wh atever stage
of development' i t pur por ts to b e at.
.•.•. J.
Alexandr S olzh eni tsyn, h avi ng seen Communi smfr om 'th e i nsi de, mtnc es no wor ds:
"Communi smc an i mplement i ts 'i deals' only b y destr oyi ng ,th e c or e and foundati on
of a nati on's li fe. He wh o un der sb and s th i s wi ll not for a mi nute b eli eve th at
Ch i . nese Communi sm~•. s mor e peac e-lovi ng th an th e S ovi et vc l. r i e\. ;y(i t i s si mply th at
jts Loe t. h h ave not yet gr -own}, or th at M ar sh al T i to' s b r and i s ki ndly b y natur e.
~ h e latter was also leavened wi th b lood, and i t too c onsoli dated i ts ~ ower b y mass
ki lli ngs, •. • He wh o under stands th e' natur e of Communi smwi ll not ask wh eth er th e
,. ;or In's ai d i s r eac h i ng th e star vi ng Camb odi ans th r ough th e good offi c es of th e
Heng S amr i n r egi ne. Of c our se i t doeg not. It i s c onfi sc ated for th e ar my and
gover nment. T h e people c an star ve. tt 1
S olzh eni tsyn: "Communi smi s unr egener ate; i t wi ll always ;pr esent a mor tal danger
. to manki nd. " 17
S olzh eni tsyn: "In our Easter n. c ountr i es, COIi mi . U§1S 7n h as sUffer ed a tomplete i deol-
ogi c al (l. efeat; i t i s zer o and less th an zer o. tr l .
1. Ch r i sti an-M ar xi st Dtalogue
Over th e last dec ade, th e Wor ld Counc i l of Ch ur -c h es 'h as ~ lPonsor ed a Ch r 1sb i ar i ": '
M ar xi st di alogue.
Ch r i sti ans and Har xi sts fi nd a Commongr ound for geh ui r l~ 1deo16gi dai di alogue only
wh en one or b oth si des h ave deVi ated fr om th ei r z-es'pec t Lve or th odox 'Posi ti ons. B y
in lar ge, th e Ch r i sti ans wh o di alogue wi th M ar xi sts-h ave b ec ome satur ated wi th
sec ule~ h umani sm.
A quote b y Paul Oestr ei c h er , a di alogui ng Ch r i sti an:
"For the Christian the stal:'ting point is divine justice as revealed i n th e
li fe and teac h i ngs of Jesus of Nazar eth . T ypologi c ally (not just sYmb oli c a. lly),
a meal demonstr ates th e natur e of h uman . c olmnun: tty. T h e Euc h ar i st, M ass, Holy
Communi on, Lor d's S upper (c all i t wh at you wi ll) ty. pi fi i !l!s th e: poli ti c s of th e
Ki ngdom. It i s not, as th e Ch ur c h h as so often made i t seem, an oth er -wor ldy
r i te, b ut i t i s a demonstr ati on of th e sh ar i ng of li fe, of 'Ch r i sti an Com-
muni sm'. B r ead i s b r oken, sh ar ed. Wi ne i s dr unk, fr om one cup, . ••• T h i s i s
wh er e th e utter ly c lassless soc i ety i s r eali zed. T h e Ch ur c h , b y maki ng th i s
sh ar i ng exc lusi ve to memb er s of a gi ven sec t, ••• ob sc ur es th e natur e of Hdm
wh o sh ar es unc ondi ti onall;y: . T h at i s wh y I b eli eve th at th e Lor d's T ab le sh ould
b e open to all men, not just to b eli ever s, let alone to selec ted b eli ever s.
Eli zab eth Power i s a Roman Cath oli C, and an advoc ate of r ~ voluti on, th ough wi th
non-vi olent meth ods. Her statements not only i ndi c ate th at th ey: pr oc eed out of a
sec ular h u~ ani st found~ ti on; b ut th ey ar e also an i i lustr ati on of h owCh r i sti ani ty
c an o ommon Ly b e made i nto M ar x. i sm.
"T h ei r [th e Ch r i sti ans ~ task b ec ame th e b ui ld'i ng of a C~ i sui an s06: tety -
not a soc i ety i n wh i c h all memb er s wer e Ch r i sti ans, b ut a soc i ety b ased on
th e c onc e: pts of love, justi c e, equali ty, and fr eedom. T b i s amb i ti on th e
Ch r i sti an wor ker s h eld i n c ommonvli th oth er wor ker s I or gani zati o}',J. s, i nc lud-
. i ng th e Communi st Par ty. n 20 't
'tT h e young c ler gy •. . ar e looki ng for a newr ei evanc e i n th e Ch r i sti an mes- . .
sage. T h ey h ave tr i ed to tr anslate b r oth er h ood and love - th e essenc e of
Ch r i sti ani ty - i nto r eal ter ms amongth ei r people. Inevi tab ly th ey h ave
i denti fi ed wi th th e poor and th e suff'er fng , and i nevi tab ;Ly th ey h ave b een'
i nf'ec ted b y th e mi li tanc y, b i tter ness, and r ~ ;b elli on of th e poor , S o th ey
h ave ,joi ned th e M ovement. T h ey see no di ffer enc e b etween th ei r c omm: i . tment
i~O justi c e and equali ty th r ough Ch rLst Lan love and th e wor ker s' c omm: i ,tment
to justi c e and equali ty th r ough th e need to sur vi ve. In some c ases th e young: .
: pr i ests h ave left th ei r : par i sh job s, r eplac ed th ei r c assoc ks wi th ove,r alls,
and b ec ome wor -ker s , S o th er e i s c omplete i denti ty of i nter est. 1121
T h e gr eat di vi ne Ch r i sti an tr uth s - Inc ar nati on, Redempti on, th e Cr oss, Resur r ec ti on,
etc . - wh i c h for m th e b ac kb one of Ch r i sti ani ty, ar e all put to one si de. Ch r i sti ani ty
i s tl'ansfor med to fi t th e M ar xi st mold. It i s r educ ed to a set of h uman i deals
. qb out S OCi ety. It i s seen as li ttle mor e th an a ki nd of goodwi ll amongmen, and
as a c r y for soc i o-ec onomi c justi c e and equali ty. Yet many Ch r i sti an~ , i nfluenc ed
b y s~ ~ ular h Q'tllani st th i nki ng, ar e easi ly dr awn i nto th e M ar xi st per suasi on.
'l'h ose i nter ested i n th e i deologi c al di alogue ar e r efer r ed to a b ook on th e sub jec t
b y Dale Vr ee, On S ynth esi zi ng M ar xi sm and. Ch r i sti ani ty;.
2. Communi st Infi ltr ati on Into th e Ch ur c h
ovel' th e year s, i t h as b een nor mat Ive Communi st pr ac tlc eto mani pula. te,Ch r ~ sti ans
i n h elpi ng to ac h i eve Communi st goals. Espec i ally ,i n c ountr i es wh er e Communi sts
ar e str uggli ng to over th r ow th e r ei gni ng gover nmer i b, th ey wi ll c onsc LousIy exploi t
th e soc i al c onc er n of well-i ntenti oned Ch r i sti ans. T h e followi ng ar e a set of
exc er pts fr om a Communi st Par ty manual used b y Co~ ~ uni sts i n a T h i r d-Wor ld c ountr y.
T h ey ar e statements, c alc ulated and pr emed it. at. ed , of Communi st r evoluti onar y str at-'
egy as r egar ds th e Ch ur c h .
" •. • th er e ar e, h owever , manydi se,gr eements wi th i n th e' Ch ur c h , on soc i al ;i ssu. es. It
i s th e task of th e c adr e assi gned to Ch ur c h wor k to ,l: ;'eo,l: ;'i ent th e pr ogr ~ ss;i . ve ele-
ment s wi th i n th e Ch ur c h so theft th ey ser ve to advanc e th e peopf,e ' S c ause •••
r T h i sJ tas~ i nvolves: . ' I
- . . ,i denti fyi ng c lose;Ly wi th th e : Lower c lass peop;Le"l: i ,ttli n th e Ch u. ,r c h e. nd eneour > \
agi ng th em to par ,t: tOi ]?ate i n th e people's sb r uggIe - to S UJ?: PQ);'t. th e fac tor y
wor ker s , th e ur b an poor , th e peasants , th e far r n wor ker s. J;J;J, th i s way, th e
c adr e c an enc ou);'age th em to b r eak th ei ;r su,per st: l,ti ous loyal. ty to th e b OUr geoi se
Ch ur c h auth or i ty, and i dentUy wi th th e people's str uggle.
-i nfi ltr ati ng th e so-c a11ed 'sooi a;L-ac ti on' pr ojec ts star te~ b y th e Ch ur c h .
T h i s i nc ludes ac ti vi ti es su. c h as wor ker s' str i kes, h unger r eli ef for th e : poor ,
anti -gover nment demonstr ati ons of al1 sor ts, educ ati onal wor k amongyoUtn. .
In gener al, i t is advantageou,s to assi gn key c adr es to wor k wi th i n th e l. ea~ er sh : i . p
of th e Ch uzi on - th at : i ,shw: !,th i n th e b i sh opr i c , t. h e : pr i esth Ood, th e deac onat. e ,
'todth i n semi nar i es, w: l,th i n,t. h e. o]. ogi c al and r eJ. ,i g;i ,ous--{ac uJ"ti es, i > Ji th i n, r el,i gi ou: : :
c r der s , ah c t wi th i n any oth er lnfluenti ai off: l. c elL 'r h ese c adtM wi ll: \. Uhd~.i'~'bahd
Ch r i sti ani ty. T h ey wi li knowth e Ch ur c h well, and wi ll under stand sdme of th e
c omplexi ti es of r eli gi ous li fe. T h ey wi ll under stand th e Lnb er e sts and i ssues
wi th i n th e Ch ur c h , and wi ll b e ab le th er efor e to mor e easi ly and effec ti vely li nk
th e for c es wi th i n th e Ch ur c h to th e Communi st c ause. We c ur r ently h ave some 50
c adr es or sympath i zer s deployed i n suc h c apac i ti es i n X di oc ese, al~ h ough th e
"b i sh op h i mself i ,s r eac ti onar y ••• "22
It i s pai nfully ob vi ous: th e Communi sts knowth e Ch ur c h ~ 'I'r i ey kno\qh owto 'Wor k
an i t. T h ey knowh owto di alogu. e wi th Ch r i s t !tans, eva. ngeli zi ng th em to, th e Com-
mur r ist c ause. '
i \
I, i
" . '. --: ~
All t. h i s i s not sur pr i si ng. It i s c ommonpr ac ti c e~ On oc c assi on, C6i ni nuh 1stsh ave
th emselves stated pub li c ly th e tac ti c al natur e of th ei r di alogue wi th Ch . : r i sti ans:
"As M ar xi sts 'He ar e fi gh ti ng for a soc i ali st soc i ety. T h e M ar xi sts c an never
ac h i eve th i s ai m si h gle-h anded. A Ch r i sti an element, as well as oth er s; must also
h elp. "23 "In i ts i deologi c al aspec t di alogue 1: ; noe an end i n i tself b ut' a way of
spr eadi ng th e M ar xi st-Leni ni st vi ew of th e wor ld. ,,2
Communi st ac ti ons agai nst th e Ch ur c h b ear out ever y wor d tli e'y ~ ay a~ out. 'i t. Their
ac ti on3, i n fac t, speak ver y muc h loudeT and ver y muc h mor e b r utally th an th ei r
wor ds.
T h e mani pulati ve di alogue outli ned ab ove i s mor e desc r i pti ve of COlnmuni st tac ti c s
c onc e. -n'i ng th e Ch ur c h b efor e th ey h ave c onsoli dated power i n a c ountr y. However ,
i . t i s gener ally not unti l ~ fter th e Cc mmund st s ar e r eally i n power th at Commun i . st
ac ti ons most c lear ly b ear out th ei r . h osti li ty to Ch r i sti ani ty and to th e Ch ur c h .
\. .
" ,
Wh er ever Communi st r egi mes h ave exi sted, th ey h ave i nvar i ab ly, wi th out exc epti on
,r ;nac ted vi gor ous, anti -r eli gi ous measur es - an all-too deli b er ate an tempt to stamp
IJUt r eli gi on c ompletely. T h ese measur es i nc lude: legal r estr i c ti onS for b eli ever s,
'. c ensor sh i p of all r eli gi ous li ter atur e and pr oduc ti ons not c ontr ollEld b y th e gov-
er nment, for c i b le suppr essi on of Ch ur c h pr ogr ams and func ti ons, c onfi sc ati on of
Ch ur c h pr oper ty, gover nment legi slati on for Ch ur c h poli c y and Ch ur c h affai r s, sever e
: per sec uti on of th e c ler gy and of or di nar y b eli ever s, vi gor ous Ath ei st c ampai gns -
i n th e sc h ools and amongth e popul. abLon at lar ge. T h e documen t.ab Lon and li ter atur e
i n all th ese ar eas i s i mmense, and would tal •• e too long to even outli ne h er e. S uf-
fi c e i n th i s sec ti on wi th .3 quotes fr om offi c i al poli c y statements of th e
Ath ei st Cei npai gn, and wi th a c ase study of th e suppr essi on of th e "Li ttle Floc k"
movement i n Ch i na.
1. S tate Poli c y Conc er ni ng th e Ch ur c h i n Russi a
"T h e Par ty's ob jec t [after asc endenc y to powerJ ;ts to c ompletely destr oy th e
~ onnec ti on b etween th e exploi ti ng c lasses and or gani sed r eli gi ous pr opaganda
and r eally li b er ate th e wor ki ng people fr om r eli gi ous pr ejudi c es. For th i s
pur pose i t must or gani s~ th e most wi despr ead sc i enti fi c educ ati on end anti -
r eli gi ous pr opeganda. "
. "
" .', I 't I I. '; ...• •
nA b asi c element of c omnum. s t educ ati on i s th ~ str uggle to over c ome ,r el,i gi ous . . "
pr ejudi c es and supe;r stHi ons. Unfor tunately, we qui te often fi nd i nstanc es .
wh er e par ty or g. ;l. ni zati ons ar e paas lve i n th e war 8. gai nst th em and c onduc t . . •. .
ath ei st pr opaganda wi th out c onvi c ti on and me;r elyb c c ause of offi c : l,aJ. ,d'Lc tates;. '
. . .. " . :," , ;. - ," ~ , ' . .' ',' :' ..
. -: Wh i le developi ng sc i enti fi c ath ei st pr opaganda i n·ever y 1'os8i ole ''layj we, must
". . ',' at th e same ti me dec i si vely waylay ever y attem,ptb y mi ni ste;r s of. r eli gi '~ m' t'o . ',.
.r •.,,;·,. use tb e c h ur c h .;I. no, th e sec ts for end s h osti le ~ o"th e S ovi et people. ·',T h e·' , '. "
, ,,': ,' ': 'Counc i l of M i ni ster s and loc al. par ty and S ovi et agenc i es must ·pota11o'd6a: . : ". : . , ,
: ,: ;. : "', ~ . j,nglei n~ r ~ l1geni ent . ". "?" Law b y th epr i eB t. h oo,1 to go Unp~ ni [;h ed ;"2 " ~i" " :;1
',<:N,.S., KHRUS HCHE'f,AT : T I-m'1'WENT Y~ DIi : C()N])CONGRES . S OF T HE CPOF T HE USSR:',,:''-'' ',',> ', -: 1
. ,'. '. : . .', : ··": '. > ,. -: . !~ COmmtHli s t,educ ati on. 'assumes fr eei ng th ec or i sc i o'usness . f;t'om: th e r '~ i i 'gi ol,ls'--: '~ \' . . c:
. . . . . ' " ', pr 'c judi c : es'ands,,). : per s tit. : Lon~ wh : Lc h sti ll h : tndt;)r i nd i vi dualS ovr e t. p'e'ople ,:" ,i/;,::I
" ;'. fr omfully'r eaUzi ng th ei r c r eati ve Jlotenti al. . v7e need a, c onsi der ed, an d "l~ , I
' . . : . , well~ b alanc ed system of sc i enti fi c ath ei st educ ati on wh i c h would emb r ac e all' " .,> ~':,·:ll
· ;;~ : ~ ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s c ~ i l~ ~ : nP~ 1~ !~ ~ s~ : ~ t;~ ~ ~ 1ntth e spr ead of r eli gi ous vi ews, .:'<:;'J
. 2. S uppr essi on of ,watc h man Nee ' ~ i t~ Floc k. lt M oye~ n;b i n Ch i na
, '.' i
1949 -Ch fnese Communfst Par ty takeover of power i n Ch i na.
" ..
I ,~
". ' 1950-B egi n l~ . year s h oneymoon. J;ler i Od for i nd: l,genO\. 1,sCh i nese c nur c h es, Fr eel,om""
of movement fo~ Nee's Ch r i sti ans. , ' . "
,··"Par ty memb er s qu~ etly ob ser ved th e Ch . . . 'r '1sti ans, wa,tc h i ng for leader s' of
r i nfluenc e' and gi ft, and wh ;i ,le appear -i ng i ndi : t': r ~ l"ent, made th ei r c alc ula,t~ 'ons
for · th e futur e.
n 29
., .'
•••• :' r »,
. I
". ,-:
" I
•. . : '. ' ,·1
.'. ," ", .....
" . : : 1951. ' -Launc h 'i ng of th e "T h r ee ••S eJ,f M ovement" - a gover nment •.c i ontr b : t;ted,·r eJ,: l,gi ous~ ' ''',' '. . ' I
• movement, th e di c tates of wh : l,c h a,11, Ch r : i . $t;l"an gr O\lpS wer e r eq1Ji : r ed to a. c 1,h er e,: . ',,: ,I
. .. 't';
. . to. · ", . . . . . -. "
,,: -WHh : i ,n th e movement , govar nment=sponsor ed "aoc u,se,t?;l"on"me~ 1;. ;i ,ngswer e ne;Ld; "" . . . .
for th e so-c af. Led "poli ti c al educ atd. on" of Cl;. ;i . n,eseCh r i sti ans . T h i s l,ed to' " . '
vi c i ous and wi despr ead sLander Ing of Ch r i sti a,n lea,o,er s b y Cor n. muni stc adr es
(wh o h ad i nf~ . ltr ate9, th e C;h . r i sti an Leader sh f. p) and py Ch r i sti an, Leader s
th 1 d h
·,· t··· d 4-0" • ->:
i:. _ emse. ves un er p YS l. C8. _J,n l. ml. a"l. on. " : "';';': ",;. ,"
'. . . '. '-Novemb er : vT atc h . l'!1an Nee wa,,'lac c used b y a for mer "J'. : J, tt;J"e F;\'oc : K"Ch r : i ,st;i ,a,n. i n}~"v. . : : " . '" . :
: , --: . ,: . "'. ": : ',,. "". : r i en F~ , th e offi c i al, T h r ee-S elf per i odi c al,: '. "I ,~ a. 'b e1,i eve 1'. wh o, ;fr om. : . ': ,..<" ll "
. : ',,'''' ". th e outset h ave b e Longed to th e T s: l,••'I'ang Road Ch ur c h (th e L: l,ttl,e Floc k c or r -": ";. '-: . . . . "
gr egati on i n Nanki ng) and wh o reganded i t as th e pur est of assemb li es \l,nti l " .
';I was i ndoc tr : i ,nated r egar di l'1. g th e T h r ee S elf Ref'orm M ov~ men,t;. , wh en Isa,w
. '". . . p~ ai n). y wh at a v:i) ..e p:L. ace . ~ t is. Ih ave long b een de c e i . ved ,..but;, t oday ):
stand on th e gr ound of love of c ountr y and love of r el,i gi on" and wi th emot: l,ons
of unqua;Li fi ed wr ath I expose i ts pr o;fessed 'spi r i tu,a,J. ,: i . ty'. • . • we h ave b een
" utter ly mi sled. Fr om i ts ver y i nc epti on i t, th e T si -T ang Road Ch ur oh , h as
b een su,b jec tto ••• and ;1. $str i c tly c ontr oJ,J. . ed 'by Wa,tc h r na,nNee. It i s an
. , ",' . or gani zed system of nat Lonw'i de and oc c uLt c h ar ae ser . Wa,tc l1. ,man Nee h as an :
;. ' i nvol,ved, sec r et system for . c ont. r o'l. Ltng 470 c h ur c h e s a: U over th e c ountr y,
. . • T h e dar k myster i ous c ontr ol Watc h man Nee exer c ises over th e . c h ur c nes goes
;',' '. qui te b eyond th e sph er e of r eli . g: l,on. T o fac i ;L: l,te,te ): 11,8 tota,J,Har i ar ~ c ontr ol
he dissemin~tes anti-revol~tionary PO~SQ~ and domin~to6 th~ thought of church
• i "'. memb er s. He sh ameLeeLy- ter ms h i mself 'th e apostle o: t' God t ~ n 30. .
" ,:
." ....
:" ..
. '
.. ',.
, .
: " .'
. ;',:
:'l . "
,:', "
~~~ . ,.' .r.: ,. ....., .: t.'" : •.•-:.••. : ," " .:" " ;,, <~':" 't " ', ,:,
. 1952. -Communi st c adr es attended Li ttle Floc k eh W'c h gath e): '~ ngs to sti r UP demands . : : . :
. for an ac c usati on meeti ng'. ". : '. , . ,' '. . . ",' , '. . ': ': . ,. ,,'(~
. .. .. \ I
. '-Apr i l: Watc b me,nNee i s' e. r r ested i n M anc h \,'U'i e,?e,nQwas unh ear d of, e. gai n': . .": '--'
, unti l h i s i ndi c tment i n 1956. ". . . . . .. . . . '. ' . . '
. ,'.'
'. 1954' ';'Li ttleFl,oc k c h ur c h :1 .1 .1 , S h angh ai (Watc h me. nNee's h ome c ongr ~ g~ t10r i . f. wa. s
for ll". a. ll. yi nc or por ated i nto . th e 'l'h r ee . •S e;I. fM ovement. : ;;· . . '
, \ ,' ..' ' ::.! .::," > .' I, ••••• " " ~. :'{:;" . ' •.•••
1952-M any Li ttle Floc k, c h ur c h es th ,r o\lgh . out c entr al, Ch i na. : t'el,l under S tate c ontr of: : ,·. '
-55 th r ough th e T h r ,ee. . • S eJ. . f M ovement, under gover nmenb pr essur e ~ . ,,' . , . . '"
. ,:
1956"Cr i mi nal i nc ac tmer i t of,We,tc l: l. . man Nee was 'Qr ough t' to th e att~ nt1. on: ,. ofth e',. ,
S h angh ai c h ur c h . . . " . " . ". ",
,: "30 . leader s of th eS h a. ugh a. : t' c ~ 1Ur c ): J. . we,r e'ar r ested8. nd': 'di sawear ,ed. ~ . : : . r ',i ': : "': ;: '~ ': : ~ ~ ;}(: : ,~ : > . .
. -B er eft of Nee and th ~ ll' ~ l,der s, th e S h angh ai c h ur -c h r sub mi tted to h ol. di ng'a: n,: <i : ·: ',: ':
. . . . . ac c usat. ton meet;i . ng (i e •. ac c usatd. ona aga: i ,nst Nee and c h ur c h elder s)~ . "",: ". ': ': ,':
.. -Nee ~ ·lasa. c c used of havtn g Itc ar r i ed on unde~ tnec ;Loak of r e;I,i ~ i on ~ ~ eli pli t~ ~ ,d. ';(··,
and or gan,i zed c ounter •.r evoluti one. r y ac t ivi t: i ,es e,ga. : Ln,stth enew soc i ety. ,t
, ,: ,. ,,: :
He was tagged !la r unni ng-dog of th e i mpe~ i a;Li ststt. · '. . . ",'i',
,-Amonga h ost of eth er c r i mes, IINee wa. s c h ar ged w: !. ,th b e: !. ,nga 'd;!'ssolutevag~ : : ". /'"
b ond of c or r upt and i n~ ulgent li vi ng' wh o fr eq,t,ented b r oth el. nei gh b or h oods . ' < :"~ Y '; :"
and h ad ah mys b een a sh ameless and i ndi sc r i mi nate woman;!. zer . He h e. d c on-: : ;,: : ~ : : >
fessed, i t was c la;i . med, to seduo Lng over a h undr ed women Ch i nese and for e1gn·~ ,'. ·, ;r,
No evi denc e of th i s was pr oduc ed. "32 , . . . . ', '. ': "
-VJave after wave of v~ c ~ ous pr opaganda was di ssemi nated agai nst eh ur c h es li ke . . . ' . ':
Nee's th a. t would not sub mi t to S tate c ont. r o;I,. At1;. e. c kswer e ma,de agai nst: : ~ <,: . .
th ese "i ndependent" c h ur c h es : i . n th e name of God, and i n th e name of Ch r i sti an' "',r"~ ,
uni ty. T h ese ar e T h r ee. . se;Lr statements: . ,'. . . '.!, f:'
"It i s only b y exposi ng and, expel,li ng suc h wo: tver : : Ca. s NeeJ th at ~ le CM ';: : : '. ~ ~ ~ \;;'
pur i fy th e Ch ur c h so th e,t : i ,t may glo~ i fy th e LO ;r'ld..!l3 3 . . '. .,';~' ..
