Indolence of the Filipino People

I Doctor Sanciano, in his Progreso de Filipinas, has taken up this question, agitated, as he calls it, and relying upon facts and reports furnished by the very same Spanish authorities that ruled the Philippines has demonstrated that such indolence does not exist, and that all said about it does not deserve a reply or even passing choice. Nevertheless as discussion of it has been continued, not only by government employees who make it responsible for their own shortcomings, not only by the friars who regard it as necessary in order that they may continue to represent themselves as indispensable, but also by serious and disinterested persons: and as evidence of greater or less weight may be adduced in opposition to that which Dr. Sanciano cites, it seems expedient to us to study this question thoroughly, without superciliousness or sensitiveness, without prejudice, without pessimism. As as we can only serve our country by telling the truth, however, bitter it be, just as flagrant and skillful negation cannot refute a real and positive fact, in spite of the brilliance of the arguments; as mere affirmation is not sufficient to create something possible, let us calmly examine the facts, using on our part all the impartiality of which a man is capable who is convinced that there is no redemption except upon solid bases of virtue. The word indolence has been greatly misused in the sense of little love for work and lack of energy, while ridicule has concealed the misuse. This much-discussed question has met with the same fate as certain panaceas and specifics of the quacks who by ascribing to them impossible virtues have discredited them. In the Middle Ages, and even in some Catholic countries now, the devil is blamed for everything that superstitious folk cannot understand or the perversity of mankind is loath to confess. In the Philippines one's and another's faults, the shortcomings of one, the misdeeds of another, are attributed to indolence. And just as in the Middle Ages he who sought the explanation of phenomena outside of infernal influences was persecuted, so in the Philippines worse happens to him who seeks the origin of the trouble outside of accepted beliefs. The consequence of this misuse is that there are some who are interested in stating it as a dogma and others in combating it as a ridiculous superstition, if not a punishable delusion. Yet it is not to be inferred from the misuse of a thing that it does not exist. We think that there must be something behind all this outcry, for it is incredible that so many should err, among whom we have said there are a lot of serious and disinterested persons. Some act in bad faith, though levity, through levity, through want of sound judgment, through limitation in reasoning power, ignorance of the past, or other cause. Some repeat what they have heard, without examination or reflection; others speak through pessimism or are impelled by that human characteristic which paints as perfect everything that belongs to oneself and defective whatever belongs to another. But it cannot be denied that there are some who worship truth, or if not truth itself at least the semblance thereof which is truth in the mind of the crowd. Examining well, then, all scenes and all the men that we have known from childhood; and the life of our country, we believe that indolence does exist there. The Filipinos, who can measure up with the most active peoples in the world, will doubtless not repudiate his admission, for it is true there one works and struggles against the climate, against nature and against men. But we must not take the exception for

the general rule, and should rather seek the good of our country by stating what we believe to be true. We must confess that indolence does actually and positively exist there, only that, instead of holding it to be the cause of the backwardness and the trouble, we regard it as the effect of the trouble and the backwardness, by fostering the development of a lamentable predisposition. Those who have as yet treated of indolence, with the exception of Dr. Sancianco, have been content to deny or affirm it. We know of no one who has studied its causes. Nevertheless, those who admit its existence and exaggerate it more or less have not therefore failed to advise remedies taken from here and there, from Java, from India, from other English or Dutch colonies, like the quack who saw a fever cured with a dozen sardines and afterwards always prescribed these fish at every rise in temperature that he discovered in his patient. We shall proceed otherwise. Before proposing a remedy we shall examine the causes, and even though strictly speaking a predisposition is not a cause, let us, however, study at its true value this predisposition due to nature. The predisposition exists? Why shouldn't it? A hot climate requires of the individual quiet and rest, just as cold incites to labor and action. For this reason the Spaniard is more indolent than the Frenchman; the Frenchman more so than the German. The Europeans themselves who reproach the residents of the colonies so much (and I am not now speaking of the Spaniards but of the Germans and English themselves), how do they live in tropical countries? Surrounded by a numerous train of servants, never-going afoot but riding in a carriage, needing servants not only to take off their shoes for them but even to them! And yet they live and eat better, they work for themselves to get rich, with the hope of a future, free and respected, while the poor colonist, the indolent colonist, is badly nourished, has no hope, toils for others, and works under force and compulsion! Perhaps the reply to this will be that white men are not made to stand the severity of the climate. A mistake! A man can live in any climate, if he will only adapt himself to its requirements and conditions. What kills the European in hot countries is the abuse of liquors, the attempt to live according to the nature of his own country under another sky and another sun. We inhabitants of hot countries live well in northern Europe whenever we take the precautions of the people there do. Europeans can also stand the torrid zone, if only they would get rid of their prejudices. The fact is that in tropical countries violent work is not a good thing as it is in cold countries, there it is death, destruction, annihilation. Nature knows this and like a just mother has therefore made the earth more fertile, more productive, as a compensation. An hour's work under that burning sun, in the midst of pernicious influences springing from nature in activity, is equal to a day's work in a temperate climate; it is, then, just that the earth yields a hundred fold! Moreover, do we not see the active European, who feels the fresh blood of spring boil in his veins, do we not see him abandon his labors, during the few days of his variable summer, close his office -- where the work is not violent and amounts for many to talking and gesticulating in the shade beside a lunch stand -- flee to watering places, sit in the cafes or stroll about. What wonder then that the inhabitant of tropical countries, worn out and with his blood thinned by the continuous and excessive heat is reduced to inaction? Who is the indolent one in the Manila offices? Is it the poor clerk who comes in at eight in the morning and leaves at one in the afternoon with only his parasol, who copies and writes and works for himself and for his chief, or is it the chief, who comes in a carriage at ten o'clock, leaves before twelve, reads his newspaper while smoking and with his feet cocked up on a chair or a table, or gossiping about all his friends? What is indolent, the native coadjutor, poorly paid and badly treated, who has to visit all the indigent sick living in the

country, or the friar curate who gets fabulously rich, goes about in a carriage, eats and drinks well, and does not put himself to any trouble without collecting an excessive fee? Without speaking further of the Europeans in what violent labor does the Chinaman engage in tropical countries, the industrious Chinaman, who flees from his own country driven by hunger and whose whole ambition is to amass a small fortune? With the exception of some porters, an occupation that the natives also follow, he nearly always engages in the trade, in commerce; so rarely does he take up agriculture that we do not know of a single case. The Chinaman who in other colonies cultivates the soil does so only for a certain number of years and then retires. We find, then, the tendency to indolence very natural, and have to admit and bless it, for we cannot alter natural laws, and without it the race would have disappeared. l Man is not a brute, he is not a machine, his object is not merely to produce, in spite of the pretensions of some Christian whites who would make of the colored Christian a kind of motive power somewhat more intelligent and less costly than steam. Man's object is not to satisfy the passions of another man, his object is to seek happiness for himself and his kind by traveling along the road of progress and perfection. The evil is not that indolence exists more or less latently but that it is fostered and magnified. Among men, as well as among nations, there exist not only, aptitudes but also tendencies good and evil. To foster the good ones and aid them, as well as correct the evil and repress them, would be the duty of society and government, if less noble thoughts did not occupy their attention. The evil is that the indolence in the Philippines is a magnified indolence, an indolence of the snowball type, if we may be permitted the expression, an evil that increases in direct proportion to the periods of time, and effect of misgovernment and of backwardness, as we have said, and not a cause thereof. Others will hold the contrary opinion, especially those who have a hand in the misgovernment, but we do not care; we have made an assertion and are going to prove it. II When in consequence of a long chronic illness the condition of the patient is examined, the question may arise whether the weakening of the fibers and the debility of the organs are the cause of the malady's continuing or the effect of the bad treatment that prolongs its action. The attending physician attributes the entire failure of his skill to the poor constitution of the patient, to the climate, to the surroundings, and so on. On the other hand, the patient attributes the aggravation of the evil to the system of treatment followed. Only the common crowd, the inquisitive populace, shakes its head and cannot reach a decision. Something like this happens in the case of the Philippines. Instead of a physician, read government, that is friars, employees, etc. Instead of patient, Philippines; instead of malady, indolence. And just as happens in similar cases when the patient gets worse, everybody loses his head, each one dodges the responsibility to place it upon somebody else, and instead of seeking the causes in order to combat the evil in them, devotes himself at best to attacking the symptoms; here a blood-letting, a tax; there a plaster, forced labor, further on a sedative, a trifling reform. Every new arrival proposes a new remedy; one, seasons of prayer, the relics of a saint, the viaticum, the friars; another shower-bath; still another, with pretensions to modern ideas, a transfusion of blood. "It's nothing, only the patient has

eight million indolent red corpuscles; some few white corpuscles in the form of an agricultural colony will get us out of the trouble." So, on all sides there are groans, gnawing of lips, clenching of fists, many hollow words, great ignorance, a deal of talk, a lot of fear. The patient is near his finish! Yes, transfusion of blood, transfusion of blood! New life, new vitality! Yes, new white corpuscles that you are going to inject into its veins, the new white corpuscles that were a cancer in another organism will withstand all the depravity of the system, will have more stamina than all the degeneration, all the trouble in the principal organs. Be thankful if they do not become coagulations and produce gangrene, be thankful if they do not reproduce the cancer! While the patient breathes, we must not lose hope, and however late we may be, a judicious examination is never superfluous; at least the cause of death may be known. We are not trying to put all the blame on the physician, and still less on the patient, for we have already spoken of a predisposition, in the absence of which the race would disappear, sacrificed to excessive labor in a tropical country. Indolence in the Philippines is a chronic malady, but not a hereditary one. The Filipinos have not always been what they are, witnesses whereto are all the historians of the first years after the discovery of the Islands. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Malayan Filipinos carried on an active trade, no only among themselves but also with all the neighboring countries. A Chinese manuscript of the 13th century, translated by Dr. Hirth (Globus, September, 1889), which we will take up at another time, speaks of China's relations with the islands, relations purely commercial, which mention is made of the activity and honesty of the traders of Luzon, who took the Chinese products and distributed them throughout all the islands, for the merchandise that the Chinaman did not remember to have given them. The products which they in exchange exported from the islands were crude wax, cotton, pearls, tortoise shell, betelnuts, dry goods, etc. The first thing noticed by Pigafetta who came with Magellan in 1521, on arriving at the first island of the Philippines, Samar, was the courtesy and kindness of the inhabitants and their commerce. "To honor our captain," he says, "they conducted him to their boats where they had their merchandise, which consisted of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, nutmegs, mace, gold and other things; and they made us understand by gestures that such articles were to be found in the islands to which we were going." Further on he speaks of the vessels and utensils of solid gold that he found in Butuan where the people worked in mines. He describes the silk dresses, the daggers with long gold hilts and scabbards of carved wood, the gold sets of teeth, etc. Among cereals and fruits he mentions rice, millet, oranges, lemons, panicum, etc. That the islands maintained relations with neighboring countries and even with distant ones is proven by the ships from Siam, laden with gold and slaves, that Magellan found in Cebu. These ships paid certain duties to the king of the island. In the same year, 1521, the survivors of Magellan's expedition met the son of the Rajah of Luzon, who, as captain-general of the Sultan of Borneo and admiral of his fleet, had conquered for him the great city of Lave (Sarawak ?). Might this captain, who was greatly

his brother. he replied. but later I'll have you crucified!" The chief of Paragua was more generous: he forgot. have been the Rajah Matanda whom the Spaniards afterwards encountered in Tondo in 1570? In 1539 the warriors of Luzon took part in the formidable contests of Sumatra. and 450 chickens. His conduct. and his son. and at a port frequented by many ships that came from the islands and kingdoms near India. renowned in the historical annals of the Far East. (Marseen. When Caesar was taken prisoner by the corsairs and required to pay twenty-five talents ransom. (Gaspar de San Agustin) plenty of provisions. At this island the survivors of Magellan's expedition were well received and provisioned. They arrived at the Island of Cebu. for these lombards were useful to the chief of Paragua against the savages of the interior. with the Portuguese? Spaniards did not reach Luzon until 1571. Rajah of Batta. these same survivors captured a vessel.) A very extraordinary thing. that sea was everywhere traversed by junks. The city was taken by force and burned. when the servantinterpreter died they communicated with one another through a Moro who had been captured in the island of the King of Luzon and who understood some Spanish (Martin Mendez. Purser of the ship Victoria: Archivo de Indias. cloths. and under the orders of Angi Sity Timor. movement in all the southern islands. when they first came to the islands. trade. voluntarily added coconuts. (Colin. vessels swift as shuttles so large that they could maintain a hundred rowers on a side (Morga). with mines and washings of gold. Tuan Mahamud. This is the first act of piracy recorded in Philippine history. paraus. porcelain. also demonstrates that the islands ere abundantly provisioned. barangays. who nearly all tilled their own fields. chapter 20) At that time. and this is the first mention of artillery of the Filipino. activity. etc.) Where did this extemporaneous interpreter learn Castilian? In the Moluccas? In Malacca. in that very year 1521. conquered and overthrew the terrible Alzadin. Legazpi's expedition met in Butuan various traders of Luzon with their boats laden with iron. Guantil. The first destroyed the food . History of Sumatra. "I'll give you fifty. (Martin Mendez. Chapter 15) Wealth abounded in the islands. Sultan of Atchin. demanding 400 measures (cavanes ?) of rice. "abounding in provisions. and moreover. is that fifty years before the arrival of the Spaniards in Luzon. In the treaties of peace that the survivors of Magellan's expedition made with the chief of Paragua. This chief was named Tuan Mahamud. bananas. 20 pigs. industry. op cit. that sea bore everywhere commerce. and sugar-cane jars filled with palm wine. by the force of the oars moved to the sound of warlike songs of the genealogies and achievements of the Philippine divinities. there were already natives of Luzon who understood Castilian. and peopled with natives." as Colin says: and even though they were peacefully received discord soon arose. that sea where float the islands like a set of emeralds on a paten of bright glass. 20 goats. while it may reveal weakness. A little later. and one that shows the facility with which the natives learned Spanish. vintas. They let him ransom himself within seven days. agriculture. Pigafetta tells us of the abundance of foodstuffs in Pragua and of its inhabitants. The chief of Paragua paid everything. In this same vessel they captured bronze lombards.feared by all his foes. plundered and sacked it and took prisoner in it the chief of the Island of Paragua with his son and brother. "as Morga says: "very populous.

