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GATE -1997
ME: Mechanical Engineering
Duration : Three Hours
SECTION A 1. Write in your answer book, the correct or the most appropriate answer to the following multiple choice questions by writing the letter A, S, C or D against each question number. 1.7. The specific speed of a centrifugal grenerally MaxinlUm

Marks: 150


Marks) is


(a) higher than thai of an axial comperssor
(Ii) less than that of a reciprocating

If y =

I x I for

x < 0 and y


x (or x 2! 0, then


(e) independant depends

of the type of compressor,but

at .t '" 0 dx (b) Y is discontinous at .T '" 0 (e) !J is not de fiend at x ;: 0 (dl Both 1.2

(a) dy is discontinuous

only on the size of the compressor

(d) more than the specific speed of the redprocating compressor but less that of the axial compressor at



dy are discontinuous dx ,


1 .


INhkh ~mong the following is the boiler mounting?
(Il) Blow off cock

(Ii) Feed pump (d) Superheater

The sum of the infinite series (II)

1 +- + - + -+ ... IS 234


(c) Econorniser 1.9.

(v) infinity

For an ideal gas the expression

(e) 4

(d) ~ 4 set of simulataneous equations: (II) zero (c}R (b)


For the following

1.5x - O.Sy :: 2 4x + 2y + 3z = 9 7x + Y + Sz '" 10 (al the solution is unique (b) infinitely many solutions (c) the equations
(d) finite number

c c,.


exist. for 1.10. A system undergoes a state change from 1 to 2. According the second law of thermodynamics for the process to be feasible, the entropy change,

are incompatible of multiple solutions


The order of error numerical integration (0) h (e) h3

is the Simpson's rule with a step size h is (b) /12
(d) 114

52 - 51 of the system
(a) is positive or zero
(Ii) is nega tive or zero (c) iszero (d) can be positive,


The tempera lure field in a body varies according to the equation T(x, y) '" x, + 4xy. The direction of fastest variation in temperature at the point (1, O) is given by


or zero

1.11. Kaplan turbine is
in) 11. high head mixed

3i +8J


(c) 0.61 +0.8J 1.6.

i +0.866].

flow turbine

(b) a Jow axial flow turbine
(c) an Ott tward

In radio-active
(a) (b)

(e) (d)

heat transfer, a gray surface is one which appears gray to the eye whose emissivity is independant of wavelength which has reflectivity equal to zero which appears equally bright from all direttions.

flow reaction turbine

(d) an impulse inward flow turbme

1.12. The alloying element mainly used toim~rove the
endurance (a) Nickel
(c') Molybdenum


of steel materieds ~ (b) VanadiWXI Cd) 1\Ingstml'

1.13. On completion of heat treatment" the resulting structure will have ret;' incd A usten ne If (n) rate of cooling is greater than the critical cooling rare (h) rate of cooling is less than the cruical cooling rate (el martensi re [orm~ non start ing tempera t me is above tile room temperature (d) martensite "ol'm~tion finish temperature is below the room temperature 1.14. The efficiency of a power screw is maximum the lead angle is when

'1.21. Inter electrode g"jl in ECG is controlled by en) controlling the prc.swre of electrolyte flow (b) contrclling the applied static load
(e) controlling

the size of diamond

particle in thl'

(d) controlling

the texture of the work piece used criteria for measuring

1.22. The most commonly [creccst error is
(II) mean (I.) mean absolute

absolute deviation
percentage error error error

(el mean standard
(d) mean square





It -


1.23. Sehlp costs do not include (II) labour cost of setting up machines cost of raw material «.) maintenance cost of the machines (d) cost of processing the work piece (b) ordering 1.24. A dumy activity is used in PERT network to