.:,' '.,. ,\ :: " ::' ..~'.
. "Under th e c loak of r eJ,i gi on th ese men, LNee e. nd th e L1 .ttle Floc k elder q) ', .. "
ac ted, as spi es, spr ead, r umour s, andd,i sr upted. th e c entr a;!. · c a!n: pai Gn of~ : ';', '. '
, . th e Ch i nese people. Wi th i n th e c h ur c h th ey used t): le pr etext of . ' £ei th '. , '. ,'. ",
to oppose th e T h r ee-S elf Patr : i ,oti c M ovement,. tr y: !,t'1. . gwi tl;l, a l: 'eli gi ouB
',',,:·,,1 :
slogan to c onfuse th ei r . f1~ i tlOi "Ch r i sti ans, to c or r upt youth and to
destr oy Ch r i sti an uni ty. " ,)+
I> .
. ,'/,
1958 -S h angh ai ' c h ur c h ' h all wag c onfi sc e. teo. b y th e goYer r nnent. end tmoneQ. i nto' e. .
'. . . . '
, " '" .,
fac tor y.
: " '
.' .~"
. ' .. ,I •.
, Watc h me. n Nee spent th e la,st, 20 yea. . r s of h i s li fe ~ b , a C6Inm~ n: tst: pr i son', at h ~ . Jod: , ': : ',: ,;: ';": :
lab or . He di ed i n,l972.
,~" ' .
. ,' "
: I.
"', '
" ,,'
T h : t~ i s e. ti me of ;per sec uti on' of th e Ch ur c h •. 'th i s i s an age of ni ~ tYr S . ·,M ol: 'e "
Ch r i sti ans h ave di ed for th e fai th i n th i s c er i tur y , si nc e th e advent of Communi sm;'
th an h ave ever ' di ed i n all of Ch r Lst Lan h i stor y put b oge th er ,
" .
'. ';.~'.>
'" : ~
: Yet, sur pr i si ngly enough , manyCh r i sti e,ns today ar e not e. ~ ·lar eof just h oW h osti le
Communi smi s to l: 'eli gi on and to Ch r i sti ani ty - \n i ts i deo~ ogy, i n i ts mor al as-
sumpt Lons, i n i ts di alogue wi th Ch r i sti ans, and i ni . ts pr ac ti c e. '
\ : .
" .. "
B ut i t 1'8 ve~ y dui i c uJ. ~ to ,r~n w.~l'), ~ ~ af' 'b o l;. p,e ~ et3t: lJnop. yOf' ti h . oso b k. ·i a~ ~ ~ b ,~ wno . :
h ave known Communi sm, f: i ,l'st . .h and , T h e tl'ue OnaNl,c te~ o;e Commu,ni snt : ts b or ne out b y
th e per sonal, e;x: per i enc es of st;1. ffer i ng Ch ,r i sti ans.
T h e Rever end, R~ c h ar dWur mb : r and i s an evangeli c a~ mi ni ster who spent ~ 4year s i n·
Communi st i mpr i sonment and tor t. U1'e i n Rumani a. H:is. tesHmony ;Ls auth or i tati ve
b y vi r tue of h i s own exper i enc e. In h i s b ook, T or tU!'ed for Ch r i st, h ~ . says I:'
'. ' lfylh G,tth e c ommuni sts h ave done to Ch r ;i . st: Lans sur passes any possi b l,i l: i ,ty of
h uman under standi ng. I h ave seen c ommunf. s t. s tor tur i ng Ch r i sti ans and th e
fac es of th e tor tur er s sh one wi th r aptur ous joy '. 'l'h ey Cr i ed outwh i J. ,e
tor tur i ng th e Ch r i sti ans, 'We ar e th e devi J. ,. ' 11: : 35 '.
", '.'
. ", "
"For year s we h ad to s: l,t for seventeen h our s ada,y h ear i ng:
Communi smi s good!
Communi smi s good~
. Communi smi s good I:
, Communi smi s good!
Ch r i sti ani ty i s stupi d: '
Cl1. . !'i sti ani ty i s stupi o. :
Ch r i sti ani ty i s stupi d!
Gi ve u. p!
Gi ve up!
Gi ve up!
Gi ve up!!t36
' .. ', " " ,
.' .
" ~" .
, .. '~ ,"
..'. ,: ' , (,.'~':..:: ,'" ',~ .: ':; ,-." '.-: I> :
. ,'
. J- ,.
: J' .
...... :,;~:.'
-, · ~ r"
'. ;J.
','. 1. ' : 1. : ,. _ , "
.' :' .. ~,
. ;'. ' 1,,{,. ~ •
.' ..
. 1 "
II' • ~
,,' , I. " "
, ••.•• ' > • ,11. : . '. _ ,j,. . 1 " .
Har alan Popov i s a pr otestant pastor wh o suffer eo. 13 year si mp: r i sonm,ent 1nB ulgar 1a •. ",
In h i s b ook, T or tur ed For Hi s Fai th , h e c loses wi th ,th ese r emar ks:
"T h e last gr eat str ategy of th e Communi sts to destr oy th e c h ur c h i s to wor k
th 10ugh th e leader s of th e offi c i ally r egi ster ed or sanc ti oned c h ur c h es.
M anyof th ese men ar e v-r ell-selec ted mouth pi ec es of th e Communi st par ty 1n
ever y c ountr y b eh i nd th e T ~ on and B amb oo c t~ tai ns •.
li T h e pur pose of th e Communi st par ty i s fulfi lled i n th ese mouth pi ec es wh en'
th ey make c ontac t wi th th e fr ee wor-Ld and pr esent th e i dea th at th er e i s .
r eal r eli gi ous and c i vi l li b er ty i n th ei r c ountr i es •
, '"
: ; ,.::
. ',
. 'tT h er e i s a spec i al ni c h e i n th e Communi st sc h eme of th i ngs. for suc h spokesmen~ : ,'. ,: ··
T h ey ar e allm<ledto i nv: !.te c h ur c h men and oth er s to th ei r sh owplac e c h ur c h es . ' r . , , ,.
i n M osc o' . . . •and Leni ngr ad and War sa<: 'l and B elgr ade and a feW' oth er selec tedb i g" 7 •• ,: '. '
c i ti es to sh ow off th i s fr eedom. Amer i c ans and Canadi ans' and . c b ner fr
e"; . .;';': "
wc r Ld peopf,e c ome b ac k, speaki ng of th e c h ur c h es th at' ar e fi lled to over - . '. . . ,". '.
r .'
fl~ ~ i ng, wi th a sound Gospel b ei ng pr eac h ed.
"No one ever i s told of th e h undr eds, even tens of th ousands, of c h Ur c h es
th at h ave b een c losed, for c i ng a r elati ve h andful of people i nto th e few .
. c h ur c h es r emai ni ng open. Cer tai nly th i s ~ s goi ng to look as i f fr eedom
ab ounds •
.' '..
. "'Don't b eli eve i t: ' th e S uffer i ng Ch ur c h c r i es 'out. Don't b eli ~ ve i t. no: : : "~ > ";·: ·:
" matter h owenth usi asti c th e wor ds, h owsi nc er e th e Ch r i sti an. T h e li e i s" ,". '
, . r. ,; . c ompounded . •. • r h en th ese c ler i c al ser vants of th e Commur r i . s t par ty ar e : allm<led"
. to ~ ome out of th ei r c ountr i es to spr ead th e wor d th at th i ngs ar e c h angi ng: .
i n th e Communi st wor ld, th at f'r eedomexi sts, th at r eli gi on andc ommuni sm,
...• "
c an c oexi st.
. , . . t. ·,·
..' ....
, :,1
. '. ',':. \ .
:',::' ... -" '" \' ..
.'. " :."
" :9-
" :. -,
, : ' ,. ,
" ,' ..,
" .
. "
"Let me say w: lJ~ h outequi voc ati on th at (h tr i sti ~ ~ r ~ t·. ~~caB h Jk~ ·66ex: i . s~ wi th . •
c ommuni sm. Ask - wer e i t even possi b le - th emar i y h undfedJ wh 6 ar e i n
pr i son for tr yi ng to exer c i se th ei r fai th . Ask th e tens of th ousands wh o
fear for th ei l' fami li es and th ei r job s dai ly b ec ause of th ei r fai th . Ask . '.
th e auth or of Gulag Ar c h i pela62 wh at h e th i nks. Ask th e i mpr i soned memb er s . ',
of teams wh i c h wer e , i r oni c ally , moni tor i ng h owth e S ovi et Uni or tab i des by. . ',' : '
. th e Helsi nki Agr eement. Ask th e Rev. Geor gi Vi ns wh at one c an 1i ~ th r own: . <.:.,':',;'i
'i n pr i son for . Ask h i s agi ng moth er wh y sh e was i n pr i son~ Ask th e 300,000
. Pentec ostals wh o i ndi c ate th ey want out of Russi a wh y i t i s' t~ 7Y want to
leave th e only h ome, th e only loved ones th ey've ever known. " '. :
.' .
" .....
. ' '1,' •
" .
',.' '
. '
. ,. : , . . ~.....
....: "
,,-' : '''''.
" , '\ '~'-:;:,:" .' : '. " :'.;\ :.'.\ ,~ '1 ': '. ':;l " .:. ., t,,·,.
. B elc mi sa b lasph emb us v~ r si 6Hof\'h e Lor d's' Pr ayet ,'~ sea: b Y'lT d. ·i i b ~ ~ td~ ~ 1S 'tS :. . : ··. : : ;· ;
wh en th ey stor med c h ur c h es and moc ked God under th e Czar i st r egi me i b . Russi a. " .1 •
'r h i s c omes as a r esult of i denti fyi ng th e Ch r i sti an God as li ttle mor e th an 8,. .'," ;,;,:!.
tool of c api tali sm, used b y th e r uli ng c lasses to h elp enslave th e wor ker s.
. . . ••: • ",~ ",: J . '
.~. '.' '
Our Fath er , wh i c h ar t i n Peter sb ur g,
Cur sed b e your name,
M ayyour Ki ngdomc r Qmb le,
M ay your .wi ,ll not b e fulfi lled,
yea, not even i n h eli .
Gi ve us our b r ead wh i c h you
stole fr om us,
And pay our deb ts, as we pai d . '
. ' your s unti l now, . . . .
. . . ' . ·: And don't lead us fur th er i nto. temptati on . . . 'i ,
": : ', ,;. ' . : : B ut deli ver us fr om evi l . •. th e poli c e of Pleh ve;:
. ,,' (th e Czar i st pr i me-mi ni ster ) .
. 'And put an end to h i s c ur sed gover nment •.
B ut as you ar e weak and poor i n spi r i t
. . ~ and i n power and i n auth or i ty,
-.Down wi th you for all eter ni ty. Amen. ~ 8
.. " .. ','
. , .
'. .,
" .
" : .
. '.'..,
:'. _i " .
·r . , . • '
" . : -....
.' ,
.' ,
.. :. '.,
" :.'
, ••' . ,/1. ' •••••
.·'1 '<
" ;~..
;...:." :"
.... :':"
• ;' ,. • r • . •• ~ ~ : I...i ';.
. . .
• ..' !. ~ '. ',; 'J,' ': .• ,'. \ I
" :.,
'.' .," .'
'. ',"
:,.< I
'." ..,
· . '~..
: ~. \ ' ..::'," " . :" .
. '. '. . : :
.. , :; .~. :. .. ..
.i '\'..:.
" > : . . !
" .'.
,.. ',,'
. ..::' .,': ;: ':;:. ~', .;; -. I" ;,
· . " '.' .,....
,•.... <!' ,:,:. ;'" "
" '.'
. '.,.':. ~.
" .
;.',':';' '. '..' !~:/,
'. ''','
'. ~:.:<. : "
' ..
" .', ':.~.
• H," : .,. '
: .
.... '< ::... ...: .. :
". ' ',: ' . . . ' . v. .
.' '.
; .'
" . 1
. J' :
,', . ~" :,,',:. : ' ,,
,'," : : .
'.!'.' " i '
, .:
. I". .........
. ' ..
~. ....:' ,'.r I·,'·
:' :
." .'.
' ..
. . - . ',> '. ;. ' : <. '.r
t •• ••• " ." .
'. '.
., ...•. 'J:' _".f
'. ,'. '. 1"
- ....· f':
. . '::.,
'" ~'.' ':'.: . . .',. . : .
" . '
'. '." ' .'. " '. ' . : '. '.'" ~::'.
:," •. -. ,I." " " ,"
" " '
• . I ~
' . : " • •. 1. :.,
-, -;'"
. '., '.
: ' .... ;. . . . . .'.'
, .' .. :
'. '~;,.;.'. I' :
', ' ,',:., ~
" .'.,'" '
. '..... .' ,.:.' '1,
. '.:'
. " .,
'··t ',
. :
" .':"
,. "
.,' ','."
,::' ':-..:'. "
. . '. ,
. .. .
.. - .. ;,
·· . . . ;10- .
. ';~ ';'!
'. ',,','.
'. '"
Se- cLL. \ a-v- ~ \M..c.. h- " 'S. o..-L
1 -t3c
'J -
We affirm that moral values derive their source from human experience.
Ethics is autonomous and situational, needing no theological or '
ideological sanction. Ethics stems from human need and interest. To
deny this distorts the whole basis of life. Human life has meanipg
because we create and develop our futures. Happiness and the creative
realization of human needs and desires, individually and in shared
enjoyment, are continuous themes of humanism. We strive fo.'[' the
good life here and now. The goal is to pursue life's enrichment
despite debasing forces of vulgarization, commerGialization, 'bureau-
cratization, and dehumanization. (Humanist Manifesto II) ,
B. Consequences
We appreciate the need to preserve the best ethical teachings in
the religious traditio.ns of humankind, many of which we share in
common. But we reject those features of traditional religious
morality that deny humans a full appreciation of, their own potentialities
and responsibilities. Traditional religions often offer solace to
humans, but, as often, they inhibit humans from helping themselves
or experiencing their full potentialities. Such institutions, creeds,
,and rituals often impede the will to serve others. Too often
traditional faiths, encourage dependence rather than independence,
-obedaence rather than affirmation, fear rather than courage.
(Humanist Manifesto II)
The preciousness and dignity of the individual person is a central'
humanist value. Individuals should be encouraged to realize their
,own creative, talents and desires. We reject' all religious, ideological,
or moral codes, that denigrate the individual, suppress freedom, dull
,intellect, dehumanize personality. We believe ,inmaximum individual
autonomy consonant with social responsibility. Although science can
account for the causes of behavior, the possibilities of individual
freedom of choice exist in human life and should be increased.
(Humanist Manifesto II)
In the area 'of sexuality, we' believe that in!tolerant attitudes, often
cultivated by orthodox religions and puritanical cultures, unduly
repress sexual conduct. The right to birth control,abortion, and
divorce should be recognized. While we do not approve of explo'itive,
denigrating forms of sexual expression, neither do-we wish to prohibit, ,
by law or social sanction, sexual behavior between consenting: adults.
The many varieties of sexUal exploration should not in themselves be
considered "evil". Without countenancing mindless permissiveness or
unbridled promiscuity, a civilized socie ty should be a tolerant one.
Short of'harming others or compelling them to do likeWise, individuals
should be permitted to express their sexual,proclivities and pursue
their life-styles as they desire. We wish to cultivate the development
of a re spons ible at titude toward sexuality, in which humans are not
exploited as sexual objects, and in which intimacy, sensitivity,
respect, and honesty in interpersonal relations are encouraged.
Moral education for children and adults is an important way of
developing awareness and sexual maturity.
(Humanist Manifesto II)
SECULARISM IS Q philo.oph~( wi;'h
rncmy oclheren?i who deny ~htl~ If
even exists. Very fow willingly ,
would apply 1 ho term to tnem" eives.
:lu? this roet elces no? eliminote its
existence. It merely mokes it more
difflcvltto deal with,
Few terms hove boon the 5ubiec?
of $0much confusion in contempc-
rary Christianity, end before sccu-
lcrism can be adequalely under-
stood the terminology surrounding i~
hos 1 0be cleared up. The WOf.:!
" secular" or " secvlorlsrn" cernes
from the Lctin " sc ecvlurn," meaning
" age" or " time." It refers to a par-
tieulcr temporal period.
Catholics who remember the lo~in
liturgy recQII the pnros;e " per omnia
scecu!o seeculorum" which WO$ re-
, peated at the end of certain prayers.
This isusually ~~ansla!ed " world
without end." Literally it mecms
" through aH oge~ 0\: ages."
Thus in Christianit'llhe seeeulum
-0 rorlicular historicol oge-ill con-
trasted with eternity. A secularist is
someone who limits his orher vlsion.
only to this world, who fails; 01' re-
fuses to seefhings inthe iigh~ of
eternity. It isa kind of narrowness,
even a willful and deliberete
Some " liberal" Chri$fians profes$
to see no problem with fhis, and
they aUempt to dis~inguish " secu-
larism" from " secularity." 1 ho laHer,
they argue, rnee ns that all human
beings live their lives in tho here-
and-now, in~heworld, and that they
take the world seriouGly. This isa
good fhing. Secularism, on the other
hand, rnecns a denial o~ atemi?,!,
the rerusal to believe fho? such a
?hing ispossible. Although this dis-
tinction sounds good in theory, it is
difficult to mointcln in practice. The
one tends to shade into 1 he other.
James Hitchcock
Columbia magazine
J u:).y, 1 979
repr.inted '~ith :permission
'-Ivy/ovai' ~)eor-:l:ewho maka ~h;§
"" '. i I-
di:r;~inc1 iotlhave a p" in~=we all live
ir. 'fiiOiQ arlG his1 or/. We ccmnot
c:;co~o it, oven if we wanted to. 3\i~
i •
Cnri:oti'mi~)' is not, like some orner
.eliiJion:o, an cscaj)e from fime.
Christl" ~Clking fleshshows VII ~ho~
~jine and his1 0ry too are blessed. We
live in this world and hope ior the
world vv hich is ~o come. We mus:
toke this world seriously CIIU'; do 1 he
best We can While We are in i~.
So if secularity means a wiliing-
ness ~o rake the world serlously ond
to do the best job possible CIS port of
that world, then we ere ol] secular. I
, The charge which issometimes
made that believing Christians; ig-
nor etho probloms. of the work: in
order to oscar" into otornitj' is.,Il·
surd. Christians aiways have boen
notcible for their strong family mo,
for example; end the innumerable
chorilable and educational institu-
tions which they have founded and
supported. Mt'1:~y £)r<:!ot s1 aresmen,
even ot vary (C~elit times, have been
devout believers-for example,
t{Qf\rad Adencuer ()f Germany,
Cho.!es de Gaulia. of franco and
Aleldo de Gaspari 01 italy. No one.
wouldsu99(;)S~ seriously ?tla~ Chris-
fian::; somehow do worse a~ their
worldly [obs ~han unbelievers. Chris-
tiani1 '1 ~oaches tho~ the VOCQ~ioi'1 to
~ore~wear ~heworld to~(/lly-the
contemplctivo or monastic Ii~e-is
one to which re!atively few people
ora eclled, MOf.'i 1 0llowers or- Ciuir.t'
C7l.'1 Ciat< ad to work ou? ~heir selve-
tien in the world, and to that e::dent
they ore secular. We even IOpec;!, of
" secular priests," meaning priests in
the world.
Yhera is, however, one very im-
portal1 t difference between Chris~ian '
seculerity and mere seculc;ari~.
Chrb~ians believe that lira in the
world isit5eH made possible by the
life o\tGod. AH ?!ia? humcn beings
do is rooted in God, and when
people sever ~ho~o roots they 1 0,,0
the abili~y even ~o do whet isrigh? in
a purely worldly way. Thus; time and
e?err.i~y are not opposites ~or Chris-
tlcns. They complement one cnether,
But eternity take:. precedence, fiO~
only because it lcsts fcrevee while
time posses bu~ also because oternity
really makes ~imGpossible.
Throughou~ his~or'l, goir;g back ~o
the cove dwellers "f ~he Old SZone
Ago, a!!hur.1 C1 n societies of whlch
w» hQVO any knQwlfJ~lJo have boon
charoctori;;;cd by a relifJiou:o sense
Scc..l.L\r.u-- I-\-u. l'nCt/lt ••~ r-:
T-\.:::x ::.
and by religiolJ!> prac?i(e~. When we
como to the oro 0'1 the invention o~
writing, •• ve find evidence of reli-
gious belief also, Religion has been
a universal rcoii?y among men, ~o
the point where it isfair ~o 'J ay ~hat
any form of unbelief should have to
justify itself as natural. Juciging
from history and anthropology,
human beings are naturally reli-
gious and unbelief or secularism is
an oddity.
At the same Time, people from
the beginning of time 'also have
been worldly. They have ?hOU9h~
no? only about the gods but obou~
getting and keeping property, cbcut
pleasure, about self-pre!>orvotioi'.
As. one anthropologist ha ••pu~ i~,
when ~he cave dweller:> wont hunt-
ing, they not only pElr~ofii1 ed their
sacred riluals, Ihey also went where
they knew the animals were run-
ning. Chrisliar.i~y opproves tho\"
same o?Wvde.
In all the ages ot belief which
r;?retch from prehisfcrlc times to
about 300 years ago, there wos c.lso
much secularity, in the sense of peo-
ple whose minds were more on
worldly ihings ihan on religious
things, who vorgo! CAboulre[igiOi" i
most of the time, whose beliefs wero
not very $1 70ng and nee_ded conll~al" i?
reinforcemen? There were even
somo oUlright a~heisl'!., CA~fhough i~i$
hard to find direct evidence of ~his.
The real age o r seculcrisrn Goes
not begin until obout 1 700, when \:01"
the fin;?time inWeslern his~or'l a
signil1 canz number of peoplo-l'\1 o ••~ly
those we would call inh,Becluots-
began to express public doubts
cbcur the ?ruth of Chris~icHiil" l Cirid
even to at~ack it. Although ~he bvl!t
of We~terners remained bolievers,
the effects of this new scepticism
gradually began to be felt ~hrough
the educcted elesses in l:urope unci
infant America. Since 1 ':'0 1 4 :Hil cen-
fUry, organized religion, Cind par-
ticularly Christianity, 'hcs been on
the defensive in most per'ls of the
Western world, despite occasional
periods of resurgence.
Secularists most oli'en prefer?o
call themselves " humcnlsts" which
also crecf es problems. In one sense
we are all humanists, unless we ore
u?ter cynics. We are humanish, in
tha~ we nave a high regard for
human beings end accord hume n
beings 0special staha inzhe uni-
verse. We value overythir.s ••" hk:,
mckes life mora " humone" -kii1 d-
ness, ceurtosy, ccrnpcsslcn, ere.
,1 ~(~n ~:'C. ~,~U\J.'",.H.~'j~H.!i ~; i;~i... ..,·f =:
~:.o oilly ~;IJ(' i" ,umt;mi •.l. fJr\) 'ifWlOC.
who ballovo inGod, QOCOU50 only,
be:ie~ in Gocll:jives us an odequa~1 S
rao~on for poli()ving in r••an. T;" qt a
~(IJC sense of human dignity de-
pends finaily on belid in God is; '1 )9-
gesZacl ~y th" , ioliowing ra~;"'~r
in~ri~uinu facj~:
Q increasingly, only roligioul'i be-
lievers look fonvarcl to the pr0l:lCi-
9C; i~ionof zhe human rcce with
cptimisrn, Non-boliaver:; are ob-
sossed wi~h ~ho pOSiliibili~y o~ tee
mCiny poople Cloq ~hewrong kina at
foil Only believers fully percolve
the ~:'roQ?rchumnn life and r.lign!~y
con?oir.od in ~hQ fjrowitig ClccepZ~ncQ
(If " borzion and Cluih(ma~iCl.
e Only !lollovorz sWl olovctc mCii,\
?o CI IOtotU{; abovo tho animal kino-
dem, Non· ~olieven; in.:roCls:n91 y
won? to mergo man wHh iio1 uio'cnd
(,mno? see, vor oxcmple, why
human lJeingl novo righ~s in a w ay
in whleh " ondangered ,podell" do
~ Only believers, fo~' the mosZ
pari, in~is1 on certain minimal
stcndcrds of ciignify and mcrclity
ior human behavior, es?ecially in
tho crucial orea of human sexuality.