As they used to do in their Paganism and for a long time after the country was conquered. Argensola. even to the extent of completely forgetting its past? . but the neighboring islands quickly relieved the need. gold-washings. the horn and hide industry. does not convince any minds imbued with unfair prejudices perhaps. stock and cotton. and weaving cloth. asked if they would not become indolent when they in turn should accept Christianity and a paternal government. the rascarse la barriga of the Spaniard. the supreme aspiration of the bourgeois to live on his income in peace and tranquility. not also Chirinco. as well with reference to the authorities in the Philippines as to the errors they committed. assert the same thing. the Filipinos in spite of the climate. who was Lieutenant-Governor of Manila for seven years and after rendering great service in the Archipelago was appointed criminal judge of the Audiencia of Mexico and Counselor of the Inquisition. the civet industry. The dolce far niente of the Italian. this much forgotten industry. etc. as it may be more or less hard. there was movement. when he saw the tribes not subdued cultivating beautiful fields and working energetically. as our contemporary writers say? We have already spoken of the more or less latent predisposition which exists in the Philippines toward indolence. and which must exist everywhere. of some avail may be the testimony of the oft-quoted Dr." says Morga. and in what way. their ethics and their mode of life were not what is not complacently attributed to them. in Chapter Seven. are things encountered at every step. Morga. as we shall see later on. in spite of their few needs (they were less then than now). after two hundred and fifty years. His testimony.supplies and naturally famine broke out in that town of a hundred thousand people. in short. Dr. we say. so fond of its customs as to border on routine. abound in long accounts about the industry and agriculture of the natives. which is deduction. weaving of silk and cotton. and considering the time and the conditions in the islands. raising poultry. farms.. pearl fisheries. barter. looms. All the histories of those first years. naval construction. as the historians say. there was activity. speaking of the occupations of the Chinese. And if this. Colin. more ore less unproductive. raising of poultry and stock. etc. "The natives. were not the indolent creatures of our time. distilleries. What causes operated to awake this terrible predisposition from its lethargy? How is it that the Filipino people. in the whole world. thanks to the abundance they enjoyed. but modern travelers. How then. in all men. of trade. not only because all his contemporaries have spoken of him in terms that border on veneration but also because his work. how long is his eighth chapter! And not only Morga. is highly credible. and. Hans Meyer. prove that there was life. Accordingly. has given up its ancient habits of work. manufactures of arms.. attest this. because we all hate work more or less. "are very far from exercising those trade and have forgotten much about farming. is written with great circumspection and care. of navigation. Gaspar de San Agustin and others agree to this matter. was that active and enterprising infidel native of ancient times converted into the lazy and indolent Christian. examining the decadence and misery. and yet in spite of that. mines. from which we take these citations." The whole Chapter 8 of his work deals with this moribund activity. and among the members of the expedition.

and still others the result of more or less base passions. Like the tribute that once upon a time Greece sent to the Minotaur of Crete. in which each time thousands and thousands of native archers and rowers were recorded to have embarked. the rash expeditions. some independent of the will in spite of men's efforts. who recounts the first piratical invasion. in such manner that they did not protect them from their enemies or leave the means with which to defend themselves. AS THEY DID WHEN THERE WERE NO SPANIARDS IN THE COUNTRY. an evil which instead of being remedies by prudence. the interminable wars. the frightful inroads of the terrible pirates from the south. through regrettable blindness and obstinacy. sometimes because they believed that to preserve their independence it was necessary to weaken the Spaniard by reducing the number of his subjects. there were fights. to extend the sway of her flag in Borneo." From fifty thousand families to fourteen thousand tributaries in little over half a century! We would never get through. insurrections were suspected. since the independent Malays were especially notorious for their atrocities and murders. mature reflection and recognition of the mistakes made. sometimes because a greater hatred and a deeper resentment . and many capable laborers perished. through a deplorable policy." These piratical attacks continually reduce the number of the inhabitants of the Philippines. costly wars. inroads that reached the very shores of Manila. in the course of time they have very greatly diminished because the natives are the best sailors and most skillful rowers on the whole coast. Add to these fatal expeditions that wasted all the moral and material energies of the country. in the baleful glow of burning villages. Add to this condition of disorder the invasion of Li-Mahong. Philip II said that they had been reduced to less than twothirds. fruitless expeditions. . has induced the decline of labor. says: "The boldness of these people of Mindanao did great damage to the Visayan Island. strings of wretches who had been unable to defend themselves. ten years after Legazpi. and so the governors in the port of Iloilo take most of the people from this town for the ships that they send abroad .III A fatal combination of circumstances. When the Spaniards reached this island (Panay) it is said that there were on it more than fifty thousand families. in the Moluccas and in Indo-China. and some occurred. others in offspring of stupidity and ignorance. others the inevitable corollaries of false principles. First came the wars. . instigated and encouraged by the government. and at present they may amount to some fourteen thousand tributaries. but whether they returned to their homes was never stated. that is. to repel the Dutch foe. saying goodbye to their country forever. has gone from bad to worse until it has reached the condition in which we now see it. even Malate itself. . on their horizon were the stormy sea. because the latter were in the power of the Spaniards who held them subject and tributary and unarmed. Gaspar de San Agustin says: "Although anciently there were in this town of Dumangas many people. had we to quote all the evidence of the authors regarding the frightful diminution of the inhabitants of the Philippines in the first years after the discovery. but these diminished greatly . naturally there were executions. there was slaughter. Morga. add continual wars into which the inhabitants of the Philippines were pledged to maintain the honor of Spain. as much by what they did in them as by the fear and fright which the native acquired. the Philippine youth embarked for the expedition. and during which were sen to set out for captivity and slavery. first in order to get a complaint and afterwards disarm the islands subjected to it. . those who had submitted peacefully seemed to repent of it. It was necessary to subject the people either by cajolery or force. Wherefore. leaving behind them the ashes of their homes and the corpses of their parents and children. In the time of their first bishop. the internal disorders which the new change of affairs naturally brought with it.

according to the assertion of the Franciscans. speaking of these King's ships. where. costly as they were to the country for their equipment and the rowers they required. coming from without. who get it out with immense labor." as Fernando de los Rios Coronel says. in short. the preeminently anti-Filipino Augustinian. In order to make headway against so many calamities. as contemporary documents prove." says Padre Gaspar de San Agustin. being of their own race. and I heard the governor of the province where they were cut. produced a counter effect in the interior. the women who are crushed to death by their heavy burdens. without furnishing them food. were not less so because of the manner in which they were constructed. Bacolor has not the people that it had in the past because of the uprising in that province when Don Sabiniano Manrique de Lara was Governor of these islands and because of the continual labor of cutting timber for his Majesty's shipyards. the timber needed was scarcely to be found in the forests (of the Philippines?)." and you will understand how in less than thirty years the population of the Philippines was reduced one-third. If this is not sufficient to explain the depopulation of the islands and the abandonment of industry. carried out medical comparisons was like a purge or diet in an individual who has just lost a great deal of blood. "With the invasions of the pirates from Sulu and Mindanao. and he confirms it throughout the rest of his work by speaking every moment of the state of neglect in which lay the farms and field once so flourishing and so well cultivated. those who were sold into slavery to pay the taxes levied upon them." (Page 380) These rough attacks. it was necessary to construct new and large ships which. and thus it was necessary to seek it with great difficulty in the most remote of them. which is Laguna de Bay. because they easily captured the people there. the many who are executed and left to die of hunger and those who eat poisonous herbs . add to all this what Philip II said in reprimanding Bishop Salazar about "natives sold to some encomenderos to others. Padre Fernando de lost Rios Coronel. . We are not saying this: it was said by Gaspar de San Agustin. which hinders them from cultivating the very fertile plain they have. . as we have seen. and the mothers who kill their children in bearing them. (the island of Bantayan. and each expedition cost the island over eight hundred prisoners. ws their strategic position between New Spain and the Indies). those flogged to death. leaving it almost depopulated. damage. since the latter had no place to fortify themselves and were far from help from Cebu. near Cebu) "has greatly reduced. then add "the natives who were executed. to wrest from the Dutch their growing colonies of the Molluccas and get red of some troublesome neighbors. the trade of China and New Spain. and cost to them. The natives furnished the masts for a galleon.inspired them against the Christian Filipino who. served the stranger in order to deprive them of their precious liberty. who fought in these wards and later turned priest. say that to haul them seven leagues over very broken mountains 6. These expeditions lasted about three centuries. to secure their sovereignty and take the offensive in these disastrous contests. which the wretched native had to seek for himself!" And Gaspar de San Agustin says: "In these times (1690). those who sleep in the fields and bear and nurse their children and die bitten by poisonous vermin. to isolate the warlike Sulus from their neighbors in the south. which.000 natives were engaged three months. those who left their wives and children and fled in disgust to the mountains. said. "As they were so large. The hostile Sulus did great damage in this island in 1608. the town thinned that had formerly been inhabited by many leading families! . being repeated five and ten times a year. once found. to care for the needs of the empire of the Indies (for one of the reasons why the Philippines were kept. in order to haul and convey it to the shipyard the towns of the surrounding country had to be depopulated of natives. agriculture and commerce. to maintain.

the laborer will desert his plow. whom the wars and piratical attacks dragged from their homes was sufficient to reduce to nothing the hard labor of so many generations. Isn't there left the fine life of the pirate? Thus is understood that sad discouragement which we find in the friar writers of the 17th century. whether their field was going to be their grave or their crop would go to feed their executioner? What is there strange in it. It seems that these thoughts have never entered the minds of those who cry out against the indolence of the Filipinos. especially if his authority is unlimited.How is it strange. even were we to deny him foresight and the judgment that the past and present form." We have already truly said that when a house becomes disturbed and disordered. and on seeing so much useless labor the hand will drop the hoe. when we see the pious but impotent friars of that time trying to free their poor parishioners from the tyranny of the encomenderos by advising them to stop work in the mines. stock and cotton and weaving cloth. It seems that there are causes more than sufficient to breed indolence in the midst of a beehive. of provinces and towns depopulate. Thus is explained why. to break up their looms. there would still be left us another reason to explain the attack of the evil. These pages resemble a sad and monotonous scene in the night after a lively day. raising poultry. when in the midst of so many calamities they did not know whether they would see sprout the seed they were planting. of leading families exterminated. The abandonment of the fields by their cultivators. Even were the Filipino not a man like the rest. Of Cagayan. pants and bushes will grow up everywhere. He who does not act freely is not responsible for his actions. then. the circumspect and prudent Morga said that the natives have forgotten much about farming. In this connection government and governed have to bow our heads and say: "We deserve our fate. that for him it will be the cause of vexations at home and of the pirate's greed abroad. even were we to suppose that zeal in him for work was as essential as the movement of a wheel caught in the gearing of others in motion. preparing them for death as their only consolation? Man works for an object. not being master of its . Padre Agustin speaks with mournful brevity: "A great deal of cotton." In the historian's time. The most active man in the world will fold his arms from the instant he understands that it is madness to bestir himself. to abandon their commerce. that discouragement may have been infused into the spirit of the inhabitants of the Philippines. speaking of once very fertile plains submerged. but the head of it. after thirty-two years of the system. In the Philippines abandon for a year the land most beautifully tended and you will see how you will have to begin all over again: the rain will wipe out the furrows. and the Filipino people. that this work will be the cause of his trouble. we should not accuse the youngest child or the servants. of which they made good cloth that the Chinese and Japanese every year bought and carried away. as they used to do in their paganism and for a long time after the country had been conquered!" Still they struggled a long time against indolence. pointing out to them heaven for their whole hope. yes: but their enemies were so numerous that at last they gave up! We recognize the causes that awoke the predisposition and provoked the evil: now let us see what foster and sustain it. the industry and the trade had come to an end. the floods will drown the seeds. Remove the object and you reduce him to inaction.

and then. cotton cloths. people who in their customs and feeling differ greatly from the Chinese. the government. as Morga testifies in the last pages of his work. passports and other administrative requirements. plants his crops and invests his meager fortune in the furrows that he has so laboriously opened. and even of the priests as Morga says. as well as seen later on. but.liberty. or if it does allow it does so very grudgingly and withdraws it at pleasure. it is true. had disappeared. Of no little importance were the hindrance and obstacles that from the beginning were thrown in the farmer's way by the rules. wax. whence it results with the laborer. . but nothing more. Nothing from the Philippines at that time went to China. consumption of these products also ceased. Now then. and returned laden in exchange with the silver that was every year sent from Mexico. for there was not even an attempt. not even gold. and from this trade only China and a few private individuals in Manila got any benefit. who. the Cambodians. so active in other times. To Mexico went a little more: some cloth and dry goods which the encomenderos took by force or bought from the natives at a paltry. that when his crop matures it occurs to the government. And as thse nations wee the very ones that consumed Philippine products. until they finally ceased to come to the country. as the Borneans. denies to the farmers even the use of a shotgun." The coastwise trade. those who know the cost of going to and returning form the capital to the little tyrants will well understand how with this crude arrangement it is possible to have the most absurd agriculture. The Moro pirate has disappeared but there remains the outlaw who infests the fields and waylays the farmer to hold him for ransom. In fact. or of his agents and officers. In fact. and trade in the interior of the islands almost entirely disappeared. We say this. it seems that once an uprising planned by he Borneans was suspected: we say. that is. Those who know the administrative slackness and confusion in a country where the officials work scarcely two hours a day. or New Spain. the Siamese. price. and takes to gambling as the best means of . . The only two countries with which the Philippines continued to have relations were China and Mexico. without permission of the governor. to deprive him of his weapon. the constantly lessening encouragement that labor has met with in the Philippines. his work. is not responsible for either its misfortunes or its woes. who were influenced by childish fear and saw everywhere signs of conspiracies and uprisings. which is impotent to suppress brigandage. which has a constant fear of the people. thanks to the piratical attacks of the Malays of the south. that merchandise which shut down the factories of Seville and ruined the Spanish industry. and the Japanese. owing to restrictions. had to die out. they would furnish New Spain with their merchandise and the money that is brought to Manila would not leave this place. Thus friendship of these peoples would be gained. but even if the words have gone out of use other facts and other provisions have replaced them. the government acted toward these others with great mistrust and great severity. perfumes. their farms. suspected. the Celestial Empire sent her junks laden with merchandise. such as wax. as is stated by Admiral Don Jeronimo de Benelos y Carrilo. The following other causes contributed to foster the evil and aggravate it. ivory. The natives were not allowed to go to their labors. we also have a large part in the continuation of such a disorder. thanks to his means of defense. he is reduced to inaction and abandons his field. etc. and not even in great quantity. without defense and without security. True it is that for sometime this absurdity which would be ludicrous had it not been so serious. Fearing to have the Filipinos deal frequently with other individuals of their own race. gold. when all communication with them had been cut off. amber. although there were many executions. for in those years the Chinese trades would accept no payment but silver coin. civet. which they would have to buy from the natives of the country. who were free and independent. when he begged the King that "the inhabitants of the Manilas be permitted (1) to load as many ships as they could with native products. gold.

