THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Personality • Totality of a person • Distinctive, stable pattern • Characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, behaviors • Makes a person

unique Characteristics of Personality • Organized and consistent Sigmund Freud • Founder of psychoanalysis • 2 techniques in conducting psychoanalysis: o Free Association o Dream Analysis 2 Types of Dream Content • Manifest – consciously remembered • Latent Mechanism Involved in Dream Work • Condensation • Displacement • Symbolism • Secondary revision A. TOPOGRAPHICAL MODEL OF THE MIND 1. Conscious – aware 2. Preconscious – readily available for consciousness if the person concentrates 3. Unconscious – hidden B. INSTINT OF DRIVE THEORY Toilet Training Parents at • Beg the child’s • Sweet mercy talk • Praise Very strict parents • • Punish Humiliat e Anal Expulsive

(gum, pencils) Tend to be verbally aggressive , argumenta tive, sarcastic Sloppy Disorganiz ed Generous to a fault Cruel Destructive Super clean Perfectioni st Dictatorial Very stubborn Stingy

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Anal retentive

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Drives or instinct  BEHAVIOR o Referred to as life instincts Instincts or drive: motivational forces o Libido – sexual component (“I desire”) o Ego – non-sexual component o Aggressin – aim: destruction o Life and death instincts – Eros vs. Thanatos

C. STRUCTURAL MODEL 1. Id – primitive; for pleasure; unconscious 2. Ego – reality 3. Superego – after the phallic stage; moral and idealistic; conscience rules PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES AREA OF THE SKIN Mouth Anus Genitalia Genitalia PLEASURE Sucking Holding/letting go Touching/rubbing Sexual intercourse

Oedipal Crisis BOY Rejected by MOM Threatened by a very masculine Dad GIRL Rejected by DAD Threatened by a very feminine mom BOY Not rejected by MOM

Poor sense of self worth (in terms of sexuality) Poor sense of self worth (in terms of sexuality) Develop opinion of himself

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Act macho Act as a ladies’ man Wallflower HYPER feminine BELLE Effeminate No cause to identify with the father Vain Selfcentered Masculine

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Not rejected by DAD Mom relegated to a servant

Daddy’s little princess

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Infant 1-3 y/o 3-4 y/o Puberty, Adolescence, Young Adult Weaning 1st 8 months

EGO AND MASTERY DEVELOPMENT Personal Identity Failure to resolve adolescent issues  id diffusion or role confusion • No sense of self • Confusion about their place in the world DEFENSE MECHANISM - cope with anxiety • Denial – blocking external events from awareness • Distortion - grossly reshaping external reality to suit inner needs • Projection – “displacement outward” o Tendency to seek your own unacceptable desires to other people

Early weaning  frustrated in sucking


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5-8 months

“Teething”  bite on anything


Dependent Retain interest in ORAL gratificatio n Life long desire to bite on things

Immature • Acting Out – expressing an unconscious wish/impulse into action • Blocking – temporarily inhibiting thinking • Hypochondriasis – preoccupation with the fear of contracting or the belief of having a serious disease • Introjection – “identification personality” o Taking into your own the characteristics of someone else • Passive-Aggressive – expressing aggression towards other indirectly o Eg. Abused wives • Progression – reversion to immature patterns of behavior • Schizoid Fantasy – autistic retreat to resolve conflict or obtain gratification • Somatization – manifest emotional and anxiety into physical symptoms Neurotic • Controlling – manage or regulate events to minimize conflicts • Displacement – redirection of an impulse over a sub target • Externalization – perceiving in the external world elements of one’s own personality • Inhibition – consciously renounce some ego functions • Intellectualization – excessively using intellectual process to avoid affective expressional experience • Isolation – involves stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or threatening impulse • Rationalization – cognitive distortion of “the facts” to make an event/impulse less threatening • Dissociation – temporarily but not drastically modifying a person’s character • Reaction Formation – behave in a way that is opposite of one’s true feelings • Repression – expel/withhold painful or conflictual thought, impulse, or memory from awareness • Sexualization – endowing an object/function with sexual significance Mature • Altruism – fulfill own needs vicariously through other people • Anticipation – realistically planning for future inner discomfort • Ascetism – renunciation of needs o Ex: monks • Humor – use of comedy • Sublimation – transforming an unacceptable impulse to socially acceptable and productive form • Suppression – conscious process of putting thoughts into the preconscious ERIKSON • Epigenetic Principle – develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in 8 staegs • Stages: o Task - balamce o Time – optimal o Management – well: virtue  Not so well: maladpations malignancies (+/-)

Trust vs. Mistrust Parents Infants Reliable, Trust adequate Unreliable, Mistrust inadequat e

Maladaptation Apprehensiv e and suspicious Malignancy: • Depressio n • Paranoia • Psychosis

Autonomy vs. Shame Parents Child Allow child to Autonomy explore and manipulate environment

Develop selfcontrol and selfesteem Does NOT Shame and Thinks allow child Doubt can’t stand alone Laugh at mistakes • Willpower and Determination

Maladaptation Impulsiveness

Malignancy Compulsivenes s Perfectionist Follow rules regularly

Initiative vs. Guilt Parents Child Encourage Initiative child to try out new ideas to grow up Harsh and abrupt process • Guilt

Take responsibilitie s Learn new things Capacity for moral judgement

Maladaptation Ruthlessness May step on others shoes in order to reach goal Malignancy Inhibition Will not try things


Industry vs. Inferiority Parent/Commun Child ity Parents Industry encourage Teachers care Peers must accept Harsh teachers Rejecting peers • Inferiorit y

Pleasure in planning and carrying out the plan

Sense of incompeten ce

Maladaptatio n Narrow virtuosity Children not allowed to be children Malignancy


Identity vs. Role Confusion Parent/Society Child Ego Know who Id you are and how you’ll fit into society Role Identity confusion crisis • Fidelity

Maladaptation Fanaticism

Malignancy Repudiation

Intimacy vs. Isolation Clear sense of Intimacy who you are Modern life Prevent development of intimate relationships • Love Isolation

Clear sense of who you are (?)

Maladaptation Promiscuity Malignancy

Generativity vs. Stagnation Generativity Concern for next generation Raising children Stagnation Selfabsorption Caring for no one • Care Integrity vs. Despair Sense of Ego usefulness integrity Biological uselessness Despair Detach from society Retire from work Preoccupation with past

Maladaptation Over extension

Malignancy Rejectivity


Malignancy Disdain