Non-ballevers CHO incraa~ingly ,
willing io ~oleraie almoit every-
If both " secularism" ClOd " hu-
mcnisrn" are ambiguous terms, by
pu~?in9 them together we ccn make
them clearer. " Sec:ular humanism"
meons a philosophy in which marl
Insists illet he is on his own, with no
need for God. He' is autonomous and
" freQ." 7hili idea \VClS perhaps; flrsZ
proposed by the 1 9th-century
German philosopher Paul Johann
von Feuerbcch, who argued that
man never could be truly free so
long Q~ God existed, that God, like a
great fa~her, elwcys would cramp
men's lityle. It was then leh for
another Garmon philescpher,
fredericn Wilhelrri Nietzsche, to pro-
claim tho~ Goel was dead.
From the beginning seculerlsm, or:
seculcr humanism, has usurped the. '
vocabulary of freedom for itself. I~
hen. proclclrned that the rejection of
religion clone wil] make mon free. It,:
hcs offered men the " right" not to
• elleve, HI]; most seductive appeal
I". heen tho. iimorely expends 2he.
permil" ~od crccs of ~urnql1 al:1 ioti'.
I e 1..1' I 'I..
eare rree tQ Q~ love ot not hE/deve,
~t1 end I:n~rdiOJ \1 ?~f~end ~~ufch(
s '"
,\""~.}'3l '~';lO Ian C" /n'~" I:i(lnclrilonj~ or
h" n!i£lrc~:;: 1 :1 001 , wi~houz feo; of
" eeorcicn. iVif;J.i1 '1 sincere Chri5~ians " ~
IHw a heen lulleclloy this rhetoric into
~hilikills;J 'Ih01 saculurlsm isan essan-
zioliy beniu" movement, one which
hos good w m ~or 01 1 men and all
human ideas.
But it is, important to recognize
zha~ from its beginnings secular
humanism has not merely pro-
claimed its independence ~rom or-
, gcmized religion but also its hostility
to itChrl~~icmity is not merely on
institution horn which secularists
wieh 1 0be free; .i: is; also an inli~itu-
tlon which ~hey believe doe. nothing
buz hcrm,
'1 ho ;:rench philoscpher Voltoire it
~ha supposed a\J~hor of tho famous;,
!ino!:, "IdilOagioo wi~h what ,/ou :;0'1 ,
, bu? Iwill defond ~o ~ho doo~h your
righZ 1 0~C1'f ; 1."; ~i" (Iformula which
sounds fjcH)(i (1'\1 ' v~':\:(h of~en is
ouo~ecl C;;~ (1 ni(II,!(j: of the ~o!e~on?
spjiit. Bu~ this some Vol~ain. also
saicl, " Men never will be froo until
~ho I••st i< inu is 5iHlngled with Ihe
entroils of vile lost priest," and about
the Catholic Church, " Crush 1ne in-
famous thingl" From the very be-
ginning secularism (Vo!zairo bo-
lieved in to goC: buz no? ¥he Chtisl'ian
God) has been inZolerant of Chris-
ticmi¥y. YeZ seculovists olso hove
managed to project a public image
o~ themselves CiS 'ihe most ~oierant of
Modem ~o!orC1 nc~ is of1 eti there-
sult of doubts obout ?he trulh. If
, people ca;'\no~ agree os to what is
doh? and true, zhen ~hey ooreo ~o
~olorC1 Zeone (mother's beliefs. Each
individual 05!;UmCS tha~ he may be
wrong and his neighbol' right, end
thus he re~rc:ins from rushing his
OVin ideas Zoofor. Over and over
again we are Zold that we. should
respect other people's points of view.
Ye~ in proctice this is not tckon to
mean that religious baliei needs 1 0
be respected by seculcrists. Religion
isregordecl merely as em error
which needs ~o be uprooted. The
modern emphasis on " freedom" and
" tclercnce" has served mainly 1 0de-
rend the righ~ of unbelievers to
profe!is ~heir unbelief, It hcs not
generally been taken to mean tha~
religiolls belief itself must be tofer-
cted, In case ofiat case, ever since
the french Revolution of 1 789, when
dogmatic secularists havo !)othan
polHical power ~hel have moved
qga,ir.~: tho Chui" tn, dosing religious
schq(*~ f:or~idding /lublic manifcs-
?ath~li$o~ r~!ioiol,J~ holiet, expolling
, \' ~ , I' " ,
:"' .. ,j,; .
p•.i" $~~(Hid rc:igious, sometimes.
even forbidding religious worahip
(md iailing Ihose who e,ngage ini~.
Such orcctices are fomiliar rodoy in
the Communist countries-Commu-
nism being fotally seculo ris~ic:-l:lu\'
exist ?o a lesser extent even in some
democrc.tic countries, like Mexi.:o.
The re oscns for this pe.secu~ioi1
ure easy to see: Secular humanism,
since it regards mo n cs~ha ui!imo?e
judge of righ~ and wrong, and
hurnon reason as the sole source of
truth, regards all religious baIiey cs
raise and even dangerous. People
who believe in a personcl God, on
inspired Scripture, a divinely
Ioundcd Church, and a moral law
which comes from God are lrea?ed
like odults who somehow have
manoj)cci 10continuo beliovin9 in
$anlu CloU!s. They CHe ?hough? 1 0be
hopel()s~ly and dangerously oul of
touch with rea!i:y, and for their own
good and that of other pe cp!e t:ley
must be disabused of their false
beliefs. A le':lding Bril'il>h humcmis~,
H. J. Blcckhcrn, spooks 0\: " Catholic
mothers who are bad mothers !;)e-
cause, you know, Ihey orin£) up ~hoit,
children tv reverence and obey zhe
priest cmd 1 0believe a fOfrogo of
superstitions CHid wicked nonsense,"
Thus modern secularism fights
not only for its own right to exis~-
ollhough it manages to give the
impression ~hCiI this is-whet il'
isfighting for-but oiso for Jhe
right to oppress religion, and
if possible to destroy H.
In democratic, countries like the
United States most secularists do not
, advocate direct cctlen Zo suppress
religion. They concede Zhot people
have a legal righ? to believe false
ideas end to worship non-existent
gods. However, they want 1 0deny
religion any legitimate public: ex-
pression, any influence over pubnc
policy, and they wont to make il so
hard for churches that only the most
faithful believers will continue to be
layol to them. Ideally, if they ccnnot
d05~roy religion, they hope \'0reduce
its foliowers to a smell and incon-
spicuous sect.
We live in on ecumenical age,
, and we have been conditioned 10
think that, while religious animosi-
ties used to be strong a nd passion.
ate, they hove mostly subsided and
we now live in on atmosphere of
mutuo/ tolerance. However true this
may be omong the various religions,
iI' Is not true of secular humonism,
which has not hqd its Second
Vgti(;lln Council.
," I't
}-iowovar, the most obvious form:
of discrirninction Clgains~ them hc;s
, been ~he continuing and dQgrnCiiic
refu::icd\'0gran\' them any form of
public aid, even ~hough CCi~hoiic,
: \1 Jewish and Luthercm toxpcyers, for
exornple, oro ~hereby forced to pay
double jo r ~heir children's educe-
none of i¥!i earlier po:;itions. Tradi- tiOi1 S. Opponen'ls of public aid ohen
?ional reliciious beliefs were held ~o " " ,, 'claim piously ~hlJ tZhe high prin-
be damaging both to the person ,!iid" ciples of zhe Constitutio •• prevent
~o society. such aid, however much they might
like to gi'an~ it. nut, if the credenticls
o',e those opposed 1 0'such aid are
examined, i1 is dlscovered thot 1 hoy
gene.olly fall into two categories-
enti-Ccthelics as such and those who
believe zhat elll religious education
i~! is bad and who regre~ ~hat religious
schools exi5~ cH alL
In 1 933" Amorlccn humu nists
drew up Ci " Humo nist Manifesl0," a
sort of creed, mainly composed ~y
'0 influentielphilcscpher o nd adu-
lor John Dewey, it breathed hos-
'- 7ilily to Chrj!i~iqnily on almost every
page. Forty years later a revised'
version wo s issued. It retracted
The most influen?ial onti-Ccthollc
intellectucl in Amerlco in the :Z O ,'n '
century has been Paul Blcnshord, a
rnilitcn! secular humanist. A~!hoIi9h
Blanshcml's (lIZacks on :he Cathoiic
Church were couched mainly in
terms of charging the Chun;h with
being fhe enemy of 'freedom, he also
osked Ihe question, " Why allow
Christian salvationism to flourish
side by siclewith ncrvpulou!lly accu-
rate science as i1 they were leg iii- : ,,'
mete twins in our culture, when you
know that the Chri:;?iondcctrine of" ,'/
solvation is untrue?" Although he
has net explained what he mean? by
" allow," Blcnsherd's words Can be
token as a threat of possible sup~
pression of religious liberties at
some future time. .' i'
Secularisf~ believe that nosincore: 'I
- .;loa intelligent person possibly could "
be a religious believer. Thus all re-
ligious belief nos 1 0be seen either cs
fraud or ignorance, and neither has
any rights. Secularists are therefore
not interested in " dialogue" with
believers. They are interested
merely in conversions.
The crucial area has been educe- ,,'
ticn, since education-along wi~h ;',~
family influence-is the principal
means by which people's beliefs and
values are formed. The earliest
secularists, in zhe l Bth century, were
convinced that their first erucic] fask
was to destroy '/;,e Church's influ-
ence over educcticn, which is the
reason why church schools usually
hove been dosed whenever militant
humanists have come to power.'
In America, church schools retain
the lega! right to exist, although in
1 925 a legal challenge to their ex- .,
istence went all the way to the .
Supreme Court. Recently the Internal
Revenue Servico-which gronts tax 'I
xemptiom 1 '0theso schools-and
ole deponment5 of educcrton hove
put renewed pressvres on religious
schools, seHing stcndords of opera.
1 ion which could hamper them', , "
:; and evant" !ally for't;.ethoir
cf ,in . ' , r
Such people oro well cswo re thq~
irifla~ion o lono throotens to drive ~he
majority of ro:i!Dious scho ols out of
existence. Nowadays very few
charitabie in5?ituNons in ihe broad
sense-schools, hcspitols, museums,
zoos, el'c.-con survive without pub-
lic funding. Such funding is denied
to religiou~ schools precisely in
order tomake their survival dimcu!?
Although many ozher " righ1 s" -sud'l
csa bortion-are said to lequire ~ax
support so tha? the poor may exer-
cise them, the fight to give one's
children a religiously oriented edu-
cation ccrries.wlth it no such re-
As the government makes ir more
and more difficul? for churches to
main!ain their own schools, i? also
insures ihar no influence of religion
pene~rCltes the public schools. Courts
are fanatically vigilant Cl9ains~ the
least sign of " sectorion" influence-
not only prayers but also moments
of silence, not only the Bible ?Clughl'
in the classroom but o lso Bible-study
groups mee~iiig outside class ~ime.
It is now permissible to expose stu-
dents to propaganda from Planned
Parenthood, for example, bu~ not, to
anything specjficaliy religious in
Here secularism has won one of
its most notable victories, Sup-
posedly the schools are required by
law to be " neutral" omong the veri-
ous religions and between belief
and unbelief. But true neutrality
would mean treClring all religioni:i
equolly. Instead ~heArnerkan pub~
lie schools are required to snub qll
For the mo~t port, feocheni in
rubfi~ schoclsdc not oyert~y af1 ack
r(lfjoiFln-~lthqvOh at tho '0/1 090
level ~noy frequentiy do. However,
... a public-school teacher who did o¥-
todt religion, or ridiculed iI,would
have an easier time keeping his job
than one who openly espoused re-
ligious biiiefs in the classroom. A
teacher o!isigning the Bible as rcod-
ing would risk losing his [ob, buz not
one who assigned the works of the
c nti-Chrisfion Tom Paine, for
However, for secularism ~o be ~he
working philosophy of the schools i~
is not necessary tha~ the schools be
overtly hostile to religion. H merely
is required tha~ they ignore it. Stu-
dents thereby come away w I1M the
impression thaI' religion is not im-
portant, or, if it is important, that i~
is a pureiy privc+e and personal
rhing. They become used to the
secularist idea thaI all questicns, in-
cluding crucial '1 ue5~ions of moral
values, are decided inde7Jencier.? of
any religious considerctions. Young
children in particular, for whom
teachers can be Clurhority figures al-
most Cl5 powerful os po renrs, ore
likely to conclude. ~hat if ¥he teacher
never speaks of God or Jesus, God
and Jesus cermet be very lmportc n~.
Closely i'ela~ecll'o edueotion is zhe
outhority of the family, which C01 :'-
olic teaching holds has primary
.respons ihility for the education of
children. Many seculo rists, perhops
most, are themselves family people
=husbends, wives and parents.
However, it also is true that secular-
ism as a creed is of best ambivalent
towards the family and tends
towards hostility. rhe aHock 011 re-
ligion and the atf.ack on ~he famiiy
almost always go toge~her.
To understand this i1 is ne cessory
to understand severol of \'he cssump-
tions of secularism, cssumptions
which are infrequently discussed.
The most important of rhese content
freedom and progress. '
it was among the secularist
thinkers of the 1 ath century thaI' the
idea of progress first look its famil-
iar form-,Ihe idea that human life
will, if the proper conditions o re
created, continue almost cutomoti-
coily to improve. Christians can, o~
course, accept this idea to I'he e), er.\'
of thinking that it is possible \'0im-
prove social conditions through
effort, and throughout hi~\'ory many
Christians have endeavored to do
so. But the secularist idea of prog-
ress rests on the .be!ief that human
nature can be perfected. it denies
the reality of sin. It cernes to be
.tronDly hicse d in favor of whatQV.?l
h; new Grlci l ••nQ,{y" lvQ, llOfJiliG in
~hoZQ~:lii1 fl~~;'a liifliiS O\~progror.~,
end comClC;l,Ion1 ly bio::;Qcl ogo:iI\l\' '
wllo1 oYQr I;;;~rqcZiiionol ond vonor .•.
~'l(/. ThefiQmily, os \'he oldost ill-
,.?ution of human 50da?y, cUlloa? ,
hel? but :'0IOQf~ed upon by seculcr-
i~~"wHh svsplcicn. '
?rogr.asSi b ochioved primcrily, in
tho seculcrist " low, 1 hrough mcxi .•.
mi;;ing ~;1 O ccnciiZions of human '
freedom. In gonvrai ~ho freer peopla
(He from o ll Icws, oUfhorifyoncl1 ic-
dilion, 1 ho bon~r 01 1 fhey are and
t:'o mere liocio'/y ili progressing. '
While cHli" i~" ;iiiJ in theory tho? I~reo•.
den••cc;n 00o~u;;cd, in practice mOli~
liilcul" d$~" ," u'ior" io1 h:olly choo~(J ~o
rorncvo mom! cmcl soda I;Zroinis
W:lorovai' 'I';,oy exist. " iho \;cr•... lify is;
~hus a d\70ubiy svspicicus inZt~iZu~ionl"
noZ only bocovso it il> va.y andont
bu.' al~o if is ~1 1 0liOO~0:; the most'
poworful and ef.:ecZive kine! of '
humcn au~hori\'y.
it rarely II' notice d ~o what degree
~ormai eclUCaflOi1 olrnost inevl1 ably
conflicts v/l~~ i'l1 a c< v\'~oriiy o~ the
family. VI a sone: our children ~o ~,
school mainly heeeuso We reel iliad ••
oquate to educcte '~hem ourselves.
'ReligioulO schools oxist because par-
_1 1 s wo nt ~heir children ~ough? be-
; !> ond values which reinforce
tomily volue:;; not oppose ~hom-a
situation which has no? clwcys been
rho case in the church schools 0;' tho
past lS year:;;. In ~ho public schools
'parents con hope a~ best that their'
own values will not be undermined;
they cannot hope roalisHcally that
they will be p05i?ively reinfcread.
Many secularists believe ~'hat '
families s~ill exercise ohogether too,
much inZluonce and authority over
children. ihoy .agora the schools as
the vehicle for inc:ulcai'ing in young ,
people Cl properly " progressive" '
outlook on the world, and they re-
gret that pareMal influence still is'
likely to be so strong tho? this lndce-
rrina2ion is not comple,toly SUC:C05S~
fu!. In Britain, some humanists have
proposed that all religious schools
be abolishod end ?}lClt the state
schools consciously ~ry to c:ounterq'ct'
parental influence, especially in the
cre c of moral and religious belierli.
Only then will chiklren ba trUlY
I'f ree." . ,
he most crucial area of this ccri-'
t.,.j is inevitatJly sax, because sexual
belief-Ii end bohovior ere :;0POi- ','
soncl, so deoply held; and so sensi-' •
~ivo that :hoy u~ualfy 'HOUSO tho
'troi'i9Qs~ kinds of {oeling$. ihore l'
;;" 'i1 :" '< acod1 iC:h. /:.oVwoer. ~choo; (:jOlt!
~'Hi1l!}rQvcr roli~i,,,1beiie~:; OJ fiHli1 /'"
o.hel' 1 hir.g$i bU'isex isalmost 01 -
wo.,!~ ~h0 (WW (J~ grtlCi~e~?$enr.;i~jvi'iy
and gn.ule~Z .:oMwvcrsy.
!i if, ciiso 'l:.e mea inwhich
f:omiliol l:W;horltl' is most seriously
undermined, When governmon?
officials cme: omc/Q!s; D" privo~e
sociol Clgendas like Planned Per-
en;;'oQd 1 nsi:;';'l!'iot tean-age.s
s;-.oulo ;:'0cllcwed 1 0hove
" hot:iomi Oi' receive controceptives '
, wi:'hout pal'er.rai 'O~SOi1 \' or even
!wowledf}o, ~hey know exactly
~:"jeycue doing, AI~hough offering
the prOlc1 ic:cll OfGumlHil thoz such
pu::c9ices ore necessa.y to prevent
unwon;cct pregbCilicies, they oro
vu!!, COi1S,;OUS of ~ho fact th,,~ ~hey
Q:$O WCulWfl and evon des.troj
porente: Clulhorily, and ~hey regard,
1 :1 i::; as£iood, since i~is an orea
whore they do not ~hink parer.?,,!
auti1 ori:y should operale, Ccmpul-
sory sox-education programs, from
which all religious considerotions
ere riQorously excluded, serve the
same end. Yhe secularist mind does
ncr believe ~ha1the educctiono]
process hC< 5 bee~ successful unless i~
produces children whose values are
'luite clifieren~ from ~ho~'J o r their
pOTcn1 s. Tho schools ore used cle:;b-
ei" '!1 elyto promote S~CUlOlb~ valves.
, ,
, AI~~',ollghsome seculcrisrs mlly
hold fairly ~rCldi~ional ideas about
sexual behavior, ir.$~inctively 1 hey
lend to support oil kinds of sexual
" freedom," hom lhe reflex assump-
tion rhat whatever is old is probobly
wrong and thaZ whenever the cc-
ceptoble boundaries of human be-
havior are extended it is a good
tbing. Over the .yecrs organized
soculor humanism has made sexual
" freedom" one of its principal
ccuses, and lhe more sexual be-
havior deviates trom established
norms ~he more secular humanists
find couse for rejoicinq.
It isa dogma of secularism 1 hoz
human uctlons do not hove any
superna1 ural or religious significance
and that human beings l'hererOTe
can do wha1 ever they' wish, short of ,
harming others.' Even this restriction
gives way when things become
roolly " inconvenient," csin obcrticn
or euthnnnsi«. "Free" sexual be-
havior is for secularists an imporlCln~
test case for lihowing that people do
not have :0be bound by the outhor-
ity o~ " moral law greater ihan their
own desires. It is also important for
" emc ~c,j paiins" 'peop !~-e:;pe'kdly ,
young people-from the influence ,ol-
d, \ ' ," I ' ,
c;1 Vn;;!i Uild fomily. individual SGCU-
"lar humanisis me;! noZ ~hemselves
be hedonists, hut ~i1 eysupport
hedonistic oCiivi1 ies-{)x?roITlCjI'il'ol
sex, homosexuality, pornography,
" decriminalized" drug use=-becousc
~hese cctivities involve man's ossor-
~ion of freedorn frcm 01 1 restroiM
and because they strike a blow oZ al~
trocii1 ienol moreliry.
This secvlcrist philosophy has per.
meuted toe public educational SY!i-
tern of America for a1 leasZ the pasl'
50yeel'S, much looger in some coses,
cmd it also has penneai'ed mor.y of
the privcte colleges and unive rsivies,
As a result, i~hcs come to dorninctc
much of the thinl< ing of the oducol'oc,{
classes in Arnerica-Ihe leachers,
Iuwyol" s, cio ctors, journalists and
politicians., for a long time thili foc~
W<:'I~ obscurc d, because many indi-
vidual professional people are de·
vout religious believers ano becnuso
tho secularist agenda was 1 1 0\' ell first
tuHy revealed. But with the unveiling
of that agenda, the melior pr of es-
slcnol associations like the Nolionat
~ducotior. Assoclctlon, the Arnericcm
Medical Associotion and the Ameri-
can Bar Association have shown
themselves eager 1 0support itThe
implicit olliZude o f their Iecdershlp
is, " Individual doctors, ,CiWY'HS or
reachers may be religious believers,
but their beliefs are purely private
and should not influence public
policy." ,
However, the most striking evi·
dence of the triumph of the seculorisr
mentality is in the communications
media and the government. It used
to be a joke that God and mother-
hoed were two things immune from
attock. In the pas! decode, however,
both hove become highly vulner-
able. '
Anti-religious propaganda, and
pcrticulorly anti-Catholic propc-
gonda, now saturate the media.
Religious belief, often as embodied
in the figures of clergymen, isridi-
culed or made to appear unhealthy
and defo rmin g, even cis sceptics ore
treated as moral heroes. Belief is
treo ted most orlen as a sign 0\: inse-
curity o r of bei,ng hopelessly out of
date, while doubt is presented as a
sign ,of intelligence and courage.
Similarly, for several generations o r
college professors, a student's loss of
faith w hile in school has been token
as a sign that the student at last is
reclly thinking.
The mass media are the most in-
tluenHol tleduc~tjonol" ,ji1 Stitutiom. in
moclurn $oci?ty;. If they PfOPQ,]O)C,
cszhoy do, nCOfi; binaiiQn of (H"i~
religious and hedonistic mC3SC1 £jO:>,
their influence outweighs much of
the gooci which families end church
schools atlempi to effect We now
are faced with the very serious situ- .
orion in which most people, 'even
church members, possess, without
kno w i nq it, an cssentic lly seculcir
way of looking qt jlle world, a w ay'
which the media hove mcide seem
ncturcl end normal.
The degree !owhich popular
enterro inment is so tur o ted vvlth
pagon values is some:hing which
even devout Christians of:en cannel'
bring themselves to recognize. Pop-
music slors like the Sex Pistols end
Alice Coopet; countless films and
t(,Jevj~ion programs, and Ihe po po r-.
bc ck-b c o k induslry glorify tho com-
bination of sox and violence; and
preach a lo1 ally hedonistic Jifest,'lc.· ·
Stcrs whowin public adulalion, 'es-
pecially from young people, use thot
prestige to denigrate marriage and'
fhe family and 10glorify drug
fo!< ing, Sexual deviation of a!i kinds
is celebrated and its prccrionors
treated 05 courageous prophets.
~~i(H,I!,_y IJ ~et...;;ior V(J {~o\J !r prolo€.;iS Of
· · '''SOcll,1 onnill!;)ering," virivull/ d; of
" · · which rest on s.ecu!misl assuinp¥icns,.,~
: Man ano 50ciety ore to be loto;!,!