"The good curate. strengthens the very persecutor! The sordid return the native gets from his work has the effect of discouraging him. neither will we cite those of other Filipinos who write in the newspapers. . but we shall confine ourselves to translating the words of a modern French traveler who as in the Philippines for a long time. Why only the governor? We do not cite passages from other authors. . "In Leyte. . for it not only causes weakness but also in casting aside the weapons. just so the governor is quickly enriched. he says: "Boaded by ill treatment of the encomenderos who in administering justice have treated the natives as thier slaves and not as their children. charged with ruling the country and collecting the various taxes in the government's name." (page 378) Further on. the foremost official of the district. instead of stimulating the too natural indolence of the natives. It maters little to him that the country is impoverished. made others give up their merchandise for a trife or nothing at all. but provoked by he annoyances they suffered from some governors they have ceased to get it out. Padre Gaspar de San Agustin says: "It was in ancient times very rich in gold . "had not told me about the governor. the people have been transformed.securing a livelihood. preferring to live in poverty than to suffer such hardships. without cultivation." Yet the traveler has been unfair in picking out the governor especially. new towns have grown up while others have become impoverished. because we have not their works at hand and do not wish to quote from memory. or cheated them with the measures. We will not cite our own experiences for aside from the fact that we do not know which to select. in his hands the high and noble functions he performs are nothing more than instruments of gain. The wars with the Dutch. they tried to kill an encomendero of the town of Dagami on account of the great hardships he made them suffer by exacting tribute of wax from them with a steelyard which he had made twice as long as others. the governor." This state of affairs lasted a long time and still lasts. without industry. (Page 422) Further on. We know from history that the encomenderos. it is safer! A mournful counselor is fear. without commerce. . in Panay. . Speaking of Ipion. he with abuse of his powers thinks only of destroying all competition that may trouble him or attempts to participate in his profits. critical persons may reproach us with partiality." he says with reference to the rosy picture a friar had given him of the Philippines. A term passes away but the evil and the passions engendered do not pass away so long as reforms are devoted solely to changing the names. but the frauds subsisted as much as or worse than they did in those early years. after reducing many to slavery and forcing them to work for their benefit. the inroads and piratical attacks of the people of Sulu land Mindanao disappeared. . He monopolizes all the business and instead of developing on his part the love of work. The green cloth is under the protection of the government. and have only looked after their own interests at the expense of the wretched fortunes and lives of their charges. devoted himself almost wholly to trade. who was too much taken up with the ideal of getting rich to have time to tyrannize over his docile subjects. . in spite of the fact that the breed of encomenderos has become extinct. speaking of other towns.

not by the tread of Ariadme but by Dane's shower of gold. a present to the one further on so that it may pass it on to his chief. plenty of presents and complete resignation! How is it strange that the Philippines remain poor in spite of the fertile soil. They paid no attention either to cultivating the soil or to fostering industry. how much patience is needed to secure from the government a permit for an enterprise. all this had naturally to produce aversion to activity and fear or hatred of work. Cockfighting must also have existed in Luzon and in all the islands. and still give thanks that you are not kept in reserve for some needy occasion. on the influence of that one. great patience. The pernicious example of the dominators in surrounding themselves with servants and despising manual or corporal labor as a thing unbecoming the nobility and chivalrous pride of the heroes of so many centuries. A proverb of his says the pig is cooked in its own lard. to another. as well as all those who have tried to engage in business in the Philippines. All the Filipinos. Pigafetta tells us of cockfights and of bets in the Island of Paragua. what comings. for which you can only get away. which is not worth the most insignificant of the Philippines. and they had only to take advantage of it and pick up the gold that dropped out on its way from Mexico toward the interior of China. The trade with China. great influence. know how many documents. talent to recognize its expediency. and wherefore? China furnished the trade. France. and the desire of the dominated to be the equal of the dominators. whom they pretend to regard as an imbecile. those lordly airs. who to reward him for favors received seizes his laborers and his stock in order to force him to beg money and thus easily pays up. so that at the least slip enemies may be raised up against you. and as among his bad qualities he has the good one of applying to himself all the criticisms and censures he refers to live miserable and indolent rather than play the part of the wretched beast of burden. which was the whole occupation of the colonizers of the Philippines. if not essentially. "Why work?" asked the natives. great knowledge of how to get along. Why be rich? So that all the officers of justice may have a lynx eye on your actions. has more commercial movement than all the islands together. a great deal of politics. which the natives have translated into tila ka castila. We do not mean to say that before the coming of the Spaniards the natives did not gamble: the passion for gambling is innate in adventuresome and excitable races. The native. because it is free and is well governed. England and the United States prove this. how many stamped papers. Moreover. plenty of money. One must count upon the good will of this one. when the officials and private persons in Manila found an easy method of getting rich they neglected everything. a whole complicated and labyrinthine story may be concocted against you. was not only prejudicial to Spain but also the life of her colonies. And above all. on a good bribe to another in order that the application be not pigeon-holed. to be forced banker of the military chief of the town. at least in their manners. The curate says that the rich man will not go to heaven. is not so much so that he does not understand that it is ridiculous to work himself to death to become worse off. many salutations.The great difficulty that every enterprise encountered with the administration contributed not a little to kill off all commercial and industrial movement. Add to this the introduction of gambling. you may be indicted. hunting or playing cards with the reverend friars in their convents or country houses. for in the terminology of the game are two . the gulf whence it never returned. one must pray to God to give him good humor and time to see and examine it. to one further on sufficient stupidity not to scent behind the enterprise an insurrectionary purpose land that they may not all spend the time taking baths. in fact. Hong Kong. when history tells us that the countries now the most flourishing date their development from the day of their liberty and civil rights? The most commercial and most industrious countries have been the freest countries. and such is the Malay. to be deported if an uprising occurs. The rich man on earth is liable to all kinds of trouble. to be appointed a cabeza de barangay.

the jungle hens and cocks. all prove the foreign origin of this terrible plant. he mentions it only in Paragua. politana (napolitana a winning sequence of cards). a governmental ukase. that uncertainty of reaping the reward of labor. to preserve his stock during an epidemic with holy water. The apathy of the government itself toward everything in commerce and agriculture contributes not a little to foster indolence. as in a city stricken with plague. Whether they believe in miracles to palliate their laziness or they are lazy because they believe in miracles. with the prodigality and hospitality of the Filipinos. to be effective. and to the accusation of rebel or suspect. more or lest concealed. pares. Neither does Morga speak of gambling. an accusation which. bet). undoubtedly. nor does it take any trouble to seek a . everybody yields to fate. then the fight itself). The word laro (Tagalog: to play) is not the equivalent of the word sugal. Morga does not speak of it. recall then that the doctrine of his religion teach him to irrigate his fields in the dry season. Along with gambling. the others are of Spanish origan as soltada (setting the cocks to fight. if the climate and nature are not enough in themselves to daze him and deprive him of all energy. logro (winning). because in that case they would have taken the Chinese name. to swell the train of misfortunes. Although Pigafetta tells us of it. or when cyclone destroys in its passage the wealth of the soil. which only produces vice and which has found in the character of the native a fit soil. with the lotteries. exorcisms and benedictions that cost five dollars an animal. pusta (apusta. pago (payment). Three is no encouragement at all for the manufacturer or for the farmer. And if this does not suffice to form an indolent character. that lack of capital and absence of means paralyze all movement. We have noticed that the countries which believe most in miracles are the laziest. just as spoiled children are the most ill-mannered. like kumpistal (confesar. more or less insignificant. etc. the government furnishes no aid either when a poor crop comers. The word play (baraja. which breeds dislike for steady and difficult toil by its promise of sudden wealth and its appeal to the emotions. and so on. and ot in Cebu nor in any other island of the south. The facility with which individual liberty is curtailed. But there is not the least doubt that the fostering of this game is due to the government. the great number of fiestas. went also. but he fact is the Filipinos were much less lazy before the word miracle was introduced into their language. to trust greatly in God. imposts and exactions. scapularies. and yet he does describe the kinds of fowl. kapote (to slam). paris-paris (Spanish. when he talks about vices and other defects. and you will see how the native was perforce to be indolent for if any money might remain to him from the trials. to drive away the locusts by a procession with the image of St. candles. the religious functions. monte. when the locusts sweep over the fields. playing card) proves that the introduction of playing cards was not due to the Chinese. With the lack of confidence in the future. to confess to a priest). in spite of his having spent seven years in Manila. Moreover excepting the two Tagalog words sabong and tari. pairs of cards). the word sugal (jugar. to gamble). sapote (to stack the cards). where he stayed a long time. l Is nto this enough? The word taya (tallar. does not need proof or the production of the accuser. as well as the perfecting of it. We say the same about gamblilng. he would have to give it to the curate for bulls. the long masses for the women to spend their mornings and the novenaries to spend their afternoons.Tagalog words: sabong and tari (cockpit and gaff). we cannot say. Augustine. even when these appeals redound to the benefit of His ministers. It is well. who have a kind of playing cards also. to bet). not by means of canals but with amasses and prayers. novenaries. shuts himself in his house or goes about amusing himself in an attempt to spend the few days that remain to him in the least disagreeable way possible. Remember. that continual alarm of all from the knowledge that they are liable to a secret report. etc. but it is better to do what one can not trouble the Creator every moment. etc. cultivated circumstances. indicates that gambling was unknown in the Philippines before the Spaniards. and the nights for the processions and rosaries.

but they forget that in some provinces where they have not been able for some reason to get possession of the best tracts of land. who produce imitations even of the work of our silversmiths. continue to govern him and make themselves necessary to his wretched existence. regions cultivated entirely by the natives without any monkish interference whatsoever. the fine manufacturers of the Visayas are gradually disappearing from trade and even from use. another young man won a a prize in a literary competition. who rise above the crowd? At the cost of study and sacrifice a young man becomes a great chemist. it is because the belief exists that the light of progress may injure the people more than all the adulterated foods. knew how to select the best valleys. that the towns which belong to the friars are comparatively richer than those which do not belong to them. nothing from the Philippines is known. hemp. like Bauan and Liang. while other officers. those that from their easy access are more profitable than others. their plantations. it is abolished. coffee. In the same way. cannot afford the costly cloths. . and after he has won it. are in the hands of the religious corporations. in founding their convents. then all the newspapers hasten to extol the losers! Not one word from the government. and the Filipinos do not know that such objects are more highly esteemed in the Peninsula than their delicate piña embroideries and their vey fine jusi fabrics. They surely are! just as their brethren in Europe. in Spain. Thus disappeared our trade in indigo. and as long as his origin was unknown his work was discussed. continually getting poorer. it was because they were under their care. as an argument on the other side. the best uplands for the cultivation of the vine or the production of beer. are inferior to Taal. thanks to the trickery of the Chinese. while the English make heroic efforts to substitute Ceylon for Chinese tea. to make of them rich plantations. A competitive examination is held to fill a certain position. fantastically but coarsely embroidered. nor is their consumption there encouraged? While we see all the walls of London covered with advertisements of the products of its colonies. with the exception of tobacco. so also the Philippine monks have known how to selecte the best towns. who got his place by competitive examination. Add to this lack of material inducement the absence of moral stimulus and you will see how he who is not indolent in that country must needs be a madman or at least a fool. The name of Manila is known only from those cloths of China or Indo-China which at one time reached Spain by way of Manila. occupied as it was with other thoughts. The fact that the best plantations. We will be met with the objection. is one of the reasons why many tows do not progress in spite of the efforts of their inhabitants. and Lipa. nor its Ilocano blankets. and the indolence of the natives was thus emphasized. the well-watered fields. and after a long course of training. . while among the losers there are Peninsulars. and have to be contented with calico or the imitations of the Germans. the winner proved to be a native. the newspapers praised it and it was regarded as a masterpiece but the sealed envelopes were opened. wherein neither the government nor anybody has given him the least help. the beautiful plains. he concludes his long stay in the University. neither its sugar. the people. but the government has other cares. heavy silk shawls. What future awaits him who distinguishes himself. him who studies. The young man wins this through knowledge and perseverance. which no one has thought of imitating in Manila since they are so easily made. which the government could not guard against. Balayan. thus die now the other industries.market for the products of its colonies. we do not care to give the reason. fine cloths. so that they may. beginning with the sacrifice of their taste and their stomach. the best tracts of land in some provinces. because. nor . Why should it do so when these same products are burdened with taxes and imposts and have no free entry into the ports of the mother country. are preserved. such as the press censor. whose desideratum is ignorance and condition of semi-starvation of the native. For some time the friars have deceived many by making them believe that if these plantations were prospering. but when a municipal laboratory is closed in order to abolish the position of director.

cringing. others of their exquisite politeness in their dealings and in their social life. stupid. then. our contemporary writers we say find that the native is a creature something more than a monkey but much less than a man. that the native should not be separated from his carabao. nor more prudent than Legazpi. yet in exchange they demand of him divine actions. indolent. the drama. dull-witted. stubborn. They amount ot five or ten years (years of a hundred and fifty days at most) during which the youth comes in contact with books selected by those very priests who boldly proclaim that it is evil for the natives to know Castilian. take pleasure in describing them a well-featured. of his dignity. with or without the ability to write. immoral. their efforts is neutralized.from anybody. whether or not the Academy admits it. very clean and neat in their persons and clothing. timid. and you not only deprive him of his moral strength but you also make useless for those who wish to make use of him. lazy brainless. let us close this dreary list with the principal and most terrible of all: the education of the native. Thus is explained how the natives of the present time are no longer the same as those of the time of the discovery. to make him accept the yoke. Take it away from him and he is a corpse. whose accounts Gaspar de San Agustin copies. and these five to ten years have no offset the daily preachment which lowers the dignity of man. man's is his self-esteem.a labor aided by some persons. Morga. like that of breaking of a cord that is stretched too tightly. ill-clothed. an anthropoid. Others delight in minute accounts of their intelligence and pleasant manners. that eternal. without being more gallant than Herman Cortez and Salcedo. neither morally nor physically. schools of primary instruction. Every creature has its stimulus. nor more manly than Morga. dirty. and Colin. found them more gallant and better mannered than the inhabitants of the Moluccas. five to ten years during which the majority of the students have grasped nothing more than that no one understands what the books say. others. "their farms. of their aptitude for music. constant labor to bow the native's neck. dancing and singing. because he must be a god who does not become indolent in that climate. The ancient writers. Deprive a man. the enumeration of which would be interminable." adds Morga. its mainspring. keen and susceptible and of resolute will. and he who seeks activity in a corpse will encounter only worms. fisheries and enterprises. that he should not value any further aspirations. of the faculty with which they learned. which they acquired almost by themselves (Colin). . to place him on a level with the beast -. etc. From his birth until he sinks into his grave. But this is not enough. nor even the professors themselves perhaps. Thus while they attempt to make of the native a kind of animal. let it go). There is no doubt that the government. some priests like the Jesuits and some Dominicans like Padre Benavides. And we say divine actions. and of good mien and bearing (Morga). not only Spanish but also Latin. surrounded by the circumstances mentioned. and the like." In exchange. and so on. depressive and antihuman (the word "inhuman" is not sufficiently explanatory. like Chirino. the writers of the present time. like the first Augustinians. which if it does not produce in some individuals the desired effect in others it has the opposite effect. with good aptitudes for any thing they take up. the training of the native is brutalizing. to encourage the native who with so much affection has cultivated the language and letters of the mother country! Finally passing over many other more or less insignificant reasons. for they travel from island to island by sea and from province to province by land. "All live off their husbandry. etc. which by degrees brutally deprives him of the sentiment of self-esteem. have done a great deal by founding colleges. nor more prudent than Colin and Gaspar de San Agustin.

