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# DC Motors : Characteristics

## Dr. Bharat Singh Rajpurohit

Objectives
Torque equation Relations between Torque, Speed, Flux, Armature Current, back emf Characteristics of Motors (for shunt, series and compound)
Armature current Vs Torque Armature current Vs Speed Torque vs Speed

Few Numerical

DC motors are the machine that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and works on the principal that when current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field it experience a mechanical force.

## DC Motor : Torque Equation

Torque is defined as tendency to produce rotation. = Flux per pole in weber, P = Number of poles, N = Speed in rpm, Z = Total number of armature conductors, two cond. per turn A = Number of parallel paths Ta= Armature torque Eb= Voltage generated in armature opposes the armature current Power developed = Ta * 2N watt, Electrical Power = Eb* Ia = PNZ/A * Ia Ta = 0.159 * PZ/A * Ia

1. A motor develops a torque of 150N.m and is subjected to a 10 % percent reduction in field flux, which produces a 50% increase in armature current. Find the new torque produced as a result of this change in field flux. Solution: Original condition New condition 1.0 0.9 Ia 1.0 1.5 T 150N.m ?

T=KIa Using the ratio method, the new torque is the product of two new ratio changes: T= 202 Nm. Conclusion: Torque depends upon flux and armature current but independent of speed. But speed depends upon torque (not viceversa).

2. A dc shunt motor having a armature resistance of 0.25 and a brush contact voltage drop of 3V receives an applied voltage across its armature terminals of 120V. Calculate the armature when: The speed produces a counter EMF of 110V at a given load. The speed drops (due to application of additional load) and the counter EMF is 105V. Compute the percentage of change in counter EMF and in armature current. Solution: Ia= (V- Eb - BD )/ Ra =28A At increased load, Ia=( V- Eb - BD )/ Ra = 48A Ec=4.54 % and Ia=71.4 % Conclusions: Small dec. in Eb resulted in much larger inc. in Ia. Consequently, Small changes in N (& Eb) corresponds to large changes in motor current .

## Motor Speed: Back EMF and Flux

Ia= (V- Eb - BD )/ Ra and Eb = kN Hence N = (V- Ia Ra - BD ) / k Fundamental equation for speed relation of DC motor. Cases: 1. tends to zero, N will shoot-up. 2. Ia and const. and than N depends upon V only. 3. and V const., inc. in load i.e. Ia, N will change accordingly to Eb.

## Motor Speed: Back EMF and Flux

3. A 120V dc shunt motor having an armature circuit resistance of 0.2 and a field circuit resistance of 60, draws a line current of 40 A at full load. The brush voltage drop is 3V and rated full-load speed is 1800rpm. Calculate: The speed at half load (1863 rpm) The speed at an overload of 125 percent (1769 rpm). Sol.: At full load, Ia=Il-If=40A- 120/60 =38A; Eb=Va-(IaRa+BD) =120-(38*0.2+3)=109.4V At the rated speed of 1800 rpm, Eb=109.4V and Ia=38A (full load) At half speed, Ia= 38/2=19A; Eb=Va-(IaRa+BD) =120-(19*0.2+3) =113.2V Using the ratio method, half-load speed is N=1800*(113.2/ 109.4)=1863 rpm

## Motor Speed: Back EMF and Flux

Sol.: At 125 % load, Ia=47.4 A; Eb=Va-(IaRa+BD)=120-(47.5*0.2+3)=107.5 V N5/4=1800 * 107.5/ 109.4 =1769 rpm

## Motor Speed: Back EMF and Flux

4. The dc motor of ex. 3 is loaded to a line current of 66A (temporarily) , but in order to produce the necessary torque, the field flux is increased by 12 % by decreasing the field circuit resistance to 50. Calculate the speed of the motor. Ia=Il-If=66- 120/50=63.6 A Eb=Va-(IaRa+BD)=120-(63.6*0.2+3)=104.3V N= k Eb / =1800* (104.3/109.4) * (1.0/1.12)=1532 rpm

## Back EMF and Mechanical Power Developed

Eb=Va-IaRa EbIa=VaIa-I2aRa (Power Mech. = Electrical power Losses) Now ratio, EbIa/VaIa which is same as Eb/Va and will decide electrical power available for conversion to mechanical power. Higher the ratio Eb/Va for higher the efficiency. Also for max. Eb = kN, & N can be increased. But also, N = (V- Ia Ra - BD ) / k, so inc. means N dec. Conclusion: For a given mech. load and resulting IL and Ia, there is particular N and where max. power can be produced. (From ex. 4)

## Back EMF and Mechanical Power Developed

5. Calculate the armature power developed, Pd, for each of the loads of Ex. 3 and Ex. 4 and tabulate all results for ready reference and comparison. Sol.:

Conclusion: For inc. in Ia or motor load. The Eb dec. The N dec. The motor armature power developed inc.