, rernc de, o~cording 1 00seculorlst
.,. b~ue?rint..
'. In the ciemocr cric sySlem all g(lV~
· errrmunt is theoreticallY o nswcr c hle
to 1:'0people, throllf.jn the bcillot
" bOA, ar-d the ranks d elected public
officials include 0high pr o por+lon of
p'eople who are church members,
" 'some of Iller •.•quite devout. Their in~
. ::f\uonce, [rowevcr, is severely limit~~. !'
. . ,
.' IIi:. limited firs: by the fCict thaI
.:, elected public officials, even ~he
. ,preziclon1 , in practice ¥ lOa i~quite
· difficult to eontrol the various !j')y~
:'cn1 ment Clgencles nominally under
..'. '!.eir iuri~di(l;on, i" 'jowever, their
: limi~~ !; lom even more horn iho f ••d
· HlOl so rnanl po\ilici('o)s who cir o
. ,. themselves ie!igiou~ 'believc;:; b•. vve
'.'. swallowed ~he seculo r ist definition
:r qf rneir role, '
Countless politicians in the past
·9ccacic hove so id, " Pcrso ocllv Iam
:opposecllo abortion, but Icc nnot im-:
· pose my views on others." Re!igiovs
believers hove b~e(1 brqinwa~n(:d
The some pervasive secularism .
. , ir:10!hinl< ir'fJ jhu~ :hey have no righr'l
now perrne otes governmont. Or. all
~o be guiC:ed by those beliefs in the
levels of government, officials use .. : .
pclitico] (co!m, even as seculnr
their varying degrecs of power and?. humcmists wc quite wi!iing to " im-
authority to promote essenticlly sec- .... . t .
.: pose" rhe lr beliefs on orhor pe op le,
vier ends, Judges hand down de- '
..,. end do soccnstcntly. It isa sud fact
cisions which interpret the ide" of ..
:;: Iho? prominent Catholic peliticicns in
freedom in tho w ay secularists want
:... Amerlcc tJO nut of their way 1 0shew':
it interpreted-tor example, the
:: , rhal rhey are nol Quiclf)d by religious,
o cged constitutional " righ?" to on .
abortion. Bureaucrats in the educe-' :: concerns.
tionol cnd health fields move An even more drcrnctic example
towards a situction in which only' isthat of Prosident Jimmy Corter, a
thoroughly secularized institvtiens doubtlessly sincere, " born-ogair."
receive any kind of public support . Southern Barli:; ! who won electorul
Cind others virtually are driven Ctu? of support-a? !eost in part-becau:.e he
existence. Government programs of . was perceived as a slavnc!' believer.
all kinds, bul espeelclly in sex edu- . However, he has surrounded himself
cation, fend toward the weakening with advisors and o ides, most of
of the family, often quite dellber- whom seem It, be quite secular in
o.lely. Finally end most ominously, outlook: and it would be c1 ifficul~ \'0
government officials are increasingiy :' point to a ~ingle imporl(Hlt w ay in
committed 1 0?~e ideo of pcpula~ion . which the president's rciitJion has
con?rol and " quality "f life" concerns substantia!ly influenced his policies.
which c9rry with them immense . A fino] ori!-:' of importanl secu-
pOlentiol ior control of human fives. lorist it'lf]uenw, ofz cl1 unnoticed, is
whol is bro" clly co lled the " human
potentiol" movement, dedicated 1 0
the proposition the! peopln have a
· rifJht c.nd on obligation to " find ,
•. .themse!\Ju;;" end " fullia the mselves."
l~ ho~ countless monirestat:cn:; and
has done- much horrn in the churches.
While usually not overtly I:Itneistit, it
bas no mom '(or God.
The pervasiveness of the seculcr
r.1 cntality in government is no? ccci-
denIal, because ever since tno 1 lHh
century seculciris-s have looked
towards an " enlightened" stc+o CIS .
the principal means of reforming .
society, and especially of counteract- ..:
ing religious influence. The public
schools. as state agencics, exist in
port for this ?\Jrpose, The encrrncus
power o~ the moclorn state i:o con-
Intfw'and roli'JioU5 believers hOYQ
.,. :" rgely i}lem~ctvesio blc ••re for this
1 ,',
!'ilcdu o: I:diclirS, for Ihey hove a~-
lowed ij \0hcrppe n, Believers in
generol, and Catholics in particular,
have been comp locent, passive, and
timid-slow \0recogni-.:e wncl'l!neir
beliefs are threatened and even
slower to respond. Iwenl'y yeai's 090
secularism, although certainly in-
fluential, W(lS also low-keyed and
afraid to o:tack fE!iigion pu:;;lidy.
Once secularists perceived the
confused and weakened stcre of
religion, however, they quite
naturally escalated their afi· ocks .
This essay began by no~ing the
disfinction between " secularism" o s
a philosophy and " secularity" cisa
fcrct of iife, with some Ch,istians
holding thaI the flrs~ 01 these is bod
while the seco nd is good. The ro cvs
of tho problem lie here, however,
n,,~pro so nt weakness of organix.ed
religion nnd the vulnerability of so
many believers to secularist ?(OPO-
gonda ore directly tro ceo nle 10~heir
simple worldliness. l:nioying Ihe
fruits of a prosperous and ;r.a~eriol-
istic society, they have be cor .••e com-
fOj~able o nd Iox, unable \'0rec09-
niz e that there is anything seriously
wrong with their wodd.
The attacks on re'lisiori, inducling
the possibility of legal resl'rain~s on
religious freedom, probably will con-
tinue arid even escalate in the re-
maining years of the 20th cenlury.
There is still the possibility of coun-
tering these attacks, !IHough an
effort which must be· hroadly ceu-
rne nico l but which is rendered C:iffi-
cuir Py the degree of seculc rist i.,flu-
ence that clreo dy exists in the '
churches themselves. Those churches
riot heavily secularized will have re
show the way.
Morf:l imporionily, genuine reli-
gious bcllevors-c-os disi'inc? hom
these for whom church membership
ismClin!,' a metter of habit-will be
forced more and more to define pre-
cisely whet Ihe impcrtont diflei'oncoli
are between themselves and ncn-
believers. They may well have to ac-
custom ;hemr.elvcr. to iiving in wo'!';
which the world around I· hem will
find slO'nnJc c ndbl zor re and which
wi!! ro quire almost heroic decisions.
rhe day may be coming once agCiin
when as Chris? foretold, those
who persecute Hisfollowers will
think they are doing something vir-
1 1 il(h(0(1 < i. ?,of ••• or of hi.tory a? Sf. lovi,
U~h'.rllly, pr.,id.nt of tho Fellow.hip o'i C< lt;" "
" lie $eoolo" cnd Ih. ovthor of Q nvmbo, of
QI.'ok, ir" l~di~S " Colholi,i.m and t\\gQgmity"
pubii.h.d Ihi, 'I,o r.
t>iSC(f\~.. shj P J .-.
.1-14-<5 ~ fJ;J:'f
Wec6m!h~rli~b~il~v~eo hig~ d!sli~1ty ~ate. We Il'~~H~~~~~~ff~~~~~h~~ ~1 1 ~ .
hung and lynahed ahd tatred and £eather~a and oaiie! ~ndsiadd~r~a, a~d ~i~iculed
and fired from our jdbs; and in every other way made as uncomforta~l~ as
possible. A certain percentage 6f us get killed a t ihlp~fsbned; We live in
virtual poverty. We turn back to the party every penny we we rrtakEl etbdve
what is absolutely necessary to keep Us alive. We Communists doh'tl have the
time or the money for many movd.ea , or concerts, or T-b6n~ s teaks , bl' decent
homes and new dar~ •. We 've been described as fanatics. We are :f~haticS. 0\1 1 "
lives are dominated by one great overshadowing factor, tHE STRUGGLE FOR
We Communf.sts have "a:philosophy of life which no amount of nion~y cb'i.l.~d
buy. We have a caUse to fight for, a definite purpose in life~ We sUborainate
our petty, personal selves into a great movement of humantiy, ahd if our
personal lives seem h~rd, or our egos a:p:pearto suffer through sUbordinatibn
to the party, then we are 'adequately compensated by the.'thought that each
of us in his small waY·is contributing to something new and true ~nd better
for mankind 0 • There is one thing in which I am in dead earnes t and that is the
Communist cause. It is ~ life, my business, my religi6n, my hoboy, mY
sweetheart, my wife and'mistress, my bread and meat. I work at it in the
daytime and dream of it at night •..Its hold on me grbws , not lessens as
time goes on. Therefore', Icannot carryon a friendship, a love affair,
or even a conversation without relatir).git to this force which both drives
and guides my life. ± evaluate people, books,' ideas a.nd actions according bo
how they affect the Communsit cause aridby their attitude toward it. live
already been in jail because of my ideas and if necessary, I'm ready to
go before a firing squad.
. L II" I_I i 'I I I· u ij ,
D e ~ ter T<~.tdrriE:. Young COI,TlmUhi E\ ;,
-This letter wasta.ken fromTfue,bisciPi~ship by Geblrg~ MacDonald. ~l1 e '
lette~ was written by an Americdh college student w~6 Had be~n converted to
Communism in Mexico. The purpose of the letter was tb explain to explain
to his fiancee why he must break bff their engagemerit~
Pro'Pheciygiven ~ ~ Wo±-d £! God; s'P!':tng, i975
I want this whole commuhityto have an eager longing e.n~ d~sire t(:!, Me
my 'Work accomplished. ',I want every person to be obsessed +,.,ith a desire to
see my salvation come ho this world. I wa.nt you to lOhg for it, to hunger and
thirst for it, ,to ~ant after my power and my working in the worid today. I want
you to speak anout it to one another, to think about it, to dream. of it
at night. I want you to be dominated and obsessed with a desire to see tili
of my will done. I wiil sertd you to places that you ate not familiar with.
I will have you speak my word to whole nations. Yes, I ,have chosen to act
through you~,~and I want you to give your lives for that work •
. r
J , ..,.."
The \Vevv reVV\1~\('7,; t r--tovet'\'le",,-{-
1)y Mary Bader Papa
Gynecologis t:; and priests have tended t.o approach ' .... omen :from the same anatomical
per spect Ive. And women, as the consumer-s of thei.r servt ces, have accepted a. world
based on male experience. In thC'ir most intimate experiences - whether of their
bodies or of their 30\1 1 s - w omen have Looked to men for intc· rpretb.tion.
That rnust :change , and it is chang ing, But how it shou Id change and how long that
. change should take were among the topics discussed here recently at the Conference
on Homenand Religion, which brought toget.her 350 people (including two men) from
nQmerous religious backgrounds.
They agreed that male images of God and male rules of religion must be replaced.
But by what?
Uni.ted Hethodist Church official and author Sheila Collins took a. step toward
answering this question by calling for a new Ilfem:l.nist ethic." She then took on
the most fr~strating and divisive ethical question of. our tlme: abortion. Although
Ccllins expressed weariness with the subject that feminists in general keep trying
to " get beyond." and Catholic feminists in particular keep trying to avoid, she de-
scribed abortion in a moving, persona.l \· my. Women, she said, must tell their stories
before a new ethic can· develop.
Collins provided the conference's most dr amatLc moment when she described pub-
licly for the first time the abor tion.she herself had after she. conceived a child by
8. man who is not her husband , She is married and has two children, which added to
her anguish:
" For weeks before the abortion Ilay around in IJ. torture of fear, guilt, anger
and self-doubt. Howcould I, a womanin mid-life, a professional with graduate de-
grees, a womanwho knows all about birth control and abortion, a Christian who prom-
ised when she married to be faithful to her husband, a feminist who should have
gotten beyond letting her emotions run away v-lith her body - ho •... , could I have gotten
inLo such a mess?!!
She and the man - who w ent with her to the hospital - mourned together " the cut-
ting off of possibilities for. life which in other times a.nd circumstances might have
been able to be fulfilled." After the abortion, Collins said, she felt tremendous
healing. " Next to my childbirths ... this Ican truly say is the holiest experience
of my life,"
She also described the abortion experiences of three other women, saying: " We
have deliberately taken life. Yes, a fetus is a form of life as are animals we
eat and plants that .w e kill for our food. And 'because of this we have grieved over
the loss. Wehave grieved and found ourselves guilty. Yet we know ourselves also
as healers and savers of lives ..•. Feminist ethics, Ithink, must begin with the
tcllin[!; of our ct.ori cc , I,then the cxpo r i.cncea of' over half the earth's popu Lat.Lon
have gone unexpressed, uncxamined, how can anyone preslli~e to set up an ethical sys-
tem purporting to judge according to some universal standard, motivation and human
. behavior? " ..
Collins also described an'experience in which she and (l. Catholic theologian ap-
peared on the same platform to discuss ubor-t Lcn, In her presentation, she said,
she tried to incorporate an understanding of womenand the circumstances under which
WOmenconceive children~ and she triecl to " relate all of this to an understa.nding
of the ethical sta.nce of Jesus, which was based not on legalistic. norms but on the
concept of right relut ionsntps and f'orgi.vencs a;"
Then, Collins said, the theologia.n presented the " Catholic viewpoint" w:i.thout
once mentioning women: " It was as if womenexisted merely 0.1 3 receptacles for the fetus."
Ethics, as we no-...•know them, have " cut off the shc,-!?ingof scc l aL values from
their roots in human experience and emotion," she se.irl. The Boverning ethical prin-
ciples - whether Catholic natural law or contemporary h~~an:sm - are abstractions
separated from the experiences \· !hich give them form.. These ethics have produced in-
justice by ration.'3.lizingkilling, sLavery , women.'s suf'f'er and many ot ner evils.
Unlike pur eLy rational ethics, a feminist et!1 i'c has t! a capac ity for empathy, If
Collins said. !t is based on compassion, as true biblical ethics are. " Only those
" ,il:
•... ·ho themselves are suffering 'Will wo~k fbrthe' eliminati6n'~br urihec~~~~rY'suffering,"
she said, adding that this is why Jesus located himself runong the poor and ambng
women. !
::'1at is the new feminist ethic? ,Who can hones t.Iy say? 'The, Question has only
been asked; Ivomen have only recently begun to tell theit story. They have only' '
recently begun to interpret their own experiences themselves.
As women confront our religious and ethica-l systems, demanding that our experi-
ences be taken into account, ,that our stories '!Deheard, it is hoped, but not auto-
matically assured, that the outcome will be a better - or even a more compassionate -
world. At this point women know what we are ,going~. Exactly ~TIere we are
headed is not yet clear.
Copyright @1979,' by National Catholic ~eporter
1 .,-
" '"
, ",
1: ..
"I " "
.' \ ~
./1 ·
. '
r" ••_..•..•• /;
',',.....•. ~•..-
MS July 1977
The. tJcw teYV\-1~,'<;t
1'-\O'J ev"v\eY'lt-
T-t· TC
Interviewed by Gloria Steinem
Koryne Horbal is a central force in using
electoral politics to make changes for
women. Wherever feminists are struggling
to pass laws or elect candf.dates , someone
will probably say, "But what would Koryne
As the youngest daughter of a Polish electrician and a Norwegian homemaker,
Koryne ~~eski was expected to behave well, study hard in high school, and stay
in the family's Minneapolis home until she married.
Two years after her 1955 graduation from high sChool, she waS engaged to
Bill Horbal, a classmate who had been football captain when Koryne was home-
coming queen. After their marriage, she worked to help her husband start his
own business, but her traumatic discovery that she could not have children
left her with more time than a job 'could f~ll. She began going to p~ecinct
meetings of the Democratic Farmer Labor Party, the state Demb.cratic organization
of Hubert Humphrey and Eugene McCarthy. Soon she was doing door-to-door
canvassing--and loving it. Though they adopted two children, and Koryne con-
tinued to help with her husband's business, she didn't stop working long,
unpaid hours for the DFLo From precinct captain; she rose to ward chai~voman,
vice-chairwoman of the county, and finally state chairwoman at the age of 31.
Of course, the state chairman; supposedly Koryne's coequal, got $22,000 a
year and all the media coverage, while Koryne got no salary, the job of making
office curtains, and an occasional introduction as "the lovely and able Mrs.
Horbal." But she was an effective behind-the-scenes force. She had learned how
the system worked.
Soon, to the dismay of DFL officials, 'she began usihg her political skills
to aid feminists working for liberalized abortion laws; and to pressure for
women's equality within the party. As a Humphrey delegate to the 1972 convention
in ~~&~i, Koryne disobeyed party discipline in order to support the National
Women's Political Caucus's credential challenges and its mihority plank on
abortion. During the next year in Minnesota, she and other women inside the DFL
openly identified themselves as feminists. They got the ERA ratified, began to
democratize internal DFL structures, to elect feminist candidates, and to initiate
feminist legislation.
In 1973, she was one of the fO~~ders of the DFL Feminist Caucus. She had
also become the Democratic Committeewoman from Y~nnesota, ahd began to reach
out to Democratic Committeewomen from other states in order to organize support
for feminist issues nationally.
In 1975, Koryne spearheaded'the adoption by D~mocr~tic women of the
U.S. National Women's Agenda.
In 1976, while campaigning for Jimmy Carter, she used her travels to help
women organize pressure on· C~ter for a better position on feminist issues, as
well as for more appointments of feminists in his campaign and administration.
She remains Y~nnesota's Democratic Committeewoman and was recently appointed
U.So Representative to the UN 'Commission on the Status of Women. During her
interview for the post"UN Ambassador Andrew Young said he wanted an activist
and asked when Kor;yne had last d.emonstrated in the street. "Would you believe
-two days ago?" said Koryne , •."I was picketing outside Califano's office in
Washington, trying to get him ,to change his position on federal funding for
abortion. rt ~;., I'
J ,
"Many women seem to have become feminists first, and political activists
second. For me, it wa~ the other way around. In ~~nnesota, women inside the
Democratic Farmer Labor.Party were organizing around feminist issues before
1970. We had the kind of credibility and access you can only get by being
party workers for many years, and we knew the ropes.
"We started out by doing a study of just where women were in the party.
That gave us a reason to reach out to women in all parts of the state. I mean,
, who could object to a study? ,In 1971, we mimeographed the report called 'Present
But Powerless.' For the, first time,men couldn't come and report to us on
how wonderful everything was. Women knew better.
"The next year, we pu t :on a traveling road show. Allover the state,
we set up luncheons; maybe even style shows if that was what would bring the
women out. Then we laid out the facts of women's powerlessness, taught fund-
raising, and delegate-selection processes, and even had a mock caucus so the
women would feel confident when they'got into the real thing.
"In 1971, we organized' the Minnesota Women's Political Caucus, and every-
body, Republicans too, agreed on certain bottom lines, whether it was representation
in the parties or abortion •. We also held the first fund-raiser to help send
women delegates to the 1972 Democratic Convention in Miami. It was there that
I realized that we were part of a national movement; that there were other
political feminists besides us.
,"When the state legislature opened in 1973, I was the chief lobbyist for
the ERA. I wasn't as identified then with being pro-choice on abortion--we
didn't want to mix issues. Two weeks before the ERA vote, the Supreme Court
ruled on abortion, and we muffled our joy so as not to endanger the ERA. We
pulled together fifty groups, and got the ERA ratified quickly.
"Right after the Supreme Court ruling, the antiabortion groups started
their efforts for a ,constitutional amendment. The legislature called hearings
and I went and watched all these nice liberal DFL legislators--people I had
helped elect--as they listened attentively to obscene, antiabortion testimony.
I was furiOUS, and gave ,press interviews in a full, flat-out rage. I threatened
to form a feminist, pro-choice. group within the Party •. When the articles came
out, there was a big flap. .Pecp.Le kept telling me, 'Koryne, you're losing the
credibility you've worked so hard for. You've got to stop.' For a While, I
COUldn't walk through the halls of the legislature without old friends stopping
me to say, 'How dar~ you criticize the DFL?'
.' "; ' j
"A few of us sat down and wrote the principles' fo):"the DFL FeminiSt
Caucus. We used the word 'feminist' upfront--none of this 'women's' crap.
,-..... There were fourteen principles--t-he ERA, the choice of abortion, chiJ,.dcare,
party reform, supporting feminists for posts i~ and outside the party--everything.
The fourteenth was the most controversial, though, because we pledged to support
as a caucus and as individuals, 'only those candidates who support these
.'principles. '
"Well, you should have heard the uproar! We were traitors to the DFL.
How could we not support anz DFL candidate against a Republican? But we kept
that fourteenth point. Why mess around supporting candidates who don't support
your issues? I'd had enough of that in my life. . .
"We decided men' could join, too; as lo~ they Pledged t.hemselves to
those fourteen points. We held coffee parties, we reached out to people
individually on the 'each one teach one' principle.
"I had thought we would be a cutting-edge group of fifty or so, but we
got more than a hundred charter members--even though Minnesota is a :powerful
base for the Right-to-Life Movement. Our, first activity as a group was to
identify feminists around the state who should be encouraged to run for office,
and then have fund-raisers so we could give each candidate some encouragement
even if it was only a few hundred dollars.
"We got an office and a typewriter, and divided the work areas into
'portfolios.' Pretty soon the male liberals in the DFL were having to come
to ~ for research or for a meeting place. It made them mad 80S hell. By
the time the next state party convention came around, the AFL-CIO guy had
to come to the Feminist Caucusfo.r support~ We called a meeting of the
Feminist Caucus, and the 'convention had to wait for US to come back because
they didn't have a majority. But the hight point was Hubert Humphr ey,
When he introduced his wife Muriel as a feminist, I knew we were winning!
"There WaS a lot of hard work--ano. bad times: When my daughtec was in
the third grade, the kids on, her school bus told her that her mother was a
murderer. She was adopted, and they told her abort~on meant she would never
have been born. Even a teacher Once told her she was 'oversexed' because
she knew too much about how' babies were born. And when my son wanted to speak
on the ERA for a class assignment, his teacher wouLdn 't let him. They get at
you through your kids--b:.J.t so ; fa'!', my k:i,ds ar-e stirong f'o; r what they think is
right. Now they're taking over housework so I can do more.
"Once a year, the Feminist Caucus w.)men go off togethe:r for a. weekend
retreat, and help each other to· sort out the vressures on our va~SOna4 ~ives,
and any te ns ions that may ex Ls t among us. ; r:t Is very 11,fe-gi y;, I still
lack confidence inside--I didn't go to college, I don't thin~ Iwrite very
v1'211,I w;)rry about. my family, Iworry about my weight--b\.l.tthe other women
give me support, and help me to knoil what's real and, what isn't. If r were
thin, I'd really be dange~ous!
"The Cau,ous has 'had a big impact on the DF;L. At the 1976 .P~moc:('atic
Convention, when Fritz Mond13.J.,e started, waffling on abor td on because he w anbed
to be Vice-President, :I just p0int.ed out how emba~rassing it wQuJ.,dbe if
forty percent of his own delegation didn't vote for him-~and he straightened
rig:1t up.
''v.'TIen Rudy Pe:rpich took. over as governor Las't'year~ he .$1:is.rteo. ~a.king
appointments--and almost two thirds of them have been women! He says there's
a long way to, go to make up for the past, .and besides, the women are better
"Not that it's easy. Last year, for instance, before Govern.or Anderson
resigned to take over Mondale's Senate seat, he decided the Feminist Caucus
had too much power, and tried to knock me out as National Co~tteewoman.
He put a Right-to-Life candadace up against me, and we f'oughb a two-day
statewide convention on. only that issue. But in the end, we nad the people
and the votes on our side, and we beat him, four to one.
I -.
"Feminists can.make real change tl.'lXough politics if we do good homework
on our opponents, learn the procedures, go after small ch~~es and build to big ones, and never give an inch on femini'st principles.
". ".
When I went to my first UN meeting, I could see where the votes were
right away. If you ,didn't have the African bloc, you couldn't move. But
I counted noses, and made friends with the delegate from Poland by speaking
Polish to him, and let the Iranian. woman. know she couldn't get the institute
she wanted without Western financial support, and tried, all the time to
explain that women have common problems across national l.ines.
"Organizing the state ox' the country isn't so different fro'm or-gam.zang
your neighborhood.. I c~'t b~lieve organizing the world is much different
, '
" :' t
" I
..... '
. :'
[ ,
. i
,; .' .,~, ..
. /
Ar.;C1 El'T R:u.ICIQ:-i OF THE GREA" - GOl)-
, DESS.By Srarhawk, Harper 8.:Row, 2iS
P,? . $6.95 paperback.