. Peoples and governments are correlated and complementary: a stupid government would be an anomaly among righteous people. called of Jesus Christ by euphemism. we will say in paraphrase of a popular adage. it only causes others to persist in their inaction. without separating himself from his carabao. only that then it awakens with bad humor in the guise of envy. he naturally becomes sterile. The very limited training in the home. thanks to the exercise imposed upon them from the most tender years of praying for whole hours in an unknown . the native protests. to believe what is told him. If by one of those rare incidents. against any arbitrary action. he thinks and strives to rise. or spirit. that has produced this miracle that has atrophied his brain. without protesting against any injustice. Like people. there's the ideal native! unfortunately. instead of his example stimulating.To what is this retrogression due? Is it the delectable civilization. without aspiring to know or even to understand Spanish. without knowledge of the object. paralyzes all tendencies toward advancement. a sort of daily and constant depreciation of the mind so that it may not be raised to the regions of life. brain. just as a corrupt people cannot exist under just rulers and wise laws. That modesty infused into the convictions of everyone. to speak more clearly. that is. Indolence is a corollary derived from the lack of stimulus and of vitality. The Filipino is convinced that to get happiness it is necessary for him to lay aside his dignity as a rational creature. that insinuated inferiority. to pay what is demanded of him. let's sleep on!" say his relatives and friends. the religion of salvation of the friars. influence the mind so that a man may not aspire to excel those who preceded him but must merely be content to go along with a march behind them. some wild spirit. to attend mass. the natives spend theirs in giving their gold to the Church in the hope of miracles and other wonderful things. and instead of being a lever for helping. We can reduce all these causes to two classes: to defects of training and lack of national sentiment. not to have heart. Now it falls to us to analyze those that emanate from the people. hence decadence. without aspiring any thing. it is an obstacle that produces discouragement. so we will now treat of the effects arising from it. he still has aspirations. True it is that the spirit of rivalry is sometimes awakened. suffer. and there's the trouble! IV In the preceding chapter we set forth the causes that proceed from the government in fostering and maintaining the evil we are discussing. and of the least struggle a man gives up without fighting. or because of the brutalization is not yet complete and because the nature of man is inherent in his being in spite of his condition. Nurtured by the example of anchorites of a contemplative and lazy life. to pay and forever to pay. excels. the tyrannical and sterile education of the rare centers of learning that blind subordination of the youth to one of greater age. Of the influence of climate we spoke at the beginning. as the priests shamelessly say. against an insult. paralyzed his heart and made of the man this sort of vicious animal that the writers depict? Alas! The whole misfortune of the present Filipinos consists in that they have become only half-way brutes. against an assault. and be silent. that is some active one. a creature with arms and a purse of gold. like government. or. to work. deadens the energies. . Their will is hypnotized: from childhood they learned to act mechanically. and as he who devotes himself merely to copying divests himself of other qualities suited to his own nature. Stagnation forcibly results from this. "There's one who will work for us.

and even his liberty. between his organism and his new ideals. of venerating things that they do not understand. and aided by the severity of the climate. Convinced by the insinuation of his inferiority. it has perforce to become engraved in the mind and thence mould and pervade all his action. as he did not have for ideal and prototype the tanned and vigorous laborer. although it may be dismayed and cowed by the elements and the fearful manifestation of their mighty forces. beautiful prospects for the future. the convictions and usages derived from his climate and needs.should now be a mass of dismal contradictions? That continual struggle between reason and duty. his conscience. to whom remain only his susceptibility and his poetical imagination. In order that he may progress it is necessary that a revolutionary spirit. shining mirrors and other trinkets. with noisy rattles. of old logical and consistent -as the analysis of his past and of his language demonstrates -.Get back in the ranks and keep in line! With his spirit thus molded the native falls into the most pernicious of all routines: routine not planned but imposed and forced. for other convictions that developed under another sky and another inspiration. but stamped papers. the origin of his indolent disposition. so to speak. "You can't know more than this or that old man!" "Don't aspire to be greater than the curate!" "You belong to an inferior race!" "You haven't any energy!" This is what they tell the child and they repeat it so often. seduce and captivate him although like the the Japanese he often exchanges the good for the evil. so long as his spirit is not free. and good examples. It is sufficient that the native product for him to hasten to make the change. of accepting beliefs that are not explained to them.tongue. with strings of colored glass beads. in that exchange of usages and sentiments among different nations. hoes to till the fields. It is necessary that his spirit. but the aristocratic Lord carried in a luxurious litter. has the result of paralyzing all his energies. his relatives look upon him with fear. makes that eternal vacillation. at the pleasure of the nation that forced upon him its God and its law. seek high purposes. if that brutalization of which we spoke above can be called education. crucifixes. Is it any wonder that with this vicious dressage of intelligence and will the native. strangers regard him with great compassion. since progress necessarily requires the present. of the doubts in his brain. store up energy. was then transformed. the Filipino. bulls and prayer-books. well-disposed toward everything that looks good to him. that civil war which disturbs the peace of his conscience all his life. His spirit. should boil in his veins. No forward movement -. The good and the beautiful attract him. the . if it appears to him garnished and gilded. The child or youth who tries to be anything else is blamed with vanity and presumption. while the protests of reason are repressed. the curate ridicules him with cruel sarcasm. just as his house is open to all strangers. They have dazzled him with tinsel. his intelligence is not respected. and as the trader with whom he dealt did not bring a cargo of useful implements of iron. allows himself to be guided by his fancy and his self-love. his spirit harassed by his education. in order to struggle against obstacles in the midst of unfavorable natural conditions. Note that the native himself is not naturally inclined to routine but his mind is disposed to accept all truth. to having absurdities imposed upon them. and he has given in return his gold. the victory of new ideas over the ancient and accepted one. to talk nicely to him. The reasons that originate in the lack of natural sentiment are still more lamentable and more transcendental. What he lacks is in the first place liberty to allow expansion to his adventuresome spirit. He changed his religion for the external practices of another cult. nor that the light illuminate him like the ignis fatuus that leads travelers astray at night: all the flattering promises of the fairest hopes will not suffice. It will not be sufficient to speak to his fancy. without reflecting that everything has its weak side and the most sensible custom is ridiculous in the eyes of those who do not follow it.

moreover which is the absence of all opposition to measures prejudicial to the people and the absence of any initiative in whatever may redound to its good. create prosperity. nevertheless. some have proposed increasing the native's needs and raising the taxes. he pulled at it to lengthen it and hasten its growth. Another blood-letting. weak and sluggish. as as the organism has neither nerves nor voice the physician proceeds in the belief that the treatment is not injuring it. with inhabitants who live in great hardship from the instant they begin to breathe. he grafted on its cedars and oaks. no one protests. those who can endure all the caprices and exactions of the curate and of the officials. but not the effect that a colony may flourish. devout. it keeps silent and remains with the need. things that still hardly prosper in free and well-organized communities? Yes. he trimmed the plant frequently. Without education and liberty. A man in the Philippines is only an individual.result was that the imitative people became bookish. with the public offices forced on him. The patient wants to eat. In addition to this. The lack of national sentiment brings another evil. if they perish. In the view of some this is expedient so that a colony may be a colony. The cord is already too taut. with great fear and many administrative obstacles. with the frequent changes and the eternal apprenticeships. of getting another plaster and a new blood-letting and so on indefinitely. but as such desires may offend the susceptibility of the physician who thinks that he has already provided everything necessary. its illusions and its difficulties. it acquired ideas of luxury and ostentation. penury has been aggravated. without thereby improving the means of its substance to a corresponding degree. these cells must. and every day we read in the papers about the efforts the government is making to rescue the country from its condition of indolence. therefore. Weighing its plans. he is not a member of a nation. it wants to breathe the fresh air. those who submit to everything. we are reminded of the gardener who spent his days tending and watering the handful of earth. yield their product. with his fiestas. To combat this indolence. What has happened? Criminals have multiplied. all attempt is useless that does not spring from a profound study of the evil that afflicts us. Why? Because the native already has enough needs with his functions of the Church. no measure can give the result desired. found enterprises and companies. The Philippines is an organism whose cells seem to have no arterial system to irrigate it or nervous system to communicate its impressions. with employees who nearly all strive to amass a fortune and return home. love of peace and the honor many have of accepting the few administrative positions which fall to the Filipinos on account of the trouble and annoyance these cause them places at the head of the people the most stupid and incapable men. it suffers and pines away from fear of receiving a scolding. He is forbidden and denied the right of association. with a voiceless people that have neither initiative nor cohesion. prayerful. agriculture and industry. which are the soil and the sun of man. let them perish. perhaps they are right. until one day the little tree died. Will this inefficiency in the lower spheres of power and ignorance and indifference in the upper. get it where they can. all goes well apparently until later the evils are felt. The result of this is that if a prejudicial measure is ordered. and is. leaving the man convinced that it belonged to a degenerate species attributing the failure of his experiment to everything except the lack of soil and his own ineffable folly. no reform is possible. We have heard many complaints. It needs a reform. but as it must not speak. This does not mean that we should ask first for the native the instruction of a . the donations and bribes that he had to make so that he may drag out his wretched existence.

so that they be not venal pilferers. new hopes are awakened in us and we now even dare to face adversity. JOSÉ RIZAL To the Young Women of Malolos When I wrote Noli Me Tangere. like you. for commanding to get rich. long to have their eyes opened and be delivered from servitude. the government may act with the security that some day or other it will reap the harvest and will find people its own in heart and interest. without sordid reservations. then build roads. This policy has the advantage in that while it may not lull the instincts of liberty wholly to sleep yet the day when the mother country loses her colonies she will at least have the gold amassed and not the regret of having reared ungrateful children. Now that you have responded to our first appeal in the interest of the welfare of the people. just judges. now that you have set an example to those who. let his enlightenment be as a gift received and not as conquered plunder. in order then to put a hoe in his hand or place him in a workshop. when the news of what happened at Malolos reached us. without distrust without fear or jealously. because we have you for our allies and are confident of victory. as the English do in India. modesty. let the government heed material interests more than the interests of four orders of friars. After all. civilization without ulterior thoughts of gratitude. Since some day or other he will become enlightened. let it send out intelligent employees to foster industry. or perhaps ignorance. If the logical and regulated system of exploitation be chosen. or else boldly exploiting tyrannical and selfish. with a whole system well-panned and studied out for dominating by compelling obedience. an abundance of girls with agreeable manners. having flowers without perfume and fruits without sap. who moreover leave the government to native rulers. not to increase the many his climate and the situation of the islands already create for him that instruction be not begrudged him for fear that when he becomes intelligent he may separate form the colonizing nation or ask for the rights of which he makes himself worthy. according to whether it be conferred with good will or hurled into his face and bestowed upon him in spite of himself. due to excessive kindness. I brought back to my recollection and reviewed those I had known since my infancy. who is to blame me? I did not know Malolos nor its young women. What we wish is that obstacle be not put in his way. all well paid. There was. to be happy. and lay aside all religious pretext. and great was my rejoicing. whom Rizal met in 1887]. and her I knew by name only. but there was in all an admixture of servitude and deference to the words or whims of their so-called "spiritual fathers" (as if the spirit or soul had any father other than God). whether the government wishes it or not. If the former. it is true. I asked myself whether bravery was a common thing in the young women of our people. foster the freedom of trade. that is highly civilizing. I saw my error. stifling with the jingle of gold and the sheen of opulence the sentiments of independence in the colonies. No longer does the Filipina stand with her head bowed nor . and modest demeanor. paying with its wealth for its lack of liberty.sage and all imaginable liberties. However. without hypocrisy or deception. lay out highways. wishing the good for the sake of the good. such a pretension would be an absurdity and vain folly. except one called Emila [Emilia Tiongson. We desire that the policy be at once frank and consistent. beautiful ways. there is nothing like a favor for securing the friendship or enmity of man. but there were only few who seem to come up to my ideal. They seemed faced plants sown and reared in darkness.

And. firm intention and upright judgment. The official or friar can no longer assert that they alone are responsible for their unjust orders. and it is more than presumptuous and even blasphemous for a person to attribute every movement of his lips to God. but hear the opinion of others before doing what may seem most reasonable to us. as the light might have been dim and the road very bad. because blind obedience is itself the cause and origin of those whims. all were born without shackles and free. You also know that prudence does not consist in blindly obeying any whim of the little tin god. we should not consult our own judgment alone. God. does not demand that man. to represent every whim of his as the will of God. if clad in a priest's robe. just buy a priest's robe as the Franciscans wear it and put it on a carabao [domestic water buffalo]. allow himself to be deceived and hoodwinked. but in obeying only that which is reasonable and just. or in extreme complacency. no longer will the mother contribute to keeping her daughter in darkness and bring her up in contempt and moral annihilation. who knows nothing by heart but awits [hymns]. and not put it out and trust to the light of the others. and the alleged miracles. But I will leave this subject to speak of something else. created in his image and likeness. And. the primal source of all wisdom. that religiousness does not consist of long periods spent on your knees. They would be madman were they to follow the light of another. big rosarios. it is more presumptuous for a person to put his judgment above that of the others and try to make it prevail over theirs. Of course. And no longer will the science of all sciences consist in blind submission to any unjust order. in my opinion. You know that the will of God is different from that of the priest. remains a hillman and can only deceive the weak and ignorant. seeing that thought is noble and free? It is cowardice and erroneous to believe that saintliness consists in blind obedience and that prudence and the habit of thinking are presumptuous. whose amusement consists in playing panguingue [a card game] or in the frequent confession of the same sins? What sons will she have but acolytes." but. or cockfighters? It is the mothers who are responsible for the present servitude of our compatriots. because God gave each individual reason and a will of his or her own to distinguish the just from the unjust. What offspring will be that of a woman whose kindness of character is expressed by mumbled prayers. The deceiver is fond of using the saying that "It is presumptuous to rely on one's own judgment. and grimy scapularies [religious garment showing devotion]. and never prudence and honor. only to come to a fall. to their ardent desire to elevate their sons Maturity is the fruit of infancy and the infant is formed on the . and you will be lucky if the carabao does not become lazy on account of the robe. and nobody has a right to subjugate the will and the spirit of another your thoughts. but to help and advise each other to fiind the right path. and to brand his own enemy as an enemy of God. Ignorance has ever been ignorance. but wants us to use and let shine the light of reason with which He has so mercifully endowed us.does she spend her time on her knees. why should you submit to another your thoughts. to make my argument more conclusive. owing to the unlimited trustfulness of their loving hearts. nor will a courteous smile be deemed the only weapon against insult or humble tears the ineffable panacea for all tribulations. and the father could unbraid them and say to them: "Did I not give each of you his own torch. The wild man from the hills. nor in endless prayers." but he cold not say so if the fall were due to the light of the torch of him who fell. novenas. Youth is a flower-bed that is to bear rich fruit and must accumulate wealth for its descendants. priest's servants. It is more presumptuous for a man to constitute himself into an idol and pretend to be in communication of thought with God. He may be compared to the father who gave each of his sons a torch to light their way in the darkness bidding them keep its light bright and take care of it. because she is quickened by hope in the future. but in a spotless conduct. and those guilty of it are really to be blamed.