Where r is the friction angle. 1.15. To restore stable operating condition in a hydrodynamicjoumill beorulg. when it encounters higher milgnitude loads, (II) oil viscosity is to be decreased (bl oil viscosity is 10 be increased
(e) oil viscosity

index is to be increased index is to be decreased

(d) oil viscosity

1.16. Total slip will occur in a belt drive when (n) angle of rest is zero (b) angle of creep is zero (e) angle of rest is greater than angle of creep (d) angle of creep is greater than angle of rest 1.17. To make a worm drive reversible, il is necessary to increase (b) worm diameter factor (a) centre distance (dJ reduction ratio (e) number of starts 1.18. Helix angle of fast helix drill is normally (n) 35° (el 90"

describe (n) precedence relationship (b) necessary Ume delay (e) resource restriction (d) resoure idleness 1.25. TIle cost of provid tng service in a queueingsyslem increases with (II) increased mean time in the .queue (b) increased (d) decreased 2. arrival arrival rate time in the queue rate (e) decreasedmean

(b) 60°
(d) 5" 2.1

Write in your answer book the correct or the most appropriate answer to the following multiple choice questions, by writing the Jetter, A, S, C or

o against

each question


1.19. In a point to point control NC machine, the slides are positioned by an integrally mounted stepper motor drive. If the specificaiton of the motor is 10/ pulse, and the pitch of the lead screw is 3.6 mm, what is the expected positioning accuracy ? (a) Ium (b) lO].lm (e) 50 ].1m (d) 100pm 1.20. Selection electrolyte for ECM is as follows: (II) non-passivaring electrolyte for stock removal and passivating electrolyte for finish control (b) passivating electrolyte for stock removal and noa-passtveting electrolyte for finish control (e) selection of electrolyte is dependent on current density

A box con tams 5 black balls and 3 red balls. A total of three balls are picked from the box one after another, without replacing them back. The probability of getting two black balls and one red baUis (II) 3/8 (c) 15/28 (b) ,2/15 (d) 1/2


A triangle ABC consists of vertex points A (0, 0) B(l, 0) and C(a, 1). The value of the integral 112x dxdy over the triangle (a) 1 (e) (b) (d) is I


(d) electrolyte


is based

on tool-work






Ro.lfer to {igu rc, the absolu Ie pressure

of gas A in

the bulb is


Consider a two stage rccrprccoung air compressm WIth a p~dect inlercooll?r Operating at the best mtermedlate pressure, A ir enters the low pressure cylinder at 1 bar, 27"C and leaves the high pressure cylinder at 9 ba~. Assume Ihe index of compression and expansion In each stage is 1.4, and thai for air R = 286.7 J flog K, Ihe work done per kg air in the hIgh pressure cylinder is (n) 11 J kJ (b) 222 kJ (e) 37 kJ (d) 74 kJ Clearance volume of a reciprocating compressor is 100 ml, and the volume of the cylinder at bottom dead centre is 1.0 litre. The clearance ratio of the com p ressor is
(n) (c)


(II) 771.2 mm Hg (el 767.35 mm Hg

(b) 752.65 mm Hg
(d) 748.8 mm Hg

II "9






The Reynolds number for flow or a certain fluid in a circular tube is specified as 2500. What will be the Reynolds number when the tube diameter is increased by 20% and the fluid velocity is decreased by 40% keeping fluid the same ~




2.10 A mass of 35 kg is suspended from a weightless bar AC, which is supported by a cable CB and a pin ill A as shown in the Fig. The pin reactions at A on the bar AS are

(e) 3600 2.5.

(d) 200

In a certain heat exchanger, both the fluids have
identical mass flow rate-specific heat product. The hot fluid enters M 76°C and leaves at 47°C and the cold fluid entering at 26°C leaves at SS°c. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger is (11) 0.16 (e) 0.72 (b) 0.58 (d) 1.0 (II) Rx = 343.4 N (b)


The following datil pertain to a single stage impulse steam turbine: Nozzle angle;

R, = 343.4 N

I). =755.4 I). = 343.4


(d) R, = 755.5 N


Blade velocity= 200 m/s

(e) Rx = 755.4 N

Blade inlet", 30· Slade exit angle:

Relative steam velocity at entry '" 350 m! s 25°.
If blade friction is neglected, the work done per kg