.f :l..HAWK'S long-awaited book
The :,piral Dance repre5ents the most
important and comprehensive account
so far of feminist Wicea (the revival of
witchcraft as a feminist religion 'of the
goddess). This work is both an account
of the " theology" of Wicca, its views of
humanity, the divine and nature, and
also a recipe book for starting one's own
coven, complete with accounts of creat-
ing sacred space,' magical symbols,
trances, jniriation, rituals and the Ies-.
rivals of the year cycle. Since covens are
limited to 1 3 members and since most of
them are already full, people interested
in joining '>Vicea may often need to start
their own group. This ispossible. accord-
ing co Starhawk - herself a founder of
two covens in the San Francisco Bay
area - because Wicca is an experimental
and self-starting religion. '
Wicca, as Starhawk and other practi-
tioners of the " craft" believe, is the mod-
ern emergencc of the world's original
religion - that of the ancient fertility
goddess and the hunter - which dates
b» : '0the Stone Age. This religion was
F- Iy obscured and amalgamated in,
to the polytheistic patriarchal religions
of the warriors who invaded India, the
Near East and the Mediterranean in the
second millennium B.C. The goddess re-
Iigion, even in this patriarchalized form,
was the object of constant hostility from'
the Yahwists who " Tote the Old Testa-
ment. Itsurvived in Europe, only to be
forced underground during, the great
persecutions of the late Middle Ages by
its greatest enemy, Christianity. Today,
with the presence of the feminist and
ecological movements, as well as the sur.
facing of the' native religions of -con-:
q uered tribal peoples, such as American
Indians, Wicca isbeing rediscovered. But
it is also transformed to meet new needs.
The 5tOry contained in this book con-
stitutes a powerful identity myth as
viewed over against the world's historic
Starhawk speaks of the divine as the
goddess, whose image might be described
as one of gynecentric androgyny. As the
immanent divinity of the cosmos, the
d ~ is seen as the maternal ground of
L This maternal womb, from which
all things spring, herself contains a dia-.
lectic of male and female elements. The
male dement, the hunter, the son-lover
of the mother, continually is born from
••r.G returns into her. Women and men,
:/' .:-I('~~" r';:A.j·,:·a~:v(~1C di"inc pair, Jis-
-,' "t', , ".'1'..•.rc v ;- '10.", ,,\:c ~" · >-" \.l.d ~l"·\\,,·\).•
s\" pprc:;s(!ci. in -them. I'IoLh men ••nd
women are enabled to develop holis-
tica;'ly,' rather t.:ha~ in one..sided " corn-
,plementarity" , as they combine the
psychic capacities of both rational linear
thinking and intuitive insight.
Starhawk firmly rejects the female-
dominant and separatist expressions of
feminist Wicca. Such tendencies are un-
derstandable in compensation for mil-
Icnnia of patriarchal repression of
women. But she believes that they Jack
the full " redemptive" vision of Wicca,
and in fact could be as wounding to men
,as patriarchal religion has. heento
women. Only a religion in which both
men and women recover the fullness of
their human potential and arc able to
relate to each other as equals satisfies her
-rnoral vision.
Starhawk also sees Wicca as an ecolog-
ical religion, capable of healing the rup·
tured relation of humanity to nature
which has been created by patriarchal
societies. The concept of huma~ity .as
, transcendent to nature is' a destructive
, illusion that must be overcome. VI'e must,
see all individual beings, including hu-
man beings, as vortices of energy that,
form and unfonn within the continuum
of the great matrix of being. This means
that everything is connected with every-
thing else. Whenever we concentrate our
energy - whether mental or physical-
in a concerted action, a wave of influence
is sent' out, much like the. rings from a
pebble thrown into a pond. This view
underlies the possibility of influencing '.
other beings through spells or magic.
However, this connectedness of every-'
thing to everything also dictates strict
ethical constraints. Wicca has its own'
version of the golden rule: any harm
that you wish upon another returns
threefold to you. ,One's craft has power
only to the extent that one adopts the
highest code of personal integrity. Magic
or spells, as she describes them, are not
primarily a way of imposing one's will
on others, but rather a technique of
transforming one's own consciousness.
Through personal and group rituals,
one purges oneself of depression, anger
and hatred and forms a right relation to
self, others and the universe.
Wicca also demands social action, not
just internal transformation. Picking up
the garbage and marching on the nuclear
power plant arc also ways of ;rectifying
destructive patterns of relationship and
restoring harmony to the world. In this
way Starhawk wishes to imbue Wicca
wlth'~n ethic of justice. D~ath is not evil
but a necessary pare of the lifc cycle by
,,'hi.:!) c.•.:h I;Cllcl'.lt'ion L,:conlc' '()H\\iO~l
;:eY\1 l'Y\~< ;o+- Hc~e•. \\e." " t
T+ :rc:....
Jj': u.c g.r~a~ ;.u~~ua'Al.
must accept ita place in the harmony.
Wicca, as Starhawk describes it, in-
'tends to be a serious alternative and,
'corrective to 'the defects of patriarchal
religions - one -which will perhaps not
so much replace them as amalgamate
with them to create a new synthesis (it is
perhaps significant that Starhawk, nee
Miriam Simos, comes from an Orthodox
Jewish background). It would be unfor-
tunate if Christians and Jews respond to
this movement only with cries of " pagan-
ism," " satanism" or " fascism." Satanisrn
and fascism may indeed arise in such a
movement; clements of feminist fascism
are probably inevitable in the separatist
groups. 'But antimale scapegoating is
contrary to Starhawk's vision. It would
be equally unfortunate if this movement
were simply patronized in circles of reli-
gious study and. publishing as a sensa-
tional " fad." -
Starhawk views feminist Wicca as a
'corrective to the faults of our inherited.
religions. It ought, therefore, to evoke
serious dialogue. It challenges Christian-
ity and Judaism in three important
areas: (1 ) holistic integration of male-
ness and femaleness in humanity and the
divine; (2) reintegration of humanity
and nature; (3) direct spiritual em-
powerment of the individual and " base
community" over against clerical and
hierarchical systems. Its major defect lies
primarily in its inability to give an ac-
count of evil or alienation.' It rejects
Jewish and Christian concepts of sin or
falleriness for a doctrine that " all that is
is good." That may be true of the turns
of the seasons and the stars moving in
their orbits. But it hardly accounts for
millennia of war, rape, genocide and
ecological destruction - all of which it
If Wicca proposes an ethic of restora-
tion of harmony with nature, then it
must also reckon with a serious disrup-
tion of this harmony (which is exactly
what sin and fallenness mean). Restora-
tion of harmony itself becomes an
, ethical struggle and historical task of
personal and world transformation to re-
create the world as God's Shalom. It is in
these areas that historical Judaism and
Christianity and feminist spirituality
need to encounter each other as mutual
correctives. If this encounter tales place,
perhaps patriarchal historical religion
and feminist nature religion can go be-
yond negation of each other to the new
synthesis which we all need.
"" ':.•. _, 'j
::Suggested Fraternal Group Pattetn
Week I: , .Review 'of . 1) ~piritual life: relationship with Lo~dJ ~ervice,
" 2) Family life: wife and, childrdn
,'(3) Practical life: schedule, finances" chores
'4 ) Job
Week..2: " Fellowship: recreation or work project .2.!. .
information discussion of issue~ .2.!.
Scripture Study
Week 3:,
Clu,ster lff,e meeting:
,. I
1) review of relationships
2) review of activities
,3) planning for activities" finances, work, etc.
Week 4 : Fellowship~~' like.Week 2
.J! •
~ii, "
Service mee,ting,:~ if group had a commonservice tike being
districf h¢ad~ '"
': .
. j: "
; ...
.' i "
, \
".;~ ,I
Basic Ground R.ule: s'e~:l.6l.1 ~l;usiness/sh~rin:g can supersede fellowship,
,if, necessary ,
1 )
; .r.:
, !
, ".
· 1
, "
; i" ,i
1:"· . i
:;:'~, : - ,. r., .
'; ; ",:.,' !:,
r~' r,::,

!; ,.1 ,
By Patricia Sexton
( l::> 'E o ~ ~ho I0~ '::\ ~ol.a..~ , '"';Ja._. \q- , ~
.Murders are usually cormnitted by quiet and gentle men, "nice guys."
Sirhan and Oswald, both reared under the maternal shadow, grew to be quiet,
controlled men and dutiful sonso Estranged from their fellows, fathers, and
normal male associations, they joined a rapidly growing breed--the "feminized
male"--whose normal male impulses are suppressed or misshapen by overexposure
to feminine norms. Other forms of violence that puzzle us--riots, rebellions,
revolts--are in large part expressions of suppressed manhood.
The active rebels, as well as the passive hippie protesters, are often
middle-class boys, feminized by schools, dominant mothers, and controls that
keep them in swaddling clothes. Their desire to get out is simply the natural
male impulse to cut maternal ties and become a man. The black revolt is a
quest by the black male for power, status and manhood. The black does not
want to be a "boy" any longer. I am a man is the slogan of his revolt. These
rebellions are alarms, alerting us to social forces that dangerously diminish
manhood and spread alienation and violence.
It is difficult for societies to deal with the male's aggressive quest for
manhood. Since ma les seem generally unwilling to settle for less without a
struggle, they tend to become social "misfits" much more often than women do.
Male suicides greatly outnumber female. About 70 per cent of successful
suicides are male. In mental institut'ons for children, boys outnumber girls
three to one. If boys are not more disturbed than girls, they are at least
more disturbing, and thus more likely to be hospitalized or otherwise sent
away for troubled behavior.
In one urban cormnunity, single men were found most likely to be mentally
ill, followed, in order, by married women, single women, and married men. The
single man is most likely to be an outsider--vagrant, alcoholic, criminal,
homosexual, rebe 1, luna tic.
Other forms of disturbed behavior are also far ~ore common among boys. Boy
delinquents outnumber girls about five to one. Gangs of boys are about 300
times as common as those of girls. Boys are a problem in the schools as well
as in the streets. A study of ten cities showed that three out of four students
regarded as problem cases by teachers were boys. Because boys are regarded as
"pr ob Lems ;!' teachers are more likely to fail them. More than two out of three
students who fail in one or more grades are boyso
Our prisons are overloaded with males. In 1960 only 3 per cent of the
felons in state prisons were w~men. Among males, young boys are most likely
to commit crime. Arrests reach a peak at age 16 and tend to decline thereafter.
More troubled by social roles and sex norms, modern men lead rougher lives
than women. ~~re is expected of them and their emotional outlets are more
limited. They must fight--not cry, tremble, scream or run. They must stay
cool, take care of themselves, keep their own counsel. They are under more
pressure and have fewer escape valves. Many males are stunted in normal mas-
culine growth and, rebelling against the conspiracy, become outsiders and mis-
fits. For rebel and conformist alike, the stress finally shows in the male's
shorter life span--67 years against the female's average of 74.
3- I--r~
Mew Iy Chara.cter
Baby Fat Floats. Many boys are misfits in school, as out of place as puppies
around the good china. Lately these apathetic and resistant scholars have
alarmed schoolmen by organizing protest movements and demanding school reform.
We are now forced to ask whether it is the boy or the school that is more mal-
adjusted, and how the dispute between the two can be mediated.
.~ .'
1 ,' .••• 1 ..
I began this inquiry with the hunch, based on·a life spent in classrooms,
that boys who rise to the top in school often resemble girls in many important
ways. It is the baby fat that usually floats and the muscle that sinks.
Scholastic honor and masculinity t.oooften seem incompatible.
We know quite a bit about how boys develop and grow; but at the same time,
we have thought very little about masculinity, or about the kind of males we
want boys to be. What does it mean to be masculine? It means, obviously,
holding male values and following male behavior norms. A boy who follows few:
male norms can confidently be termed less masculine than one who follows male
norms. It appears that male'norms stress values such as courage, inner
direc tion, certain forms of aggression, au tonomy, mas tery, technologlca 1
skills, group solidarity, adventure, and a considerable amount of toughness
in mind and body. Of course, a good deal of deviation from these norms is
clearly permitted by the male code. (My own father was a professional boxer
and athlete, and rather confidently masculine; yet he passed his leisure
doing delicate embroidery work and writing poetry.) It is dangerous to
attach labels. What is most important is that males be liberated, that
they be allowed to be boys and/or to do girlish things, as they choose.
The feminized male 'is not necessarily a sissy; some are, most are not,
though many lean in that direction. Nor is the 'feminized male a homosexual;
some are, most are no t, Sex habits may be one thing, and personality quite
another. We have simply not examined sexual behavior. While we find that
many boys and men seem to be acquiring an excess of feminine personality
traits, they are not necessarily acquiring a preference for men as sex part-
ners. Many men who have been feminized by the women who rear them remain
totally heterosexual in their sex lives.
Schoolmarms. In public elementary schools, 85 per cent of all teachers are
women. In all public schools, women are 68 per cent of the total. Men are
now a bare majority in secondary schools. Though they are run at the top by
men, schools are essentially feminine institutions. Women set the standards
for adult behavior, and many favor students who most conform to their own
behavior norIM--po1ite, clean, obedient, neat and nice. While there is no-
thing wrong with this COde for those who like it, it does not give boys (or
girls either) much room to flex their muscles--physica1 or intellectual.
The sc~ools mainly teach the words and number symbols of reading, writing,
arithmetic. One hardly' ever sees the things these symbols stand for. Deeds
and actions_are rarely the substance of school instruction, activity being
vieweq as disruptive of academic study.
School words' tend to be the words of women. They have. their own sound
and sme 11 , perfumed or antiseptic. Boys usually prefer tough and colorful
short words-'-while teachers and girls lean toward longer, more floral,
opaque synonyms. School words are clean, refined, idea lized and as remote
from physical things as the typical schoolmarm from the tough realities of
ordinary life.
Active word usage, as in speaking, is usually discouraged in school;
students are expected to speak only when addressed. Even boys who refuse
to read or write usually like to talk, but on their own terms. It is the.
school's most troublesome job to keep boys quiet and in 'their seats.
Some science is taught in schools, but usually as words detached from
things, from doing and .dLscove r, Thus, the magic and adventure of science
are mis~ing.' IIManyboys (a'ndi.g~rls) Iwith a hat~rai'int'E~rest in what lies
at the heart:!l!8f physLcal, -r eaLLty arEl by+passed ,
: I 1 I:
Feminized Fai'Lures. The feminized ~chool· simply bores many boys; but it
pulls some :tn' one of two opposite d:hectl.on~ •. If the boy absorbs school
values, he clay become feminized himSeif., It he resists, he is pushed toward
schdol failure and r'ebeLl.fon, IncrJasinglyl, boys are drawn to female norms.
The attraction is the rainbow that 1 ies at the end--graduation with honor,
the school diploma, the college degree. : As' long as employers regard diplo-
mas' 'as ilii'bal:Jge of merit," boys will be pulled ever deeper into a system
tha~ rewards confotmity to feminine 'standards.
Of cour s'e, school' achLevemene is not identical with life achievement,
though' the'two are very c'losely related. Many exceptional boys, of course,
can break all 'school rulesa~d still rise to the top in life. Nor are those
who head the'most powerful' orgah~zations usually the most feminized males.
More often they are those: 'whb have managed to escape the feminizing influence
of school and society. ; ,i '
. ;
Urbantown.' My initial Lnt.erus t in boys as misfits and feminized males led
to a '~arge; ~eseklrc~ effdrt~ a~med -a t findingl o~t what actually happens to
boys i.n sehoo l , I 'wanced to explore! three thLngs; how well boys perform
in school compared to girls; the :rebtionship between masculinity and school
performance; and the charact'ristlics of honor students and of school fail-
ures. UrSantown was picU~a for this study because it contains a typical
urban population and becauke
its 'schoo I system was accessible and of manage-
able: size. Urbantown (mo~tpeople sleep there but work elsewhere) is not
exactly a suburb. It is n~xt door to a big city, where most of the residents
of Urbant:9wn work;, but Unbantown has' its ownbusiness and light industry, its
own downtown', I'and .its" own
urban identity.
Urbant~wn" l~asi7 pu~i~9 ~ch?ols ,that~ asLde from conflict over racial
segr egatLori, rave reputations for being good ones, well financed, ready to
innovate '. ~elai:ively'. ~nd c0n.ipe~~n'tly administered.
During the course of this research 'we examined the records of scholastic
performance arid oehci" lor deviance of' Urbantown IS 1 2,000 students along with
the'reco~ds;r'~ehaviorf)andt£le~~onses bf the ~eahy 1 ,000 boys and girls in the
ninth grade. 'J S tudent s responded in Lntarv Iews' and on questionnaires to in-
quiries ~b61 '1 t behav i.or , attitudes' and vaIues, Teachers, coaches, counselors
and administrators were inter~iew~d abbut student behavior and the effect on
boys' of Hte
k~hocil program. ! I, I'
" ; ,~" 't' :~'- l . t: '; : : t ~ II ~.! J
Two Boys~ " :Aii1 dhg'nl~tl1 ~grader~ tn' Ur bant.own'ar~ two boys with distinguished
scho Ias tLii'rr ecor ds, ;:They'ihave the highest academic averages and a reputation
for being:'ihe:.' schoo Ll s 'top'scholars. ' ;
,9n~'· boY',!fI.~s· :alH1 ;ter five years old, theiother' is the youngest in a
family of Six~' IBo~,l~~om~r fr~m. mar gi.naL middle-class families--one theatrical,
the other' cLe.ri.daL; ; ' '. One 1 s marketlly1 1 effeminatein speech and gesture; the
other gives the· ~ftrong:i..mpressio~1 of being more femi.nfne than effeminate.
r . 1 ' . 1 t t I \ 1 ~ f
One is an' aggr essLve talker, 'the other rather shy and reserved. One always
, '.' t . \ \. 1 " ! 1 ,
wears a tie and' jacket 'to:'~c~ool, though most boys' wear sports shirts and
sweater s, I " '. '.1 ,1 , :, I· '.:.
One' i's quite short :f~rlhfs age, but of average weight and build. The
other is' of average height, but overweight, with large hips and small shoul-
ders. Both have very Lowscores in physical fitness.
Both were interviewed and responded to questionnaires inquiring about
behaVior, attitudes and values. In sports, one boy likes two things, boxing
1 .;••. ..IJ l
' .
, i
and karate, NOT AT ALL. fie likes football, baske,ti~al)., track and field, pool
ONLY A LITTLE. He likes ten;,·.:3, volleyball, bowling, going to parties, going
to plays, and listening' to '-'dcal music VERY WELL. Other activites he
likes VERY MUCH are "skatiu ,certs, visiting my grandmother, listening
to popular (not rock In' r(, .sLc , I love theater musicals." .
The other boy does NO,'., like baseball, football, basketball, volley-
ball, skiing, tra~k and f laying pool, boxing, judo and karate. He
likes to bowl, play ping-polio. GO to plays, and listen to classical music.
He does not like to go to parties.
Both are NOT AT ALL interested in machines or building and fixing things.
One is A LITTLE, the other NOT AT ALL, interested in electronics; and one
A LITTLE and the other MUCH interested in outer space.
One admires the varsity athlete SOME, the other MUCH. One admires the
honor student MUCH, the other VERY MUCH. Both admire VERY MUCH the "student
who is well liked by teachers and never causes trouble." One admires SOME
the student who is popular and dates a lot, the other NOT AT ALL. Both admire
NOT AT ALL the student who "always does what he wants and doesn't listen to
adults." Both are likely to go to their mothers for advice when they need
Both spend a great deal of time on homework, devoting much time to work
not even assigned by teachers. Both want VERY MUCH to be polite to teachers
and to have teachers like them. One boy spends no time on sports or on enter-
tainment (aside from TV), the other very little time.
Both boys score al~ost perfect on all the Differential Aptitude Tests.
Both score extremely low on mechanical reasoning and on space relations--
tests in which boys commonly excel.
Neither has even b~en tardy to school.
One writes a per'fec tLy formed Palmer hand, the other a hand that is
distinctly feminine.
Both answer TRUE to the statement: "Sometimes I feel that I am about to
go to pieces," and FALSiE to: "At times I feel like picking a fist fight with
someone" and "I like mechanics magazines."
Both have extremely low m~asculinity scores--among the lowest in the ninth
The coach reported 'to one boy's
wanted the boy to leari wrestling.
might be too roughed u~~
Masculinity and Grades. Definirtg masculinity is Jot easy. The genera 1 neglect
of this sensitive topic' did not make it ea sLer , ] found only a very skimpy
body of knowledge to stand on. In the end I decided to use one measure that
provides its own definition of manliness--i.e., that which is most typical of
the responses of males. After reviewing all psychological measures, I found
most useful a masculinity scale from the California Psychological r.nventoryo
The scale chosen includes a variety of statements to wh i.chboys respond
very differently from girls. The statements are uiaLu Ly about feelings toward
aggression, propriety, vocation, interests. Students were assigned scores
depending on whether their response to each statement was that commonly given
by males or by Eema Les ;' These "mental masculinity" scores were then compared
with other student characteristics.
I also obtained information through questionnaires and interviews about
boylike boylike behavior, interests, values, attitudes. To illustrate the
relation between scholastic honors and these other qualitiestboys were divided
, ' (
mother that hd was too ~ubmissive. He
His mother woJld not permit it because he
t.; i
I I, .
" ~ ,;.
Sexton, page five
into three groups: high-achievers (A and B academic averages), middle-achievers
(C averages), and Low-ach Lever s (D and F averages).
Comparing masculinity scores with school marks in Urbantown, I found that
the more masculine the boy, the lower his report-card average tended to be.
Differences among the ,three groups of boys on this masculinity measure were
statistically signific~nt.
The less-masculine boys had better marks in most school subjects. Only i~
physical education and science did boys with middle-masculinity scores tend to
get the best marks. Low-achieving boys got their highest marks in shop and
physical education, the two subjects requiring physical rather than verbal
English was the subject in which the greatest disparity was found in the
performance of the most masculine boys and the least masculine ones. Rela-
tively speaking, it is the subject in which the most masculine boys have most
trouble. In English more than half of the most masculine boys got D's or F's.
Half as many of the least masculine boys got such marks.
While almost one in three of the least masculine boys got an A in English,
~ of the most masculine got A's. In social studies, again the picture was
very different--22 per cent of the most masculine boys got A's in social
studies, compared with 31 per cent of the least masculine. In math, 7 per
cent of the mos t and 24 per cent of the least masculine boys got A's. In
science the difference was not so great -- 9 per cent of the most, and 13
per cent of the least ~~sculine got A's.
More than half of the most masculine boys were failing, or close to it,
in almost all academic subjects. In social studies only about a third were
Ninth-grade girls were more likely than boys to be on the honor roll. Of
the 265 students with A and B averages, 57 per cent were gir Is. At the same
time, the top five students were all boys. Boys were more likely to be at the
bottom of the academic heap. Of the 277 students with D or F averages, 60 per
cent were boys.
Of the highest-achieving 35 boys in Urbantown, all but three write a script
that slants backward slightly, rather than forward or up and down. Four write
back-hand print-script. Many add flourishes to their writing, a circle dot
on the "i" for example. Aside from the top achievers, boys are generally
much less likely than girls to write backhand. The writing of boys tends to
be more functional than girls--looser, 1ess~ornamented, not so neat. Achieve-
ment in the school is:measured to a large ex tent; by handwri1ting--its neatness
and style--yet in the: SOCiety at large it has litLle or no ;value.
Body Build. We looked for physical differences among boys as clues to mascu-
linity and success in school. Of all purel~ phYSical featu~es including body
build, height, weight, size, physical fitne~s, health-~the high achievers are
clearly different from low achievers only in body! build. They also tend, but
not to a significant degree, to be healthier, but less strong, athletic and
muscular, and more frequently to wear glasses.
Students were asked how much they like to play various sports. Among boys
w i th varying academic: averages, no Significant differences were found in over-all
pref~rence for baseball, football, ping-pong, volleyball, track and field, bowl-
ing, skiing and golf. All boys like about equally well to play these games.
Significant differences among groups were found in three activities: boxing,
pool and swimming. Box Lng is most popular with low-achieving, masculine boys.
Sexton, page six
Playing pool is also favored significantly more by low achievers and is dis-
liked by high achievers almost as much as by girls. Low ~chievers probably·
like the semi-illicit game of pool because it gives males~a chance to hang out
together. As for swimming, high achievers tend to be mn~~ neutral 'about it
than low achievers. In gene .rl , it is very popular with t.,bothboys and girls.