throw money away on churches. judged by proper standards. what sanctity have they shown us? To pray and kneel a lot. Why that? Can God be bribed and bought off. who is just. kiss the hand of the priests. rosaries. He did not mention scapularies. seeing that life is full of thorns and thistles. clear judgment. because even if all the rags on earth were converted into scapularies and all the trees in the forest into rosaries. his boldness will be deceitful and will be like the bat that cannot show itself until the ringing of vespers. do the friars now refuse to stir a foot unless paid in advance? And. You can do almost anything if you but grease their palms. Thus. The money ground out of the poor is bequeathed to the master so that he can provide for chains to subjugate. especially you women. they sell scapularies. and if the skins of all the beasts were made into belts. nor did Christ teach for gain. so insane that he will give alms to God and believe that the miserable thing he has given will serve to clothe the Creator of all things? Blessed be they who succor their fellow men. and if all the priests of the earth mumbled prayers over all this and sprinkled oceans of holy water over it. Christ did not give the kiss of peace to the Pharisees and never gave his hand to be kissed.lap of its mother. then I turn my back upon that God. And. who only give to him who has plenty and spend their money lavishly on silver altar hangings for the thanksgiving. callous rubbing of noses. Oh. this is what you must teach your children. also. then. Let us be reasonable and open our eyes." Saintliness does not consist in abjectness. Lord. nor did He make rosaries. is there anything in the world that does not belong to God? What would you say of a servant making his master a present of a cloth borrowed from that very master? Who is so vain. who does not suck the life-blood of the poor like a vampire. not of a blackmailing. clear procedure. she must bring up her child to be the image of the true God. but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in Heaven. but cursed be they who turn a dead ear to supplications of the poor. . nor is the successor of Christ to be recognized by the fact that he gives his hand to be kissed. through cupidity and love of money. and blinded by money. as if they were starving. aid the poor and feed the hungry. but of a God who is the father of us all." said Christ. revoke the numerous prohibitions such as those against eating meat. nothing more nor less than a friar? The brigand who has obtained a bull of compromise can live calmly on the proceeds of his robbery. and hire thugs and executioners. As to the mites and gifts of God. Why. honesty in act and deed. they will. because he will be forgiven. and other things which are nothing but schemes for making money and a detriment to the soul. Saint John did not demand a fee on the River Jordan. The mother who can only teach her child how to kneel and kiss hands must not expect sons with blood other than that of vile slaves. Saintliness consists in the first place in obeying the dictates of reason. nor makes a crooked path of the path of justice. God. for a price. bits. "It is acts and not words that I want of you. "Not everyone that sayeth unto me. Remember that a good mother does not resemble the mother that the friar has created. what lack of understanding. you must fortify their minds against any stroke of . gossip. They say that prudence is sanctity. . He did not cater to the rich and vain. love for the fellowman and respect for God. and believe all the friar sees fit to tell us. or solicit offerings for the sacrifice of the Mass or exact payments for His prayers. what blindness. will sit at a table where theft provides the viands? Has the Omnipotent become a pauper that He must assume the role of the excise man or gendarme? If that is the God whom the friar adores. a grasping God. because you are the first to influence the consciousness of man. nor scoffs at the agony of the sorely beset. or in serenades and fireworks. to all that is sincere and firm of purpose. Awaken and prepare the will of our children towards all that is honorable. etc. marrying close relatives. . A tree that grows in the mud is unsubstantial and good only for firewood. this would not purify a rogue or condone sin where there is no repentance. Lord shall enter into the kingdom of heaven. If her son should have a bold mind. happen what may. But. then.

so long will they be able to make slaves of her children. The cause of the backwardness of Asia lies in the fact that there the women are ignorant. to restore the honor of woman. The duties that woman has to perform in order to deliver the people from suffering are of no little importance. In a book published by D. If she is a maiden. Let the maiden be the pride of her country and command respect. rushed forthwith into print and related that on one occasion in Pampanga he demanded hospitality and ate. in the majority of cases. they will not be beyond the strength and stamina of the Filipino people. talkative and fond of gossip. The power and good judgment of the women of the Philippines are well known. because it is a common practice on the part of Spaniards and friars here who have returned from the Islands to speak of the Filipina as complaisant and ignorant. but be they as they may. or perhaps ignorance and were all the work of the defamer himself. day by day. and rendered pusillanimous. because good qualities she has enough and to spare. and other things that set your teeth on edge when you think of them which. Every time we hear or read anything of . This is our dream. too. our companion in the joys and tribulations of life. amidst guffaws and insulting remarks. I will make the utmost efforts to have it dissipated by the bright rays of the sun. save that which is intended to dim its natural brightness. that she behaved thus at the convent and conducted herself thus with the Spaniards who on the occasion was her guest.adversity and accustom them to danger. will help to scatter the mist. so long as the woman who guides the child in his steps is slavish and ignorant. who is half of our heart. and slept at a house and the lady of the house conducted herself in such and such a manner with him. were faults due to candor. No good water comes from a turbid. upon his return to Spain. We shall not feel any fatigue if you help us: God. which will give light. we know that nothing is added to your intellect. because so long as they can keep the Filipina mother a slave. no savory fruit comes from acrid seed. The people cannot expect honor nor prosperity so long as they will educate their children in a wrong way. and now her enslavers rest at ease. can hardly find time enough to brag and bawl. with idiotic and shameless tales not worthy of credence. who has set at our table and enjoyed our hospitality in his wanderings through the Philippines and who. Sinibaldo de Mas and in other friar sketches sins are related of which women accused themselves in the confessional and of which the friars made no secret in talking to their Spanish visitors seasoning them. bitter spring. the young man should love her not only because of her beauty and her amiable character. and tied. this is how he repaid the lady for her supreme hospitality! Similar insinuations are made by the friars to the chance visitor from Spain concerning their very obedient confesandas. are slaves. etc. excessive kindness. I cannot repeat here the shameless stories that a friar told Mas and to which Mas attributed no value whatever. thought they be dimmed. We know that you lack instructive books. this is the desire we cherish in our hearts. hence our desire to bring you the light that illuminates your equals here in Europe. and if you will pay a little attention to it then. as if all should be thrown into the same class because of the missteps of a few. If that which I tell you does not provoke your anger. the returning Spaniards and friars. There is a Spaniard now in high office. accompanied by smiles and very significant winkings of the eye. all this we know. because He is the God of truth: He will restore to its pristine condition the fame of the Filipina in whom we now miss only a criterion of her own. meekness. and as if women of weak character did not exist in other lands. hand-kissers.. however dense the mist may be that befogs our people. As to purity what could the Filipina not hold up to others! Nevertheless. and it is because of this that she has been hoodwinked. which quicken and elevate the feeble and timid and ward off all vain thoughts. that a certain woman was thus. but also on account of her fortitude of mind and loftiness of purpose. while Europe and America are powerful because there the women are free and well-educated and endowed with lucid intellect and a strong will. at the best.

answered the warrior. hid in the temple. and do their duty. a manly heart offering protection to her weakness. there can not be a big one. A people that respect women.this kind. It seems an established fact that when a young student falls in love. and and becomes an accomplice to his own dishonor. and she went to the temple. the mother was the first to bring stones. The bravest youth becomes a coward when he married. adds some years. like the Filipino people. she said nothing to him but this: "Return with it. he throws everything to the dogs -. I do not expect to be believed simply because it is I who am saying this. but while it is true that the aged should be venerated. the mother put on mourning. no enemy was able to put his foot upon her soil. but whether we have been victorious or not. or on it. consecrated to the happiness of the people. One of the mothers who went out to meet the warriors returning from battle was told by one that her three sons had fallen. because of their travails and experience. Why does the girl not require of her lover a noble and honored name. . always remembering that there is no grief that a brave heart can not bear and there is no bitterer inheritance than that of infamy and slavery. perhaps. in order to hide his pusillanimity. Quite natural -. but will listen only to those who wear the cassock or have gray hair or no teeth. Of all women -. obeys the most foolish order. However. love their fellowmen and their native land. but expressed her thankfulness that her son had been saved from disgrace. Once upon a time a king of theirs.a woman said jestingly -only your Spartans have power over the men. Man. The son. refrain from causing him worry and sweeten his moments of affection. . inspire him with courage. I . Open your children's eyes so that they may jealously guard their honor. remembers his mother.of all women only we give birth to men. was not born to life for himself alone but for his native land. let her behave nobly and not deliver her youth to the weak and faint-hearted. When she is married. The Spartans resolved to shut him up there and starve him to death. So long as this way of thinking prevailed and they had that kind of women in Sparta. The women of Sparta should serve you as an example should serve you as an example in this. When they were blocking the door. Always impress upon them they must prefer dying with honor to living in dishonor. I do not ask you that.knowledge. when her son returned alive. and a high spirit incapable of being satisfied with engendering slaves? Let her discard all fear. share his perils. When a mother handed the shield to her son as he was marching to battle. She did not say a word." which mean. and money. nor was there a woman in Sparta who ever saw a hostile army. and the born coward becomes shameless. suffers his ears to be boxed. come back victorious or dead. then let us thank God. If that is so. I shall let this go and speak of the duties of women instead. who had been defeated. A mother received word that her son had been killed in battle and the army routed. We have been victorious -. we ask each other: Are the Spanish women all cut after the pattern of the Holy Virgin Mary and the Filipinas all reprobates? I believe that if we are to balance accounts in this delicate question. because he feared their popular wrath. swallows his wrath. because it was customary with the routed warrior to throw away his shield. she must aid her husband. It should be remembered that where nobody flees there is no pursuer. while the dead warrior was carried home on his shield. honor. as if he had been waiting to get married in order to show his cowardice. when there is no little fish. These things were in accordance with the custom there. . I shall give some of their characteristics. said the mother. there are many people who do not listen to reason. though not many of my age. and all Greece admired the Spartan woman. But I must drop the subject because I am neither a confessor nor a Spanish traveler and have no business to take away anybody's good name. must know the truth of the situation in order to be able to do what is expected of it. as if a girl could not do anything but sow misfortune.they replied -. yet the life I have lived. the Spartan women said.

novenas. let her rear no more children. Second. but not so the broom made of the ribs of the palm bound together. Fifth. All this is the ardent desire of your compatriot. images. and the arms crossed over the breast. ears and eyes. rosaries. Let us. First of all. think it over and shift it carefully through the sieve of reasons. what is behind the masses. All men are born equal. What makes one contemptible is lack of dignity and abject fear of him who holds one in contempt. the object of the sermon. Sixth. candles. May these poorly written lines aid you in your good purpose and help you to pursue the plan you have initiated. child. looking well before you eat because on the surface of the globe all is deceit. Fatuous is he who makes a god of him. reflect. because as a man thinks. Ignorance is servitude. scapularies. Consider well what kind of religion they are teaching you. investigate whence they came and whiter they go and then compare that religion with the pure religion of Christ and see whether the pretended observance of the life of Christ does not remind you of the fat milch cow or the fattened pig. Fourth. but choice fruit. or adorn him with reason to have him deceived by others. so he is. and who strives to submit to his whims all that is reasonable and just. Consider what they preaching to you. which is encouraged to grow fat nor through love of the animal. therefore. Third. etc. and coaxing. and the enemy sows weeds in your seedling plot. and all. and to make use of reason in all things. the isolated rib in the buri is easily broken. nor did he endow him with intelligence to have him hoodwinked. without bonds. miracles. belts. which they daily keep before your minds. the head bowed. Seventh. what I ask of all is to reflect on what I tell him. etc. naked. shouting. It is not fatuous to refuse to worship one's equal. native land. otherwise she will unconsciously betray husband. may you in the garden of learning gather not bitter. JOSÉ RIZAL . let us consider our situation and see how we stand. who makes brutes of others. a man who does not think for himself and allowed himself to be guided by the thought of another is like the beast led by a halter. See whether it is the will of God or according to the teachings of Christ that the poor be succored and those who suffer alleviated. "May your profit be greater than the capital invested." and I shall gladly accept the usual reward of all who dare tell your people the truth. to cultivate one's intellect. jostling. God did not create man to be a slave.do not pretend to be looked upon as an idol or fetish and to be believed and listened to with the eyes closed. If the Filipina will not change her mode of being. May your desire to educate yourself be crowned with success. He who loves his independence must first aid his fellowman. let her merely give birth to them. That the tyranny of some is possible only through cowardice and negligence on the part of others. She must cease to be the mistress of the home. because he who refuses protection to others will find himself without it. but for grossly mercenary motives.

Religious shows.caught in their metamorphosis without confidence in their past. rites that caught the eye. Then there was a falling-off. and the people. its laws. in order to admire and praise that was foreign and incomprehensible. the Philippines was depopulated. they were lowered in their own eyes. which they did not understand. they became ashamed of what was distinctively their own. their recollections. images arrayed with gold. lights. Scarcely had they been attached to the Spanish crown than they had sustained with their blood and the efforts of their sons the wars and ambitions. their poetry. in spite of the whole system afterwards developed and operated with unyielding tenacity. Then began a new era for the Filipinos. miracles and sermons. . it is necessary to open the book of its past. without faith in their present and with no fond home of the years to come. we shall in the present article treat of their future. for the Philippines may be reduced in general terms to what follows. habituated by them to servitude. -they forgot their writings. and in these struggles. in that terrible crisis when a people changes its form of government. and this. songs. their songs. other tastes. different from those inspired in their race by their climate and their way of thinking. worship in a strange language. The former rulers who had merely endeavored to secure the fear and submission of their subjects. their laws in order to learn by heart other doctrines. perhaps hoping to gain something by the innovation. and conquest of the Spanish people. religion and beliefs. fell like leaves from a dead tree. without weighing the consequences that our frankness may bring upon us. In order to read the destiny of a people.The Philippines a Century Hence I Following our usual custom of facing squarely the most difficult and delicate questions related to the Philippines. Thus years and centuries rolled on. impoverished and retarded -. other ethics. They gradually lost their ancient traditions. who had no love for them nor knew what liberty was. easily changed masters. legends. hypnotized the already naturally superstitious spirits of the country but did not succeed in destroying it altogether. usages. customs. their spirit was broken and they acquiesced.