1), = 0

steam is

124 kJ


164 kJ

(e) 169 kJ

(d) 174 kJ

2.11 A small element at the critical section of a component is in a bi-axial state of stress with the two principal stresses being 360 MPa and 140 MPa. The maximum working stress according to Distortion Energy Theory is
(II) 220 MPa (c) 314 MPa 2.12. The cross is, (b) 110 MPa (d) 330 MPa

2.7. Consider an actual regenerative Rankine cycle with one open feed water heater. For each kg steam entering the turbine, if m kg steam with a specific enthalpy of hi is bled ftOm the turbine, and the specific enthalpy of liquid water entering the heater is then h:t specliic enthaply of saturated liquid leaving the heater is equal to

head velocity in the slider crank mechanism, for the position shown in Figure 2.12




(11) mhl (e)


<ht -


(If) hi -

m (~ -



(d) mh;;-~-hl)

(/I) Vrcos(90-( .... )3)cosl} · (I) V, cos ('.10 - cr. + fll sec


(el Ve cos (90--a -(l) cos P (d) Vc cos (90-'"

-pj sec J3

where Vc is the ltnear velocity of the crank pin. 2.13. The dynamic load capacity of 6_306 benein.g is 22 kN. The maximum radial load It can sustain to operate at 600 rev/min, tor 2000 hours is (a) 4-.16 kN (bl 3.60 kN (el 6.25 kN (d) 5.29 kN 2.14. The percentage improvement in power capElc~ of ty a flat belt drive, when the wrap angle at the driving 0 puJIey is increased from 1500 to 210 by an. idler arrangement for a friction coefflcient of 0.3, IS (a) 25.21 (c) 40.17 (v) 33.92 (d) 67.85

2.19 A machine is purchased for Rs, 32,000, and its assumed life is 20 years. The scrap value at the end of its life is Rs. 8,000. If the depreciation is charg~d by the diminishing balance method, then the percentage reduction ill its value, at the end of the first year is 11)6.7% (b) 7.1% (el 7.2% (d) 7.6% 2.20 A 750 hours life lest is performed on ten components. If one component fails after 350 hours of operation and all others survive the test, then the failure per hour is (al 0.000141 (b) 0.000133 (e) 0.00141 3. (d) 0.00133

2.15 In a typical metal ell tting operation, using a cut ting tool of positive rake y = 10°, it was observed that the shear angle was 20°. The friction angle is

Match 4 correct pairs between List I and List II for questions 3.1 to 3.5 below. No credit will be given for partial matching in each question. Write your answers using only the letters A 10 D and number s 1 to 6.

3.1. I---=L;:_is:....t_I
(II) Steam nozzle (b) Compressible

L_is_t_I_I 1. Mach Number 2. Reaction Turbine 3. Biot Number 4. Nusselt Number 5. Supersaturation 6. Weber Number



(v) 30° (d) 40"

(r) 60"

2.16 A cutting tool has a radius of 1.8 rnm, The feed rate

flow (el Surface tension (d) Heat conduction

for a theoretical surface roughness of R.,'" 5]Jm is
(II) 0.36 mm/rev (e) 0.036 mm/rev (v) 0.187 mm/rev (d) 0.0187 mm/rev 3.2

2.17. Three blocks BI' B2and B3are to be inserted in a channel of width 5 maintaining a minimum gap of width T = 0.125 rnm, as shown in Figure. For P = 18.75 :t 0.08; Q '" 25.00 :t 0.12; R = 28.125 :t 0.1 and 5 = 72.35 + X, (where all dimensions are in mm), the tolerance X is

List I (Il) Liquid to suction heat exchanger (b) Constant volume heat addition
(e) Normal shock

List II 1. Vapur absorption refrigeration 2. Vapour compression refrigeration 3. Diesel cycle 4.0ttocyde 5. Converging nozzle 6. Converging· diverging nozzle. List II

(d) Ammonia water

3.3 (a) + 0.38 (c) +0.05 (b) -0.38 (d) -0.05

List I

(a) Surface profilometer L Calibration 2. Form tester (b) Light Section Microscope
(e) Microkater (d) Interferometer

2.18 In a forecasting model, at the end of period 13, the forecasted value for period 14 is 75. Actual value in the perids 14 to 16 are constant at 100. If the ~wned simple exponential smoothing parameter IS 0.5, then the MSE at the end of period 16 is (4) 820.31 (b) 273.44 (c) 43.75 (d) 14.58

3, FUm thickness measurement 4. Centre line average 5. Comparator 6. Surface lay measurement.