Boy Culture. Fish like to swim and boys like to play games. Their craving
for games seems insatiable. They exert themselves without fatigue, exhaust;
themselves without complaint. The boy and young man are so intent on playing
games that the school must devote itself to getting them to do what it regards
as work. So antithetic are work and play, and so separated (one for the class
and the other for the playground or gym) that a child who smiles, laughs,
talks, or moves about is assumed to be playing and neglecting his work.
A child's natural curiosity is so great that it hardly needs stimulation
at school. Rather, it needs acceptance and direction. Instead it usually
meets repression and sticky rules that dampen curiosity and take most of the
fun out of learning. Boys make astonishing efforts at what interests them.
Usually they have trouble sitting still in class--but they sit for hours vol-
untarily to watch TV, play cards, or work on hobbies. If interested, they
will learn eagerly, voluntarily, and without gold stars as incentives.
Clearly we must know more about what interests and motivates boys and
about how children learn what they want to learn. In particular we need to
understand the nature of games and sports so that we may apply their principles
(intense group interaction, activity, purpose, clear goals, group competition,
problem solving, etc.) to other types of learning. The uses of stimulation in
learning (enactment of real situations) and games in military and industrial
training might give us some useful leads. Women teachers know almost nothing
about boy games, and most couldn't care less. For many sch90lmarms, sports
are the devil that tries to lure the boy away from his work.
"Boy culture" is not, we can safely conclude from our findings, identical
with school culture. The latter resembles "high culture" and female culture;
the former has a distinct identity. Boy culture values machinery and tech-
nology. Schools do not.
Boys respond to adults differentl.y from girls. These differences are
critical. We found that high achievers in Urban town try significantly harder
to be polite to teachers and to make teachers like them, which may explain why
they do so well on teacher evaluations and report-cards. Thirty-one per cent
of the most masculine and 68 per cent of the least masculine try very hard to
be polite to teacher~. :
Such response can be interpreted in different ways. Teachers might con-
clude that low achievers are disrespectful of adults. Some boys might con-
clude that honor students are apple polishers. Low-achieving boys have an '
honor code, too--a very strong one. Adults understand ve ry: little about this
code and certainly do not reward it in the school. An important feature of'
the code seems to be a group compact that forbids apple polishing or buttering
up people you don't really like. It is the small-group equivalent of treason.
One does not consort or curry favor with suspected enemies, especially emas-
culating adult authorities. .
Teachers like eager participants, those who speak up in class and give the
right answers. Eager students usually are aware that a good way to impress
teachers is to enter class discussions. High achievers are much more likely
to take part without being called on.
i i I
1 :!.
, !
Self~image :greatly, affe,cts :academi.c per formance , , .Student s' vi~ws of
their own mental, capaof.t Lesccan :q e, either cr i.ppl.Lng or" encouraging, to them.
The major ,.lesson many learn~Jin" schoo.1 is that they ,ar~ ,smart, o;r dumb (or
gradings .Ln between), " depending, on, marks gLven them ,py, teachers. ~hose'who
, are eager come :away think;,t~eymus1 ; be very )!3mart< Aft;:err all, .they get
good marks and 'are assured that this is a sign of brightness. ,In fact, good
,marks seem quite unr eLated t;:qi.:rea1 LnteLl.Lgenceio ri ab LlLt y , Students are
convinced that, the schoql;knows, how smar t or dumb' they::are <, They are given
regular proot. in: the,Jq:q~j of. report ca rds, Such damagLng-o-and, Eraudu Lent-o-
" ev Ldence" gel1 erate,s.~mu~h:;;:i1 itY among" ,bpys toward school and
other autho,ri~ies.:: ': .. :', '.:~'i:.\ , .. ,'1. "
L,I (,,
. . ,.,~, \" .'" 'I.•. ,:.. .~ , ',:.. \.~ ; ·H' ..•. !. .
To Be a ~n., Above· ~l(;~ls.~,'::b'0ys',lear~ tp be." s,t;t.png ~I).d independent--
to be men.', A man aut onomous, . make up his own mind, 'follow his own
direction, w:i.tho~t'~ngl 'C;lU' othe:rs,.\~oo much ~,r~s!,dIlg for 1 ;00 much hel.p, '
This is a.: codeit.hat.: is w,el,~ known to maLea, but, n~s ,l=P, f,~Tlli:ll!=sor ,feminizeq
men. ""'~ '"0' • ,J :/':. l,t ~(\,.'. '., ,'1)1.'" "() \,' :1.; ' .•
This drive,£pr.:indep,endencE!Jl perhaps exaggerated: iI\i:f\nglo culture, keeps
many men ;from,a,s);< .ing dir,ecti,Q;I\s;,;when .theyre Los t-.: It keeps-rnany men from
going to -doc tors •..e spec LaLl.y p.sychLatirLst s, when chey-a re sLck or unable to
cope with tr oubl.e, J:t" keeps many rna Les, grown, to manhood j , ~rp,mz eturnLng to
class for Li.ter acy tra-i.!l:L.n,&(sitting in a c Lass, they~eel, ,is what chLl.dr en
do). . '. ....;1 : : ,', . , '. ' :)~,' ,',.: J.
The starknes:s~,o.f" ,t[l~" rra~~· f'91 e is t~mpered by g~ouR:comaraderi.e. )'als
and buddies depend yon'; each',pther~nd: h'~lp each ..o,ther,' o,llt~. ,: ;" ,- :,:~ ,,'; .' " '
We have seen.'itha,t~relfltions, betwe en many boys and aduLt s.. inschool are ~
not exactly LntLmate,, y~t: the;,bpys', .rela tLonsw f th peers seem strong ; these
boys spend much of t1 w;ir: l,· time, with f r Lends" rp.,ther, thari atc: home" w;~h
adults. OUJ;9id.e So1 1 00:1 , t.heyva r evmor-e .l.Lkely tran others to work and thereby
to achieve some -f LnancLgL .Lndependence., .', ,!,\. »u. : ...1 I, ,! , ',,'
Also, they a,:t'~,sigl1 :i.~ic.?ntly -Ies.s 1 ikely 1 =0:, turn, to,! par ent s or' others,
at home for help ,when.:.t.iJ.eYi.J:1 .a.v!=.:.plrobletn;3o.l;. Lmportanc decLsLons to' make•. In
Urbantown" .,1 3 per cent- of high, 23 per cent of midd Le, and 30 per cent of low
achLever svsai.d they c;l..:kQ,;NOT! ~~rn." to parents for: help,.' High' achieyers also
spend more tLme, with pare:nJ:,~,; .i. ,two out of three, high an~ 0Ite, out of. three low
achievers spend 1 1 1 ore)::; .. ~ith p'ar~nts" th,~,n'vith, otp.ers, i1 1 :,their family ~ ,
The highest-a,c;:hieY< =,:!.M ,b9.y.s,in: Ur1 ?a,~t.owntgp.~L,t'?, b~J the. bab Les .Ln the
family--ei ther lb,~cause. :t;l;ley::, ar e the younges t,:,QIL+ychi_Mre,~, or unusua lly
small for tl;leir: age. " Presumably, as a result, they get a good deal of atten-
tion from theLr, rnother e, and,ar,(j!,,ptpbably favorec;I by. them, J;1 a,ny, being YO,ungest
siblings, do .not. :acqy,:i.r:~Jb,e~trength,: aqd,8utho.Fi ty of the e~gest\child. Most
come from small, f,a.m:i.~ie.s"~~.e" r~.. t,~e,r'e,,9:r~ :no more than" two childre-n, and many
have only sisters, ~9\ ~o~,.:, .' " , ..',,: " I ': ',' , '
Of the 35. boys ,i~ .U,rba?:t.o· w?wp,o are, A or fo \+~1 3tudents, ~9 are the younge st;
1 1 , the el.dest ; , ,~,l1 :7,~,rS:;vee,~;,:~nd,,,t~0< ;l.r,~ ..~,~ly, c~;i.ldr,e,~." .
r • I. I .•\~,.!! ~I 1. ~'.\" " ~ i:-, \.., . ,~ t', .~, ,'1 -:: \~. ~ 'I, .; ",'.'
Cool Fighter .,.', w~hatbpysr~.g< ;trd ,,~s.,n~~~ess,~~y:to ~.~?u1 in,ity is the
wil1 ingness.t,o~i,gl1 t, .on,oeca'sion. A boy can be big, strong or athletic, but
if he always .shr LnksJ r~w ,a: fight, h:is. ,reputat;Jop as a, boy; suf fer s, .. He ,
apparently.doesn.',t,.hav~'lJ:;q. :p,e,v~1 :Y,..8.o.od. a:t figl1 ting ,th6ug~;it ~elrs" but .he
must have.._th,~, g\lJ:::~,;Jto.:.R.xFc~P.l~v.h~.ThJ1 ..e,.~,a.s t9;~.,1 B?y';>, ,.sE!e~;~?:(th~n~, tha,t. t.~.e\'itruly
mas,culin~nb..oy»:~qh51 l-\~eJ\~l~~~r:9F.ihJC{9,~.1 , not always showing off or testing his
., .
. tI" ~ .. t" ,, [I, ,',i "; /'::' . Ii' \ fl. . desi bl d
If we acknowledge th" -t_g._~dertain amount 0 aggr.e.s.BLOn LS esi.ra e an
a major resource 'from which " modern society'was created ,then t.hejp rob Lem is
notona of suppr e', but of tu cnLng it, to .good usefl. Aggres-
'. sion in'{QJves:a drLve ' to masteryover. one se 1 £, . othe r's, or · theenvironm~nt.
,We can .use it:to, -f i.ght' w ar s .or build cities'. ' We, hope to .choo's e the latter •
Aggres s.Lon can. ted vth rough twouna jor.cout Iets-o-do Lng and v taLkLng,
,Girls us.uaLl.y t.ucn... to .rverba L forms, as do many boys~,;" Words .ar e pow er.fu L
Iweapons;. .bu t, 6hey. arEi. not subs t.Lcute si.flor real too 1 8, Lor for act Loris , In
.academi c life, .wor dszrr e enshrined to the po Lntv.t hat .marry . fee'lall war s are
: settled ~and· all. de.edscacc ompLLshed through a.r.gume'nt arid ,
Verbal ':~ggrcssion:ds also !far from. beLrigcas safe:and1 c.ivuli:LzQd as .teache r s
.and . mo.ther.stscem .to think. Mean, angry and abrasive words can stir up a lot
of trouble. The verbally aggressive can produce their own cultural barbarism--
;and do.:::?.omehow Ithe.y lassume tha-s, while, a· physi6alhh)W.?suncivi~ized,
.assau l ttng pe opLe with :;verbaJ;,b,lows is perfectly f.:Lne~ ..J '.' :', ':
• I'
'~AnUnmanly P'Lacev , In the)or;ganization,s,chemeL'ofGthings,and,the 'system of
bosses and underlings, black are not the only ones who have been treated as· hey ane si:nip~y· thel,.wqr~t .v'.:,.::Scud:el1 ts.ratei i:i Lsc. :8f\SY ,targets.
· Many .schoc Ls an< i.acad'emiC:S:ia'H!, dehumanizing andrunmarrl.y. places.' Boys who
,succeed i;n.them.oft,yn.:d.olS,? sLy v LoLatrtng imany rccde s 6£ honor and the
· norms, .. of. boy. cu l.t ur e.•· \.,.::.~," . .r,...• r:' I.· .:~:" '.',' 1/' .:,. ~,".: ~ ',0.,,;, \ ··,).n.:'~ ; I,:" . i:
:Mother' s Revenge. Having excelled in the schools, girls then confront some
of life' s.:.l:ealit;ies •. :'''In ,th;i.s,.s.dcie,tyand, Il)OS't~;Ottlersi~ the. ,s'oalrkjr€)ality .Ls
,thatmelhhold;the;ilj:ob$i,::;:almo,s.t all .the,·'J~anq.,roost of the privilege
and status that'.· 1 I3 lt~ .Ls. indee< } a/,ld.•:fi· : ,;~'" I
Many.'women; go ':a~ theLr.hl.Lmi,t-ed and .ardu:ous< .ta'sks. with .iar.verrge.ance , " Denied
,the power: to:give ordar s .onsche Job, womenrhave.vdoveLdped- c;~mpen!Clat:i;ngmuscle
_in the home varid schoo.L; 'There'.a womanlhaslsome:powei;!'o'l:er.chi.1 dren.' A '. special
'targe.t has been the ma Les 'irid~er.\.family, those who can do what she. feels she
can't .•.:..Sons,' easy ,0.1 ;>jects.o£ · ;hell.ccrea tive :.limpulse am}, ge.sireto:,shape human
·des tinies .andIevent s., :'8,r e0.£ ten::victims of the" .fema.Le ~:s(i'riepr essed. antagonism
.and LegLt i.mate.. >cif:U)Cl J :e: privileges. .Her' Lfi,er1 el d.omination: of home
and, s.chooLhas .t,e~ded,'to;· feminize. the.unen she" br,Ji.rig>s up~ ~,Although ;:theexc 1 u-
" ~ion of women: fr:om~'''mcm' s .w ork" has protec~ed< :cG!it;:J3.:ini:rfk.\leprivUeges, it has
,.8. Lso .l.ef.t .some; und'ntended ':,u1 arks, on, men•. ' ':/ill! \):.:: I', f:l :[ ,.; 1 : I.: i..· r ,: .
. ~ I '
The .exc.LusLcn rof w omenof.r om a~ll;the. pLace's whare J:importanti,decisions are
.made ha s.Icended " to i dehumand ae: and ste,rilize; .mosti~o£J'.d~r ;so< ;:ia-l' Lnstkt uti.ons
and.ser Lously .deg;rade .t.he: ,.qua,];:i,ty..of. our lives •.1 .:,:. > ".i) .• .:,I(; .t ' ","
I: .: ,What we" .mu· sLdo cis mascu l.LnLz'e'the jschoo,b;;'dan:d' f emi.nLae'r.the power. structure
.of the .soc i;ety-r-ba.Iancdng.rout; .the sexe,'ltheY'~dqnI,t ccr.rodercany ,one, spot
.where: they ..concentxane; A;.mcw,balance- wcu Id. also ,lfam:Uiariiel:~vomE!n w.ith,the
l.rea I wor Id.c. I.They.cannot- tieach c.the Lr «sons and students ~uch about it when,
they t.hemse.Lves.vl.Lve' in· ,to,tlall!ig.n.0rance ofl'itJ . I, ; ,' q l :.! (I.'" t:·, ',J<
:.. .The nome" is< woma1 1 's ,pr,ivated,ornaiin;.Quc ,'it, ,ii':rn0'f:1 ,; If.a:LWi:iYs big enough for
her. There, in lieu of genuine self-realization she may turn her full effort
,;to th¢· i~~~lgeti< ;:~,;;..:domi!t:1 .atiQ.n, Land. eV~I1 ).,~sed.uct,i0n,.'o£.heL" .,::sons,.:.. ~ince· few
':women. cani.sus.t ai'nj s.uch excravaganc.ii.nt.imac.y, '.many.a,lte:r;ma:t:e (bet\~6jen, Love rand
.hos tLl.Lty.j» gLv.Lng.i-theranx Lous;;..nhe i.r cs.ons' tha t.vniothe r may be more
ant Lc.c.than p.r,Q.tec.toiw "i'fl. ::,:I)C ,; 1\ ~:i,':.; ' ''';0; ,-" .!:JI}::' ;.!: :"'; :"I~"" ; " :.1
.;, Wh.i.,le):the J;qns.tQ1 f;~'CJ:t;mq\th~~s may; do,.veJty,~wel;1 :" itn~scil;b:b.l:~~t4 e..y: are often
I' ,,; ..•.• ; '.•.•.,-. , I.b,~,·,.,!,..•• t,.' ,\' ui ,q; 1 v .,u tt Q'U; ',.,) CC'O:L, :.() t ,1lwny s sh,')\1./1r.lf () ~f 0;' It,.,; ; L L"I' h:i.
~ ~ .•... ..,.. 'I'-,/i, .. '," I J; '..... . • "~ u .
'ii' •.:i J < ; l. ., ::."ttl. ty ..
Sext.on, ); lnge il.; J lt> I I
>',; , : .: ••••,r ••• '("; ,; .; ," .:', L,~_ .:.J I.:t : :!' ' l._~~~"1 \
retarded::.:i.n no.rraaLr ma scu growth andva re.z.i,n confLi.c t with themselves or
others. ~They'swe!l1 : .che ranks •.of the .a Li.ena ted , the: withdrawn, or rejected, the
fearful~~.~,t,he! add,icted,,;the; femi.nized., I.:\:.t:\", :, r ,",,', , "
Many-women'actively dLs< and resent males. :They take~ the Lr.vr evenge
where they can, .Ln the home and' .the schoo l., on the, young' ma1 es they contr oL,
,They both ,patnperr .them them'. .. .'i ",'J )' .:, :Il, .:'. I'!
, Mama Ls' only, haLf the problem. The othe r l half i is Papa • I -Papa ' s absence
from home.;: his Lon of au· th,ority. to ;Mama, hf,s. weakness!" brutality, or
.fa Ll.ure -to r eLate vto his Bon) cain' a IsorLead ,to " feminization. Because .so many
Eat hern- .•. itm0ngthe: r Lch, as-among thcl,poor,;,,-are deficient in 'one way or;,
anothe r'j- fa ther. .subs t.Ltut es at~:'ineeded, Ln.othe» schooLs I' tw.: give. boys, a .strong
taste of;what;" itls< :'~ri< ke, to be.r ans ade qua.te ,;;tdhlllt'.~IT.n;le~,,'.':,'1 ,: ;, ,I ,,:
The skepti~,.'i na tu:tally asks';', ,!'If :wbmen il1 fl'lctcthe'· schools, 'wha t;happens if
they Lnvade' other 'ills'titutiol1 .s--will they inot and feminize them too?
Wouldn't it be better simply to reduce their influence throughout the society?"
, . c.. My bW~ .'itns.wex iSl" une'quivocal:-;.:JWomen:would. no ti. infect, -t hese ins titutions, '
they, would ~improve~them~ - .Women in(lcot'l.trol:lp'OsIi:S,~wou'l< llincrease the· ir,respon-
sLve-ness+cocjiuroan need.,': ,;~" ,.. j:.~", V; ,C " ;'1 1 : 1 '~L~lcl..'I1:' ,';r (,,':-
. :.. ,What'. guarantees .have. we, that'~vomen,wil:l not lie.minize:, the LnstLtu ti.ons
they, enter?::.We have.inone.j cno, more. than/we have.. guaranteee. £or blacks as they
come. into )'P~we-r~::\.J>]omenwill not be sent back to the hearth, nor blacks to
the plantation, and.abooming economy must consume all available talent.
"\ _ _._ _ .~~I:~_ >~_ ..... I! 4V~.'l(I.' .> ...•. : ~::~ LLl i:.1 \ :ici ..)c ~:'-",: '-,i< l., L:'(~, .\:. 1 :(" \
Bungled Job. •.,,! Wha,t" should: we, teach.' in .the sahool?;,;Al1 o'ther.ieduca tiona 1
ques tLoris' hl.ilge;\,on:>the;:l.nswer .t; othis) one" " " 'ine,lud;Lng1 howlJand,>how .Lorig;: what
kind, oItbu L'Id.Lng's; 'l fa:ci< lit'ies ,etc'. it should be, \:aught" in, and who sould do
the teaching.': 1 would! ..suggesttt.ha t people i'll, theslschoo Ls-c-ct.he professionals,
the admf.nLstra tor sj,' the, tea cher sjoa nd the. scholarst" .,.aa:e,,~, icompetent to
decicje what .boys should study. They have •the job, .. but,they;,:havebungled.,it.
'I'he.i.f.Lr st consu Lcant. to.: b'rLngr.Ln is, the. Lea r'ner h.i.mseLf since he' is the
one' whomus t buy, :,the, produc to .The. boy can figure, in 't~e(: decisions: .Ln severa 1
ways •. The.t ex pe . give him more, options. about what and how. to'. learn. As
it is, the ...student,~has,little" choi:ce.; He" doesn't, eveJil,,'have,the,qp;tions he has
on, the' .job+ + t he, right to quit,'to choose alT(ong;lemp:+0Yl< F,rs, .towork at
pl.eases him.:, Giv.en:th.e' totaI' -compuLsLonjo f.vtha-achoo Ls!l,ipJ perhaps remark-
ab.Le tha.ttQo.rel),oys;,do ,not.Cl.break::out.· ., . . , ,
Who eLse.vs hou Ld: d, w hat iSl. to" .pe,):ta~ght7ilol As many; :P!'!ople, ,a:l?po.ssLbLe,
par tLcu.La.r.Lyu.father.s. 'and..rnaLes, .. rea 1 'mer::.from):aJ.l )walJ~.s' of:lli'fe; who know .the
real worlcl.:
;' "'",i' .i.(; '; '., '1 ,..\'111.:.1 c.. ,'I, '.
'Manly., .Lear . calls fo r imasuer y-o-of.i'se.Lf . and! r
.,,: Ienvir(Ynment-,-and, for the
expr essLon, of ou:tgoing and.cas se'rt i.vei.d.mpuLses oj Lt.. w i.Ll, beoac tLver-a the r. than
passive.,. ,wil1 ,ge,ner.ate. self...,.c.ontrol;l wi.ll demand.. initiative:, and much independ-
ent workuins dp'e.rvLs.ed,by aduIlt sva.nd will give ~s;:tiudel,ts, adu Ltvre spons Lbd.Id.tLes
and rew,a.rds~w,heneve.rp,ossible." .::It w:Lllstopl the c:ltinuous test-and-evaluation
routine lthat is sec huhii.Lfa tLng and ..ernascu LatLngs. ""lJ , it w,i1 :l-r-most, importantly--,':itse).f.lto', s.tdrnuLat i.ngig'r oup. Hfe and group scudy to; develop a, cooperative
communLby+andva vehicle, fotself" 'he;lp.'anGL mutun Lva Ld vamong peers'. ' .
, " Psychologists' values' have' found that male va Iue s are, morec.theor etLcaL,
economi.c, ~n" d.-po.lit:Lcal.,.;-.while female. va lues ar.e i.more.: esthet-Lc .aoc La; alnd re ligious.
T.his ' sugge.s.r s.jtha t.hoys. will be interes ted in both theoretica 1 and practical things,
in rMkihg money.landJlB,oh:L:e:vi:ngt!p.0w:er..::1These: liylt.eJ;" estS!,incorpor,ated into
the schooLalongwitlhi,esthetic and social values." .'
• !I" ~ ,~
:; ,! I '.' I' I,' Ii: .; \ " 1 \, . ~ . J
f " '
Schools are so thorolgh'~:r feminine that even\:the· " ~usic suits girls better.
Songs, 'for exa'nipl'e,'teticl' to 'appeal to 'theLr t8.,ste:1 ?and iusua Ll.y too high-
pitched for boy :'v'oic~s ~'Mos:t forrhs of ':s'elf':expressio~ in' schcol.s ~r.~.~imi1 arly
suited no girls.:, ':1" ~I"I\.,I " ..' .' .
It 1 s 'a grirtl'i)ut" 'c'ommon ettor'to assume that boysido " not like to read. My
impression is' t:hat most · b6Ys,. " ,teft :a1 6ne witlfl'irit~re'~ting books and ~gazines,
love to' 'r ead , ,l':But \'they' tisuaiiy " ta'!.< e,little pLeasur e in assLgned text reading.