## Torque and Speed

N = (V- Ia Ra - BD ) / k T = k Ia Ia= (V- Eb - BD )/ Ra (1) (2) (3)

Relation (2) says that inc. in will inc. T (also possibly N). But relation (1) says that inc. in will dec. the N. Inconsistency? Now, relation (3) can be used to explain this inconsistency. The can be reduced by reduction in If. The Eb (= N) will dec. instantaneously (but not N due to inertia). The dec. in Eb cause an inc. in Ia instantaneously (relation 3). But small dec. in produces and large inc. in Ia. Relation 2, small dec. in will be balanced by large inc. in Ia. Now new torque has increased value than previous torque value. This inc. in torque produces an inc. in N. Conclusion: Dec. in results in inc. in N.

## Torque Characteristics of DC Motors

(Torque Vs Armature Current)
Shunt Motor: Hence, Series Motor: T = k Ia and Eb=Va-IaRa = const. T = k Ia (a linear relation)

## T = k Ia and Eb=Va- Ia (Ra+ Rse) proportional to Ia Hence, T = kI2a (a quadratic relation)

Compound Motor: T = k Ia = (sh se) Hence, T = k (sh se) Ia or T = (k1 k2Ia) Ia = (k1 Ia k2I2a)

## Torque Characteristics of DC Motors

6. A cumulative compound motor is operated as a shunt motor (series field disconnected) and develops a torque of 160 lb.ft when the armature current is 140A and the field flux is 1.6*106 lines. When reconnected as cumulative compound motor at the same current, it develops a torque of 190 lb.ft. Find The flux increases due to the series field in percent. The torque when the compound motor load increases by 10 percent. (assume operation on the linear portion of the saturation curve) Sol.: T Ia r In lb.ft in A in lines Original 160 140 1.6*106 Added flux 190 140 f Final torque Tf 154 1.1*1.9*106 Now, f=1.6*106 * 190/160=1.9*106 lines. Percentage of flux increase: 18.8 % The final field flux is 1.1*1.9*106 lines (due to the 10 percent increase in load). The final torque is : 190 * (154/140) * 1.1 = 230 lb.ft

7. A series motor draws a current of 25A and develops a torque of 90lb.ft. Calculate The torque when the current rises to 30A if the field is unsaturated The torque when the current rises to 30A and the increases in current produces a 10 percent increase in flux. Sol.: T=KI2a=90 lb.ft (30/25)2=129.6 lb.ft Conclusion: For unsaturation, a 20 % inc. in Ia, gives 44 % inc. in T. T=KIa=90lb.ft * (30/25) * (1.1/1.0) =118.8 lb.ft Conclusion: For saturation, a 20 % inc. in Ia, gives 32 % inc. in T.

## Speed Characteristics of DC Motors

(Speed Vs Armature Current)
Shunt Motor: Hence, Series Motor: N = (V- Ia Ra - BD ) / k = const. N = (V- Ia Ra - BD ) / k (const.)

N = (V- Ia Ra - Ia Rse- BD ) / k proportional to Ia Hence, N = (V- Ia Ra - Ia Rse- BD ) / k Ia Note: Ia very small, N very high Ia very high, N very small Caution: Centrifugal switch and/or coupled load. Fuse in arm. path.

Compound Motor: N = (Eb) / k (Eb = const.) = (sh se) Hence, N = (Eb) / k (sh se) or N = (Eb) / (k1 k2Ia)

## Torque-Speed Characteristics of DC Motors

Applications of DC Machines
DC Motor Series motor-high starting torque-Traction, cranes, hoists, hybrid vehicle, conveyer belts. Shunt motor - Medium torque, constant speed-Lathe machine, constant speed line-shafting, centrifugal & reciprocating pumps, etc.

We have seen basic characteristics of DC motors. Only DC motor is sufficient to fulfill the load requirement related to speed and torque requirements? A control is required. Speed and Torque control.

8. A 230V,10 hp,1250 rpm cumulative compound has an armature resistance motor has an Ra =0.25, a combined compensating winding and interpole resistance of 0.25, and a brush voltage drop of 5V. The resistance of the series field is 0.15, and the shunt field resistance is 230. When the motor is shunt connected, the line current rated load is 55A and the no load line current is 4A. The noload speed is 1810 rpm. Neglecting armature reaction at rated voltage, calculate Speed at rated load Internal power in watts and internal horse-power developed. Sol.: Ia=Il-If=4A-1A=3A No-load Et=Va-(IaRa+BD)=230-(3*0.5+5)=223.5 at a speed of 1810 rpm Full-load Ec=Va-(IaRa+BD)=230-(54*0.5+5)=198V N = 1810 (198/223.5) = 1603 rpm.

8. A 230V,10 hp,1250 rpm cumulative compound has an armature resistance motor has an Ra =0.25, a combined compensating winding and interpole resistance of 0.25, and a brush voltage drop of 5V. The resistance of the series field is 0.15, and the shunt field resistance is 230. When the motor is shunt connected, the line current rated load is 55A and the no load line current is 4A. The noload speed is 1810 rpm. Neglecting armature reaction at rated voltage, calculate Internal power in watts and internal horse-power developed. Sol.: Pd=EbIa=198V*54A=10700W hp = 10700/746 = 14.3 hp Conclusions: Full load speed of shunt motor is higher than compound motor. The internal hp is greater than external hp

Thanks
References: I. L. Kosow, Electrical Machinery & Transformers Clayton & Hancock, The Performance and Design of DC Machines