List I
(a) Grinding (b) Honing (e) Superfinishing

List II
1. Surface for oil retention 2.. Surlace for max. loud


capacity 3. Surface of limiling friction 4. Surface of malle finish 5. Surface for pressure sealing 6. Surface for in terferencs fi l. 3.5. List
(n) Automobile 7.

(d) Bumishing

A component in an aircr~h flup actuatcr can be "d~q\lat~ly modelled as a cylindrical bar s\lbjectcd to an axia! force of 8.0 kN, a bending moment of 55 Nm and a torsional moment of 30 Nm. A 20 mm dla~eler solid bar of 7075 - T 6 aluminium having SUI - 591 MPa, S = 542 MP" and S~yp~ 271 Mpa is . )1), recommen ded lor its use. Determine the factor 01 salety available as per stress strain theory. Balls of diameter 30 mm and 15 mrn were use to ~easur.e the taper of a ring gauge. During mspecuon, the ball of 30 rnrn diumeter was p.rolrud~g by 2.5 mm above the top surface of the nng. This surface was located M a height of 50 mm from the top of the 15 mm diameter ball. Calculate the taper angle. Determine the number of production runs and also the total incremental cost in a factory for the data given below: Annual requirement 15,000 units Preparation cost per order = Rs.25 Inventory holding cost Rs.5!unit/year Production rate 100 units/ day Number of working days 250/year SECTIONB

wheel on axle grinding

List II 1. Magneto bearing 2. Angular contact beating spindle 3. Taper roller bearing 4. Hydrodynamic jou rna 1bear ing 5. Sintered bearing 6. Tafton/Nylon bush. 9. metal

(b) High speed

(e) I.C, Engine connecting

rod (d) Leaf spring eye mounting

Answer any TEN questions. 5 marks.

Each question carries


Solve the initial value problem

dy -2- - 4 -d + 3p' 0
dx x the Laplace




= 3 and


at x '" 0 using

Transform 5.

Teehnique. 10.

In a certain double pipe heat exchanger, hot water flows at a rate of 50,000 kg/h and gets cooled from 95° to 650• At the same time 50,000 kg/h of cooling water at 30°C enters the heal exchanger. The flow conditions are such that [he overall heat transfer area required and the effectiveness, assuming the two streams are in parallel flow. Assume Ior both the streams Cp = 4.2 kJ Ikg K. The power output of an I.e. Engine is measured by a rope brake dynamometer. The diameter of the brake pulley is 700 mm and the rope diameter is 25 mm. The load on the tight side of the rope is 50 kg. mass and the spring balance reads 50 N. The engine running at 900 rev I min consumes the fuel, of calorific value 44000 kJ /kg, at a rate of 4kg/h. Assume g'" 9.8 m/sl. Calculate (a) brake specific fuel consumption. (b) brake thermal efficiency.

In a standard vapour compression refrigeration cycle, operating between an evaporator temperature of-lDoe and a condenser temperature of 40oe, the enthalpy of the refrigerant, Freon -12, at the end of compression cycle diagram Calculate (a) the COP of the cycle (b) the refrigerating capacity and the compressor power assuming a refrigerant flow rate of 1 kg/min. You may use the extract of the Freon - 12 property table given below. is 220 kl/kg. Show the on T - s plane.


t (DC)
-10 ~

P (MPa)
0:,2191 0.96Q7

h( (kJ/kg)

hg (kJ/kg)
183.1 203.1


At a place where the surroundings are at 1 bar 27~C. a closed rigid thermally insulated tank contams 2 kg air at 2 bar, 27°C. This air is then churned for a while, by a paddle wheel connected t~ ~.external motor. If it is given that the irrevecslbllityof the process is 100 kJ, find the final. temperature ~d the increase in availability of air; Assume for air,

'v '" 0.718

kJ/kg K ..