ReadLng books b'\3Icoril'e:s s6'Jas'sp~'Iat'ed wit'h texts' ~l?-dhomework. that boys are often
ashamed to 'be se'eri~'ca:rr'Yl:ng 'a'book and' .are even reluctant to admit they like
reading'. 1:':,) _ l~ ,". ""', "~ ,'." .', t ! ' . ~ d... 1 '
~ ;"~'.i~\.::' ~> ''::1<: :.41\'1: d\'.!',I: .. r.. .,,).'1.""',.1:-,' (~
Expendab,le.BoYs. ;!li:r:'gh' -schoo Is- :dci'rto~'wa~t 'eye~tydrie,:to Igrad· u~t~. Nor do they
: t ..' ., ,. ): ~ ••.. • .••• ,. ...,' ,\ , ". • • I, . " '
want, everyone, to" get-h01 1 :0rs,.: orrevari 'good marks •.. · ~.eachersunders ta nd, because
admi.nLstra cor s' usua:nybH 1 them, tha t a certain' proportion of 'students should
fail and vge t poozvma'rks ," ;..:,. ,'. ,~)' . . ...c , .. ,,_i. ,. I
i .... In this- sys te.m/ those: .chosen '£or!failure atld' the 'low~m;3,rk''quotas are' often
the masculine' boys.if.: They: are the; mosti " expendabIe ,': si'fi'ce thcdy":a\i-e'often not
" good" 'boys anyhow. '.~;;., ..: 'I,..::".:,; ' i.;'.: .: , .. ':,) - " .;':' c, L 'i. ,.' 1 ,.," • ,.'.1 ;.; t : ••
. Nowhere' :Ln,,· ~this:" system are th~re many men with whommost boys can identify
and saY/" I" d'Tike(;lo-h~''i'd,m." ' Though" ef!orfslai·' in some places
to pick, good super'fnt errde'nt s 'and" princ'ipals ,e;/~n~~tel aLarmi.ngLy few are found
who can i· nspi're:'muCl'{" t'r'.us't-or ~'thuUftiOn in ma:leL(stlidEmt's~" Of.ten,i1 .k'e top
ser gearrt sj ' they are:' lea~i:" 'iik~ly to' ~in 'theioyalties' Of kl~s 'Who' serve under
them. They can give brders and, if they use a club, ~an ~Nen get them obeyed,
but theyca~' raib'ly rertch':' t'l1 e wll1 ' or .th~ 'spir'it I of th~ir 's~bord Lnate's.
Anotheri\inajbr" questi'6~;'th~lt; iirise$, ~{~f~S9.0~.1 ~(W~· have. m6re':~en :'tea~h~rs in
the\swe· r'iis· 'p~obably:" yes i~" .:;~if the.1 .!1 en'~e hire ,are the
kind that' boys admire LJnd " r espe ct, 'and' i~ they are ~nt~liect~~i leaders as well
as leaders 'of mehj~· ::, If .~hel'are ;fiot, 'they may be worse thahwo~en· .· . " .
. . , ' .. " .'.'.' "'! '\, ' ~,I. .' . , . . ( I. , " ~'. \1 •.,. ,.' '. • • t
• 'I' has" no trbee n a man~y profession" norschQqJJ. a manly ~ccupa tion for
boys" We:have· JJe-eh~~able' to ' ~~crl1 it the best males " Lrit o teachip.g~ Salaries
have been' too low;:qualfications eb ~arbitrary/and ',the job '£r~quertly too
female and lackihg· i· insta,tus.;i, ' . '''.'' ... ' ." . . ,\
Changes iri" ~cl1 qoi jobS-':and job' qualific~ti.b~s would ~ttract mor~';Uen to
teaching ~':'''~et'n~ght w< '!nt,'fot~,examp Ie;" 1 :'0 set' .'~p' new School. job' classifica tions--
such as re'sour ce pet-sen, or' group' Leader , or L'spec, Men from the
community t per fo rm the'se 'j'obs •. They mightbe pilots, plu1 Ub.ers" .electricians,
elec tr onLc 'repairmen, " pbUCe ,.'''politicians, dent'Lsts ~~etc, ~-any6'rie w,ith knowledge
and skill~wortri.:· pa:'sEng· · bn to · · boys· ;':· :Group workers, 'recru Lted f r omn ong even
the unsk Ll I'ed males in the community. might spend -r egu Lar per Lod s with small
groups, t~ dounsel with 'the~-~r~siist i~ redreition. ~I ••• " '
'. ~l -',. ," ,.,') ~,' I,. I ': ,: 1 ,~ .") , • \ ' '! " J I ' ).
. , ,
No Way Out ,:i:~ Weq:annot£leeth~ · $chools.'~; Aro'ng wi,iri't1 leir great for
• "'I' .' ,'( '. ' 'j, j " ~I I '" ". ,
good, they 'do'too much ml.sch'iefto chL'Ldren, and we .siIfle tioo much oJ our: public
funds intcy'them to 'givai,.U:p.:' j t;e't us. see if we can ' t'r'esh~pethem. .:w e' have seen
that vs chooLs'< do :inflrtertce! the behav Lor " of many ?oys' arid girls " .and that they
deepen the~:hoS'tilitylof· isome' and 'doei~lity :0£' o'th~rs~: We have also seen that
the schools ,· and the' ,i60'1 1 egesthey fe1 ed, are' rising swLftIy; n6t declining, in
theirpower)'ove:r the: socn:ety " they rare suppo sed to'se'rv'e •. They' must be watched,
vigilantly · :not" i'g· noredl· -or" a'b~nd· dried· . '.' ,.,' ,',." -'. . '. . ,
• ' 1 .• r., ' \ • ~' ' ••. j 1 . " I i " '.", l" , . \ . i.', " 1 , ., ,-~' . '4 '.:1 ~ ',,'.,, .
Weneei;l' real he'r oes' Land" 'weneed 'to t(1 irik more about what' we want our males to
be,' but: mainly-W:1 : :n€1 e4 ' q.!6·\s'.t~'p~, a;s'ia~l ~nci~,t~:tbpy{ jde\ielcip' 'like :b;oys:' ~~w e' lshoUld
erxcourage:-ithei.t-i1 efrbltts 'tb· ::be:c-b1 nl· strbrig· ik'nl:~tit!bhomous males. Let them run and
play like boys, let them learn the things that boys want to learn,let them dress
and act like boys. And let's restrain, if we can, the mothers, schools and society
that want to dress them up like Womenor children. .
. . . . "
~ . . 1 ; . ' t. ' , ' . '
, I,
. "
Jesus did not advise people to goto church; He recruited ,,: : ,; > . , " : ; ,
, ,
followers into a company of the committed. This Quaker .
. scholer, one of the pioneers 01 the 20th century restoration
, " movement, catls the church back to the mllitancyand'
. dlsclpllne 01 thetearty bend of believers, ", '"."
" ,"
. \
i I
, "
, . '
. ' ,
. . ; .
,,' )
. ,. '
- . .
. . . . ~
: J.
' : ' , : ' T ; · · " · \ " " " r : . . •,
. /1,.
- v
f1] . he Church of Jesus Christ is a Sleep- person, as he com ide s the v ictory of the nism. T is v a; iety 0 : jLllgment, and con- .
fj ing giant. Its unrealized potential early Church against apparently insur- sequent controv ersy, about he nature of .
li is almost staggering to contem- · . mountable odds, is deeply mov ed. the early Church should be a sufficient
. : plate. }here exists in people today a v ast Once the Church was represented first . warning against supposing that there is" .
amount of goodwill; there is genuine de- by a little band of dejected fishermen any single detailed pattern which can . ' :
sire to be L1 sed. . . going back to the Sea of Galilee, and later' prov ide a test of ecclesiastical v alidity . .
The desire is real and the resources are by one hundred twenty people gathered' The truth is that the New Testament does ,-: " . .
rich, but we hav e not found the right . . ~ in a simple upper room in Jerusalem. . not record any single, wholly consistent:
combination. The harv est is plentiful, and Ev en to the eyes of the neutral but fair· . pattern of the kind usually sought. ' . .
, there are potential harv esters, but the ei- observ er, Gamaliel, the mov ement' Another important consideration. v . : . '
. fectiv e call has not yet been made. : · · seemed likely to collapse. Itwent on from ' which bears upon the effort to recov er ' : " ,"
. The situation of the committed Chris- weakness to strength; it surv iv ed; and fi- '. the primitiv e Christian pattern, is that . . . " ' . .
tian is hard- and getting harder. each. ' nally it prov ided the center of an endur- ' the first way is not necessarily the best· .
day. When we know this, we realize that r , ing civ ilization when the dominance of There is no reason why the Christian so- r
we cannot wm or ev en surv iv e With the. < Greece and Rome had come to an end. . ciety might not be able to improv e
attltu eo usmess- a - ' tIS W - 0 -y' '" If we are wise, we shall v iew this story . through the centuries . . ' .
POSSI e t at our situation is harder, in . ' not only with rev erential gratitude; We' . The principle of dev elopment, so' well . '
some ways, than was that of the early . . shall also- with the eyes of those who supported by John Henry Newman in the
Christians who operated in the dying cul- ,: ' ; seek a true pattern of the Christian mov e- . ' , days when' he was part of the Oxford
. . , ture of classical Greece and Rome, for,; . ; ment- v iew it as perhaps applicable to Mov ement, is wholly intelligent and in-
though we hav e the adv antage of a sup- ". ; ' the needs and problems of our own day. : telligible, The Church ought to be able to
posed general acquaintance with the, " It is well known that v arious Christian . grow as science or politics can grow. The
gospel, we hav e also the enormous,. : groups hav e claimed to make the stand- primitiv e Church had no popes, but this
' . disadv antage that millions of people look :. . . • ard of their own work and organization . is no clinching argument against the wis-
I upon it as the wav e of the past. . . . . "" . . ' nothing more and nothing less than the. dom of hav ing popes later, prov iding there . '
j . People who feel our spiritual predica- • New Testament standard. William Penn' s. is some good reason for hav ing them.
t mentnaturally look for something fresh. " . famous slogan, "Primitiv e Christianity. . In the same manner the early Church
t, " and new, but, for the most part, it does . ""; : , Rev iv ed," has been the inspiration of v ar- owned no buildings, but this does not
t . not occur to them that this may befound. j. ' ious denominations since the phrase was mean that it was wicked or . unchristian ,.
~ ". in a rediscov ery of Christ, who is actually ,. ~ ,; ,first coined in the sev enteenth century. . ,' -for later generations to erect ecclesiasti- · :
' } far ahead of us so far as the v itality of cul- . ; : . - Sincere as this effort has been, how- . ' ' cal structures. If anyone says that we,
lj'" ture is concerned. ' ' ; ; ,,: ,"ev er, we must recognize the justification" ought not hav e organs because we hav e . : . "
i . ' . . ' There can be no b. s: tter starting. . pilln. t. "' , of cynical observ ers who hav e noted the '. . no ev idence that early Christians used
. for a radical reappraisal of the nature of : . great v ariety of the supposed New Testa- ' . them, we should, by the same logic, be . '
; " the Church than a sustained effort to re- . ment patterns in modern Church life. . forced to av oid steam. heat, Sunday .
" ,
I,~t,. I. . "discov er the secret of the amazing v ital- Some hav e made the New Testament ' Schools, Christian colleges, publishing. '
f . lty Of early Christianit~ Ev ery thoughtful : . Church idea the basis for the necessity of. ' houses, and a thousand other features of .
- . ": . ' ,' ' : " . •' ,: , " . . . . . immersion, some for the denial of the re- contemporary Christian life. ' . .'<
! '. . ', . , .,. quirement of any physical baptism at all, ' . We need not go back to the original
t " , some for the prohibition of instrumental pattern with superstitious obedience, but
~ . . "<music and others for Christian commu- we are wise, when we see some central
l~ " . : : '
,('~~~~~~~~" ~~~,<," '. " . " . . . . . : ~: ~E~~: 1fr~~~~~~~o ~~~~~: : ~: . '.
Ii: : ; . "\ ' li ,; ,~ ; e' 1 . . i': '" : ',; ,; . : ' " V\~C! '. . . ,. ,. " . Cont inued on paqe ,51 . . . , .
J!, J\ ; I liI,; ~~i1t ~" r .•... <I. '\" · · t, t~, : ~_· " ,
- l. , ; . , ,. ' 111!\ ' r . ' . , C' t' 1~ . ; \~" {~
t' ~ ' 1 ,~·\ ••\n\V; 'Ji~' ( , ' I , :-~, , ~~ = : . . ~~.
~ . ',. ' t' ~'~'~, , 'l, I~. . . ' ~l' . \ ' I' . )!,t" - . (~. •• fI; . " ,
~' _. I' ~\. ~ > t , •• ;1' .: , f~; -: __ : ~; ~N t\ ~: tt. . . , .
'..-.'\,~~t~~~: ,. . ~n~; ~~~~~; 'h" ~'['; ~t)'if: : 'i~'; ~Z; i; '': : )~'{f: ~'; '. " " , ' . " •. . ..
. , . . " '. " : '. ' ~\. \\\\-~~\: ~~. . " . : !'. . . . . . . r' ,), i,,· ' . t~ ,~ ,"~ . J~ ' ' ; : ' : ' {", J\·?: r'~_\?~··" !: ,·,\~~~,,,11~{~~~" ~'f\~; f> 1. !4~" '1: ~ j~ , ~ • f" ,','
. 1 - ,1 ' ;
~" ,
, - ' ,f
. ( , > : : ' J i/ ~' : , . .
' ' , ,. ~
. ' .
, " '1~
1 '
Jj ' .
Can to enlist . pians 2: 25): of "a good soldier of Christ
Jesus," with his share of suffering (II
Continued ( r om pave 49 Timothy 2: 3); of "Archippus our fellow . .
practice. What we want is. not slav ish ad- soldier" (Philemon 2); of "the whole ar-
nerence to a supposedly perfect and mor of God" (Ephesians 6: 1 1 ). .
changeless pattern, which is in fact non- It is perfectly clear that earl' Chris- .
existent: rather, we want the humility- to bans consl ere Christ their Com. '
re- examine our own conv entional ex ec- · ,· mander- in- Chief, that they were in a
tations an standards in the ight of company ot danger which inv olv ed 5reat
something which succeeded. demands upon tfi' eTrliv es, and that to be'
One of the most surprising facts about IiChristian waS to be engaged in Christ' s ' .
the early Church was its fundamental serv ice. It cannot e too emphatically
slm!Ianty to a military band. This is hard . pomtea- out that such "serv ice" was not
for us to recognize today because the Of" remotely similar to what we call a "serv -
dinary successful church of the twen- ice" today, a polite gathering of auditors, .
tieth century is about as different from sitting in comfortable pews listening to a
any army as anything we can imagine. clergyman and a choir.
Instead of being under anything re~ We do not know as well as we should'
sembling military discipline we ride ,. like to know what the meetings of the
Qurse v es on our tree om. " We go and ' first Christians were like in detail, but we
come as we like, as no soldier can do; we hav e in the New Testament some ex-
giv e or withhold giv ing as we like; we tremely helpful indications. In any case
serv e when we get around to it. Obedi- we know enough to realize that these
ence is considered an irrelev ant notion, meetings were not at all what we think of
and the theme of "Onward Christian Sol- as characteristic Christian gatherings in .
·diers" is so alien to our experience that our own day. The probability is that there
some churches av oid the hymn entirely. ' was no human audience at all and not the
" A few av oid it on the mistaken assump- slightest thought of a pattern in which'
tion that it glorifies killing, which of ' . one man is expected to be inspired to . '
course it does not. The military metaphor speak fifty- Iwo times a year, while the
seems strained when it is applied to rest an; nev er so inspired.
smartly dressed men and women riding A clear indication of procedure is pro- '
. in air- conditioned cars to air- conditioned v ided by Colossians 3: 1 6 where we read
. . "churches. " : "as you teach and admonish one another
· Far from thinking of the Church in . in all wisdom. " The most reasonable pic- . '
' . '. military terms,we thInk ot it AA. a cjv iuo: ture which these words suggest is that of
dety Which people join freely, a_od leav e . 'a group of modest Christians sitting in a
. . .freely, though they often seem, oddl)! circle in some simple room, sharing with . . . .
· enough~ to be born into it. It is a society one another their hopes, their fallures,
' . which makes mild claims, ev en in regard' and their prayers. The key words are "one ' .
to attendance at its meetings, which ap- another. "
pear to be its most important functions. There are no mere observ ers or audi-
A sl ight approximation to the military tors; all ar e involved. Each is in the min-
pattern is exhibited by the Mormons, istry; each needs the adv ice of the others;
whose young men normally donate at and each has something to say to the
least a year of their liv es to missionary others. .
· duty, but the idea has not been generally The picture of mutual admonition
· adopted by other groups. The notion of seems strange to modern man, but the
· enlisting Church members as recruits strangeness is only a measure of our
sounds v ery strange to modern ears. This essential decline from something of
reaction tells us something signiiicZlnt , . amazing power. The contemporary'
· . about the Church of the twentieth cen, . Communists hav e taken ov er the essen"
; tuTy; it tell s us how far we hav e drifted! - : tials of this pattern for their own dissim- .
. ' In\ ) idea of the Church as a· militazy· . \ ' Bar purposes, but we must remember
£Qmpany was b~ no means strangetu that they did not inv ent it, They took it
early Christians. Indeed,' military' lan- . ov er after Christians had largely aban-
guage Ciln be found in v ariol)s parts of th. e· , . doned it. Their doing so !1 1 ilY constitute a .
New Te~ tament. It need hardly be said Jj\ lstifiedrebuke to those who take their
that this language had no reference to, Christianity so lightly that they nev er see
killing, or preparation for destructIOn, . . themselv es as members of a task force,'
· but rather to me mood of men and' WOii1 ei1 Important as an; these ev idences which
whose responSIbilities were · of the sa~ . the Epistles prov ide concerning the char-
demanding character as those of enlistecl acter of the early Christian mov ement,
~ rsons~ Thus it seems wholly natural to . ' . Continued on next page
read of "Epaphroditus my brother and Dr, David Elton TruebloodOuaker scholar, has
fellow worker and (\ !!Iow soldler' (Philip, been known OVfer tile last 4q years for his clas-
sical writinQ on reli~i9l,1Sthemes.
Busy women will ' appreciate '
the ov er 30 0 time- sav ing
recipes that ' are both
nutritious and delicious.
Special charts, basic mix
recipes and . practical U
j household hints, combined ~
. with spiritual inspiration, l'
make . . this a unique
1 cookbook.
Flair in the Kitchen •. . $4. 95'
Order before NOVember 16 i
for cnrtstrnas delivery, j
, ~ ABlu\ V. . . , • I
~ p,a. Sox I, Lynnwood, ~VA . 980 ~ ~ J
. ; *
. you can . ,' " . , ' ,' : ' , ". i
understand l. 1 1
the book 0 1 . - " •. ••. . .-
RfVfLATION' < •. •• ~=~. : : : ,: : . : . . ~_Jj
A clear, readable study of the B ook of
R evelation, g eared tor plain folks < Satan
does not want you to read the B ook of
R evelation. H e wants you to be con-
tused. B ut G oc wants ycuto read it. to
understand it allO act on what it says,
OrdElr thls Important bool{ today!
Pilper $5,95 Cloth S1 O. 95 aU Q Pages
__ •••• _ 1 1 : 1 Clip and maillQday 1 ll •••• !IliI ' "' "
m. 0 Y es, please rush me - - ~ - ' B
g , copies of " Now Y ou Can U nderstand The I'l
e B ook of R evelation" 0 P aperback, $q, 95 ~
a each 0 Clothbound, $ 1Q,95 each ti
m My ch~G kfor enclosed. ' a
o Nam~. n
1 1
~ A ccress C
III C. ity' a
~ ~
D State . Zip - . . -- 2
m Omega P ublications . : ~
e B ox 4130. Medford. OR 975 01 A C-042 1 1 ______ - u mu
. i
· 1
\ I\ I§
Cijlil!9~ ,
\ h' ed~ idences gleaned from the words
and actions of Christ, Himself are ev en
more important. Of special significance
is Christ' s contact with two Roman sol-
diers who were centurions. One of these
military officers appears near the begin-
ning of the Gospel, and the other appears
near the end. '
The first centurion, whose confronta-
tion with Christ is recorded in Matthew
8: 5- 1 3, asked Christ to heal his serv ant
W}1 O was suffering from paralysis. Christ,
offered to go to the sufferer, but the Ro-
man officer replied quickly that this would
not be necessary. He pointed out that he
understood about commands and obedi-
ence because he was a soldier and there-
fore, like Christ, was also under authority.
We are told that Jesus "marv eled" and
gav e th is Roman the greatest praise which
the Gospel records in connection with
any historical figure, "Not ev en in Israel .
hav e I found such faith," He said. .
It seems paradoxical to us that a mili- :
tary officer would understand Christ bet-
ter than did the apostles, but that is only
because we hav e constructed our own
v ersion of what was going on. If we were
to realize the fundamentally arduous
· character of the original Christian mov e-
ment w. e should be less surprised at what
the story of the centurion rev eals: It would'
seem less paradoxical, We should see the'
significance of the wo. rq "also. " '
The ev idence giv en by Christ' s en-
counter with the first centurion is cor- .
roborated and strengthened by his.
encounter with the second, the one who
stood by the cross. This man, we are told,
· "stood facing him" as. "Jesus uttered a:
· loud cry, and breathed his last" (Mark
1 5: 39), His duty as a soldier kept him
there when most of the disciples were
conspicuously absent. · . '
The great' fact about the occasion is ' .
that the scene which the officer saw made
him underst and, As Ctwi~ t' ~ physical lift!
ebbed £\ waY
tht! ~ olcti~ r was ht!; m: \ to say;
"Tr\ ,lly thi~m~n w~ q,~onof Coo!" The
fact that it W(l~ a soldier whQhad this rev -
elatory reaction is ~ igh!y signficant. He
, ,. - ",0 "
We apolog ize for the inconvenience but we
occasiooauy make mistakes. If you are hav-
mg trouble with receiving your mag azine fN-
ery month or il yOlj have a problem with
billing , please CElli our customer service
reprel'!tlnlative in NewJersey,' . '
(~ Ol)366- 61 $~
!=. . ,. ,. ,- . ••. . . • --~
understood that the suffering he ob- '
serv ed was really that of a military pris-
oner from a new kind of army, an army' .
not for destruction but for redemption.
If we realize that Christ was organiz-
ing a genuine "company" many points .
immediately become clear. Herein is the
signficance of the cryptic "Follow me. "
He was not adv ising people to go to
church, or ev en to attend the synagogue;
He was, instead, asking for recruits in a
company of danger. He was asking not
primarily for belief, but for commitment
with consequent inv olv ement,
It is significant that the first of those
who answered this call to enlistment (0 1 ;
lowed Himbelore they knew who He was.
The recognition of Christ' s true charac-
ter, in Matthew 1 6, comes long after the
successful appeal of Matthew 4: 1 9. The
well- known words are far more under- . '
standable if we see them as the call of a . '
recruiting officer, "And he said to them,
' Follow me, and Iwill make you fishers of
men. ' 1 mmediately they left their nets
and followed him. " .
Such recruitment led inev itably to the
close fellowship of a company. The more
genuine the commitment, the more nec-
essary the fellowship of mutual concern· ·
and support became.
There is no suggestion that the early
Christians wore a uniform or ' had any
. . other external marks of a separate order,
but they trav eled back and forth between
particular companies with a tirelessness
that amazes us if we are willing to reflect
, upon the expenditure of energy which
, was inv olv ed. When one sector was hard e
pressed, reinforcements were rushed in
from another. Thus, inthe earliest book
of the New Testament, I Thessalonians,
. we find the Apostle Paul keeping intouch .
with the little bands quite as though he "
were a general. . . .
In order to check again on the dev el~
opment of the fellowship in Thessalonica,
Paul stayed in Athens alone and sent his
lieutenant right back to the northern
front, "We sent Timothy, our brother and
God' s serv ant in the gospel of Christ, to
•. •. •. .estapli~ h YOll in your ~ ith"(I Thessalon-
. , ' ians 3: 2). 1 ' h<: filct thattlw. demands of; .
the CQmpany of the Committed""; ". ,<il,lchas?
constant, trav el under arduous condi- .
tions- s- were accepted without argument;
and without complaint prov ides one of
, our best insights into "the way," .
It was not' a bed of roses, but it was not
supposed to be. What else were they to .
expect, since their Leader had been cru-
cified? It seemed normal for Paul to
charge Timothy to "wage the good war-
far~ " (1 Timothy 1 : 1 8), . ( : onlinued
From the book The Company or the Committed, C"pyrighl: U U)'
Oilvid t- : ltoH 'fru~bl~lud. R ~prinleJ P )I ih: rmi&: sioll ' 0 1 H ~rp~r ~
How, P ~" ll" -'·f" . lnc: · .
C@ tr1 . r 8
' 4D ~\!le~~
December iseue,
· .Charisma will it Jd1 3 t
and missions.