the chief trait of the native. or sordid and cowardly ones among the dominated that aided the debasement of their own country. every human characteristic. every protest. it was taken for granted. was touched. His sensitiveness. is a blast from the bellows to fan it into life.When the ethical abasement of the inhabitants had reached this stage. “Then the end sought was revealed. Thus when a flame catches a garment. Then he began to study himself and to realize his misfortune. an effort was made to deny it every virtue. a brute. Such is an outline of their past. We know their present. and punished it with death. each blow. Now what will their future be? . Undoubtedly during all this time there were not lacking generous and noble spirits among the dominant race that tried to struggle for the rights of humanity and justice. he had it not when they whom he served repaid his sacrifices with insults and jests. endeavoring thus to stifle every cry of sorrow with blood. a beast of burden and to develop a race without mind or heart. thanks to abuses and the stupid endeavors of certain classes to stifle noble and generous sentiments. and while he had the forbearance to suffer and die under a foreign flag. fear and confusion propagate it more and more. and each shake. its flame nevertheless was surely and consumingly propagated. Some dying persons are restored to health by a heroic remedy. and the lethargic spirit woke up to life. in order to make of the individual a sort of toiler. But both were exceptions and we are speaking in general terms. Those who had not expected this result. regarded as a wrong every complaint. like all despotic masters. and they made mistake after mistake. Then this which they had thought would be death was sure salvation. an effort was made to add the final stroke for reducing so many dormant wills and intellects to nothingness. and there were even writers and priests who pushed the movement still further by trying to deny to the natives of the country not only capacity for virtue but also even the tendency to vice. The spirit of the people was not thereby cowed. and the race was insulted. and even though it had been awakened in only a few hearts. when they had become disheartened and disgusted with themselves. So great endurance reached its climax with the insults.

begotten in chains. tried in vain to shake it off without any doubt whatsoever the reply would have been easy. or to ally themselves with neighboring powers? It is impossible to reply to these questions. to those unconquerable Kagayanes who nourished within themselves the spirit of Mgalats. only one answer presented itself. what kind of colony? Will they become a province of Spain. according to the time desired to be covered. it was merely a question of getting together and making a determination. discouragement and disunion in the upper. But for him who. what kind of sacrifices will have to be made? Will they be separated from the mother country to live independently. and in accordance therewith try to forecast future events. independence was assured. and each new generation. and if so. apathy and brutalization in the lower classes. for to all of them both yes and now may be answered. how much less must there be in the life of a people. disillusioned by sad experience. To a spirit enthusiastic over the liberty of the country. being endowed with mobility and movement! So. it is necessary to presume an unlimited period of time. bow his neck beneath the yoke and accept the future with the resignation of an invalid who watches the leaves fall and foresees a long winter amid whose snows he discerns the outlines of his grave. to fall into the hands of other nations. finding the yoke heavy.but three centuries passed. Now then. it is that in order to deal with those questions. was constantly better adapted to the new order of things. with or without autonomy? And to reach this stage. saw everywhere discord and disorder. II What will become of the Philippines within a century? Will they continue to be a Spanish colony? Had this question been asked three centuries ago. when at Legazpi’s death the Malayan Filipinos began to be gradually undeceived and. the meek had become accustomed to the yoke.Will the Philippine Islands continue to be a Spanish colony. When there is in nature no fixed condition. At the time discord justified pessimism -. to the descendants of the heroic Gat Pulintang and Gat Salakab of the Province of Batangas. and it was: extend his hands to the chains. are the Philippines in the same condition they were three centuries ago? .

against the British and Dutch. that there exist only motives for hatred and jealousy between the two races. so as not to get away from our subject let us draw the brief parallel between the political situation then and the situation at present. they have progressed. three to five hundred at most. the present situation seems to be gilded and rosy -. which was defended by an impoverished fleet. let us suppose for a moment. and ceaselessly harassed by Japanese. when not by foreigners and enemies. her possession is assured and the country dominated seems to have less spirit. occupied in long wars against the Mohammedans in the south. that is. Laying aside these considerations. Then communication with Mexico and Spain was slow. generally manned by rude adventurers. rare and difficult. for many Filipinos ethics. communication with the sovereign country is swifter and surer. or vice versa. and the life of the colonists dependent upon one frail ship that handled the Chinese trade.as we might say. which was checked and frustrated by the mutiny of the Chinese rowers. which was checked and an expedition of Gomez Perez Dasmariñas. Then the seas in those regions were infested with pirates. less . that is. a beautiful morning compared to the vexed and stormy night of the past. they have retrograded. she has no enemies abroad.For the liberal Spaniards the ethical condition of the people remains the same. Chinese. Let us pass over the loyalty the Filipinos may feel for Spain. along with Spanish writers. The material forces at the disposal of the Spanish sovereign have now been trebled. the native Filipinos have not advanced. though it has been curtailed. who killed him and thwarted all his plans and schemes. still continues to rule the destinies of the Philippine group. for the friars and their followers the people have been redeemed from savagery. as decay all the good qualities of a people that falls into slavery that is. Yet in spite of so many adverse circumstances the Spanish authority had been upheld for more than three centuries and. Formerly the Spanish authority was upheld among the natives by a handful of soldiers. the treasury nearly always empty. in order to see if what was not possible at that time can be so now. all enemies of the Spanish name. the fleet relatively improved: there is more organization in both civil and military affairs. many of whom were engaged in trade and were scattered about not only in the Islands but also among the neighboring nations. On the other hand. spirit and customs have decayed. let us admit the assertions flaunted by many that three centuries of domination have not awakened in the sensitive heart of the native a single spark of affection or gratitude. or some tribes in the interior. and we may see whether or not the Spanish cause has gained ground in the Islands. frequent and violent the disturbances among the ruling powers in the Islands.

thanks to the attachment of the people. So the Philippine peoples have remained faithful during three centuries. who have ideas different from his. fought and poured out its blood for the Spanish name. in spite of contact with the Occidental nations. True it is that neither were the natives of that time such as we are now: three centuries of . which was forbidden to reply or defend itself. Spanish domination once established. sometimes dazzled by the hope of the Paradise promised.liberty. of an ethical nature. far more powerful and transcendental. Orientals and the Malays. love for the fatherland. nor was it considered either noble or witty to offend a whole race. or of some other nature but at the least word which wounds his selflove he forgets all his sacrifices. Then the people saw their own countrymen in the higher ranks of the army. are a sensitive people: delicacy of sentiment is predominant with them. name for the sake of an aspiration or a conceit sometimes scientific. then fidelity and attachment to Spain. a world that is to it almost incomprehensible.aspiration for independence. in particular. begrudged neither character. to their mutual dissensions. we see the Malayan Filipino sacrifice everything -. not then had it become the fashion to insult and slander in stereotyped phrase. was firmly maintained. But above the material considerations are arising others. welfare. invisible. reputation nor consideration. sometimes cajoled by the friendship offered them by a noble and generous people like the Spanish. as during the English invasion. and to the fact that the sensitive self-love of the native had not yet been wounded. sometimes also compelled by superiority of arms of which they were ignorant and which timid spirits invested with a mysterious character. the labor expended. or sometimes because the invading foreigner took advantage of internecine feuds to step in as the peacemaker in discord and thus after to dominate both parties and subject them to his authority. Everything then at first glance presages another three centuries. the people that paid. their general officers fighting beside the heroes of Spain and sharing their laurels. Even now. at least. as did the Augustinian Gaspar de San Agustin and the Jesuit Velarde. to treasure in his memory and never forget the slight he thinks he has received. and if there were religious hypochondriacs who in the leisure of their cloisters dared to write against it. then there had not yet been invented the insulting and ridiculous epithets with which recently the most laborious and painful achievements of the native leaders have been stigmatized. and still less were they themselves rewarded with miters and raised to high offices. their loathsome abortions never saw the light. made of the native encomendero and even general. in newspapers and books published with governmental and superior ecclesiastical approval. of peaceful domination and tranquil suzerainty. giving up their liberty and their independence. ease.

It has been that the love and piety of the past have come to resemble the devotion of a nurse. of what use is life. when . if for trifling reasons. and listened to them in the darkest hours. the people saw in them learning and some prestige and placed its confidence in them. followed their advice. it has seen not only that she does not nourish it to make it grow but that she poisons it to stunt its growth and at the slightest protest she flies into a rage! The ancient show of justice. has wiped away the old feuds among different provinces. All this has passed away. the holy residencia has disappeared. The people no longer have confidence in its former protectors. undertook dangerous journeys. and every one points out with the finger the persons who are causing the trouble. The derisive laughter penetrates like mortal poison into the heart of the native who pays and suffers and it becomes more offensive the more immunity it enjoys. desires the eternal infancy. now its exploiters and executioners. the regard shown for a governor-general. unable to live elsewhere. But of what use are all the codes in the world. it is enough to have the obedient subjects later harassed and persecuted in every possible way. if by means of confidential reports. as representatives of the country. they did so in defense of the rights of the native and made his cry reach even to the distant steps of the Throne. from the captain-general to the most insignificant official. becomes a crime in the government of his successor. the most beautiful work of divinity in the hands of certain artisans may finally be converted into a caricature. The masks have fallen. as in the recent matter of admitting corpses into the church. no faith in justice and confidence in tranquility of conscience? Of what use is all that array of terms. got in touch with it and made common cause with it against the oppressive encomenderos. both secular and regular. wishing to establish their domination over the people. lie La Torre. satisfying. privileges and liberties or assuring the few in existence. And not a few priests. without a trial? Of what use is that Penal Code. yet no one dares lay hands upon them! True it is that the Penal Code has come like a drop of balm to such bitterness. a regime worse than a period of disorder for the fears that the imagination conjures up are generally greater than the reality. if through anonymous traitors any honest citizen may be exiled or banished without a hearing. A common sore the general affront offered to a whole race. who. along with the strict and public residencia then required of the governing powers. If they wrote. Naturally. a regime of continual terror and uncertainty disturbs the minds. for the child in order to go on drawing her wages and existing at its expense.brutalization and obscurantism have necessarily had some influence upon us. The priests of that epoch. confusion of ideas begins to prevail. if he obeys the order of one official. rather consoled and pacified the wounded spirits. if there is no security in the home. even though it were only in form. sufficient to cause the citizen to lose his liberty and his home. the financial crisis through which it is passing is acute. the country is poor. eternal weakness. all that collection of articles. and this. all the malcontents. obligations and taxes increase without thereby increasing rights.

what will be come of the Philippines within a century? The batteries are gradually becoming charged and if the prudence of the government does not provide an outlet for the currents that are accumulating. so it left no ineffaceable impressions. but rather when they saw that they had been duped the people bound up their wounds and applauded the overthrow of the disturbers of their peace! But what if the movement springs from the people themselves and based its causes upon their woes? So then. some day the spark will be generated. This is not the place to speak of what outcome such a deplorable conflict might have. against the hope of securing something indefinite. It may indeed be a suicidal attempt -. So they all failed. the system. upon the weapons and upon a thousand circumstances which man cannot foresee. But even though all the advantages should be on the government’s side and therefore the probability of success. as being of a subversive tendency. if the country is denied representation in the Cortes and an authorized voice to cry out against all kinds of abuses. to push their severity and repression to extremes against the classes that suffer and think they are going to force the latter to venture and put into play the wretchedness of an unquiet life. if met with the eternal it is out of order.but then. for it depends upon chance. and not government ought to desire such. if the prudence and wise reforms of our ministers do not find capable and determined interpreters among the colonial governors and faithful perpetrators among those whom the frequent perpetrators among those whom the frequent political changes send to fill such a delicate post. No insurrection had a popular character or was based on a need of the whole race or fought for human rights or justice. it would be a Pyrrhic victory. since they are superior in numbers to their dominators? Who disputes this? All the petty instructions that have occurred in the Philippines were the work of a few fanatics or discontented soldiers. who had to deceive and humbug the people or avail themselves of their powers over their subordinates to gain their ends. prolific in results of . which escape through the complexity of the laws. preferred by the elements who see their livelihood in the backwardness of their subjects. If those who guide the destinies of the Philippines remain obstinate. filled with privation and bitterness. if in short. and instead of introducing reforms try to make the condition of the country retrograde. what? Would not a bloody chasm yawn between victors and vanquished and might not the latter with time and experience become equal in strength.the cowardly accusation of a traitor has more influence in the timorous ears of the supreme autocrat than all the cries for justice? If this state of affairs should continue. it just claims are to go unheeded. What would be lost in the struggle? Almost nothing: the life of the numerous discontented classes has no such great attraction that it should be preferred to a glorious death.

which forces the inhabitants to leave the country. the divine flame of thought is inextinguishable in the Filipino people and somehow or other it will shine forth and compel recognition. itself wealthier. and fostering of feuds among the races. Machiavelli himself held this means of subjecting of a people to be perilous. Experience has everywhere shown us and especially in the Philippines. to secure education abroad. the gradual extermination of the inhabitants. confessionals. in spite of all the pupils. there is less discontent. the desire to change things and has little care for life. as in the Dutch colonies. and missals that inculcate hatred toward not only all scientific knowledge but even toward the Spanish language itself. there exist writers. books.alienating the goodwill of the natives. A numerous enlightened class now exists within and without the Islands. the brutalization of the masses through a caste addicted to the government. is in constant communication with the rest of the Islands. philosophers. This class. statecraft has various means at its disposal for checking a people on the road to progress. chemists. is to continue. artists. physicians. Brutalization of the Malayan Filipinos has been demonstrated to be impossible. weary and disgusted with books: in spite of the censorship which tries to close every avenue to progress. Enlightenment is spreading and the persecution it suffers quickens it. when there are wealth and abundance. aristocratic. there occurs in a poor country what becomes in a house where bread is wanting? And further. On the other hand. observing that loss of welfare stirs up more obdurate enemies than loss of life. has more means for sustaining itself. and jurists. historians. while poverty inspires adventurous ideas. issuing therefrom tired. Now. but it is a very dangerous means. less compliant and the government. which miserably wastes years and years in the colleges. It is impossible to brutalize the inhabitants of the Philippines! May poverty arrest their development? Perhaps. a common debasement has united all the inhabitants of the Islands. the impoverishment of the country. the spirit of conservation. of what use to the mother country would a poor and lean colony be? . a class created and continually augmented by the stupidity of certain governing powers. we can assert that in a few yeas the present state of affairs will have been modified completely -. No. There now exists a factor which was formerly lacking -. and if today it constitutes only the brain of the country in a few years it will form the whole nervous system and manifest its existence in all its acts. or theocratic as in the Philippines. and it is maintained thanks to the provocation and the system of espionage in vogue. Wealth brings with it refinement. in spite of this whole elaborate system perfected and tenaciously operated by those who wish to keep the Islands in holy ignorance. because they live comparatively better and may be the losers in civil disturbances. In spite of the dark horde of friars in whose hands rests the instruction of youth. whose number is cumulatively increasing.the spirit of the nation has been aroused and a common misfortune. pricking his apathetic mind with insults and charges of ingratitude. freethinkers. that the classes which are better off have always been addicted to peace and order.and inevitably. Moreover.