In an ;)ir-st,md;lrd rcgcner"tive glls turbine cycle, the pressure ratio is 5. Air enters the compre~sor <II 1 bilr 300 K and ICilves "I 490 K. The maxunum , lempenl t·U rc ,in the cycle is 1000 K.. Calculate f the • I I dficiency, given IhM the dflc,cncy 0 11(' ~~Ce~erator and lite ndiabalic e(fici~ncy of the tt1~bine are each 80%. ASSlll1lC for air, the ratio of specific heats is 1.4. Also, show the cycle on a T- s diagram. Air enters a frictionless adiabatic converging nozzle at lObar, 500 K wilh negligible velocit~. 11,c nozzle discharges to a region al2 bar. If the eXit area of the nozzle is 2.5 em', find the flow rate of air through the nozzle. Assume lor air, C)' '" 1005 J I kg K and


is found to have a pinion wi th 15 teeth and tip (addend urn) diameter of 85 mrn. The mating gear has 33 teeth and 175 mm tip diameter. If the gears are supposed to have standard 20° pressure angle lull depth involute teeth, what should be the module and centre distance between them. Supported by due calculations state whether there is interferenc~ Or not. A shaft of uniform cross section carries a single concentrated mass at its centre and is found to have a first critical speed of 1400 rev Imin. As the operating speed is to be 1440 rev Imin, the critkal speed is to be enhanced and a naive designer has suggested to go in for a hollow shaft with an inner diameter of 0.75 D. Give your comments on the suggestion and show by due calculation whether this will meet the requirement or not. The suspension system of a two-wheeler can be equated to a single spring-mass system with a viscous damper connected in series. Sketch the free body diagram and give the equations of motion. For a mass m '" 50 kg and a spring with a stiffness of 35 kN/m, determine what should be the damping coefficient (damping constant) for critical damping, What can be the damping force for a plunger velocity of 0.05

A single stage spur gear reducer



C,. '" 71SJ/kg K
14. 10 MW power is to be tested with the help of a geometrically sirnil a r 1:8 model, which runs at the same speed as the proto-type. (a) Find the power developed by the model assuming the efficiencies of the model and the proto-type are equal. (b) Find ther~tiooftheheadsand the ratio of mass flow rates between the proto-typ and the model. A spheric a l pressure vessel of 600 mm internal diameter is made of 3 mm thick cold drawn sheet steel with static strength properties of 5,,, '" 440 MPa and S)'p '" 370 MPa. Determine the maximum pressure for (a) static yeldlng, and (b) eveutu .. ! fatigue failure, when the pressure fluctuates between 0 and p""", when yielding is aIso not permitted (Do not apply any factor of safety). A full journal bea ring, 200 mrn in diameter and 200 mm long, is to support a radial load of 45 kN at an opera ting speed of960 rev Imin. If it is to operate at a Sommerfeld number of 0,08 when the radial clearance is 0.2 rnm, determine the viscosity of the oil to be used. Estimate also the power loss in the bearing if the resulting coefficient of friction value is 0.00315. (Note : Sommerfeld number is bearing characteristic number with speed in rev Is) A multiple disc clutchis to transmit 4 kW at 750 rev/min. Available steel and bronze discs of 40 mm inner radius and 70 mm outer radius are to be assembled alternately in appropriate numbers. The clutch is to operate in oil with an expected coefficient of friction of 0.1 and the maximum allowable pressure is not to exceed 350 kPa_ Ass~me uniform wear condition to prevail and speCIfy the number of steel (Driving) lind bronze (driven) discs required. Also determine what axial force is to be applied to develop the full torque.

A water turbine delivering



tool geometry, a


in a tt: -ning trial using orthogonal

chip length of 84 mm was obtained for an uncut chip length of 200 mm. The cutting conditions were:

V", 30 ml min., a
tool is


0.5 rnm, rake angle


= 20°, cutting
chip strain.


