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Caste system Social stratification based on ascription or birth Lives in the rigid categories Determine occupation Marriage between

caste Social life restricted to own kind or same caste Tied to religious dogma Difference in law standard Education did not change the caste Easy to define classes

Class system Social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement Open and not rigid Occupation involves some of personal choices More freedom in choosing life partner Social life is not restricted Religious play no role or only small part All people gain equal standing before the law People with education and skills improve their class Harder to define classes

Caste can be define as hereditary endogamous group, having a common name, common traditional occupation, common culture, relatively rigid in matters of mobility, distinctiveness of status and forming a single homogeneous community. Segmental division of society in India social stratification is largely based on caste. There are various castes having a well-developed lifestyle of their own. The membership of a caste is determined by birth and it is hereditary in nature. Hierarchy in caste indicates various castes according to their purity and impurity of occupations are ranked from higher to lower positions. It is like a ladder where pure caste is ranked on the top and impure is ranked at the bottom. There is also restriction on food, drink and smoking. Usually different caste does not exchange food and drink, and do not share smoking of hukka among them. For instance, Brahmins do not take food from any other caste. Endogamy indicates members of the caste have to marry within their own caste only. Inter caste marriages are prohibited. However, among educated people, particularly in the urban areas, inter-caste marriages are gradually increasing It is one of the important features of caste system that purity and pollution are judged in terms of deeds, occupation, language, dress patterns, as well as food habits. For example liquor consumption, consuming non vegetarian food habits and left over food of the high castes. Lastly is occupational association and social and religious disabilities and privileges. Each caste has specific occupation and cannot change the occupation. For instance, Brahmins do priesthood and teaching. In the other side, the lower caste are debarred from doing many things like they are not permitted to enter the temple, do not use literary language and cannot use gold ornaments or umbrella. Class system is based on both birth and individual accomplishment. Class systems are more exposed than caste systems, so people who gain schooling and skills may experience social flexibility. As a result, class distinction becomes indistinct, and even blood lineages may have different social

standings. Classifying people according to their sex, or social background comes to be seen as wrong in modern societies as all people gain political privileges and in principle, equal standing before law. Meritocracy refers to social stratification founded on individual merit. The array of skills, is significant to stratification is based not just on the coincidence of birth but also on merit which includes a persons knowledge, abilities and determination. Status consistency is the degree of uniformity in a person social standing across various dimensions of social inequality. A class system have a greater mobility of class systems produces less status consistency, so people are ranked higher on some dimensions of social standing and lower on others.