In spite of the numerous wars the Filipinos have had to carry on. are surely one of its solidest supports. far from being a menace. Three remains the fostering of internecine feuds among the provinces. communication and exchange of impressions naturally increase. the frequent changes of officials. when there were not steamers or telegraph lines. when some provinces were cajoled by awards of privileges and honor and other were protected from the strongest. but rather. are decreed by fate. The Filipino embraces civilization and lives and thrives in every clime. like all the Malays. It is true that the union is not yet wholly perfected. then. The petty wars with the inhabitants of the south consume only the soldiers. the scarcity of centers of learning. has no power in the Philippines. comparison of their present condition with that described by the earlier historians. but to this end the measures of good government. in contact with every people. The Islands cannot remain in the condition they are without requiring from the sovereign country more liberty. a new social order. . In short. For new men. when communication from one island to another was rare and difficult. and at the sight of modern liberty and the memory of the misfortunes of their country. the vexations to which the townspeople are subjected. and as all see themselves threatened by the same peril and wounded in the same feelings. when the regiments were formed according to the various provinces. forces of the youth of all the islands to come together and begin to get acquainted. The journeys to Europe contribute not a little to tighten the bonds. the advancement and ethical progress of the Philippines are inevitable. This was formerly possible. makes it appear that the Filipinos have grown soberer. people who by their fidelity to the Spanish flag. as has that of the Malays of Java and the Moluccas. Mutatis mutandis. from sailors even to the wealthiest merchants. in spite of the epidemics that have periodically visited them. for abroad the inhabitants of most widely separated provinces are impressed by their patriotic feelings. they embrace and call one another brothers. that poison which exterminated the natives of the Pacific islands. they clasp hands and make common cause. their number has trebled. like the Australians. The Philippine races. the Polynesians and the Indians of the New World.Neither is possible gradually to exterminate the inhabitants. do not succumb before the foreigner. But now that the privileges have disappeared. that through a spirit of distrust the regiments have been reorganized. that the inhabitants move from one island to another. Rum.

tries in this way to alleviate the patient’s sufferings or to temporize with the cowardice of the timid and ignorant. The Philippines. for the simple reason that they have been based upon unstable grounds. they have produced scanty results. We also said that this transformation will be violent and fatal if it proceeds from the ranks of the people. . for the course of their history and the needs of their inhabitants so required. are not only ineffectual but even prejudicial when the government is confronted with evils that must be cured radically. and impelled by their patriotism. But notwithstanding all that have been ordered up to the present time. that reforms. then. We said and once more we repeat. for the government as well as for the country. tearing away the old rags that bind it. As no one should desire or hope for such an unfortunate rupture. This we demonstrated in the preceding article.To wish that the alleged child remain in its swaddling clothes is to risk that it may turn against the nurse and flee. who. let us see by what forms of peaceful evolution the Islands may remain subjected to the Spanish authority. they will necessarily have to be transformed in a political sense. which would be an evil for all and only the final argument in the most desperate predicament. with the very least detriment to the rights. we would be tempted to say that all the partial reforms are only plasters and salves of a physician. interests and dignity of both parties. have been trying to introduce needed reforms in order to forestall events. Even those that promised only a happy issue have at times caused injury. Some governors have realized this truth. and not daring to root it out. or they will declare themselves independent after steeping themselves and the mother country in blood. not knowing how to cure the cancer. III If the Philippines must remain under the control of Spain. and all will ever assert. which have a palliative character. but peaceful and fruitful if it emanates from the upper classes. And were we not convinced of the honesty and rectitude of some governors. but with more law and greater liberty. will remain under Spanish domination.

The result is that the long suffering Sancho. The free press in the Philippines. Truth is that the despotic Pedro Rezio gave reasons. and if they do they are so secret. and so on. just like our Pedro Rezio on both sides of the sea. saying. have been. The government that governs in a country may even dispense with the press (if it can). so long as the Philippines have no liberty of the press. have no voice in the Cortes to make known to the government and to the nation whether or not their decrees have been duly obeyed. if it wishes to rule rightly and fitly. Great good did his cook’s skill do Sancho! In the case of our country. who wants his reforms to be reforms. misses his liberty. except according to the usage and custom of other islands. are. the Philippines are Sancho. Mr. perhaps that they may themselves get the benefit of them. while the part of the quack physician is played by many persons interested in not having the dishes touched. so mysterious that no newspaper dares to publish them. which seem to have been written by Cervantes especially for the colonial administrations. or the Philippines. very rarely. because it is on the . He took his seat at a sumptuous and well-appointed table “covered with fruit and many varieties of food differently prepared.All the reforms of our liberal ministers were. or if it does reproduce them. where there are governors. the reforms take the place of the dishes. whether or not these benefit the country. it does so tardily and badly. A government that rules a country from a great distance is the one that has the most need for a free press more so even than the government of the home country. In this manner. Governor. The minister. “Take it away!” The dish removed. all the able efforts of the colonial ministers will meet the fate of the dishes in Barataria Island. and will be good -.when carried out. must begin by declaring the press in the Philippines free and by instituting Filipino delegates. we are reminded of the dieting of Sancho Panza in this Barataria Island. Sancho was as hungry as ever. When we think of them. “You must not eat. then. because their complaints rarely ever reach the Peninsula.” but between the wretch’s mouth and each dish the physician Pedro Rezio interposed his wand. rejects all government and ends up by rebelling against his quack physician. another too moist.” Something was found to be wrong with each dish: one was too hot.

If the great Napoleon had not tyrannized over the press. instead of being dissipated in foreign aggrandizement would have become intensive in laboring to strengthen his position and thus have assured it. that prop of false governments. and routine says that freedom of the press is dangerous. It amounts to pronouncing judgment after hearing only one of the parties. But routine is a declivity down which many governments slide. the government which still dreams of the prestige which it builds upon mined ground. We say the same about the Filipino representatives. Moreover. What colonies have become independent while they had a free press and enjoyed liberty? Is it preferable to govern blindly or to govern with ample knowledge? Someone will answer that in colonies with a free press. but it is to govern badly. the state of the sea. Who endure and know all the false pretensions and petty persecutions of those sham gods. Spain herself records in her history more revolutions when the press was gagged. do not need a free press in order to recognize them. But the government that governs from afar absolutely requires that the truth and the facts reach its knowledge by every possible channel so that it may weigh and estimate them better. It is managing a house by endeavoring merely to give it polish and a fine appearance without watching the money chest. To govern in any other way may also be called governing. . the reefs and shoals. because it has eyes and ears. but by rebuking and punishing them. in countries where human thought and the human heart have been forced to remain silent. without looking after the servants and the members of the family. We answer that the prestige of the nation is not by abetting and concealing abuses. the prestige of the rulers. the direction of the winds and currents. perhaps it would have warned him of the peril into which he was hurled and have made him understand that the people were weary and the earth wanted peace. where the inhabitants speak and complain in a language unknown to the authorities. Let us see what History says: uprisings and revolutions have always occurred in countries tyrannized over. and this need increases when a country like the Philippines is concerned. they have long ago lost their prestige.ground. Perhaps his genius. The free press is needed by the government. and because it directly observes what it rules and administers. will be greatly imperiled. to this prestige is applicable what Napoleon said about great men and their valets. it is steering a ship without reckoning its conditions.

it is a great compliment to the separatists to fear them in the midst of the Cortes of the nation. which so disturbed in open Senate the doughty General Salamanca. pretty boys and other like paragons. Its taste has a hundred million more adherents than the Europeans. China. Now then. the Filipinos. can affirm that they will smell at worst like powder. for example. that all the representatives would be separatists and that in all their contentions they would advocate separatist ideas. then Don Sinibaldo de Mas. because the Spanish parliament especially abounds in oratorical paladins invincible in debate. become political trimmers. we would have to admit the inferiority of the Latins. when they become representatives may give up such a dirty custom. who there in their own country are accustomed to bathe every day. in the huts and in the field? Certainly the Spanish people does not spare its blood where patriotism is concerned but would not a struggle of principles in parliament be preferable to the exchange of shot in swampy lands. Supposing that we should yield to the most absurd pessimism and admit the insult. three thousand leagues from home in impenetrable forests. it is said that the Filipinos are indolent and peaceful . we maintain that the government ought not to pause at these obligations. under a burning sun or amid torrential rains? These pacific struggles of ideas. or act properly. And so long as it is not asserted that the Spanish parliament is an assemblage of Adonises. Moreover. either that they will prove unruly. besides being a thermometer for the government. and Señor Salamanca undoubtedly has no fear of that odor.then what need for government fear? Hasn’t it any influence in the elections? Frankly speaking. Law has no skin nor reason nostrils. so long as the purpose of resorting thither is to legislate and not to philosophize or wonder through imaginary spheres. is there not present there the vigilance of the governing powers to combat and oppose such intentions? And would not this be better than the discontent that ferments and expands in the secrecy of the home. And if this were all. Moreover. who saw the Igorots in person and wanted to live with them. does not a patriotic Spanish majority exist there. if this is the question. if the real objection to the Filipino delegates. It is useless to answer certain objections of some fine writers regarding the rather brown skins and faces with somewhat wide nostrils. is that they smell like Igorots. Questions of taste are peculiar to each race. Antoniuses. or red devils. considers all Europeans ugly and calls them “fankwai”. at least during the legislative session so as not to offend the delicate nostrils of Salamanca with the odor of the bath. who are much whiter. especially the Spaniards. . great for the Philippines but still greater for Spain. have the advantage of being cheap and glorious. to the Saxons.What risks does the government see in them? One of three things. which has four hundred million inhabitants and a very ancient civilization.

as they ought to be. the best from among the sons of the Philippines. If after so just. and the representatives. the country would bear them better. and since the Filipino is regarded as a fit citizen when he is asked to pay taxes or shed his blood to defend the fatherland why must this fitness be denied him when the question arises of granting him some right? Moreover. These are the reforms sine quibus non. and make all succeeding reforms fruitful. But we wish to be loyal to the government and we are pointing out to it the road that appears best to us so that its effort may not come to grief. With no cause for discontent. The free press will keep the government in touch with public opinion.So we see no serious reason why the Philippines may not have representatives. for it could at least complain and with its sons among its legislators. assure affection toward Spain. the Filipino people are so stupid and weak that they are treacherous to their own interests. and the boldness. no one forfeits his rights to civilization merely by being more or less uncultured. as well as necessary. Aside from the fact that it is not so imperfect as is averred. then let the responsibility fall upon them. there is no plausible reason why the ignorant and the defective (whether through their own or another’s fault) should be denied representation to look after them and see that they are not abused. so that discontent may disappear. and instead of blaming its troubles upon the government. let them suffer all consequences. a measure has been introduced. No one ceases to be a man. the cunning and the powerful methods of those who wish their obscurantism. We know that the lack of enlightenment. may convert reform into a harmful instrument. when it is acknowledged by all. the indolence. which properly interpreted and applied. They are the very ones who most need it. Every country gets the fate it deserves and the government can say that it has done its duty. if they are. of our fellow countrymen. would in a way become responsible for their actions. will be their hostages. We are not sure that we serve the true interests of our country by asking for representatives. These are the two fundamental reforms. and that we now see the humblest families make enormous sacrifices to the extent of working as servants in order to learn Spanish? How can the . as now happens. how then attempt to stir up the masses of the people? Likewise inadmissible is the obligation offered by some regarding the imperfect culture of the majority of the inhabitants. friends and enemies that his zeal for learning is so great that even before the coming of the Spaniards every one could read and write. the egotism. It is puerile to fear that independence may come thorough them. By their institution many malcontents would be silenced. how is he to be held responsible for his ignorance. will dissipate all clouds.

publishing the work and the judgment thereon. for what interest would they have in converting the sure and stable into the uncertain and problematical? The native is. so that there may be stimulus and that discontent may not be bred. education. When the book was published these things were looked upon . they are the most unshaken conservatives. he must also be able to choose and retain the one who looks after him and his interests. The thing that makes the English most respected in their possessions is their strict and speedy justice so that the inhabitants repose entire confidence in the judges. it should be practiced in the colonies. for the reason that genuine prestige should be sought by means of moral qualities. then. upright. the word justice may cease to be a colonial jest. while injustice arouses the weakest. It subdues the barbarous nations. For the present we are satisfied with the outlines and no one can say that we ask too much. moreover. or at least to seem. with the product whereof he serves the government of his nation. The offices and trusts so earned will do away with arbitrary dismissal and develop employees and officials capable and cognizant of their duties. agriculture. honest and intelligent. We presume that it will not be the Spaniard who fears to enter in this contest. The offices held by natives.country be expected to become enlightened under present conditions when we see all the decrees issued by the government in favor of education meet with Pedro Rezios who prevent execution whereof because they have in their hands what they call education? If the Filipino. almost complete abolition of the death penalty and so on. religious toleration. Justice is the foremost virtue of the civilized races. To reason otherwise is to reason stupidly. just as a man stimulates virtues when he deals with a stranger. We could add other minor reforms touching commerce. Let the various Filipinos still holding office speak in this matter. and so on. instead of endangering the Spanish domination. security of the individual and of property. will merely serve to assure it. for thus will he be able to prove his superiority by the superiority of intelligence. There will be lacking critics to accuse us of Utopianism: but what is Utopia? Utopia was a country imagined by Thomas Moore. Although this is not the custom in the sovereign country. but these are points with which we shall deal in other articles. because the colonizers ought to be. Offices and trusts should be awarded by competition. wherein existed universal suffrage. if the native does not shake off his indolence he can not complain when he sees all the offices filled by Castilas. Then. is sufficiently intelligent to pay taxes. very fond of peace and prefers a humble present to a brilliant future. When the laws and the acts of officials are kept under surveillance.

Roman. and more. and who have not made such sacrifices for Spain. it will be impossible to hinder the operations of the inexorable laws of history. the human will and conscience have worked greater miracles. and before Bachelet. whose inhabitants do not number a third of those of the Philippines. but that ties are formed between them stronger than those engendered by affection. all eventually become independent said Bachelet. who conferred with the King and Pope on the needs of the country. Colonies established to subserve the policy and the commerce of the sovereign country. They had them in Spain’s critical moments. killing the goose that lays the golden eggs. worshipping the same God. which in the sixteenth century was the model nation in civilization. shedding their blood on the same fields. is true but it is pure sentimentality. The Philippines in the early days had theirs. The press there is also free. Close indeed are the bonds that unite us to Spain. great may be the loyalty of the Filipinos. Greek.as dreams. sharing the same lot. Carthaginian. and they did not take advantage of the sovereign country’s misfortunes like other colonies but tightened more firmly the bonds that united them to be the nation.things impossible for even Utopia itself! The French colonies have their representatives. and in the arena of politics stern necessity and interests . All this. that is Utopianism. interchanging the same ideas. and Spanish colonies have said it. Yet civilization has left the country of Utopia far behind. however. lags far behind. impossibilities. Two peoples do not live for three centuries in continual contact. Otherwise. for the others already enjoy some autonomy. The question has also been raised in the English parliament of giving representation to the Crown colonies. if the other rights due them are granted. if the rights of their inhabitants are respected. giving proofs of their loyalty and they continued until many years later. have abolished slavery and the death penalty for adultery -. if the liberal policy of the government is carried out without trickery or meanness. when she groaned under the Napoleonic yoke. e cosi obligarsi pe li beneficii che essi fanno come per quelli che essi ricevono (it is human nature to be bound as much by benefits conferred as by those received). holding the same beliefs. a resource to satisfy ambitions. all the Phoenician. Only Spain. What crime have the Islands committed that they are deprived of their rights? To recapitulate: the Philippines will remain Spanish if they enter upon the life of law and civilization. thus to relieve the sovereign country of taxes. Cuba and Puerto Rico. and shutting its ears to all cries of reasons the. the great reader of the human heart said: la natura degli huomini. without subterfuges or false interpretations. if an attempt is made to see in the Islands a lode to be exploited. Portuguese. Machiavelli. English. have numerous representatives.

In contemplating such an unfortunate eventuality. If what we desire is not realized. and so instead of closing our eyes we will face what the future may bring. denied light and the rights inherent to a human being and then heap upon them slights and insults.prevail. and with our gaze fixed upon our ideals. against peace and honor. the sacrileges and wrongs that are committed by persons who have the name of God on their lips. There is no divinity that can proclaim the sacrifice of our dearest affections. the rudest aspirations stifled in its atmosphere. shall not cease to plead our cause. to accept abjection and dishonor its own name! We. . the peaceful inhabitants living in constant alarm. offenses that are committed three daily. A people that prides itself on the glories of the past cannot ask another. they can not be required to forego their redemption. of diverse usages and customs. with the fortune of the two peoples dependent upon the whim of one man. There is no claim of gratitude that can excuse. to have their liberal and enlightened sons wander about in exile from their native land. . let us frankly descend into the abyss and sound its terrible mysteries. The noble Spanish people. there is not enough power in the world to justify the offenses against the liberty of the individual. exploited and oppressed. Howsoever much the Filipinos owe Spain. so jealous of its rights and liberties. trained by it. cannot bid the Filipinos to renounce theirs. No one can require an impossibility of the Filipino people. but if violence first silences us or we have the misfortune to fall (which is possible for we are mortal) then we do not know what course will be taken by the numerous tendencies that will rush in to occupy the places that we leave vacant. Spain can not claim. without going beyond the pale of the law. of different races. the sacrifice of the family. against the laws. after throwing the handful of dust due to Cerberus. . IV History does not record in its annals any lasting domination exercised by one people over another. against the sanctity of the home. of opposite and divergent ideals. For this purpose. that six millions of people should be brutalized. we must not turn away in horror. who today are struggling by the legal and peaceful means of debate so understand it. nor even in the name of God himself.

or else these autochthons had to give way and perish. whose climate is to a certain extent disastrous to her? What good would the Philippines be without the Filipinos? Quite otherwise. absolute inertia. if equitable laws and free and liberal reforms do not make each forget that they belong to different races. we must conclude. not the doubtful future of dismemberment and intestine strife in the Islands themselves. Either the foreigner was driven out. under her colonial system and the transitory character of the Spanish who go to the colonies. as was the case with the inhabitants of the New World. which lasted seven centuries. destroys the organism. homogeneous. that if their population be not assimilated to the Spanish nation. is eliminated or becomes encysted. even though the Peninsula was broken up into small states. Now applying these considerations to the Philippines. nor the love of all Filipinos for Spain. as a deduction from all we have said. We have said and statistics prove that it is impossible to exterminate the Filipino people. even . Science teaches us that it is either assimilated. Encystment of a conquering people is possible. in order to destroy the six million Malays. the gallantry and the religious toleration of the caliphs. One of the longest dominations was that of the Moors in Spain. Necessity is the most powerful divinity the world knows. or if both peoples be not amalgamated to constitute one mass. and debility in the conquering element. But. The existence of a foreign body within another endowed with strength and activity is contrary to all natural and ethical laws. socially and politically. as happened in the case of Carthaginians. even though the conquerors lived in the country conquered. for it signifies complete isolation. the Moors and the French in Spain. that is. which gradually emerged like little islands in the midst of the great Saracen inundation and in spite of the chivalrous spirit. if the dominators do not enter into the spirit of their inhabitants. which formed the Spanish nation and created the Spain of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Encystment thus means the tomb of the foreign invader. they were finally driven out after bloody and stubborn conflicts. Moreover.One of the two had to yield and succumb. And even were it possible what interest would Spain have in the destruction of the inhabitants of a country she can not populate or cultivate. a colony is so much the more useful and productive to her as it possesses inhabitants and wealth. To this law of destiny can be opposed neither Spanish patriotism. and necessity is the resultant of physical forces set in operation by ethical forces. not harassed by opposing tendencies and antagonistic ideas and interests some day the Philippines will fatally and infallibly declare themselves independent.

the haste and hurried procedure of the court martials. who always think the punishment excessive and the judge unjust. either to teach a stern lesson in order to vaunt its strength or even to revenge upon the vanquished the spells of excitement and terror that the danger caused it. especially when there exist elements interested in having disturbances. the peril is increased a hundred-fold when the government is formed a race different from the governed. or employ violent measures. because it is not usually regarded as personal and so the resentment naturally spreads to the whole governing race and does not die out with the offender. But nothing of this kind can happen. This we commend to the notice of the partisans of colonial exploitation.all these things augment the severe measures and the number of the victims. behind the mother country’s back or they will secure by hook or by crook some advantages in their country with the result that the opposition of purblind and paretic politicians will not only be futile but even prejudicial because it will convert motives for love and gratitude into resentment and hatred. and the offense hurts not only the victim but his entire race. will finally result in a violent terrible collision. instead of becoming fewer. even the most just act of severity is construed as injustice and oppression. who is unsympathetic or is an enemy of the country.supposing them to be in their infancy and that they have never learned to fight and defend themselves. to a governor actuated by personal malice. despicable accusations. too. covetousness. who see no advantage in living and working submissively and peacefully. In the former an injustice may still be ascribed to one man alone. Spain would have to sacrifice at least a fourth of her population. must be added the families and friends of the innocent. . which cloaks and justifies everything. demonstrates their mighty power. foster lamentations and recriminations. the opportune moment for calumny. the cowardice that battens upon the conquered -. which unfortunately are still rare and above all the panic-stricken timidity. then they will seek enlightenment abroad. and with the death of the tyrant the victim is reconciled to the government of his nation. that if severe measures are dangerous in a nation made up of homogeneous population. denunciation. But in a county dominated by a foreign race. Private reprisals. Hence the great prudence and fine tact that should be exercised by colonizing countries. the pretext of the integrity of the fatherland and the safety of the state. Hatred and resentment on one side. An unavoidable concomitant of those catastrophes is the accumulation of acts of injustice committed against the innocent and peaceful inhabitants. mistrust and anger on the other. and the fact that government regards the colonies in general and our colonial office in particular. because it is ordered by a foreigner. are increased. so that they may get something in the excitement. The menace is that when the education and liberty necessary to human existence are denied by Spain to the Filipinos. The result is that a chasm of blood is then opened between the two peoples that the wounded and the afflicted. resentments. Note. for to the families and friends of the guilty. even for scrupulous minds. as training schools. It is to be expected that the government will triumph and be generally (as is the custom) severe in punishment.

for it will amount to a slavery much more cruel than death for the people and to a dishonorable loss of prestige for the dominator. murders. from her scanty knowledge of them. if it has any vitality. The struggle will be brief. and crime. they will extend mutual support. All this is at the cost of bloodshed. instead of intestine conflicts of some islands against others. insurrections and uprisings. as is generally feared. is constantly weakened and even though she makes heroic efforts. Reprisals. when he is once aroused he does not hesitate and for him the struggle means death to one or the other combatant. The terrible lessons and the hard teachings that these conflicts will have afforded the Filipinos will operate to improve and strengthen their ethical nature. Nor may it be said that we shall partake of the fate of the . famine and misery. The Spaniard is gallant and patriotic. military executions. must die. operate to generalize the movement and one of the two peoples must succumb. conflagrations. will necessarily have to give way. The Filipino loves his country no less and although he is quieter. the colony. Spain. Climate affects bipeds in the same way that it does quadrupeds. she finally perishes. but also her very independence in Europe. from the number of her inhabitants. and sacrifices everything in favorable moments. more peaceful and with difficulty stirred up. Such is the descent down which the peoples are precipitated. The Spain of the fifteenth century was not the Spain of the eighth. He has all the meekness and all the tenacity and ferocity of his carabao. and from struggling against a people whose love and goodwill she has alienated. after mortal conflicts. wrongs and suspicions on one part and on the other the sentiment of patriotism and liberty. learns how to struggle and perfect itself in fighting while the mother country whose colonial life depends upon peace and the submission of the subjects. if she does not wish to risk not only her other possessions and her future in Africa. as her number is less and she has only a fictitious existence. which is aroused in these incessant conflicts. With their bitter experience. In proportion as they are bathed in blood and drenched in tears and gall. from the condition of her army and navy. like shipwrecked persons when they reach an island after a fearful night of storm.contributes notably to the fulfillment of the great law that the colonies sooner or later declare themselves independent. for his country’s good. He has the intrepidity of his bull. She is like the rich voluptuary accustomed to be waited upon by a crowd of servants toiling and planting for him and who on the day his slaves refuse him obedience. from the distance she is situated from the Islands. One of the peoples must succumb. as he does not live by his own efforts.

nor France. If the Philippines secure their independence after heroic and stubborn conflicts. they can rest assured that neither England or Germany. is confined to conquering easy territory that belongs to nobody. besides the fact that the French spirit does not shine in zeal for colonization. when he has Singapore. Thus we see her attitude. like the beat of the pendulum or by a law of reaction. as much in the Pacific as in Africa. untouched. both internally and on the continent. and as they tendency of countries that have been tyrannized over. will force the Filipinos to be sensible and prudent. is to adopt the freest government. undeveloped and almost undefended. when they once shake off the yoke. She has also other obligations. for it will open their ports to her and afford greater freedom to her commerce. that they greatly weaken the sovereign country. English or German. France has enough to do and see more of a future in Tongking and China. but the glory and laurels that grow on the battlefields of Europe. Hong Kong and Shanghai? It is probable the England will look favorably upon the independence of the Philippines. Within a few years Africa will completely absorb the attention of the Europeans. Absence of any great preponderance of one race over the others will free their imagination from all mad ambitions of domination. England has enough colonies in the Orient and is not going to sacrifice her Indian Empire for the poor Philippine Islands -. Furthermore. for it reaches her quite faintly. when he is already lord of the Orient. Besides the danger of falling again into other hands. . For the same reasons Germany will not care to run any risk. there exist in the United Kingdom tendencies and opinions to the effect that she already has too many colonies. Moreover. They achieved their independence easily and their inhabitants are animated by a different spirit from what the Filipinos are. that they are harmful. will neglect the immense territory offered by the Dark Continent. France loves glory. and there is no sensible nation which. like a boy leaving school. Germany avoids any foreign complications. for example. The echo from battlefields in the Fear East hardly satisfies her craving for renown.small American republics. and because a scattering of her forces and a war in distant countries will endanger her existence on the continent. what need has John Bull the trader to exhaust himself over the Philippines. but would have kept some point in the Philippines whence she might gradually expand. the Islands will probably declare themselves a federal republic. in order to secure a group of poor and hostile islands. and still less Holland will dare to take up what Spain has been unable to hold.if she had entertained such an intention she would not have restored Manila in 1763.

from fear of losing everything. and Harrison manifested something of this sort in the Samoan question. With the new men that will spring from their soil and with the recollection of their past. True it is that she has an excess of population. with which a youth falls again to tilling the land of his ancestors who long wasted and abandoned through the neglect of those who have withheld it from him. But the Panama Canal is not opened nor the territory of the States congested with inhabitants. whose interests lie in the Pacific and who has no hand in the spoliation of Africa. The same is true with Japan. joyous. under such diplomatic pressure from Europe that she can not think of outside affairs until she is freed from it. . Perhaps the great American Republic. and coal. iron for weapons. if she should once get into the business. lead. On the north side she has Russia. with whom she is in accord even to her official language. may dream some day of foreign possession. for the example is contagious. who envies and watches her. they will perhaps strife to enter freely upon the wide road of progress. copper. moreover. covetousness and ambition are among the strongest vices. like the flower that unfolds to the air. ability and instincts. North America would be quite a troublesome rival. this is contrary to her traditions. Perhaps the country will revive the maritime and mercantile life for which the islanders are fitted by their nature. and in case she should openly attempt it the European powers would not allow her to proceed. like the bird that leaves its cage. but Korea attracts her more than the Philippines and is also easier to seize. She is. hospitable and daring. China will consider herself fortunate if she succeeds in keeping herself intact and is not dismembered or partitioned among the European powers that they are colonizing the continent of Asia. with the same enthusiasm. Then the mines will be made to give up their gold for relieving distress. on the south England. and once more free. and all will labor together to strengthen their fatherland. for they know very well that the appetite is sharpened by the first bites. Sumatra offers her a greater future than the Philippines whose seas and coasts have a sinister omen for Dutch expeditions. both internally and externally. Very likely the Philippines will defend with inexpressible valor the liberty secured at the price of so much blood and sacrifice. Holland proceeds with great caution in Sumatra and Borneo. happy.cheerful. will recover the pristine virtues that are gradually dying out and will again become addicted to peace -. which will not be an easy matter. This is not impossible. Furthermore.Holland is sensible and will be content to keep the Moluccas and Java.

the blood from our veins and the strength left in our arms? Spain. peoples as well as governments are subjects to it. while there is time. we repeat and we will ever repeat. for we prefer this unpleasant task to the need of some day saying to the mother country: “Spain. Fortunately. it is not well to trust to accident. we have sent our youth in serving thy interests in the interests of our country. must we some day tell Filipinas that thou hast no ear for her woes and that if she wishes to be saved. for there is sometimes an imperceptible and incomprehensible logic in the workings of history. thou hast remained deaf. so that they may be in fact Spaniards. and wrapped up in thy pride. may err through remote and insignificant causes: An octopus that seized Mark Anthony’s ship altered the face of the world. hast pursued thy fatal course and accused us of being traitors.These and many other things may come to pass within something like a hundred years. the latter contempt and anger. A sunken road at the battle of Waterloo buried all the glories of two brilliant decades. We shall never tire of repeating this while a ray of hope is left us. a liberal policy and that would assure us the peace of our native land and thy sway over loyal but unfortunate islands! Spain. without irritating mistrust. Upon what chance accidents will the destiny of the Philippines depend? Nevertheless. she must redeem herself?” . future. and yet before Christ. since in its service we have exhausted all the resources of hope. Therefore. it also takes the residue which we can not use. merely because we love our country because we tell thee the truth and hate all kinds of injustice. all the disillusions of desire. let the government grant these rights freely and spontaneously. a cross on Calvary and a just man nailed thereon changed the ethics of half the human race. since for it we have lost everything -. without damaging reservations. the prophecy based on the best probabilities. we have looked to thee.youth. Since it is necessary to grant six million Filipinos their rights. how many just men wrongly perished and how many crosses were raised on that hill! The death of the just sanctified his work and made his teaching unanswerable. hope. to draw from them a glance of love. and family. What dost thou wish us to tell our wretched country when it asks about the result of our efforts? Must we say to it that. but the most logical prognostication. peace. the whole napoleonic world. and freed Europe. the former begets sympathy and love. and that is better to keep pace with the desire of a people than to give way before them. we have expended the whole light of our intellects. all the fervor and enthusiasm of our hearts in working for the good of what was tine.