Estima te the shear plane angle ~, chip thickness and the shear plane angle for minimum


(II) Sketch the influence machining performance Efficiency machine Range (b) A 'Throw-away' carbide

of cutting speed on and mark the High insert

in the same.

was used to

a steel work piece with a cutting speed


of 60 mlmin and a 1001 life was reduced to 10 min. Using this data, estimate the cutting speed for maximum productivity, if the tool change time is 2 min. 23, A metal strip is to be rolled from an initial wrought thickness of 35 mm to a final rolled thicknesS of 2.5 mm in a single pass rolling mill having rolls of

250 mm diameter.
average coefficient Taking plane-strain metal. and assuming the roll separating

The strip is 450 mID wide. The of friction in the roll gap is 0.08., flow stress of 140 MPa, for the negligible force. spreadingestlInate

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24. (JJ Welding of C40 steel plntc of 'iO rum thickness requ ired a cu rrent of 16 amps. whi I~ it was 360 amps when the plate thickness was increased by 50%. Esrima te the welding current for 8 mm thickness of sa me material.
(0) Estim<lte


the reduction in piercing load [or circular hole of 50 mr» diameter in a 3 mrn thick steel strip, when the punch was provided with n shear .of 1 mm. Assume 30% penetratin and shear strength of steel as 400N/mm2.

People arrive at a hold in a Poisson distributed arrival rate at Spec hour. Service time dlstribution is closely apprcxirnnted by the negative exponential. The averageservice time is S minutes. Calculate . (~) the mean number in the waiting line (b) the mean number in the system (e) the Waiting time in the queue (d) the mean time in the system, and (e) Ihe utilisaiton lac tor.



A project plan is given below: Time duration Activity in weeks A B C 2 2 7

Predecessors None None A A


Acompany rents three warehouses A, Band C from which Ihey supply bearings to two customers P and Q. The proli t per piece, the annual demands of the customers and the supplies available from the warehouses are shown below: p A 3 Q 4 3 4 6000 is n.ot able to meet the demands, Sl.Ipply 4000 4000 3000


F G (a) Construct

12 10 3
4 a PERT network.

13 D,E
C,F the project


2 5

(b) Find the critical path and estimate duration.

As the company


is used on a job that is 30% process controlled. The plan uses a standard hourly rate 01 Rs. 20 and a bonus rate 01 Rs. 25 per hour. The standard time for the job is 0.1 hour J piece. Determine the earnings for a worker per day (8 hours) of work" if 85 pieces wer.e produced on a given day, Comment on the merit of Ihis plan.

A Gantt plan with an 80% gUilrantee

it is proposed to replace warehouse C with a warehouse rented nt D whose supply capacity would be 5000. The expected profit would be Rs, 6 and Rs, 5 per piece distributed to P and Q respectively. The rental charges for w;uehouse D is Rs. 5,000 per year. Find the increase in the profit of the company after replacing werehouse C by D.

1.1 (a)
1.11 (b) t.2.1 (e) 2.1 (e) 2.11 (el

1.2 (1I)
1.12 (lI)

·1.3 (e)
1.13 (eI) 1.23 (e, eI) 2.3 (n) 2.13 (d)

1.4 (b)

1.5 (e) 1.15 (b) }.25 (e) 2.5 (b) 2.15 (c)

1.6 (b) 1.1& (a)

1.7 (d) 1.17 (e)

V3 (n)

1.9 (e) 1.19 (b)

1.10 (d)
}.20 (a)



1.18 (d) 2.8 (n) 2.18 (b)

1.22 (d)
2.2 (b) 2.12 (tI)

1.24 (a) 2.4 (b) 2.14 (d)

2.6 (n) 2.16 (v)

2;7 (e) 2.17 (d)

2.9 (e) 2.19

2.10 (d) 2.20 (a)


3.1 (/I) -5, (b) -1, (e) --6 (d) -3 3.2 (a) -2, (v) -4, (e) -6 (d)-1
3.'3 (n) --4; (b) -3, (e) -5 (d) -13,.4 (n) -3, (v) -1, (e) -2 (d) -5

3.5 (a) -3, (b) -1, (e) -4 (d) --6

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