John and Eli2 ; abetl1
Sherrill tell you about,
. '.Christmas when they .
were stuck in A frica, fal
from family and friends,
That forced them to . :
. reevaluate their own
, feeling s about Ohrlstm
· '.traditlons-cfraditions .
they held dear. The sto
is done in the Sherrill's
own inimitable style.
B emie May, directoi
· , Translators, shares a rr
means to G od. Out of tl
for the December iSSlJ§
Jamie B ucking ham
Log os International Fe]
P lus much, much rno
: ~P LA Y
,1 l~ ~ (EA
J. P R O~'
; , L-. ~ . . •.
If you're one of those people who'
, dream come true,
I This revolutionary new system lea
: cassette tapes. There has never been
, teasional. Tho prog ram uses sound, I
Interest to II's peak. There's no need,
a second class piani!; > !wnen YO\ l can
cost. .
The system Is (Jeslg ned '''' train a e
dent listens, he sees wtJ hears I
what tJe hears and sees. \ . . . - ' ! entire I
manual, SOU ND ~R A
=arVN'r-,. . . nr zae~
Order today. Send check 0:
c 72 8 W. Smith Street, Orla
t~ available, call collect to 0(
t ~ ~ ~ "!s~ - ~ "- - - ; ;" :~L: ; r; -:. •
. I
Ale 21 4 657 - 6522 B ox 21 0 , H enderson, Texas 1 5652
WDne: nSa1 ~ {3[» 1
2 7 70A V 4~" ': !: '; 7?'·~~'~,?&. 1,~,,~
11" _" . " '·,-,1-" '" .& .••••• .J'fi r" r Y . ~· . . I' ~-1
. ~ ".
Workhorse of the Industry
list: $21 65. 0 0 COl. $ 12 95 . 00
Stereo Model 2 772 A V
, list: $2450 . 0 0 CDI, S15 49. 5 0
R2[O~ ~ : ~ "
Quality Duplication at
an A ffordable P rice
list: $7 29. 0 0 CDI, $ 42 5 . 00
Also available in Stereo
list: $1 0 99,0 0 CDI, s 799. 00
1---- IMMEDIA TE DELlVEt\y----i
!i~~1~~~: . . t; ~ % : : ~ ~ ~ Z~ ,~ C6Q~ t~ i~ ~ ~ 9ci: : lt:
1 0 0 . 51 . 60 . 90
- 50 0 . 47 . 57 ' . 80
, 1 0 0 0 . 43 . 51 . 7 8
-- •• ---- OR DER FOR M ----- ••• ,
P lease send me: CH N8 1
o 2 770A V 0 2 772 A V 0 Catalog
o Mini·Max 0 Stereo Mini-Max "
o A M P EX ,_ C30 _ C60 - =- C90'
A ddress
City State _ Zip _ '
o Check or money order enclosed $ __
o Ship order COD and add freig ht.
Send 'heck with order and we pay freig ht.
: 5(' C ~ 1 §dOail fl)up~a(@tu~rui',: \;
'~" " ': : ~: ',~. tOM{lIt~Ott" I, Inc. " "; ; ; ' ,: ; ; ,;
,: 1710 lee Road Orlando, Fl. ~ 2a1 0
~\~,: ; ,: '(; \CaU(8 00) : J27 . 93: J2,~ : · ' : /' · )\ ,; ,:
: : ": : "?; ~; : : -,Inf~ (COO)4J2 ·5 309 : ; <: . ~ ,"
~o: : . . ( i, 'i~(: ': i: : M(; ; ': -il, ). ,<\ "' ); w,n>Il ••. •

,I" r,
, Christ' s call to enlistment. The Church f/
so remade will be as different from the : ,'
conv entional organization with which we ; i~,
Whenev er the original pattern of the are now familiar as Christ' s band of the ~ "
company has been tried, great results . crusading Sev enty was different from the: : '
synagogue of the first century A. D. ~ ; ~
hav e followed. The two most conspicuous ,: : ' ~
efforts in Christian history hav e been the ' . In leav ing the synagogue and concen- ' \ ,
organization of the Society of Jesus in the trating upon the' explosiv e band, Christi~
sixteenth century and the organization of was not renouncing the fellowship of the ',t,
the Salv ation Army in the nineteenth ,dev out but was, instead, giv ing it a new: ; ,:
century. Both experiments hav e inv olv ed and v irile character. Emphatically, we h'
failure as well as success, but their total must note that He was not rejecting the f
effect has been so remarkable that we ne- synagogue or meetinghouse v ersion of ; ; : ? '
glect them at our peril. ' religion in fav or of mere indiv idual com- 'jt
Though Ignatius Loyola had no spe- mitrnent. Instead, He' was making the so- : : - ~
cific design of opposing the Reformation cial character of this commitment far ~ . ,,~ . '
when he wrote his Spir itual exer cises more obv ious and demanding. : ; ; ~ ,
and founded his famous Society, it is ' We cannot understand the idea of a ~~<,
nev ertheless true that the Jesuits were ef- company apart from the concept of in- ~' ;
fectiv e in producing a genuine historical volvement. What we seek is not a fellow- ?
change of direction. They ' were instru- ' ship of the' righteous or of the self- i: . ; ,. '
mental, through their missionary and ed- righteous, but rather a fellowship ofmen?' - : ' ,
, ucational activ ities, in sav ing great and women who, though they recognize ,\ ~ ,
sections of northern Europe for the R o- that they are inadequate, nev ertheless "Ii"
man Catholic Church and in regaining can be personally inv olv ed in the effort to '
lost territory. Loyola' s success is in large, ' make Christ' s kingdom prev ail.
measure due to the fact that he organ-
' ized his followers, with hard demands, Perhaps the greatest single weakness
of the contemporary Christian Church is : '
after the fashion of a military company. that millions of supposed members are ';:~t
His first desire was to use the phrase
not really inv olv ed at all and, what is: ,: ,:
"The Company of Jesus" because he en- ,worse, do not think it strange that they. ", '
v isaged a campaign. The key to his entire are not: As soon as we recognize Christ' si~ ( ' "
enterprise is found in his terse reference, intention to make His Church a militant - : ; ";
"Christ, our Commander- in- Chief. " Loy- "company we understand at once thaL,: : ,",,; : '
ola combined two elements of success
which went together perfectly: his own ~ ~ ~ fi~ ~ nv entional arrangementcannot~ ,s,~ ,
soldierly experience prior to his commit- .
ment, and his recognition of the militant There is no real chance of v ictory in a ' : !i '
, character of original Christianity. , campaign if ninety per cent of the sol- ; ,/,:
The fact that Loyola' s mov ement is not diers are untrained and uninv olv ed, but : ,"' . "
adequate for the needs of our own day that is exactly where we stand now. Most. : " :
should not blind us to its fundamental alleged Christians do not now under- ,:
strength. It is inadequate because it is stand that loyalty to Christ means shar-
fundamentally denominational in pur- ing personally in His ministry. going or
pose, being concerned with the militant staying as the situation requires.
recov ery of one chur ch rather than the The churches which are succeeding
whole Chur ch of Chr ist; it is limited to best are those in which the inv olv ement ; ' ,'
those who hav e some degree of separa- ' of the rank and file of the members is' "
tion from the common life of marriage most nearly complete. This means a gen- : ,.
and secular work. But those limitations eral acceptance, on the part of the totalr-
are not intrinsic to the idea of a company membership, of the responsibil ity of being ' ,; ,; \ ,
enlisted in Christ' s cause. official representativ es of Jesus Christ in ; : . '
What we must form, unless we are to ' daily life. It means a fundamental denial,'
go into decay, is a company which in- " 'of that kind of div ision of labor in which, : :
eludes representativ es of all denomina- the majority hav e a secular responsibility: ".
tions, which understands fully that in and a minority hav e a Chrisitan respon- : : . "
Christ there is neither male nor female, sibility. ,; ; ,'
which expects commitment to Christ in There is always some need of a div ision ,,: ; . : ,'
common life rather than in separation of labor in life, partly because people hav e:
from it, and which is infused with the radically different gifts, but a div ision of ; : ~ "
sense of urgency possessed by those who labor is damaging and v icious when it ,>
are fully inv olv ed in a campaign. leav es the promotion of the Gospel to a <'.
The strategy of renewal lies not in 01'- few, while the others merely support them~ ,~
ganizing a militia Chr isti within the in such work. ) . : ~ ,
Church, but in recasting the entire con- It is strange to see how slow we are to
ception of the Church in the light of understand what the acceptance of the - .
Call to enlist
Cont inued from paye 53
,I, ' ". ~
, '
Call to en} ist
j-. ,
. '. / .
. I,' , "
, \'. .i . ~I
, '. .i
; '. '
" .
' . ,' ' lfwe are to take seriously the trans for- • . in an age marked by time- sav ing dev ices, ' : ",
. . mation of the Church as we know it into. ' ' we seem to be ev er more hectic in run- . ~
'r :';. '.' Cont inued from page 5 ~ " ' f '.
, \ . ' a genuine order, ~ e,m~ stv oluntarily ~ c- ; · ning rom appointment to appointm~ nt. !"i~ ,
, . : "- ,,idea of a Christian company entails. Thus,· . cept an agreed discipline. Once a Chris- > .r: Because we do not hav e to US\ ! precious . ; :11( ';
_. . ; , ,I; when we organize, a commitment serv - tian has become a member of Chrtst' s- . ' time, as all of our ancestors ' did, in car- ",Jt,
; , ,: ; ,ice, we tend, unless we make a conscious , company he must be ready to giv e up' '> ' rying water, grinding flour, and weav ing, : ; ~ (
. ' . ' ' ' ' : , effort at inv olv ement, to hav e the famil- . : some of his personal freedom, much asl,' c!oth,We should, theoretically, hav e more ' : : r
" : iar pattern of the single performer, If, by, a~ y soldier- and ev en as any Comrnu- ,: Jr~ e time av ailable, but wedo not. The : ; }!;
. contrast, many share 10 the obs~ rv ance. - , nist=- does. . '<" trouble seems to be that we presume on , '{ Y .
. . . . whether in reading Scripture or in public ' . He may, for example, no longer be the: the adv antage of our inv ention? by delib- . }i- ; : ~
"prayer or in admonition=- there are two' ' sole arbiter of his own time and energy; " . erately adding to the number of our en- . " ~ll~i
- : enormous gains, One is that ev en those and he cannot be free to use all of his" ' gagements until ourliv es are fragmented. \ ; ?,)
. who do not participate v ocally begin to' money on his own self- indulgence. He . .~ ' Too many commitments v amount v ir"< : ,J(~.
. . . ',' . . ' hav e a sense that they are more than au- . may hav e to giv e up his own personal' r. ' · tually to. none. The only sommitment,. ,)~ l
,' . , . dience; the other is that the commitment" . ' plans in order to engage in a contempo- - :. . which is significant is' that which" has : I. '
" of those who do participate v ocally is nor- ' rary equiv alent of Timothy' s hurried reo; . about it a certain singularity or ev en' ~ \ ' 5:
. ,. , mally made deeper and more genuine. . turn to Thessalonica. He is almost certain- s . priority; . ' ,: ' : . . . . . . ' . ' " )J
I • ' - Preachi1 1 gmay not, in some instances,' : . to giv e up some connections with clubs. ' . Acceptance of discipline is the price of' ~; 1
," be helpful to those who listen, but it is and societies which, though they may be) freedom. The pole v aulter is not free to go' ' ~ ",\
almost always helpful to those who speak; . ' innocent or v aluable in their aims, are far . ' . ov er the high bar except as he disciplines : . ;§ r;;"
" . ' . This is partly because expression deepens . too numerous in most modern liv es. himself rigorously day after day. ' T~ e' : ; · ; : ; 1 : '
' . ' impression and partly because the speaker ,i There will always be a sense in which" freedom of the surgeon to use his drill to : \ ~ .
immediately achiev es a public identlfi- v - . a person who takes seriously his commit- . cut away the bony structure, close to a ,: ,,' : ,
cation with the cause, from which he is. . ,. ment to Christ will hav e to learn to trav el . tiny nerv e without sev ering it, arises from' ;
' ,,: . . ' ; ' . consequently less likely to turn back. •. : light, giv ing U P some particular inv olv e- . ; ' ,a similar discipline. It is doubtful if ex- . .
' .". : Since commitment is strengthened by . , . ments in order to make other inv olv e- >: "cellence in any fieldcomes in any other"
public inv olv ement, the more inv olv e- . "ments more truly rev olutionary. ' . ' . " . ' . ' ' way. John Milton wasrev ealing some . . . . . : ·
; , " ~ ; ' . ment the better . Therefore the Christian' One of the areas of experience in which •. . . . . . thing of his own creativ e power when he>,
' ideal must always. be the complete elimi- . the acceptance of discipline is most im- : ; : ,;wrote, "There is not- that thing' in the'
nation of the concept of the laity in fav or ' portent for modern man is that of the' . : ' world of more grav e and urgent impor- '
: . of the exciting concept, of the univ ersal right use of time. Our relation to time is ~ • ' . tance, throughput ~ ~ wl)()1 ~ We,9f ffi. <il1 ,'
. rninistry. : ", ' highly paradoxical inthat, though we liv e' "than is discipline. . » ' : ' \ ; ' . ' " 1' '
, . . , . " .
' . . : . ,: . '
. ,
" ',=
, '
, '
~1 L
. ; "
, .I::':
:.t ~~':'J
": ' ,' ••. •• 1 . •
, ~. . . . ,
/1 I " The discipl ine we need is not some- .
i; ll, thing which we can learn alone. We be-
~: ,,': '; Fbrhe yained and disciplined for serv ice
i> . ' . " ()rily as we are yoked together. ' I' hus, sig- .
r~ nificaritly, it is in Christ' s dearest cali to
~1~ - v ' ' • personal comrmtment=- that in which He
~ ~ says, I. Come to me"- that He also says,
lJ~ . "Take my yoke upon you. "
l,"1 The Company of Christ is tied together
1~& by Christ' s yoke. That is why "yoke fel- '
~f, 1 ' low" is a synonym for committed Chris-
,,~ , tian, Though the younger generation does
~1 . not understand it now, ev ery farm child
,I(: " ' : . . of the early part of our century under-
~ l . ; - :stood v ery well that no colt is normally"
; !~ . trained alone; It ' is "hitched" with one al- .
: ,J , ready well trained. Herein lies the pow-
g') " ', erful significance of the idea that only the . .
»}. ' : meek~ i. e; , the disciplined- s- will ev er
l" " ,Occupy the land. '
'~1·'r. ,One rare but powerful item of disci-
~ : ~, • pline is the requirement that the recruit
,,~ . of the company undertake a personal ex- .
: ; 1, ': . . ' perience of solitude at ieast once a month"
: ~: ~ I" ~ . This is patterned consciously on the ex- ,.
\ : : ; i, : . ' perience of Christ who periodically went,
) j :;! alone, ev en at the price of temporary sep- . . .
::::'~..f~ ,aration from the needs of His fellows; ,
I,~: ~ The justification of aloneness is not' ,
f: i I " ," that of refined self- indulgence, but rather;
, \ , t . : ' a consequent enrichment of one' s subse- . ' : . v • " ' . " ' "
~: ; ~ t quent contribution, A person who is al- , : " ~011t: loU 8 Products Co. , 2SCHJai1 ~ head Mwv. S. L, M••bllilton, Gill. 3G{)S9
~ rm~ ~ ail~ e~ n~ wmilimoo~ w~ n~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : "
d. '''' ' ' . he is av ailable. Ev eryone engaged in pub- . '
'. ~'! ,: lie life Will realize the extreme difficulty
, 'j'i 'I,' o( getting aWay each month for a period
, , .' of fiv e or six hours, but the difficulty
: r; \ l: . - , Is ii6t a good reason for rejecting the'
; : ' - 1 - . Ji '. distlplihe. '
, U~. ' . , it 1& the men and women who find it
" : ' l' -.hardest to get away who need the re"
~ Kll demptiv e solitude most sorely; They need
" iI ' '. to be where t!1 ey are free from the com-
~ ; ' ii pulsion of chit- chat, from the slav ery of
t{, '1 '
' J' ~ the telephone; and ev en from the news-
~~; l~' -. paper. A Christianity which understands
•h '
~ ,~ - . itself Will make ample prov ision for re-
t: : 'll'j treat houses in wliieh such solitude is ex-
" : 1 ; peCted and protected.
~lJ: ': . At Hie v eiyti,me When we are begin-
; l~,: d ," : : : !' ling to realize how formidable are the
~ \ \ lll. . : : . : ,:: ,JQi'ces arniyed against Chilstiimlty in the
r. ~,,'j(: : ,; ' : \ : ; }it}6~ erii \ lJori& ; an oiq ' y~ triew conceptior;
'; ': ; ~; <. ' l of the' felloWship: of those enlisted In \
U J; ',,> : Chl' lsbi caUse isre: emefging; This may
~. ; " / i; ~. ' , ' ' ,~ e one of the times When the greatness of ,
'!!,i, I't ( . ; tl)e heed may be match~ q by the v itality
,": U i~' !of ~ Iie response, , . ". = : : '
: ; ~~f: : . , ' unTl~ ~ r~ ~ dh~ ~ iil: eoP~ h~ e~ ~ t~ ~ ~ i~ ~ ~
~. i <; ' Christian enlistment means. Because the,
i, , trouble we face IS more serious than we
ordinarily suppose, the solution of our
problems will likewise lie along deeper
1ines than those to which we are accus-
ton1 ed . . q , '
. .
J !~
, ,
- I" '
" "
" ; ,
" . . .
, , ' , We, VliII send you a FREE SAMPLE CAS~ETTr::~;
! . ' We're so sure yC? u will like t nem.
We'll also s~nd you our brochure & Price U s~on , ' : ,
'. ' ~~~JL~ Y £ CDe: S / R IECU DW{lIDlrE~$ 1!Dl[!]!fU ([; [fu@ s. "
. ' !. R . A ~~lS / I&G }![ES/A t!] f1fENS /lB lO~1lD[E~S;
C£ lLtL lfOfJ1 Jb' l V1TCrLtL ~~~rzf£ ! '.
: a 4)(t]{Q) •.241 ~09\$
'. '
, • ' ,. ~ . " J • ' ,.
,New Testament'
. '. '.
f': '; }: : ~. ~. ~. " . . nI '. ?P , c. as~et~,e' '
8 1. ••. . r -, ' to". : . the . B. onus o~ : : scroll
1" . . . . . !,~, . . . . entlre New Testament of the genealogy
,~i in 2 4 hours of Jesus Christ
,J'~ 1'1 on. Parchmant Paper
'~'_j5"". ,,,". Guarameed
, J. we U se only high quality with burnt edge
~ t long lile. low noise tape .
'I' Practically wear proof " ,
. ~j" " " 4" II they fail to meet your expectations. simply return or full refund
• > We Pay Shipping A Non Pr ofit Or ganization
' - . .
. . ~ - -- _. . -, - . . . ~. ,. . . - ,. . . . . . . . " - - . - ," . . . . . - .
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - -
' [] King james Version N. l. - Alexander Scourby 1 2 tapes •• ; ; ; ; ••• : ; . . . ' . . ; . . 24. 95 '
, o King James Version N. T . . ; . . Bob Homer 1 6 tapes, . ",. , ,
Excellent Narratlon- 0 with Sound effect 0 Without •. . ; : . : •• ; ; . . ; . . . . 27 . 95 '
o Newlnt. Version N; T. - Stev Em B. Stev en 1 2 tapes; ; . . • ' . ; . ; ~. , ' . ' , . ; ,; ' •• ; . ' , . 34. 95 . ,
. D The Liv ing Bible N. ; ]"; : . ; . . Music8£ Sound Effecti6 tapes. ; . : . ,; . ,. ,; ; ,; ; ; . i ; ,; . 34. 95. , .
')0 New Amtirican Siandard N. T; ,; o. 1 5 tapes: ; ; . . ; ; ; . ; ' ,' , ; . ' : ; ,. . ;. . ; . ' I"~ I; '; . ~; 39. 9!), ' .
. ,: ' tJ. ~ ~ ii!~ ,edStandar~ N; 1 ' . ' !": Alexandei Scbuiby i2 tape$ ': : 'l . '!. !; , ; {; : ; '; ; 1'· ; 2<,l; ~ §:
o Old Teshlinerii(KJV)- ,- Aleximdei Scourby 48 tlipes . ; . ; ; ; •• '. . . ; ; . ,' ; ; . . ; . ; ; 7 9,95.
<[] Th~ Liv ing ChristO Lp. ; . . o Cassette os Track; ~ . ; . . , . . ; ,. ,' , . . . . . 29. 95,
. :8 hour dramatized muslcal biography of Jesus Life from the 4 Gospel
World Bible SocietY ~ ,
p. b, Box 495
,B rentwood, TN3702 7, ' (615 ) 373·0335
, ---: to'
. ' Address "- ' ' - ' - __ - ' - - ' - - ' - __ - . . : . : . . - "- - - - ,- : . . . Phone . /_- ' - ' - _~ _: ' -
, City State . . Zip _
Visa/MasterCard # , /Expiration Dat e__ I __ ._I_
Check enclosed fJ
.••. '.1L •... . i_; ~ - ,•. ••• _; ,. t
, i
CoY \d~i" 5 QJe~ov> s
We want to communicate to people outside .the community what we really are,
namely a group of people who love one, another and who love the Lord. We do
"not want them to focus on secondary aspects of what we are, nor do we want
them to hear about things they cannot understand easily unless they can under-
stand how they fit into our lives. We especially want people outside the
community who need the Lord to hear about the aspects of it that are most
important for them to hear about (e.g. that we are a group of people who know
God and who love one another) and to hear first about things that they can
most easily understand (e.g. God's love rather than God's wrath).
As new brothers and,sisters and guests come into our life, we want them to
confront issues in proper order. For instance, we want them to learn about
our love for one another before learning that we believe in giving away a
great deal of our money to the Lord's work, or we want them to experience the
care of a head before they learn about commitment to heads.
The community should primarily come out normal. They should see that we are
normal, emotionally :stable people who are interested in human things. We
should not normally talk about things they would see as strange because they
do not understand them (deliverance, for instance) ••'
We want people to know that we love them, even though we might disagree with
them about many things or even oppose them. This is one reason why we should
do visible charitable service or why we should do service in churches.
. . .
When we discuss con1;;roversial community practices, we should make sure outsiders
see our views in an undistorted way and in context. For instance, if we discuss
theological secularists, we should take pains to indicate that we are not simply
traditionalists. We should also take care that we do not highlight the most
controversial parts of the community view or practice. For instance, if we
discuss the roles of men and women, our main concern should be with the im-
portance of the woman's place in the home, rather than with issues of women's
roles of government in the community.
We can be free to advocate controversial issues, but we should not normally do
so in connection with the community. We can oppose women's ordination, but we
should not connect that with being in the community (in fact, there is no
official community stand on it).
Our enemies should be able to experience the community as a place that they
could find life. They should know that we are :people who love them and bless
We would do well to avoid the term "headship." Better .to speak of community
leadership or governance or "my coordinator."
What follows are some guidelines for discussing particular areas: "
We should explain that coordinators and district heads are primarily older
brothers in the Lord who help us live our lives better.
- 2- . .
't" "
We should "eXplain, for those. who have heard' about authority in the community,
·that community members are not normally under obedience. The final responsibility
for decisions in their personal lives is their own.,
We should clarify that where we believe in personal authority (in the family,
for example), we believe that the person in authbrityshould discuss important
,matters with all concerned.
We should clarify that we believe pastoral care and authority is meant to lead
people to greater strength and initiative rather than greater dependence.
We should stress that the primary role of leadership in the community is to
foster a cooperative spirit rather than one of selfish individualism.
f" "
Roles of men and women
We should stress that we believe that men and women are e~ ually valuable and
can be e~ ually compe,tent.'
We should say that we believe that women's active leadership is essential for
a healthy cOmmunity.:
We should say that men and women are different, and' it makes no sense to treat
'.them as if theywer~ not. Men should be manly and women womanly.
We Should say that men and women each have different areas of greater strength,
and we wish to maximize the advantages of having men and women together.
We should. stress that we see the home as being tremendously important, and we
be.lieve that women need to put a primary commitment ",intobeing mothers.
· ,
: . : .
. ~ , . :
t . •
! . 1
· t,,·
. f: ~
t " ,
, ,
, : i, ~. •.
,: ,: . . ~
" " .
· ,. ~. i. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful