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Power Measurement Ltd. (“Power Measurement”) reserves the right to make changes in the device or its specifications identified in this document without notice. Power Measurement advises customers to obtain the latest version of the device specifications before placing orders to verify that the information being relied upon by the customer is current. Regardless of whether any remedy set forth herein fails in its essential purpose, except to the extent the following limitation is prohibited by applicable law, Power Measurement shall not, in any event or under any legal claim or theory (whether based on contract, indemnity, warranty, tort (including negligence and strict liability) or otherwise), be liable to the original purchaser or any other person or entity for special, indirect, incidental, punitive, liquidated, special or consequential damages whatsoever with respect to any purchased product, including, without limitation, business interruption, loss of use, profit or revenue, even if Power Measurement has been advised of the possibility of such damages. To the extent that a limitation or exclusion of consequential damages are prohibited by applicable law, then Power Measurement’s liability shall be limited to twice the amount of the relevant purchased product. Not to limit the foregoing, a) Power Measurement shall not be liable for any claim (other than a claim solely for the breach of one of the above Warranties that is made in accordance with the above described procedures) made by the original purchaser, its employees, agents, or contractors for any loss, damage, or expense incurred due to, caused by, or related to any purchased product; and b) the above Warranties are the original purchaser's exclusive remedy and Power Measurement hereby expressly disclaims all other warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties of non-infringement and the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. These limited Warranties shall not apply to any product that has been subject to alteration, accident, misuse, abuse, neglect or failure to exactly follow Power Measurement's instructions for operation and maintenance. Any technical assistance provided by Power Measurement's personnel or representatives in system design shall be deemed to be a proposal and not a recommendation. The responsibility for determining the feasibility of such proposals rests with the original purchaser and should be tested by the original purchaser. It is the original purchaser’s responsibility to determine the suitability of any product and associated documentation for its purposes. The original purchaser acknowledges that 100% "up" time is not realizable because of possible hardware or software defects. The original purchaser recognizes that such defects and failures may cause inaccuracies or malfunctions. Only the terms expressed in these limited Warranties shall apply and no distributor, corporation or other entity, individual or employee of Power Measurement or any other entity is authorized to amend, modify or extend the Warranties in any way. The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate at the time of publication, however, Power Measurement assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear here and reserves the right to make changes without notice. Power Measurement, ION, ION Enterprise, MeterM@il, WebMeter and “drive energy performance” are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Power Measurement. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. Covered by one or more of the following patents: U.S. Patent No's 6694270, 6687627, 6671654, 6671635, 6615147, 6611922, 6611773, 6563697, 6493644, 6397155, 6186842, 6185508, 6000034, 5995911, 5828576, 5736847, 5650936, D459259, D458863, D443541, D439535, D435471, D432934, D429655, D429533, D427533.
2195 Keating Cross Road Saanichton, BC Canada V8M 2A5 Tel: 1-250-652-7100 Fax: 1-250-652-0411 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
© 2004 Power Measurement Printed in Canada Revision Date: November 2004 70060-0001
.. . . . . 31 Chapter 3 Intelligent ION Meters .. ... . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 26 Design Considerations . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Adaptability and Longevity . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Wiring and Equipment Requirements . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .... 18 Single-Meter Installations . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 30 Integration with Existing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Initial Setup . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . 33 Meter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 14 Chapter 2 Building a System . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 36 ION 6100 Wireless Metering System . . . . . . . . 36 ION 6200 Meter . .. . . .. . . . . . 35 ION 7300 series Meters . . . . 21 Single-Site Network . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . 23 Remote Substation Monitoring ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 ION Product Documentation . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 10 Getting More Information . . . . . . .Contents Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 37 Comparison of Meter Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 37 3000 Series ACM Meters . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22 Single-Site Network with Control Outputs . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 7650 / ION 7550 / ION 7500 RTU . . . . .. .. . . . . . . ... 11 Contact Power Measurement . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Setup Time . .. . . .. . . 25 Enterprise-Wide Network . 24 Third Party System Interface . . . .. ... . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. .... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Services and Support . . . . .. . . .. . . . ... . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 17 System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 8000 series Meters . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . 9 Power Monitoring Components .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 35 ION 7700 Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .
. 81 Immediate Notification from Meters . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Serial Communications . . . . . 80 Modem Gateway Communications . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . GPS. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 91 Time-Synchronization Blackout . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Chapter 5 Communication Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 4 ION Software . .. . .. . 93 .. . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Advantages .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 ION EEM .. . . 81 Dialing Out to Remote Sites . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 66 Energy Profiler Online . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 E-VEE . . .. . . . . . . . 79 Using a COM Converter with a Modem . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . 86 Internet Connectivity . . . . 75 Converting to RS-485 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 83 Ethernet Gateway Communications . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 72 ION Network Building Blocks .. . . . . . . .. . 50 ION EEM Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ION Enterprise Network Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or NTP . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Energy Profiler . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 64 List of Software Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 86 Managing Network Traffic .. 88 Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 52 ION Enterprise Operations Software . 67 Energy BOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Bus Wiring Considerations . 65 Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . 58 Network Architecture . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . 73 Building Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 ION Setup . . . . .. . 63 ION Setup Workstation Requirements . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Modem Communications . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 91 Time Synchronization Method: ION Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Clock Module Settings . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 ION Setup Functionality . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Enterprise Energy Management Software . . 82 Ethernet Communications .. . . . . . 61 ION Enterprise Server/Workstation Requirements . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Infrared/Optical Communications . . . . . . ..
.. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 133 . . . . 96 Modbus Protocol . . . . . . .. . . .. .0 Protocol . . . . . . .. . . 129 Appendix A Glossary . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . .. . 104 Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . ... . . .Chapter 6 ION and Third Party Systems . .. . . .. . . . . . ... . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 95 Protocol Interfaces to Other Systems and Devices . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. 102 MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol ... . . .. . .. . . . . 109 External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Popular Module Links .... . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 ION Architecture . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . 127 ION Modules Supported by Each Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DNP 3. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 96 Modbus Slave Configuration . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 106 Digital Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . 127 Designer Software . . . . . . . 97 Modbus Master Configuration .. . . . . 124 Cost Allocation . . . . . . . . 103 Using Telnet and Hyperterminal . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 125 Capacitor Bank Switching . . . . . . . . .. . . ... 111 ION Logging and Data Sharing . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 123 Power Quality Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 122 ION Solutions . . . . .. . . . . . ... 113 ION Software Database Tools . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . 114 Chapter 7 ION Technology . . 123 Demand Control . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 126 ION Timing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 124 Substation Automation .. . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Analog Inputs and Outputs . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . 100 PROFIBUS-DP Protocol . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . software. . . . . . . . . . . . . In This Chapter Power Monitoring Components . . . . . . and third party interfacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . digital power meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting More Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 11 11 11 14 Page 9 . . . .1 Introduction This System Design Handbook can help you select an enterprise energy management system that meets your exact needs. . Contact Power Measurement . . . . . . . . communication methods. Services and Support . . . . . . . . Key discussions include: typical configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ION Product Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ION software processes data collected by the meter into a usable format. reduce maintenance. Communication links transport data from the meter to software or other devices. software. accelerate problem response. telephone and wireless to provide a high degree of accessibility. steam etc. responsiveness. Ethernet. and affordability. The meters are on the front line.) and systems is provided through multi-protocol communications ports and an ODBC-compliant database. equipment and commissioning time required to build an EEM system. PLCs. The following diagram is a basic illustration of how these components are connected: ION intelligent metering devices are more than just meters: they can take measurements. modem. decrease downtime. and respond to new information. and cost allocation. ION software is scalable so that a system can start small and grow as needs change. Page 10 Chapter 1 . A turn-key system that addresses all of these concerns is now technically feasible for small systems right up to utility applications. or Ethernet links. store data. load aggregation. continuously gathering data and carrying out instructions. The software offers a combination of energy information and control capabilities that can simultaneously address diversified needs such as billing. The software acts as director of operations with the ability to assess the overall picture and decide on new courses of action. There are three main components in any EEM system: hardware. and communications links. Connectivity with other utility meters (gas. RTUs) reducing the cost of materials. ION meters and software use communications infrastructures such as Internet. ION meters accomplish the tasks of many devices (relays.Power Monitoring Components System Design Handbook Power Monitoring Components Energy suppliers and consumers use enterprise energy management (“EEM”) systems to control energy costs.Introduction . The software and meters communicate to each other through serial. and improve facilities planning.
Getting More Information This handbook is an introduction to system configuration concepts.com/ sales@pwrm. and integration capabilities. and a Master Station. or you can visit the web site.pwrm. Traditional SCADA consists of transducers.System Design Handbook Getting More Information An enterprise energy management system comprised of intelligent devices simplifies the wiring and equipment requirements of a traditional SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. Address Web site Email Phone Fax 2195 Keating Cross Rd. Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). timestamp. Saanichton. collecting data from RTUs and initiating control actions. phone. The result is much higher performance and return on investment to many groups within an organization. and log setpoint and digital I/O events. More detailed information is available in ION meter and ION software product documentation and through hands-on training. Software performs Master Station functions as well as advanced graphical analysis. The Master Station provides the primary operator interface and manages overall system functions. and training by contacting your local Power Measurement sales representative or the Technical Support group. or fax. In a monitoring.com 1-250-652-7100 (Toll free:1-866-466-7627) 1-250-652-0411 Services and Support You can get more details on installation.com support@pwrm.. power quality. control. analysis. Transducers measure general equipment parameters such as temperatures and pressures. load profiling. Chapter 1 . Contact Power Measurement You can contact Power Measurement by email. the system provides all the information and control capabilities necessary to enable management. customized reporting. RTUs detect. ION meters provide all this functionality and more in one convenient unit. commissioning. BC Canada V8M 2A5 http://www.Introduction Page 11 . and communication paths that stretch across continents. and control system by Power Measurement. engineering and maintenance personnel to make the best decisions. the meters act as smart RTUs with transducer. accounting.
After reviewing the basics of ION meter programming.Introduction . Students learn to read and configure ION meters. After reviewing the fundamentals of ION technology. integrated. The standard courses include ION Fundamentals. students learn to customize. control system functions. consultative approach. display real-time data. manage complex billing. and simulate any scenario. The goal is to deliver complete systems that can help minimize your energy costs. end-to-end solutions via the Engineering Services team. ION Programmer is designed for ION system engineers and advanced ION users that have already completed the ION Fundamentals course.Services and Support System Design Handbook Engineering Services Power Measurement delivers single-source. and reduce downtime. Engineering Services identify your requirements and design industry-proven solutions that include advanced technical support. increase operating efficiencies. commissioning. Training ensures you make optimal use of your system. and maintenance of your ION EEM system. explore. Page 12 Chapter 1 . The Engineering Services team has decades of experience in designing highperformance EEM systems for the following industries: Utilities Office & Retail Properties Government Industrials Data Centers and other critical systems Universities Power Measurement focuses on implementing fully integrated enterprise energy management solutions that maximize your return on investment. build and manage ION application programs. Each course offers an interactive learning environment where you can experiment. and generate reports. Power Measurement offers both standard and custom courses. monitor system and device events. ION Fundamentals is an introductory course that focuses on the fundamentals of ION meter communications and ION Enterprise software. Using a team-oriented. the course teaches the basics for using and maximizing an ION Enterprise system. This course focuses on meter-level and system-level programming using Designer and ION Setup software. as you quickly learn how to collect and display information specific to your application and how to configure more advanced automated systems. ION Programmer. Training Power Measurement training courses save you time and money during the configuration. and project management. operation. and ION Administrator.
Introduction Page 13 . Premium Support is available for customers who want a single point of contact and priority access to support services. Power Measurement offers the option of bringing the classroom to you through ION on-site courses. control and status monitoring Historical Vista: viewing meter events and plotting logged data Designer: programming ION meters and the VIP Setpoints: configuration. Standard Support is available to all Power Measurement customers.System Design Handbook Services and Support ION Administrator is designed is ION Enterprise system administrators. This course focuses on administering a network of ION devices and the ION system databases. Technical Support From installation to operation and maintenance. maintain and troubleshoot an ION Enterprise system. configure. and you have the choice of taking the custom course at Power Measurement's training facility or having on-site training at your facility. tricks. Chapter 1 . Custom training courses developed according to your ION Enterprise system are also available. For convenient and cost-effective training of larger groups at your location. alerting and alarming Inputs/Outputs: configuring analog and digital I/O points Power Quality: waveform capture for sag/swell or transients Using your specific training requirements. Possible custom training course include: ION meter front panels: real-time values and setup menus ION Enterprise systems: overview of all the components Management Console: configuring a network of ION meters Real-time Vista: meter displays. After reviewing the components of an ION Enterprise system. Power Measurement offers two levels of support: Standard Support and Premium Support. Power Measurement can create a training course designed to meet your needs. Long-term support and maintenance contracts are available to maximize your system investment. as part of our commitment to supporting your investment in Power Measurement systems and products. and strategies that will help you maximize productivity on the job. Power Measurement’s knowledgeable trainers provide useful tips. The portable training lab comes equipped with a maximum of eight ION Enterprise workstations that can each be networked to several different ION meters. students learn to plan. Power Measurement offers reliable and accessible expert engineering support for your ION EEM system and its components.
Modicon Modbus. operation.Introduction . Visit Power Measurement’s web site for more information regarding premium support at HTTP://WWW. and Profibus. analysis. Ask for copies from your local sales representative or view them online.PWRM. Each of the documents is available on Power Measurement’s web site .ION Product Documentation System Design Handbook Compare Standard and Premium Support Service Email and voice mail communications Standard KnowledgeBase access1 Access to Service Packs and Quick Fixes Assigned Technical Support Engineer (TSE) Direct telephone access to assigned TSE 25% discount on training seats System inventory tracking Proactive maintenance check-ups System check-up reporting Proactive notification of updates and fixes Premium KnowledgeBase access 1 Remote troubleshooting access Includes software assurance (upgrades) 1 2 3 Standard • • • Premium • • • • • • • • • • • Optional2 Optional2 •3 • Coming soon. Page 14 Chapter 1 . and application of Power Measurement’s monitoring.COM/SUPPORT/PREMIUM/. which is generally the combination of both an ION meter and ION software. Initial startup fees may apply. and control systems. Data Sheets Data sheets are available for ION meters and software. such as DNP 3.0. A technical note explains how to use an ION feature. Additional fees apply. Protocol Documents A protocol document contains information pertaining to how our products interact with a certain protocol. providing a summary of features that explain the benefits of the product. ION Product Documentation The listed product documentation details ION meter and software specifications. including the installation.just click the Library link. Technical Notes Technical notes supplement information contained in hardware or software User Guides.
apply advanced communications. ION Setup Getting Started Guide The ION Setup Getting Started Guide provides instructions on how to install. The guide offers information on software upgrades. ION Enterprise Commissioning Guide This Commissioning Guide describes the procedures you should follow to design and build an ION Enterprise server and ION system. The guide provides the system requirements needed to run the software. There is also detailed information regarding database management. ION Setup Tutorials These documents are tutorials explaining how to use the various “Assistants” in the ION Setup software.System Design Handbook ION Product Documentation ION Meter Installation Guides An ION meter Installation Guide details how to mount.Introduction Page 15 . and troubleshooting ION Setup and meter wiring. The focus is getting your basic system installed and operational. and use revenue metering features. and configure your meter. and troubleshoot the ION Setup software. and I/O connections. ION Enterprise Help The ION Enterprise Help provides information and instructions for all ION Enterprise components from the Management Console to Vista. use outputs and relays. The manual has wiring information for electrical connections. customize operations. managing and monitoring your device network. ION Meter User Guides User Guides give detailed descriptions on the operation and use of each ION meter. and security highlights in addition to information on third-party products like Microsoft Internet Information Services and Microsoft SQL Server. Chapter 1 . Reporter to Designer. make configuration changes. service packs. ION Setup User Guide This User Guide explains how to configure ION Setup software and provides instructions for adding and configuring devices. install. The guides explain how to display data. communications connections. utilize.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Integration with Existing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . response time and throughput. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Remote Substation Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . demand management. . . . and more. . . . . .2 Building a System The ideal EEM system meets your needs in terms of application. . . 27 Wiring and Equipment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Enterprise-Wide Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . revenue metering. . . . . . . . 24 Third Party System Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Adaptability and Longevity . . . . longevity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to computer and thirdparty system networking. . . . . . . . 26 Design Considerations . . 27 Setup Time . . . . . . . . . . . cost allocation. In This Chapter System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . installation cost. power quality monitoring. . . 18 Single-Meter Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Single-Site Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In no time. . . . . reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Reliability . . . . you can design a solution for any application: basic power metering. . 22 Single-Site Network with Control Outputs . . and integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Page 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Measurement solutions give you the most flexible and easy-to-use options for a multitude of configurations — from stand-alone metering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
processing. A power monitoring system helps you reduce these expenses through revenue-certified bill verification. Energy providers can create new services such as performance guarantees. You can also streamline maintenance with desktop access to historic files and automatic notification of work requirements. The electrical aspects of your operations need careful management. generate weekly energy consumption reports. and customized data.Building a System . transients. Operational Improvements Managing Deregulation Page 18 Chapter 2 . An enterprise energy management system saves on capital expenditures by using trend data to load electrical circuits at higher levels and run systems near rated tolerances. arrange for equipment maintenance. You can replace manual meter reading with automated collection. damage electronics. and cost allocation for tenants or subdivisions. or contribute to activity-based costing or buyversus-build decisions with the energy-related cost of every process. and sub-metering. Choose specific meters and software based on the applications to be served: Power Quality Voltage sags. and cause equipment malfunctions. You need continuous power monitoring and high-speed sequence-ofevents recording to identify the source of such disturbances and take corrective actions. Energy consumers can make better purchase decisions and respond to real-time pricing. and harmonics can interrupt or completely shut down your operations. remote load management. Revenue-accurate meters and network software help you manage today’s electricity contracts. power factor penalties. Energy Cost Control Demand ratchet charges. A campus might have meters installed in every building and linked through an Ethernet network. One company may have a single meter and computer for monitoring the service entrance. A substation or manufacturing facility could have a group of meters set up to monitor sub-feeders and equipment. and billing errors all lead to higher energy costs. You may have to plan for facility expansion. Web access to reports.System Configurations System Design Handbook System Configurations The size of a power monitoring system can vary considerably from one installation to the next. automated demand control.
from power and energy measurements to power quality and control capabilities. Chapter 2 . ION intelligent metering and control devices span the spectrum of functionality.System Design Handbook System Configurations Which Intelligent Device Do You Need? To meet the needs of these diverse applications.Building a System Page 19 .
and additional I/O. harmonics analysis. While generally configured as socket meters. they are also available in a switchboard-case option with the same level of functionality. transformer and line loss compensation. The ION 7300 meter is suitable at metering points that focus on energy usage tracking for cost allocation purposes. The ION 7330 meter adds more functionality with digital inputs. and substations to give you the ability to manage complex energy supply contracts that include commitments to power quality. and multiple communication ports. data logging capabilities. All ION 7300 series meters have Internet and Ethernet features to varying degrees. however. The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters are perfect for use at key distriution points and sensitive loads. Numerous product options let you minimize your initial investment and easily upgrade meter functionality later in the field for more demanding applications. The ION 8500 meter includes a full range of power quality and compliance reporting tools. Page 20 Chapter 2 . All ION 8000 series meters are web capable with numerous Internet and Ethernet features. The ION 8400 meter adds more functionality with advanced harmonics and sag/ swell analysis and more communication ports. The ION 7700 meter combines high-accuracy. Both meters are web capable with numerous Internet and Ethernet features. and a call-back function for prompt response to critical conditions.Building a System . utilities. and an optional internal modem. commercial facilities. simple sag/swell indicators. The ION 8000 series meters are used to monitor electric power networks. The ION 7350 meter adds yet another level of functionality with waveform recording. You can also order these meters in a switchboard draw-out case. The ION 8300 meter has sag/swell indicators. The ION 7300 series meters are ideal for replacing old analog meters. revenue-certified power and energy measurement capabilities with detailed power quality analysis features. The ION 7650 meter includes pass/fail indicators that verify compliance with new international standards such as flicker (IEC 61000-4-15) and harmonics (IEC 61000-4-7). and energy service companies. that makes the meter ideal for many applications in industrial sites. service entrances. control capabilities. It is this meter’s extensive array of analog and digital inputs/outputs (I/O).System Configurations System Design Handbook The ION 6200 meter is a basic revenue-accurate (revenue-certified in Canada) power and energy meter with a high-visibility LED display. These meters have advanced power quality analysis features coupled with revenue accuracy. pass/fail indicators verify compliance with new international standards such as flicker (IEC 61000-4-15) and harmonics (IEC 61000-4-7).
For example. or modem link or even an optical port. A workstation (or laptop) and the meter are connected through a serial. You may choose this alternative if you are satisfied with data collection and display at the meter and do not need a workstation. because you can move an ION meter to any point where you need to gather data. and control station.System Design Handbook Single-Meter Installations Single-Meter Installations The most simple applications involve using a single meter. you may decide to focus exclusively on monitoring the incoming feeder at your service entrance. Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 5 devices) ION 7650. ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter RS-232 serial cables An ION meter has enough internal processing power to act as a complete standalone power monitoring. Chapter 2 . It’s also possible to temporarily analyze power and energy at feeders or equipment sites. as illustrated below. if your meter is an ION 7550 or ION 7650. you need a portable PC and an RS-232 cable. you can use the optical port to transfer data to your portable computer. To set up a meter for standalone operation. Ethernet.Building a System Page 21 . analysis.
This configuration has more than one meter. and equipment locations. IEC 61000-4-7). then use the ION 7330 meter. IEC 61000-4-15 flicker. For energy and power quality monitoring. then an ION 7300 or ION 6200 meter is suitable.Building a System . choose the ION 7650 meter. If waveform logs are not required. including waveform logs.Single-Site Network System Design Handbook Single-Site Network One scale up from a single-meter system is a single-site network where the service entrance and sub-feeders are monitored. you need to determine the number of metering points required at key distribution points. processes. In this setup. or ION 8500 meter At the sub-feeders: For transient detection or compliance monitoring (EN 50160. ION 7700. and communications via serial or Ethernet. Serial cables and an RS-232 to RS-485 converter Page 22 Chapter 2 . If data logging or alarms are not required. use an ION 7550 or ION 7350 meter. one or more workstations. Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 12 meters) At the service entrance: ION 7650.
ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. use an ION 7550 or ION 7350 meter. ION 7700 meters Serial and Ethernet cables and wiring for control outputs Chapter 2 . ION 7650. ION software can issue control commands. IEC 61000-4-7). For more cost allocation and power system monitoring features. For energy and power quality monitoring. For demand control: ION 7550. ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter At the sub-feeders: If you need transient detection or compliance monitoring (EN 50160. This configuration is ideal for power quality. cost allocation. choose the ION 7650 meter.Building a System Page 23 . Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 12 meters) At the service entrance: ION 7650. and demand control. Alternatively. install an ION 7300. with actions contingent upon readings from multiple meters. bill verification.System Design Handbook Single-Site Network with Control Outputs Single-Site Network with Control Outputs You may want to connect your meters directly to Ethernet or implement automated demand control using meter input/output (I/O). IEC 61000-4-15 flicker. A single meter can perform demand control based on its own readings.
All three offer internal modem options.Remote Substation Monitoring System Design Handbook Remote Substation Monitoring You may want to monitor a remote substation and still have an ION software workstation at the substation for staff who visit the site.Building a System . the ION software workstation at headquarters could simply have a modem link to the ION software workstation at the substation. ION 8400 or ION 8300 meter. IEC 61000-4-15 flicker. At the sub-feeders: If you need transient detection or compliance monitoring (EN 50160. ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter. IEC 61000-4-7). use an ION 7550. ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. energy tracking. choose the ION 7650 meter. ION 7350. install an ION 7300. Page 24 Chapter 2 . For energy and power quality monitoring. For more cost allocation and power system monitoring. This configuration monitors substation feeder and equipment for power quality. control and alarm notification. Serial and modem connections including an RS-232 to RS-485 converter. Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for 25 to 50 meters) At the main feeder: ION 7650. Instead of modem links directly to the meters.
Serial connections including an RS-232 to RS-485 converter Chapter 2 . ION 8400 or ION 8300 meter. ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter At the sub-feeders: If transient detection or compliance monitoring is necessary (EN 50160.0 protocol.0 interface for power quality. ION 7350.Building a System Page 25 . Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 200 meters) At the main feeder: ION 7650. Each meter can communicate via multiple protocols simultaneously. This configuration monitors substation feeder and equipment with a DNP 3. IEC 61000-4-7). For energy and power quality monitoring. choose the ION 7650 meter. IEC 61000-4-15 flicker.System Design Handbook Third Party System Interface Third Party System Interface You may have to interface to a third-party SCADA system that talks to substation devices through the DNP 3. For more cost allocation and power system monitoring. use an ION 7550. Another possibility is interfacing to RTUs and PLCs. ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. energy tracking. and SCADA interfacing. install an ION 7300.
ION 7650 or ION 8500 meter. install an ION 7300. At the main feeders: ION 7550. For more cost allocation and power system monitoring. If compliance monitoring (EN 50160. use an ION 7350. and administration groups. tenant. You can allow desktop access to power system data for anyone in the organization (with appropriate security access). ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. IEC 61000-4-15 flicker. Serial and Ethernet cables Page 26 Chapter 2 . finance. systems optimization/planning. 51 to 200 meters or 200+ meters. including facilities management. use an ION 7650 or ION 7700 meter. and alarm tracking.Enterprise-Wide Network System Design Handbook Enterprise-Wide Network You may want to take advantage of an enterprise-wide power data network. or ION 7650 meter. Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for 1 to 50 meters. department. choose an ION 7650 meter. design engineering. At the sub-feeders: For energy logging and power quality monitoring. You can use enterprise-wide power data for bill verification. depending on size of system) with ION EEM (enterprise energy management) software. which can span across multiple facilities over a wide geographical area. For transient detection.Building a System . to efficiently track energy costs and power quality associated with every building. ION 7550. maintenance. or process. IEC 61000-4-7) is necessary.
serial. and infrared interfaces. ION meters offer onboard modem. Delta. the power system connection. You can also choose to install external telephone.System Design Handbook Design Considerations Design Considerations You can minimize costs by carefully considering how to simplify setup. the ION software comes with default settings. Chapter 2 . modem. and equipment requirements for your the installation of your power monitoring network. Wiring and Equipment Requirements There are four areas where wiring and equipment requirements can be simplified: the communications interface. and the meter’s multi-function capabilities. Direct. For this reason. wiring. wiring method (Wye. depending on the equipment and labor involved. the lower your costs. All you have to do is configure transformer ratios. You can create “hot spots” to find information quickly through graphical links. so you can stay with the default settings at startup. you have immediate access to real-time or historic data from any meter or group of meters. you need a system that does not require any complex programming before it is operational. or Ethernet port. operations. and communications options. power quality. Similar to the ION meters. and maintenance purposes. Setup Time Installation cost is affected by setup time: the less time it takes you to configure the hardware and software. You can start analyzing power quality. or fiber optic modems from other vendors. You can choose meters with internal modems to reduce wiring and power supply requirements and allow multiple meters to share the same modem. ION meters come pre-configured. for example. Ethernet. the input/output (I/O) options. By clicking on the “Generate Network Diagram” option in the Vista component of the ION software. The meters automatically begin logging the most important power and energy parameters for cost allocation.Building a System Page 27 . or determining your facility’s load profile in no time at all. This is the reason communications interfaces on ION meters are industry-standard and onboard: you can take advantage of existing networks without extra hardware to complicate or slow down communication links. or single-phase). Industry-Standard Communications Your system’s communications backbone can make up a significant portion of your total installation costs. radio. Data is stored at the meter and uploaded as required to a computer through an RS-232/485 connection. generating cost allocation reports. you can click on a substation and then select a feeder to produce a disturbance analysis.
g. energy) to RTUs. The meters also have universal AC/DC power supplies to match whatever is available in your facility. Multi-Function Meters You can reduce the number of individual pieces of equipment by installing meters that serve multiple purposes. so you can quickly hook into the power system without having to design any special wiring interface. oil pressures. sequence-ofevents recording. Plus. emissions. load profiling. ION meters connect directly to your existing PTs (Potential Transformers) and CTs (Current Transformers) alongside other devices. This is possible because the meters draw very little current from the measuring circuit. revenue metering. In addition. Page 28 Chapter 2 . As a result. ION technology makes it easy for you to customize the functions in your meters. This simplifies data gathering. fuel levels. rotations. Use the outputs for equipment control to transfer any value (e. ION meters provide two terminals for every current input.Wiring and Equipment Requirements System Design Handbook Power Measurement’s meters also offer direct support for several protocols. DNP 3. Modbus TCP. steam. and water metering. Analog and Digital I/O Analog and digital I/O ports on the ION meters let you bring a variety of data into a common system. The I/O ports interface with relays as well as transducers for gas. An ION meter bundles a wealth of functions into one unit: control. and transformer temperatures. You can use the inputs to count transducer pulses and breaker trips.0 and MV-90 protocols to devices without external translators. power quality. digital fault recording. and RTU functionality. You can communicate via Modbus RTU. Power System Connections Another way to curb spending on your installation is to use meters that offer standard power system interfaces. or measure flow rates. XML. You can even communicate via multiple protocols simultaneously while linking to different types of equipment at the same time. air. you can extend the life of the meters by adding new features as your needs change.Building a System . PLC.
Instead. calculations. Power Measurement’s patented ION technology ensures the adaptability and longevity of your system by making meters and software fully configurable.com. http:// www. You do not want to pay for an inflexible system that needs replacement in a few years because its capabilities have become outdated. and actions to perform. ION architecture provides a set of functional building blocks. you can quickly add a workstation or remotely modify any part of a meter’s setup.pwrm.Building a System Page 29 . and the operating system. You can limit any readings. that you can link in the software to create your own specialized features build a custom meter by choosing sequences of measurements. Once you are familiar with ION technology you can modify the standard functionality of the meter. pre-programmed functions that are suitable for all common power quality and energy tracking applications. characteristics of the data transmitted. Response time refers to how quickly the system can react to situations. Most systems take advantage of the numerous standard. you want to maintain your original investment and add modular components as you need them.System Design Handbook Adaptability and Longevity Adaptability and Longevity Adaptability is important. New firmware revisions are available at no charge on the Power Measurement web site. live upgrades. Throughput is the amount of data the system can process. or data storage that you find unnecessary. Chapter 2 . Response Time and Throughput Response time and throughput are important to a successful power monitoring system and are influenced by the physical aspects of a metering network. called ION modules. the following diagram shows how you can arrange ION modules to protect a transformer from harmonics when kVA is high: Every ION module carries out a dedicated task similar to a discrete operation in a conventional power meter. calculations. You can also easily add third party devices using industry-standard protocols and network links. For example. it affects the long-term cost of your system. ION meters also have flash firmware for simple. As your needs change.
are stored in EPROMs or Flash. Speed of detection: Meters are able to respond quickly if a threshold value is exceeded for parameters such as voltage. cellular. For example.6 kbps or 33. You can get response times as fast as one cycle to trigger data logging. and to reduce network data loads. power supplies. Data protection: After a power failure.Building a System . To do this. Configuration data. Speed of data transmission: Usually expressed in bits per second (bps). you should transmit only useful information. any data recorded by an ION meter is safely preserved. Energy.6 kbps for modems. demand. and 10 Mbps for Ethernet. reliability decreases. which ensure that any captured data is saved until a computer is ready to upload the information. You can reduce the complexity of your network by minimizing the number of separate devices and avoiding the use of external converters. Uninterrupted processing: Time-critical alarm and control operations should not be interrupted by other processes. This ranges from 9. values. and other measurements are continually updated and stored in the meter’s non-volatile RAM or flash memory. Page 30 Chapter 2 . These two levels of security prevent unauthorized users from changing software or meter configurations. coaxial cable./max. security features. such as calibration and voltage scales. Reliability Reliability is becoming more important in the digital age and is affected by system complexity. ION meters also have large onboard memories. you can configure an ION meter to “log by exception” and transfer only the data you require. radio. ION meters provide the sub-cycle reaction times that are essential. In the case of transient detection. fiber optic cable. up to 115 kbps for serial communications. relay control. and infrared. Amount of information: To maximize throughput along non-continuous channels like modems. and large wiring schemes. then send only the relevant parameters. A robust multi-tasking operating system addresses this issue. That’s why a “one-box metering solution” is a great advantage: an ION meter combines the functions of multiple devices and incorporates advanced communications onboard. and data protection: System complexity: As a system grows in complexity. waveform recording. Security: Another way to increase reliability is to use file and password protection mechanisms from the meter’s front panel and through communications using software. if all you want is power quality information. and power factor. You can use a variety of media within the same system: continuously-connected methods (such as Ethernet) within one site and non-continuous (such as modems) across several. or reset functions. event logs.Reliability System Design Handbook An ION enterprise energy management system ensures a fast response to a large amount of information in the following ways: Media: Data can be transmitted through telephone wire. twisted pair wire. satellite. min.
ION software can also communicate to many devices over multiple modems simultaneously. DNP 3. RTUs. DNP 3. industry-standard database and interface to other software applications. ION software can even add intelligence to the most basic Modbus device by applying logging and setpoint functions to Modbus data.0. An effective system should support a range of industry-standard protocols. It should also store data in a networked. Chapter 2 .System Design Handbook Integration with Existing Systems Integration with Existing Systems A key feature of a cost-effective power monitoring system is that it isn’t isolated from the rest of your operations. talking to a variety of devices such as protective relays. and Ethernet ports. ION architecture makes it easy for you to integrate ION meters and software with third party systems. ION 7550 ION 7500 RTU ION 7650 ION 6200 ION Modbus RTU Modbus/TCP XML DNP 3. and workstations. In the case of Ethernet. PLCs. Protocols Supported by ION Meters and Software ION meters use Modbus. Some meters support access to data logs via Modbus. and multiple ports can communicate at the same time to different systems. the protocols sit on top of the TCP/IP layer of the network architecture.0 PROFIBUS-DP ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 ION Enterprise Real-Time and Logged Data Real-time data can be transferred through ION.0. The table below shows the protocols that each meter supports. Otherwise.Building a System Page 31 . infrared. ION software supports ION as well as Modbus Master/Slave protocols. event data and waveform logs use the ION protocol. ION software also supports Modbus RTU to give you Modbus mastering capability. It can exchange data with Modbus devices on one port while talking to ION meters on another port. XML or PROFIBUS-DP. So a meter can talk to DNPcompatible equipment while simultaneously transferring energy data or receiving control commands from ION software. PROFIBUS-DP. RS-485. XML and ION protocols to communicate through their internal modems or RS-232. Every port on an ION meter supports several protocols. Modbus.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Initial Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Page 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ION 6100 Wireless Metering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ION 7700 Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 8000 series Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In This Chapter Meter Characteristics . . . and responding to new information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 7650 / ION 7550 / ION 7500 RTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and control – taking measurements. . . . . . . . . 35 ION 7300 series Meters . . . . . . . . . . . storing data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Comparison of Meter Features . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ION 6200 Meter . . . . . . . . . . .3 Intelligent ION Meters Digital power meters are on the front lines of power monitoring. . 37 3000 Series ACM Meters . . . . . Power Measurement’s ION meters are ideally suited to all these tasks because of their extensive internal processing power and communications options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . .
it also offers Meterm@il. emailing data logs and alarm notifications.Meter Characteristics System Design Handbook Meter Characteristics Every Power Measurement meter is an all-in-one solution. power quality analyzing. It features WebMeter with HTML and XML support. You can program these meters with ION software. Options include an internal modem. or PDAs. Energy suppliers use the meter for billing and integration with utility SCADA systems. XML support ION 8000 series Meters ION 8000 series revenue-class meters are available in socket-mount and switchboard-case models. Allows real-time data display and basic configuration through the meter’s onboard web server. ION 8400 meter The ION 8400 meter builds on the ION 8300. Multi-protocol communication ports provide direct interfaces to your existing systems and keep equipment and wiring requirements to an absolute minimum. more memory. and status monitoring. and the Extended Current Range option that allows the meter to monitor bidirectional flow for both generation and stand-by modes. instrument transformer correction. cell phones. providing more detailed power quality analysis with sub-disturbances. The meter can export data in industry-standard XML format. These revenue accurate meters also replace Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). alarming. via the ModemGate meter’s internal modem. pagers. emailing data logs and alarm notifications. and Meterm@il. with capabilities such as sequence-of-events recording. load profiling. A modem gateway meter (ModemGate) allows the direct transfer of data between a chain of devices connected to the ModemGate meter’s RS-485 port and a telephonet network. harmonics analysis. ION 8300 meter The ION 8300 meter is an economical revenue-accurate billing meter with a multitude of standard features: sag/swell indicators. Modbus Master support. three multi-protocol communication ports including Ethernet.Intelligent ION Meters . This meter offers WebMeter with HTML and XML support. load profile memory. The meter can automatically send alarm notifications or scheduled system status updates as email messages to workstations. Page 34 Chapter 3 . Several unique features streamline the meters’ system interfaces: Feature EtherGate ModemGate MeterM@il WebMeter (onboard web server) Capability it Provides An Ethernet gateway meter (EtherGate) allows the direct transfer of data between a chain of devices connected to the EhterGate meter’s RS-485 port and an Ethernet network. while energy consumers also use the meter to verify electricity charges and profile loads. digital and analog I/O. time-of-use measurements. and calculations for transformer and line loss compensation. and four multi-protocol communications ports including Ethernet. control.
and demand management. and includes the WebMeter feature with HTML and XML support. gas. ION 7550 meter and ION 7650 meter The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters are high-visibility power quality and energy meters suitable for key distribution points and loads sensitive to power disturbances. IEC 61000-4-15. emailing data logs and alarm notifications. the RTU offers a large. they also offer MeterM@il. It provides extensive analog and digital I/O options. IEC 61000-4-15. scales. Chapter 3 .0). and an optional internal modem. historical trending. highly visible display. and MeterM@il (emailing both data logs and alarm notifications). electricity. and revenue metering capabilities to serve applications such as widearea load aggregation. emailing both data logs and alarm notifications. ION 7500 RTU When voltage and current connections are not required. air. control. In addition. and control capabilities. Modbus Master/Slave. In addition. power quality analysis. and supports multiple communication protocols (ION. and steam (“WAGES”). and logs data from devices that meter water. plus waveform recording. Both meters offer the WebMeter feature providing HTML and XML support.System Design Handbook ION 7650 Meter / ION 7550 Meter / ION 7500 RTU ION 8500 meter The ION 8500 meter offers the most advanced combination of analysis and multiport communications features available in a revenue-class meter. power quality analysis. the intelligent. It also offers Meterm@il. It detects sub-cycle transients. It has all the functions of the ION 8400 meter. DNP 3. webenabled RTU option of the ION 7500 provides an economical all-in-one solution for many applications. delivering all collected information over public or private networks. multi-protocol communications ports. demand tracking. The RTU acts as a low-cost data concentrator. these meters have an optional modem and optional analog I/O. ION 7700 Meter The ION 7700 meter has a wealth of power quality. and IEC 61000-4-7. The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters include large graphical displays. The RTU supports web-enabled applications such as WebMeter. highaccuracy measurements. analog and digital I/O. sub-cycle transient detection. The ION 7650 meter offers more comprehensive power quality compliance reporting according to flicker and harmonics standards such as EN 50160. It collects. communications. cost allocation.Intelligent ION Meters Page 35 . and compliance reporting as per international flicker and harmonics standards. It has the largest onboard data storage capacity of the ION 8000 series. and IEC 61000-4-7. has optional 4 M-bytes of extended memory. digital I/O. ION 7650 Meter / ION 7550 Meter / ION 7500 RTU These are high visibility energy and power quality meters.
onboard data storage. ION 7330 meter and ION 7350 meter You can reduce equipment costs and simplify integration further with the ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters. graphs. Upgrade options allow you to minimize your initial investment and easily upgrade later in the field by changing option keys for increased functionality. Page 36 Chapter 3 . Both meters are excellent for load control. Ethernet or serial communication ports. the meter’s COM1 port functions as a dedicated ModemGate port (RS-485 Master). Like the ION 7300 meter. provides a detailed graphics and text display for the ION 7700 meter. energy and harmonic monitoring. you can simplify your configuration with the MGT Switchbox. these meters support the WebMeter feature.ION 7300 series Meters System Design Handbook The ION 7700 MGT. It’s ultra-compact. histograms. Data is not stored onboard. and a call-back function for prompt response to critical conditions. In addition to data logs. the ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters can automatically send data logs via email (MeterM@il). This meter supports the WebMeter feature (an onboard web server). and load profiling. alarms. On ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters with the Ethernet option. ION 6200 Meter The ION 6200 digital power meter is a basic revenue-accurate (revenue-certified in Canada) power and energy meter with a high-visibility LED display. ION 7300 series Meters ION 7300 series meters are also available in switchboard-case models. setpoints.Intelligent ION Meters . and analog and digital I/O. and waveforms. energy cost tracking. If you have a few independent or networked ION 7700 meters. and fits into a standard ANSI four-inch or standard DIN 96 (92 mm x 92 mm) switchboard cutout. it must be uploaded to a workstation for long-term use. The ION 7350 meter adds simple sag/swell detection. ION 7300 meter The ION 7300 meter replaces a complete array of analog meters for power. or Modular Graphics Terminal. the ION 7350 can send alarm notifications via MeterM@il. The Switchbox allows you to connect up to four independent or networked ION 7700 meters to a single display using standard 9-pin serial (DB9) cables. When equipped with an Ethernet port. analog and digital outputs let you integrate the meter as a power transducer in a SCADA or energy management network. waveform recording. These meters have all the features of the ION 7300 meter plus optional built-in modems. at only two inches deep. It can display setup parameters as well as data in the form of alphanumeric values. On ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters with the internal modem option. the meter’s COM2 port functions as a dedicated EtherGate port (RS-485 Master). Both meters have optional EtherGate and ModemGate capability. so you can view real-time data or perform basic meter configuration using a standard web browser.
transformer ratios. Selecting Parameters Your first task is to define power system characteristics by entering new values or using the defaults. and logs all meter data. Then you set up the communication ports so the meter can talk to other devices or computers in your network. and supervisory control. Chapter 3 . interval-based consumption data and coincident demand readings. modem. You can complete this initial setup using the meter’s front panel display. the meter is ready to begin logging data for the most common energy tracking and power quality applications. serial mode. and a wireless gateway that automatically detects all your ION 6100 metering devices.g. CT primary/secondary. aggregates. and 3300 ACM panel-mount meters are Power Measurement’s earlier generation of digital meters. After these basic parameters are defined.System Design Handbook ION 6100 Wireless Metering System ION 6100 Wireless Metering System The ION 6100 Wireless Metering System provides power and energy metering that exceeds ANSI C12. 3710 ACM. or Ethernet. The system is ideal for customers who need revenue-accurate measurements for tenant sub-billing applications because of the time-stamped. PT primary/secondary. The setup menu for each port may contain: protocol name. and communication modes. You can further configure the meter to your specific requirements using the front panel display or a remote workstation linked through RS-232/485. phase rotation. They are an economical answer to the needs of power quality analysis. Initial Setup Before a meter can take readings or communicate with other devices. you must select a wiring method. you also have to specify an IP address. energy management. baud rate. ION 7000 series meters. and ION 8000 series meters. nominal voltage. There may also be a few demand parameters for Sliding Window Demand subintervals and Thermal Demand intervals. split-core current transformers for non-intrusive current measurements. Delta.Intelligent ION Meters Page 37 . Parameters include: volts mode (e. The wireless metering system includes ION 6100 wireless metering devices that attach to nearly any existing enclosure. unit ID. Values for the gateway and subnet mask are required if you are using multiple networks or subnets. 4W-Wye. They can operate standalone or as part of a large energy management network that also includes ION software. ION 6000 series meters. The wireless gateway gathers. 9S). If your meter has a 10Base-T or 10Base-FL Ethernet port. which it then makes available for export in industry-standard XML format.16 Class 1 energy accuracy standards. 3000 series ACM Meters The 3720 ACM.
kVAR Rolling Block. 50-347 VAC L-N (87-600 VAC L-L) for 3-phase systems or 50-300 VAC L-N (100-600 VAC L-L) for single-phase Per-phase. unbalance. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz Line-to-neutral per phase.2% I unbalanced ± 0. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz Line-to-neutral per phase. Thermal.0% reading + 0. absolute. kVA total & optional per-phase PF total & optional per-phase (signed. unbalance. line-to-line average 3 inputs. 10 A full scale kW. average.25% reading + 0. residual 3 inputs (& optional neutral). line-to-neutral average.25% reading + 0. absolute. 10 A full scale kW. export. absolute. I. residual 3 inputs (& optional neutral). kVAh total kWh & kVARh import. You can customize features to expand your options. net. average. line-to-line average 3 inputs. kVAR. 5 A nominal. kVA total. kVAR. current. average.Intelligent ION Meters . kVAh total Power Energy kWh & kVARh import. line-to-neutral average. 0. for I4 ± 1. kVA total. kVAR. power quality or revenue-accuracy. kVA total.0% reading + 0. lineto-line per phase. export. line-to-neutral average. lineto-line per phase. net.25% reading + 0. Predicted: defaults I average. kVAh total Demand Rolling Block. kVA. Thermal. except the RTU does not monitor voltage. kW total. for I4 ± 1. kVAR total Rolling Block. average (& optional neutral). residual 3 inputs (& optional neutral).Comparison of Meter Features System Design Handbook Comparison of Meter Features Default functions are shown. 60-400 VAC L-N Direct delta up to 690 V Line-to-neutral per phase. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 Voltage Current Per-phase. 3 inputs.3% reading for voltage L-N and current. Page 38 Chapter 3 . lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh & kVARh import. lineto-line per phase.05% full scale. net. kVA total & perphase PF total & per-phase (signed. export. 5 A nominal. Demand and Peak Demand: kW. kW total. kVA total & perphase PF total & per-phase (signed. 5 A nominal.5% reading for voltage L-L ± 0. line-to-line per phase. kW total. ION 6200 Power. lineto-line average 3 inputs. line-to-line average 3 inputs. kVAR total Accuracy of voltage & current inputs 0. kVAR. export. 5 A nominal. line-to-neutral average. kVA total & perphase PF total & per-phase (signed.2% I unbalanced ± 0. Thermal. for I4 ± 1.2% I unbalanced NOTE The RTU option of the ION 7500 provides many of the same features and capabilities as the ION 7550 meter. unbalance.05% full scale. kVAh total kWh & kVARh import.0% reading + 0. 10 A full scale kW. kVAR total Rolling Block. Predicted: defaults I average.05% full scale. 10 A full scale kW. 50-347 VAC L-N (87-600 VAC L-L) for 3-phase systems or 50-300 VAC L-N (100-600 VAC L-L) for single-phase Per-phase. Energy and Demand Line-to-neutral per phase. Predicted: defaults I average. 50-347 VAC L-N (87-600 VAC L-L) for 3-phase systems or 50-300 VAC L-N (100-600 VAC L-L) for single-phase Per-phase.
1% reading + 0. kVAR.. Thermal. average. export.. direct delta up to 600 V. kVAh delivered. 36S. kVARh. line-to-neutral average. for I4 & I5 ± 0. average. 76S: 57277 VAC L-N 35S: 120-480 VAC Per-phase. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh. unbalance 3 inputs. 57-347 VAC LN. Predicted: defaults I average. & if appl. kVAh.1% reading + 0. kVAR total ± 0. kVAh delivered.002% nominal current)*. kQh: delivered. kQ total PF total & per-phase (signed. kVAR. kVAR. average. line-to-line average 3 inputs 9S. line-to-line average 4 inputs. unbalance. for I4 ± 0. line-to-neutral average. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kW. 36S: 57-277 VAC LN 35S: 120-480 VAC Per-phase. line-to-neutral average. Thermal. 0-20 A kW. disturbance recording to 1200 V Per-phase. 5 A. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh. unbalance. kVAh. 57-347 VAC LN. kW total. kVA Rolling Block. kVAR.01% full scale Rolling Block. unbalance (optional neutral for 39S. 39S. line-to-line average 4 inputs.System Design Handbook Comparison of Meter Features ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 Power. 5A. Predicted: defaults kW. kVA ± 0. & by quadrant Line-to-neutral per phase. kQ.1% reading for voltage & phase current. line-to-line per phase.1% reading + 0. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh.1% reading + 0. 76S) 3 inputs (optional neutral). 39S. Predicted: defaults kW. kVA total & per-phase. line-to-line average 3 inputs: 9S. 76S) 3 inputs (optional neutral). Line-to-neutral per phase. ground 5 inputs. by quadrant Rolling Block. cumulative ± (0. & by quadrant Line-to-neutral per phase. kVA total & per-phase PF total & per-phase (signed.. received. average. Predicted: defaults kW.002% nominal current)*.. received. Thermal. kVA. 0-20 A kW. 0-20 A kW. Thermal. net. Thermal. kVA total. kQh: delivered.4% reading Per-phase. received. absolute. kVAR. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh. or optional 1 A or 10 A kW. neutral. kVA total & per-phase PF total & per-phase (signed. kVAh total Rolling Block. line-to-line per phase. line-to-line average 3 inputs 9S. by quadrant Rolling Block. or optional 277 or 347 VAC Line-to-neutral per phase. kVAR. direct delta up to 600 V. ground 5 inputs. Energy and Demand cont. Predicted: defaults kW. line-to-line per phase. received. kQ. kVAh. kVARh. kVA. & if appl. optional 1A (switchboard only) Line-to-neutral per phase. lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh. neutral 4 inputs. 0-20 A kW. line-to-line per phase. kVAR. line-to-neutral average. received. Extended Current Range or Low Current option = 1A Chapter 3 . 36S. & if appl. line-to-neutral average. kVAR. 76S: 57277 VAC L-N 35S: 120-480 VAC Per-phase.Intelligent ION Meters Page 39 . kVARh. unbalance (optional neutral for 39S. unbalance. line-to-line per phase. Predicted: defaults kW. Thermal. line-to-neutral average. kQh: delivered. cumulative ± (0. kVAR. line-to-line per phase. 120 VAC L-N.4% reading Line-to-neutral per phase. by quadrant Rolling Block. kQ total PF total & per-phase (signed. line-to-line average 3 inputs. kVARh. average. kVA. kVA total & per-phase. kQ.1% reading for voltage & phase current. disturbance recording to 1200 V Per-phase.002% nominal current)* kWh & kVARh import. for I4 & I5 ± 0.4% reading ± 0.. for I4 ± 0.4% reading * Nominal current: standard = 5A. average. neutral. kVAR. kVAR. kVA total & per-phase. kVARh. cumulative ± (0. kVA total & per-phase PF total & per-phase (signed. kQ total PF total & per-phase (signed.
samples/cycle x cycles (triggered by setpoint. & Demand. total. kW. total odd harmonic distortion. kVA. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L. L-N) & I. L-N) & I. ext. True RMS calculated per second None None None Up to 15th: individual. Reset via setpoint. PF. schedule. Kfactor Transient detection Sag/swell monitoring Symmetrical components Harmonics on voltage & current inputs EN 50160 monitoring IEC 61000-4-7 harmonics IEC 61000-4-15 flicker Inter harmonics Ripple control data “Number of nines” None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None Data and Waveform Logs Time stamps Time sync Sequence-of-events Historical “snapshot” (triggered by setpoint. 32x12.l signal.) Maximum number of cycles for contiguous waveform capture Maximum memory capacity None None None 6. 16x22. Hz.& post-event cycles None None None Via ION 1 ms resolution Via ION or DNP 1 ms resolution Via ION or DNP Peak energy and current demand Minimum & maximum For any parameter.Comparison of Meter Features System Design Handbook ION 6200 Power Quality Sampling 64 samples/cycle. 16x48. total even. Programmable trigger delay for pre. Hz. etc. total. True RMS calculated per second None Included (basic: min/max.Intelligent ION Meters . external signal. kVAR. total even. etc. Reset via setpoint. 32x26. Configure for stop-whenfull or roll-over For any parameter. kVAR. total even.) None None None None Variable depth Up to 32 (2 logs of 16 parameters each). True RMS calculated per second None None None Optional: total harmonic distortion per voltage and current phase ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 32 samples/cycle. total odd harmonic distortion. L-N) & I. kVA. kW. PF. ext. total odd harmonic distortion. event. kVA. Hz. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L. Kfactor 64 samples/cycle. total. & Demand None None Waveform. & Demand. Kfactor 32 samples/cycle. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L. Configure for stop-whenfull or roll-over For any parameter. external signal. True RMS calculated per second None None None Up to 15th: individual. kW. signal. schedule 64x14. schedule. kVAR.900 cycles (based on 16 samples/ cycle x 48 cycles) 300 kB None None 300 kB Page 40 Chapter 3 . schedule None Variable depth Up to 96 (6 logs of 16 parameters each). PF. duration) None Up to 31st: individual. event.
. PF. PF. Hz. signal. 32x40. & Demand. negative. signal. L-N) & I. 16x22. schedule None For any parameter. 32x54. schedule 256x7. signal. total. PF. Defaults: per-phase V (LL.000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles) 4 MB 1 MB 2 MB * Listed maximum cycles use the largest capacity of meter memory. 16x48. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second 65 us @ 60 Hz (78 us @ 50 Hz) Included Zero. interharmonics Yes Yes Yes Yes th 128 samples/cycle. kVA. 128x14. 64x28. GPS input. total. PF. ext. Programmable trigger delay for pre. or 16x96. external GPS input Variable depth Up to 800 (50 logs of 16 parameters each). 64x28. Configure for stopwhen-full or roll-over For any parameter. 16x48. ext. ext. phase. kW. schedule None For any parameter. Reset via setpoint. kVAR. DNP external . & Demand. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L. 64x14. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second None Included Zero. Configure for stopwhen-full or roll-over For any parameter. 256 samples/cycle. Kfactor. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second 65 us @ 60 Hz (78 us @ 50 Hz) Included Zero.. 64x14. crest factor 512 (optional 1024) samples/cycle. kVA. positive sequences Up to 31st harmonic: individual. positive sequences Up to 63rd harmonic: individual. 32x26. L-N) & I. kW. 16x22. L-N) & I. 64x14. Kfactor. schedule 128x14. 16x48. kVA. Xpress Card: 1 MB. 32x40. GPS input. DNP external . kW. 128x14. Hz.& post-event cycles 1 ms resolution Via ION. total odd harmonic distortion. total even. negative. Reset via setpoint. 64x28. DNP NTP . kW. L-N) & I. 16x72. positive sequences Up to 127th using ION software. kW. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second None Included None Up to 63rd harmonic: individual. kVA. positive sequences Up to 63rd harmonic: individual. schedule 256x7. Hz. or 16x96.000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles)* 5 MB (10 MB option) 95. Chapter 3 . Hz.. 16x22. schedule 128x14. 3 MB None None 92. Programmable trigger delay for pre. Reset via setpoint. PF. external GPS input Variable depth Up to 800 (50 logs of 16 parameters each). 32x26. total even. DNP external . roll-over 1 ms resolution Via ION. GPS input. DNP NTP .System Design Handbook Comparison of Meter Features ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 POWER QUALITY CONT. negative. roll-over RTU For any parameter. . Programmable trigger delay for pre. crest factor Yes (optional) Up to 40 harmonics onboard: magnitude. PF. 32x12. Up to 63rd onboard: individual. K-factor. True RMS calculated per cycle & per second 130 us @ 60 Hz (156 us @ 50 Hz) Included Zero. 32x12.000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles)* 1 MB. 16x48.& postevent cycles 1 ms resolution Via ION. 32x40. kVAR. interharmonics Yes Yes Yes Yes None None None None None None None None None None None Yes None None None None None None None Yes None None None Yes Data and Waveform Logs cont. & Demand. Modbus RTU Variable depth Up to 640 (40 logs of 16 parameters each). 16x72. crest factor 128 samples/cycle. total odd harmonic distortion K-factor. 32x54.. Kfactor. kVAR.& postevent cycles 1 ms resolution Via ION. negative. total. total even. 16x22. signal. 16x72. 32x54. GPS input Variable depth Up to 320 (20 logs of 16 parameters each).& post-event cycles 171. total odd harmonic distortion. Reset via setpoint. Modbus RTU Variable depth Up to 160 (10 logs of 16 parameters each). & Demand. 32x26. total. kW. total even. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L. 32x40. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second None Included (basic: min/ max. 64x14. Reset via setpoint. total odd harmonic distortion. kVA. duration) Zero. ext. L-N) & I. DNP external . total odd harmonic distortion. ext. total even. phase. total odd harmonic distortion. kVA. & Demand. Up to 63rd onboard: individual. negative. 32x12. Programmable trigger delay for pre. Reset via setpoint. Modbus Variable depth Up to 32 (2 logs of 16 parameters each). ext. kVAR. kVAR. L-N) & I. 64x28. 2 MB. crest factor Configurable Up to 40th harmonics onboard: magnitude. positive sequences Up to 127th using ION software. or 16x96. total even.. 1 ms resolution Via ION. 32x54. Hz. Hz. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L. Configure for stopwhen-full or roll-over For any parameter.Intelligent ION Meters Page 41 . & Demand. roll-over 1 ms resolution Via ION. Defaults: per-phase V (LL. or 16x96. total. Defaults: per-phase V (LL. kVAR.000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles)* 5 MB (10 MB option) 171. Kfactor 128 samples/cycle. signal. 32x26. 32x12. crest factor 256 samples/cycle. 16x72. signal. total.
2k Modem: 1. ANSI C12.2k Infrared: 1. infrared No Yes Yes Over Ethernet No Yes RS-485: 1.Comparison of Meter Features System Design Handbook ION 6200 Communications RS-232/485 ports RS-485-only ports None None 1 optional ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 None 1 standard None 2 standard None 2 standard Ethernet ports 1 optional.2k Modem: 1.2-19.0 XML EtherGate ModemGate MeterM@il Logs MeterM@il Alerts WebMeter None None 1 optional None None 1 optional. 10BaseT (RJ45) 1 optional.2-19.2-19.8k.4k.13 Type II compatible. infrared Yes No One connection over serial. Ethernet (TCP/ IP). RJ11 or capture-wire Over serial. 1 ms resolution Digital status/counter inputs Digital relay outputs (control/pulse) 2 optional for kWh.13 Type II compatible. infrared Yes No One connection over serial. 10BaseT (RJ45) None Infrared optical ports 1 standard.2k Ethernet: 10M None 1 optional. modem. 10BaseT (RJ45) 1 optional.2-19.Intelligent ION Meters . updated every second None Up to 4 optional via onboard card.2-19. ANSI C12. infrared Yes No No No No No No No No 1. modem. 1 ms resolution Up to 4 optional via onboard card.2k Infrared: 1.2-19. Calibration via optical coupler 1 standard. kVAh.2k Ethernet: 10M Transmission rate (bps) Analog and Digital I/O None Analog inputs None Up to 4 optional via onboard card Up to 4 optional via onboard card Up to 4 optional via onboard card Analog outputs None Up to 4 optional via onboard card.2k Infrared: 1. 9. or kVARh pulsing 4 solid state 4 solid state 4 solid state Page 42 Chapter 3 .6k.6 kbps. Calibration via optical coupler 1 standard.2k No No No No No Yes RS-485: 1. modem. RJ11 or capture-wire Over serial. 33. Ethernet (TCP/ IP). max 20 pulses/s.2-19. 2.2k Ethernet: 10M Optional over serial No No No Over serial.13 Type II compatible. 4. infrared No Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-485: 1.2-19. updated every second 4 inputs (self excited). updated every second 4 inputs (self excited). 19. 33. modem. ANSI C12. Calibration via optical coupler PROFIBUS ports Built-in modems Modbus RTU Slave Modbus/TCP Modbus Master DNP 3. Ethernet (TCP/ IP).2k. modem.6 kbps. max 20 pulses/s.
13 Type II compatible. infrared. RJ11 or capture-wire Over serial. TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0. modem.6k Infrared: 1. (Can be configured. Visible & infrared Wh & VARh calibration LEDs default None 1 optional. 19.8k. max 20 pulse/s. Chapter 3 . modem. modem.6k Modem: 0. 4.6k Infrared: 0.2k RS-485: 0. max 20 pulses/s. 9.6 kbps.3-115. infrared.2k Ethernet: 10M 1 optional. updated every 20 ms via optional I/O Expander Up to 4 optional via I/O Expander.4k.6k.2-19. modem. infrared. Plus 1alarm indicator 4 optional.3-57.6k Infrared: 0.2k RS-485: 0. updated every second 8 inputs (self excited).6 kbps. infrared. modem.3-19. updated every second 8 inputs (I/O Expander). modem.3-19. TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0. infrared. Visible & infrared Wh calibration LEDs default. power supply Up to 30 on expansion boards. 115. updated every second 8 inputs (I/O Expander).2-19. TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial.2k. 1 ms resolution 4 internal Form C. I/O card adds 8 inputs.2k RS-485: 0. Plus 1alarm indicator Up to 4 optional via onboard card Up to 4 optional via onboard card. modem No Yes Yes No No No 1. updated every 20 ms via optional I/O Expander * DNP 3. 33. up to 14 on expansion boards. I/O card adds 8 inputs.3-115.3-115. ANSI C12.6k Modem: 0. 1 ms resolution..3k-19.System Design Handbook Comparison of Meter Features ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 Communications cont. RJ11.. Plus up to 30 on expansion boards. 3 inputs (onboard).2k Ethernet: 10M 1 standard 1 standard (removed if modem & Ethernet options ordered) 1 optional. 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber)** 1 standard.2k.3-33.6 kbps.. max 20 pulse/s. 4 solid state Form A & 4 solid state Form C. 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber) None 1 standard 1 standard (removed if modem & Ethernet options ordered) 1 optional.13 Type II compatible.(for a total of 16) 4 solid state Form A. Visible & infrared Wh calibration LEDs default.2k Xpress Card: 38.3-33. RJ11 or RJ31 (European model) Over serial.4k. 1 standard 1 standard 1 standard 1 standard 1 standard 2 optional via Xpress Card 1 optional via Xpress Card. updated every ½ cycle or 1 s.3-33. RJ11 or RJ31 (European model) Over serial. TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial. Up to 4 optional via onboard card Up to 4 optional via onboard card. >6 reqs ext. 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber) 1 standard. >6 requires external power supply 8 inputs (self excited). modem. 4 solid state Form A & 4 solid state Form C. ANSI C12.3-57. 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber) 1 standard.6 kbps. infrared. TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0. TCP No No Multiple connections over serial. (self or externally excited). 2.6 kbps. 3 internal inputs (self or externally excited).6k Infrared: 1. 33. (self or externally excited).3-115. (Can be configured.) None 1 optional. RJ11. 3 electromechanical Form C. 3 inputs (onboard).3-115. max 20 pulse/s.(for a total of 16) 4 solid state Form A. 57.3-57.Intelligent ION Meters Page 43 .2k RS-485: 0. 10M (Ethernet) Analog and Digital I/O cont. infrared. ANSI C12. infrared.2k Ethernet: 10M 1 optional. TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial. 1 ms resolution. 33. FCC or CE approved Over serial. 1 ms resolution 4 internal Form C. modem No No Over serial*. Ethernet (TCP/IP).0 at any one time.3-57.1 ms resolution. 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber)** 1 standard.6k Modem: 0. TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial.2k Ethernet: 10M None 1 optional.3k-33. 33. 33. ANSI C12.6k Infrared: 0.6k Modem: 0. Visible & infrared Wh & VARh calibration LEDs default None 1 optional.6 kbps. modem.6k. infrared. FCC or CE approved Over serial. ** Fiber available only on socket meters. RJ11 or RJ31 (European model) Over serial. ANSI C12. updated every 20 ms via optional I/O Expander Up to 4 optional via I/O Expander. 3 electromechanical Form C. updated every second 8 inputs (I/O Expander). 33. max 20 pulses/s.6k Modem: 0.13 Type II compatible.3-33. max 20 pulses/s. 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber)** 1 standard.2k RS-485: 0. TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0. TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0. 1 ms resolution 4 internal Form C. infrared. modem..13 Type II compatible.13 Type II compatible. updated every ½ cycle or 1 s. and only a single port can use DNP 3. 5 ms resolution Up to 30 outputs on expansion boards None None None Up to 4 optional via I/O Expander.3-57. Visible & infrared Wh & VARh calibration LEDs default None 1 optional.0 is only available on the Xpress Card’s RS-485 ports. updated every second 8 inputs (self excited). modem.) None 1 optional.2k Ethernet: 10M 1 standard 1 standard (removed if modem & Ethernet options ordered) 1 optional. 4 solid state Form A & 4 solid state Form C.
20A max ANSI class 10.5S ANSI class 10 (5 A nominal. IEC 1A. Alarming and Control Setpoints (to trigger logging.16 accuracy ANSI C12. 20A max US approvals incl. holiday Configurable Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes . IEC 1A. 2A.2S IEC 60687 accuracy class 0. 2A nominal. division by season. alarms. week. 20. 20. up to 15 daily tariff profiles. and INTI in Argentina CE approved Measurement Canada approved MV-90 support over serial or Ethernet No No No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes None None Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes . up to 15 daily tariff profiles.AE-0788 None None Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes . day. IEC 5A nominal. 10A max ANSI class 10. For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None None None None None None None None None Revenue Metering ANSI C12.) Math & logic formulas Single. For any parameter or external condition Included Included None None 12 with 1-second operation. division by season. week. 5A nominal.AE-0788 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 2year calendar. IEC 5/20 (5 A nom.2 IEC 60687 accuracy class 0. resets.Intelligent ION Meters . month. month. ERCOT & NY State Approved to MARIA Code of Practice 4 for New Zealand Certified by Comision Federal de Electricidad and LAPEM in Mexico. 10A max) ANSI class 20. day.& multi-condition alarms Call-out on alarm Dial-out on outage None ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 None 12 with 1-second operation. holiday Configurable Multi-year schedules with hourly activity profiles Transformer/line loss compensation None None Page 44 Chapter 3 .AE-0788 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 2year calendar.Comparison of Meter Features System Design Handbook ION 6200 Setpoints. California ISO. 20A max) ANSI class 10. etc. control.20 accuracy class 0.
Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes† Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . day..AE-0688 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 2-year calendar.AE-0924 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year. week.AE-0924 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year.System Design Handbook Comparison of Meter Features ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 Setpoints. Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (pending) Yes .AE-1021 (pending) Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year.AE-1021 (pending) Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year. 65 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation†† For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None 65 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None 24 with 1-second or 1-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None 24 with 1-second operation.. division by season. For the ION 7500 RTU option. Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes† Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . month.Intelligent ION Meters Page 45 . assume a 60Hz frequency. Alarming and Control cont.AE-0924 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year.. Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (pending) Yes . up to 15 daily tariff profiles. For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included Optional 24 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included Optional 24 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included Optional Revenue Metering cont.. holiday Yes Yes Yes Yes Meets requirements Yes Yes Yes Yes† Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included † †† Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes . Chapter 3 . Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included Configurable Applies to the Extended Current Range option.
Real-time clock with daylight savings. (47 to 440Hz) 120 to 310 VDC ±10% standard. fits ANSI 4-inch cutout No LED ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable Display Non-volatile Flash-based memory Battery backup Non-volatile Flash-based memory.Intelligent ION Meters . Real-time clock with daylight savings. & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 60ºC (-4ºF to 140ºF) Non-volatile Flash-based memory. 480 VAC (50-60 Hz) and 20-60 VDC options also available 95 to 240 VAC ±10%. 20 to 60 VDC ±10% optional 95 to 240 VAC ±10%. 20 to 60 VDC ±10% optional 95 to 240 VAC ±10%. 2-inch depth. (47 to 440Hz) 120 to 310 VDC ±10% standard. (47 to 440Hz) 120 to 310 VDC ±10% standard. 20 to 60 VDC ±10% optional Instrument transformer correction No No No No Page 46 Chapter 3 . daylight savings & auto leap year Non-volatile Flash-based memory. & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 60ºC (-4ºF to 140ºF) Firmware & software upgrades Enhancements via option cards -20ºC to 70ºC (-4ºF to 158ºF) Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 60ºC (-4ºF to 140ºF) Operating temperatures Power supply 100-240 VAC (50-60 Hz). 110-300 VDC standard.Comparison of Meter Features System Design Handbook ION 6200 Additional Features Customizing Mounting Non-intrusive CT support Option cards Panel-mount.
normal. vector diagrams & harmonics display Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -40ºC to 85ºC (-40ºF to 185ºF) internal ambient 3-phase: 120-277 VAC ±15% or 57-69 VAC ±15% (9S. Chapter 3 . vector diagrams and harmonics display No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display Optional switchbox lets 4 ION meters share one display Non-volatile RAM Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link 0ºC to 50ºC (32ºF to 122ºF). normal. 76S). 120-480 VAC ±15% (35S) Auxiliary power pigtail: 120-277 VAC or 168330 VDC. 120480 VAC ±15% (35S) Auxiliary power pigtail: 120-277 VAC or 168330 VDC. 47-440 Hz 110-340 VDC standard. vector diagrams and harmonics display Yes (pending) Backlit LCD customizable graphical display. 36S. 120-480 VAC ±15% (35S) Auxiliary power pigtail: 120-277 VAC or 168330 VDC. not all ANSI/IEC compliance tests may apply. without MGT 20ºC to 50ºC (-4ºF to 122ºF) 1-phase: 85-240 VAC. 39S.. 76S). Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount Functions & display are programmable Socket-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display.. 36S. 20-60 VDC optional Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 70ºC (-4ºF to 158ºF) Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 70ºC (-4ºF to 158ºF) 1-phase: 85-240 VAC ±10% (47-63 Hz) 110330 VDC ±10% standard 6 cycles ride-through on power failure 1-phase: 85-240 VAC ±10% (47-63 Hz) 110330 VDC ±10% standard 6 cycles ride-through on power failure Yes (pending) Yes (pending) No Yes ‡ Products meet or exceed the accuracy requirements of the standards listed. Due to the form factor of some meters.Intelligent ION Meters Page 47 . alternate.System Design Handbook Comparison of Meter Features ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 Additional Features cont. alternate. Some products tested by third-party laboratories. Low Voltage option 57-120 VAC or 80-160 VDC Yes Yes (pending) Backlit LCD customizable graphical display. vector diagrams & harmonics display Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -40ºC to 85ºC (-40ºF to 185ºF) internal ambient 3-phase: 120-277 VAC ±15% or 57-69 VAC ±15% (9S. Low Voltage option 57-120 VAC or 80-160 VDC Yes Functions & display are programmable Socket-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display. 39S. vector diagrams & harmonics display Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -40ºC to 85ºC (-40ºF to 185ºF) internal ambient 3-phase: 120-277 VAC ±15% or 57-69 VAC ±15% (9S. Low Voltage option 57-120 VAC or 80-160 VDC Functions & display are programmable Socket-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display. 36S). normal. & test modes. alternate. & test modes. & test modes.
. plant. . Energy BOSS. . . Energy Profiler Online. . . .4 ION Software Power Measurement offers a complete range of powerful software products for enterprise energy management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . These software and service offerings include Energy Profiler. . . . . . . . . . . 63 List of Software Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Enterprise Energy Management Software . ION Enterprise operations software provides robust and flexible solutions for operations aspects of your energy management. . . . . . . 50 ION EEM Components . . and facility managers to maximize the efficiency and reliability of their power distribution systems. . . . . . . . Power Measurement offers software designed for commercial and industrial billing as well as value-added services designed for Utilities. . . . which provides the tools for utility. . . . . . . . Power Measurement also provides free device configuration software called ION Setup that is designed with an intuitive interface and has numerous setup wizards to make programming your ION devices much easier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 ION Enterprise Operations Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In This Chapter ION EEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services . . 66 Page 49 . ION EEM is a web-based enterprise energy management software solution that answers the energy information needs of any organization wanting to reap the benefits of better energy decisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ION Setup . . . . and E-VEE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
You can normalize energy usage data for variables such as weather and square footage. enabling you to deliver precisely the information your organization needs. industrial or research facility.ION Software . enabling you to diagnose and repair power system faults. and use historical data to identify production. scalable architecture that lets you to add capabilities as you need them. you can easily integrate real-time functionality into your ION EEM system by linking to WebReach diagrams available through ION Enterprise operations software.ION EEM . budgeting. you can process system data to prepare budgets for individual departments or processes. email. and benchmarking to cost allocation and operational cost reduction. Backed by Power Measurement's advanced metering hardware and supported by our expert Engineering Services. And since the dashboard can link to any web page. and you can use easy drill-down analysis functions to present increasing levels of detail. planners. With a wealth of information at you fingertips. cleanses. and front line staff by offering custom information from its analysis and reporting tools as well as from its realtime monitoring and alerting capabilities. an ION EEM software solution has a robust.Enterprise Energy Management Software System Design Handbook ION EEM . Page 50 Chapter 4 .Enterprise Energy Management Software ION® EEM web-based software answers the energy information needs of any organization wanting to reap the benefits of making better energy decisions. ION EEM software can generate automated power quality reports and distribute them via paper. waveform. translating it into precise and actionable information. or the internet. ION EEM software unites energy management with business strategy from energy procurement. Energy Cost Analysis: ION EEM software monitors and evaluates energy consumption and costs accurately. and integrates real-time and archived data. usage. university campus. and cost trends. This software is a benefit to any office or retail building. including steady state. and variation analyses. It enables organization-wide collaboration between decision makers. displaying the data in whatever format best suits your needs. ION EEM software gathers. ION EEM software helps you save time and money while improving productivity. Advantages Comprehensive Real-time Monitoring: You can determine the condition of all your energy assets in real time. Furthermore. Power Quality Analysis: ION EEM software conducts complex power quality analyses. Instant access to data lets you correlate ongoing activities with logged trends to help you better fulfil core needs. You can benchmark power quality to industry standards and improve productivity with electrical system analysis. track budget projections with actuals. or health center.
Intelligent Cost Allocation & Sub-billing: The ION EEM software lets you create accurate bills for specific departments or tenants based on actual usage. Increase efficiency by safely maximizing your electric network capacity while avoiding unnecessary expansion costs. The system grows as your needs grow. and combining usage data with information on the number of units produced. and upgrades. base loading. faster and lower-cost devices as they become available. or the web. Integration & Scalability: ION EEM software offers easy. so you can choose newer. And you can use normalization routines to remove independent variables like temperature and square footages. Discover the true unit cost of production by allocating costs according to process or production line. Automatically generate load profiles to reveal hidden capacity and increase forecast accuracy. and on-site generation. at your own pace. Compare energy usage to equipment specs to determine whether maintenance or replacement is required before capital expenses are incurred. or costs to ensure quick and efficient response to any condition. or integrate existing systems and devices to maintain your original investment.ION Software Page 51 . Scalable System Expansion Planning: Design the right power distribution system capacity to meet but not exceed the needs of a new facility. retrofit or expansion. The software helps reduce business risks with information and analyses that can be used to produce cost and risk reduction strategies. Benchmarking. conservation programs. cost-effective and fast system expansion. and you can distribute these bills via paper. You can also validate utility bills by running accurate shadow bills for comparison. You can create baselines to track conditions within a single facility and compare it over time to measure the effectiveness of retrofits. Alarming: You can configure schedule-driven alerts or event-driven alerts on any combination of trends. Baselining & Forecasting: You can benchmark facility conditions and make comparisons between locations to identify best practices. Energy Procurement & Bill Verification: The ION EEM software lets you procure energy at the best possible rate by using utility tariff and usage data to compare options. Add one piece at a time. Chapter 4 . events. The software can integrate with virtually any device or component. peak shaving.System Design Handbook Advantages Energy Cost Control: With ION EEM software you can implement a comprehensive demand control scheme with automatic load shedding. email. which ensures that results from benchmarking and baselining are accurate. within your own budget. A real-time pricing feed lets you monitor and calculate spot market prices. The ION EEM software lets you model future results so that you can then alter variables to gauge dependencies and see possible outcomes of different scenarios.
electricity. and monitoring for users inside and outside a corporate firewall. You can do the following with the Data Quality Module: Accept data from many different types of systems (including water.NET framework. Everyone can gather key performance indicators (KPI) in one place. Its streamlined data validation routines eliminate processing delays and reduce manual validation tasks. It is built on SQL Server 2000 with a scalable Microsoft . gas. and duplicates automatically Allow for manual data entry and audit all data quality operations Adhere to utility standards Issue automatic notifications to the appropriate users when predefined limits have been exceeded Page 52 Chapter 4 . reports. from management and finance to front-line staff. whether they are energyrelated or not. nulls. providing analysis. personalized access to real-time and historic information anytime. Web-based dashboard: The user interface offers a single point of entry for secure. you can access user administration features that let you configure specific settings for individual users or groups. Core Components Data Quality Module The Data Quality Module provides comprehensive validation. You can specify what information different people see. anywhere. enterprise-wide view of your ION EEM system. ION EEM Components ION EEM is an innovative software program designed to support real-time monitoring within a data warehousing architecture. air. and estimation (VEE) functions to ensure that the information is trustworthy and accurate. editing. fully web-based solution consists of a core platform and a number of optional modules that allow users to tailor the functionality of the software to their specific needs. have secure access to personalized views of their information. steam and emissions) Perform numerous types of validation Correct data for gaps. bills.ION Software . and audit logs so that you have a personalized.ION EEM Components System Design Handbook Adaptive Sharing information: ION EEM exceeds the traditional boundaries of energy management through its unique ability to provide a fully integrated look at all levels of your business. suppliers. It simplifies the way you use and share your energy information. and employees. set up tailored dashboard views. and determine security settings. And different groups. time jitter. partners. This fully secured. You can also access reports. The web-based interface makes it easy to share energy information securely with customers. Easy Administration: Within the web-based dashboard.
buildings and load types (for example. With this ION EEM component. time of day. and multiple currencies. production lines. sub-billing. You can also compare one supplier to another. energy cost allocation. you can do the following: Compare values over different time ranges.ION Software Page 53 . status. production shifts. seasons.System Design Handbook ION EEM Components Accept additional validation methodologies to meet your organizations standards Use your utility’s standards to compensate for missing data and calculate revenue-accurate bills Audit. steam and emissions (WAGES). View measured parameters including usage. and version all data quality changes Trend Analysis Module The Trend Analysis Module reports on the complex relationships between energy drivers. like days of the week. harmonics. It supports multiple utility types including water. demand. It presents clear and simple key performance indicators in real-time. gas. Organize your physical and virtual data sources into multiple hierarchical views The basic analysis functionality allows you to do more with less and understand the complex inter-relationships between your energy loads and achieving your business goals. such as geographical regions. or time-of-use period. The Billing Module allows you to: Determine if it is more profitable to shift loads or pay higher energy prices Create accurate energy cost forecasts and evaluate the impact of varying rates Identify utility billing anomalies Manage and integrate real-time price signals Compare tariffs to improve energy procurement and select the proper rate Respond quickly to curtailment signals Manage generation assets based on real-time signals and fluctuating costs Allocate costs. and real-time prices. lighting versus HVAC). Optional Components Billing Module The Billing Module changes raw energy data and complex utility tariffs into business-relevant dollars-and-cents values that everyone in an organization can understand and act upon. what-if scenarios. air. transients. track. temperature. Aggregate and compare different energy cost centers. and integrate cost data with ERP and other enterprise applications Divide energy costs into user-defined time periods Chapter 4 . electricity. bill validation and comparison. real-time prices. voltage.
you can use the year prior to a retrofit as a baseline. current. Waveform analysis: View advanced waveform analysis with zooming and RMS overlays. total/leasable space. All these features are integrated cleanly with other ION EEM features such as the dashboard and time dimensionality. square footage or production units from the energy consumption profile. voltage imbalance and harmonic distortion. the user can have a dashboard plot that shows power quality events for a specific shift on weekdays in the summer and compare that to weekdays in the winter. then compare energy consumption in the year after the retrofit to gauge its effectiveness. Variation analysis: Categorize events into Transients. and to change the variables within your model to gauge dependencies and see possible effects. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). Modeling Module With the Modeling Module. Sags and Swells. you can compare one facility. With benchmarking.ION Software . Page 54 Chapter 4 . SEMI F47 and custom plots so that users can understand the impact of power quality events. performance/efficiency ratings. you can standardize the temperature profile for the two time periods being compared to ensure the comparison is accurate. such as rated load. process or production line to itself at different times. frequency. power. buildings or other assets. so you can compare many similar items to each other without being misled by the fact that they may be located in different climates or producing different amounts. Provide context for gathered data by entering specific details on equipment. Outages. processes or production lines. For example. You can also compare with standardized rating systems like EnergyStar and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating. you can benchmark. For example. Modelling enables you to remove independent variables from the comparison. Baselining allows you to compare an individual facility. It can generate ITI (CBEMA). process or production line to another by removing independent variables such as temperature. so you can evaluate how the overall quality of your power impacts productivity. For example. age. occupancy rates. baseline and forecast the performance of facilities. Forecasting enables you to model future results. It supports three types of power quality analysis: Steady state analysis: View steady-state RMS voltages. Our Services group can also create custom power quality reports to meet your organization’s unique needs. you can predict how your energy bill would increase if the average summer temperature increased by a degree. and so on. For example.ION EEM Components System Design Handbook Power Quality Analysis Module The Power Quality Analysis Module lets you integrate power quality analysis into your EEM system.
The Alarms & Events Module lets you: Track disturbances. so you can analyze and combine information from multiple systems (including creating single bills with information from multiple systems). electricity. priority. air. working within firewall restrictions. Meterm@il Archiver: The MeterM@il archiver automatically aggregates and emails information from devices to your database. and any notes entered by the respondent Link "how-to" documents to different types of alarms. instantaneous or cumulative usage levels. so that data can be sent to the database without raising security issues. who acknowledged it and when. Obtain advance notification before costs or demand levels peak Integration Modules Implemented through Power Measurement’s Services group. gas. You can determine when and how personnel react to different system conditions. Common integration options include: Weather feeds: ION EEM can pull information from online weather services to normalize other data for weather conditions. fuel tank levels. steam and emissions) information and import production or business process data. to help staff choose the best corrective action for the current condition. or temperature. consolidate WAGES (water. Chapter 4 . Real-time pricing feeds: ION EEM can pull information from online real-time pricing feeds and use that information to calculate accurate spot market price information. equipment failures.System Design Handbook ION EEM Components Alarms & Events Module The Alarms & Events Module notifies you of specified events in all connected systems. so you can remove variable weather conditions across time or multiple locations from usage comparisons. ION EEM offers numerous integration options to accept data from disparate sources. validate investments. or compare processes. Its detailed event log enables event analysis that helps you analyze and benchmark past events to predict future occurrences. within a single facility or around the world. MeterM@il messages are formatted like typical email messages. so you can make effective energy sell/buy decisions. who resolved it and when. date. as well as define complex alarm conditions based on events and setpoints from individual and/or aggregated sources in the system Include detailed information on time. You can import information from third-party systems.ION Software Page 55 .
which makes it easy for ION Reporter. and operations management applications. Many departments across your organization can immediately benefit from these reports that focus on energy consumption. cost. The cutting-edge flexibility and compatibility of the ION Enterprise operations software means you can add one piece at a time. or include any familiar engineering diagrams. and trigger buttons give you manual control of breakers and switches.ION Enterprise Operations Software System Design Handbook ION Enterprise Operations Software The web-enabled ION Enterprise™ operations software is an energy information management solution for the operations end of your business. maps. Advantages Comprehensive Complete: The ION Enterprise operations software package includes all the elements required to build a powerful energy information and management system. All event and historic data is logged in an industrystandard ODBC-compliant database. giving you the benefits of a digital fault recorder at a much lower price. You can customize tables. The software leverages multiple communication methods and protocols to create a simple or extensive network of ION and other devices. locally or around the world in the format you need. and alarm indicators – whatever is most important for your job. analyze data.ION Software . You can access information from any desktop. Animation enhances alarm warnings. graphs. and photographs. in addition to comprehensive power quality and reliability analysis that can help you reduce energy related costs. and decide on new courses of action. For background graphics. at your own pace. Page 56 Chapter 4 . store. process. the ION Enterprise report generator. Interface to your existing systems through industry-standard protocols and choose newer components as they become available. or power quality. if your equipment and communication needs change. you can cost-effectively add a workstation or modify any metering function. ION Enterprise software processes collected data into meaningful information and delivers that information to you using standard web technologies. bill verification. Power quality/reliability: ION software can automatically track disturbances and categorize their severity. to retrieve and correlate events. It offers profiling and control capabilities. Components are customizable and modular. and share data across your entire enterprise. analyze. The ION Enterprise operations software lets you to collect. Historical analysis: ION software takes raw data and automatically organizes the information into formats useful for energy tracking. Real-time: Information and system status is presented in an intuitive. ION Enterprise allows you to manage intelligent ION metering and control devices. graphical format for a quick and easy snapshot view. measurement displays. you can choose default settings. while still maintaining your original investment.
and initiate actions based on results. load profiling. crest factor.ION Software Page 57 . and symmetrical components (to identify voltage or current imbalances). so there is no dependence on system polling. Your system can be set up to detect alarms that depend on combinations of conditions at multiple meters or sites. demand prediction. and sags on CBEMA curves. RTUs. Chapter 4 . ION software can automatically determine a course of action and implement the most appropriate response by applying time-of-use data. A simple monitoring system using only a few powerful ION devices can be expanded to a complete Energy Management System utilizing an array of ION and other devices Single server to an enterprise-wide network: ION software can be configured to manage a number of independent sites and facilities. THD. ION software can request data from Modbus devices (protective relays. vector diagrams. startup of an auxiliary generator. You can set up distributed control through the ION Virtual Processor. you can still receive alarms via pager or email. With these capabilities. and applications like Vista and Reporter. alarming and more. as well as cascading failures. This capability gives you an inexpensive way to integrate many types of devices into a single system. surges. Modbus devices can also request data from ION software. Scalable From one to hundreds of devices: ION Enterprise is designed to evolve with your system. and adds energy intelligence to even the most basic devices. cost allocation. Even if you aren’t logged on to ION software. facilitywide demand data. With supported Modbus Master and Slave protocols. The comprehensive information provided by email or pager alerts. Newer components can be added as they become available without impacting existing functions. You can view several seconds of consecutive waveforms using cursor control and zoom options. you can implement demand control. enable you to take appropriate action and avoid future occurrences. cost calculations. and control signals. Open protocols and integration: To take advantage of your existing infrastructure. Control: An operator doesn’t have to be present to perform load shedding. power quality analysis. or configure meters to deal directly with time-critical control and alarm decisions. You can plot transients. Alarming: Alarms can be tailored to the needs of every user. allowing you to extend your ION system at your own pace. or multiple sites can be combined into one enterprise network. or relay control. PLCs).System Design Handbook Advantages ION software can overlay waveforms to correlate phase-to-phase relationships between voltages and currents. Intelligent ION Virtual Processor: The Virtual Processor can aggregate and process data from a multitude of metering points. K-factor. ION software supports multi-port and multi-protocol communications. schedules. as well as display odd/even harmonics. The ION Alert feature informs ION software of a problem immediately. delivering information from everywhere to everywhere.
ION Enterprise can be modified to suit a wide variety of relevant applications. This service is only used for the web application. Software Architecture Communication Services Communication Services include the following: The ION Site Servicer is responsible for handling communications to system devices. Customized solutions: For more comprehensive and targeted uses. This service reacts to changes in network configuration.Software Architecture System Design Handbook Adaptive Out-of-the-box operations: You can have immediate access to all meters in just a few mouse clicks with the “Generate Network Diagram” option and default displays. including the addition of new servers and is also capable of recognizing new software nodes. and devices. In order to establish the most appropriate state for the system. Page 58 Chapter 4 . gate. such as Vista. The ION Connection Management Service is responsible for determining and managing the connection status of the ION software system's sites and devices. and then select a feeder to produce a disturbance analysis. Subscriptions expire automatically if they are not renewed — a browser renews a subscription by repeatedly requesting XML data. and devices can be added. or changed without having to restart any Communication Services tools. The Network Router is required for all of the other ION software services. click into a substation. The ION Network Router Service is responsible for the routing of all information between ION software components. It dynamically detects changes to the network configuration. port. the Log Inserter. The ION XML Subscription Service manages subscriptions to XML data for Vista diagrams. it should remain running at all times. for example. gates. “Hot spots” let you quickly tunnel into deeper layers of information.ION Software . deleted. that are added to an existing server. or device parameters change. ports. When you (or a software component) requests XML data for a diagram. New channels. The whole system can be configured in under an hour. it also handles resource allocation for modems. or have our Power Measurement Services groups deliver exactly what you need. then a connection may be interrupted. integrate ION Enterprise with your other information systems. If certain channel. The ION Component Identifier Service manages communications between local and remote ION Enterprise components. such as client workstations. Create custom views and reports. this service creates a subscription and delivers the XML data when it is available. each connection and disconnection request is evaluated against the overall state of the system and availability of communications channels. Although the Connection Manager is not dependent on any of the other ION software services.
The ION Log Inserter Service acts as an intermediary between network components that record data and the ODBC-compliant database. Data Storage ION software interacts with three ODBC-compliant databases: the Network Configuration database. and the ION database. the System Event database. The ION Query Service provides historical data retrieval for your powermonitoring system. Chapter 4 .ION Software Page 59 . plant-wide trending or alarm generation. It can analyze real-time or historical data from multiple meters and perform actions based on the results.System Design Handbook Software Architecture The Alarm Server monitors a workstation’s communication port for highpriority events that may occur at remote modem sites. data processing. which then initiates an unscheduled connection and retrieves the high priority message. System Utilities System Utilities include the following: The User Manager lets you configure ION Enterprise operations software user accounts that define different operations permitted within the ION software (e. computers. and transfers it to the ION database. The ION database is dynamic and seamlessly tracks device configurations. Logic Extensions The ION Virtual Processor provides coordinated data collection.g. The License Manager lets you upgrade the number of devices and Vista clients you can have without re-installing the software. automated demand control. protocols. viewing meter data. or configuring devices). it contains all the information displayed by your devices. the Alarm Server notifies the Communications Server. This database is essentially a historical account of logged data from every intelligent device in your system. All information is processed together on your desktop using mathematical and logic formulas to perform custom cost calculations. and control functions for groups of meters. For instance. performing control actions. The System Event Database database stores data for events that occur in the operation of ION software components. device types. The Network Configuration Database (also referred to as the Network Object Model or NOM) holds information about your network topology (the network connections. in response to a specific combination of setpoints and alarms. The ION Database is where all ION meter data is stored and accessed by the Log Inserter and Query Server services. and every connected device including dialout modems) for other ION software components to use. When a remote site reports an alarm. so you can make changes to any meter without having to go offline and restart the software. the Virtual Processor can execute an application that dials a pager.. It operates like a virtual meter. You launch this server in the ION Enterprise/System/bin folder. The system event records can be viewed using the Management Console. The Log Inserter receives data from the meters or Virtual Processors.
sites. The Management Console offers the ability to clone configuration of servers. devices. . Energy and Demand. This is valuable for troubleshooting your network. WebReach lets you access meter displays from the convenience of a web browser. allowing you to easily add. Reporter lets you define and create comprehensive database reports using Microsoft Excel. and EN50160 reports are included with Reporter. The Remote Modem Setup utility in the Management Console helps you set up and test modems supported by ION software. or configure sites and ION meters or other devices on your network. and provides control capabilities. Configured Power Quality. and views of event. Designer: Through Designer software. and to set up dial-out modems and connection schedules. remove. background graphics or diagrams. and configure remote modems. Load Profile. Events are system status occurrences such as data recording uploading or communication error rates. Ethernet. The ION Virtual Processor Setup: The Virtual Processor Setup utility allows you to modify the global operating parameters of Virtual Processors and configure the Virtual Processor Modbus network. including real-time numeric data. The Device Upgrader utility updates the operating software inside your meters when new releases are available. It analyses data and events. you can change the configuration and customize the features of any ION meter or ION software component. The Diagnostics Viewer provides a tree structure of the ION network where you can find all associated events that have been logged. update the serial number to increase the number of allowed devices. trim the System Log database. Custom reports can be created easily. The Management Console presents a graphical view of your network. Administration Tools Management Console: The Management Console is the starting application for the ION software where you can launch system and database applications. You can create screens in Vista and display them in your web browser. data and waveform logs. from real-time metered data to historical information from the networked database. or modem links. administer ION software user accounts. User Tools Vista offers graphical views of your entire power system. reports equipment status. and support is provided for other third-party reporting tools.The Database Manager lets you manage your ION Enterprise databases with both manual tasks and scheduled tasks. You can perform the upgrades over serial.
System Design Handbook Network Architecture Network Architecture A basic ION Enterprise operations software network contains one primary server. Reporter. You may need a secondary server if you are planning a large system. You must complete the Database Server installation before you proceed with installing an ION Enterprise Primary Server on your network. one or more client workstations. Database server: If you choose to host the ION Enterprise databases on a computer other than the primary server. The Engineering Services Group is specially trained to configure large distributed networks. Secondary server: For larger or distributed systems. Web (thin) clients: ION Enterprise offers a number of options for viewing system data. then you can install a Database Server. no databases. ION Services. You can set up a basic network by following the instructions in the ION Enterprise Commissioning Guide. A small Active X component included with WebReach adds powerful chart and trending abilities with a variety of output options. and networking loads on each server. and the Management Console). System Event and ION data. and no meters attached to a client workstation. Terminal Services enables remote access to the ION Enterprise server for simple viewing or complete remote server administration. and takes just seconds to install and configure. Our WebReach option presents Vista diagram views through the Internet Explorer web browser interface. memory. you can complement a primary server with one or more secondary servers. Dividing an ION Enterprise network among multiple servers can improve performance by balancing the processing. There are no ION services. Primary server: The primary server contains all ION software core components. Client workstations: Client workstations can include all ION software user components (Vista. and a single database. contact Power Measurement for more information. If you need a larger system with multiple databases or secondary servers.ION Software Page 61 . and the three databases: Network Configuration. Chapter 4 . contact Technical Services for help. ION Enterprise can also be used with Microsoft Terminal Services.
of Devices1 No. RAID-1 configuration is optional for this device range.0 or newer MSDE 20004 1-25 1-5 Primary Server 25-100 1-15 100-200 1-15 Microsoft Windows Server 20036 Microsoft Office 2003 (same as above) Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or newer ION Enterprise Client Computer Desktops and Laptops WebReach Clients 1 2 Desktops and Laptops Any Windows operating system capable of running Internet Explorer 5.0 or newer Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Standard Edition For systems larger than those referenced above. Contact Technical Support for Secondary Server requirements. Microsoft Excel is required for Reporter. Service Pack 31 Microsoft Office 20002 Microsoft Internet Explorer 6. It is recommended that you also install the latest security patches and hotfixes using the Windows Update service. Windows 2000 Server. MS Windows NT 4. Windows 2000 Server. the need for a RAID-1 array may also increase. however.ION Enterprise Server/Workstation Requirements System Design Handbook ION Enterprise Server/Workstation Requirements ION Enterprise Server Requirements Server No. Page 62 Chapter 4 . MSDE 2000 is installed with your ION Enterprise software if you require a new MSDE 2000 instance. 1 2 3 The numbers in this column refer to ION 7550 / ION 7650 meters in an ethernet network. 4 5 6 ION Enterprise Client Workstation Requirements Computer Function & Type Minimum Hardware Requirements Pentium Class computer 300 MHz 128 MB RAM 4 GB free space Minimum Software Requirements Windows 2000 Professional. please contact Power Measurement. it offers substantial performance and hard drive redundancy benefits. Microsoft Outlook is required for sending email reports. or Windows 2000 Advanced Server. Database Server Secondary Server Contact Technical Support for Secondary Server requirements. you can use Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP Professional as Standalone ION Enterprise servers. Outlook for sending email reports) Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.ION Software .4 GHz CPU 2 GB RAM 2 x 60 GB disk drives5 Dual 2. of Clients Minimum Hardware Requirements 2. or Windows 2000 Advanced Server. Note that as the number of devices increases. You can only install Microsoft SQL Server 2000 (both Standard and Enterprise editions) on a server class operating system.0 Service Pack 6a or MS Windows XP Professional Service Pack 1 can be used.4 GHz CPUs 4 GB RAM 2 x 146 GB storage on SCSI RAID-1 Minimum Software Requirements2 Microsoft Windows Server 20033 Microsoft Office 2003 (Excel for OPC and Reporter. Application of the ION Enterprise server in a client/server network requires Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition.5 and up.0 GHz CPU 1 GB RAM 40 GB disk drive 2. Application of the ION Enterprise server in a client/server network requires Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition.
or you might group all the meters that are performing power quality functions. the meters are easy to find and the communication links are ready. ION Setup Functionality ION Setup lets you create a communication site. The site defines the communication method while the groups define location or function. When you double-click the Setup Assistant icon. a screen similar to this appears: Chapter 4 .System Design Handbook ION Setup ION Setup ION Setup for Windows is a low-cost software solution that displays real-time data from your power monitoring devices and provides device configuration capabilities.ION Software Page 63 . so that the next time you want to upgrade the firmware or make any configuration changes. you might group all the meters located in one building. ION Setup lets you create a network of sites and devices. then add and group devices connected to this site. The Setup Assistant helps to guide you through the common setup requirements for ION meters and appears automatically in the right-hand window once you have added a device. For example.
0 or later). different tabs appear on the screen identifying the functions included within that screen. in the illustration above.ION Setup Workstation Requirements System Design Handbook The Setup Screens listed on the left-hand side of the screen let you access different setup functions. Upgrading Meter Firmware and Programs ION Setup lets you take advantage of new features for your meters by upgrading the meter’s firmware. Windows NT (version 4. You can also copy (upload) the meter configuration from one meter and paste (download) it to another. using the Setup Assistant Templates setup screen. meters with the Rapid Meter Programming feature can dramatically reduce the time to send a template to the meter. including the tabs for PT/CT Ratios (to change ratios). Using ION Setup version 2. ION Setup Workstation Requirements A wizard installs the ION Setup software components. For example. or Windows 2000 or XP (Service Pack 1) Pentium 90 MHz processor (Pentium 133 or faster is recommended) 15 MB free hard drive space. Minimum system requirements for ION Setup are: Windows 98SE. just run ION Setup.ION Software .0. When you click on each Setup Screen. Nameplate Info (to update info) and Rollover (to set the rollover values). When installation is complete. the Basic Setup screen is shown. plus an additional 2 BM free disk space for each device 16 MB RAM (32 or more recommended) Mouse or pointing device VGA display CD-ROM drive Page 64 Chapter 4 .
System Design Handbook
List of Software Features
List of Software Features
ION Enterprise Power Quality Analysis
Waveform overlay to analyze phase-to-phase relationships Event correlation ITI (CBEMA) plots Harmonics (to the 127th), K-factor, crest factor
Graphic user interface: default & custom displays with animation Report generation: energy & demand, load profile, power quality Multi-site data collection, aggregation, & real-time display Continuous or scheduled retrieval of metered data Company-wide data access through networked PCs ODBC-compliant database for historical data logging Remote meter configuration & firmware upgrades Rapid meter programming Windows 2000 operating system & security Windows 95/98 operating system (must be specified on order)
Communications & Integration
Serial links: RS-232, RS-485, infrared/optical Modem links: telephone, cellular, radio Ethernet over TCP/IP
“Virtual” meters (Virtual Processors) customized for any set of functions Math, logic, trig, log, linearization formulas
Automated Alarming & Control
Alarm notification via pager & email (using external application) Automatic dispatch of alarm/control signals Alarm/control based on conditions from many meters or sites Responds to alert signals from ION meters Pop-up alarm indicators in graphical displays Options for manual control
Sub-metering Storage of billing data to CSV / HHF4 file
1 2 3 4
Load profile only Requires ION Setup version 1.1 or higher, and a meter with rapid meter programming capability Client modules in ION software can also run on Windows 95/98 platforms MV-90 Hand-Held format
Chapter 4 - ION Software
Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services
System Design Handbook
Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services
Power Measurement supplies utilities with a range of IT software products, including a centralized database to serve all downstream applications, and an advanced billing package. Data viewing and analysis tools feature Web-based handling of load curtailment and RTP programs. Designed around the latest software architecture, these products are easy to use and boast maximum flexibility and scalability. They accelerate throughput and minimize the risk of error by automating routine manual tasks (e.g., data validation procedures, spreadsheet-based billing). This lets you apply utility resources to other value-added projects. The entire suite utilizes intuitive Windows® or Web-based user interfaces to derive maximum productivity with minimal training. Ease of integration and scalability let you add components as needed.
Energy Profiler Online
Energy Profiler Online™ (EPO) is the industry's leading load data visualization and analysis application. The service takes the volumes of customer usage data utilities collect every day and turns it into actionable information that is readily accessible to both customers and internal users. For commercial and industrial energy customers, managing energy costs is the primary objective; however, these customers cannot control what they cannot measure. EPO enables energy customers to take control of their costs by providing the information they need to understand how their organization uses energy. Armed with that understanding, they can then take steps to reduce costs through implementing conservation measures, investing in more efficient equipment, or participating in new pricing or load curtailment programs. For the utility, EPO provides an intuitive, easy-to-maintain tool for better understanding customer usage patterns and meeting customers' growing need for information. It also provides a convenient platform from which to administer realtime pricing (RTP) or load curtailment programs.
EPO provides a wide range of functionality that serves the needs of customers and utility staff from the same platform: Data Access and Analysis - view and anlayze data in both graphical and tabular formats. Historical and Estimated Bills - view previous bills and generate estimates based on existing data, even before the billing period ends. Rate Comparison - explore the effects of rate changes for specific customers, based on their unique usage characteristics.
Chapter 4 - ION Software
System Design Handbook
What-if Analysis - explore cost scenarios by assessing the impact of various changes to operations, such as shifting energy between time periods or reducing usage by fixed amounts or percentages. Automated Alarming - set usage parameters to automatically notify customers when their consumption exceeds a given threshold. Memorized Reports - save customized reports and schedule their automatic delivery to colleagues via email. Benchmarking - benchmark usage data from multiple facilities by applying normalization factors such as square footage, operating hours and units of production. Multiple Commodities - access usage data for gas and water as well as electricity. RTP Programs - administer real-time pricing and other programs that rely on customers' access to usage data (e.g., load curtailment). Administration Tool - manage user accounts, access privileges and more from a convenient and intuitive Web interface. User Community Site - participate in discussion forums with other users and download documentation such as marketing materials and release reviews. EPO makes it easy for utilities to leverage the power of the Internet to deliver value-added services to their commercial and industrial customers. Energy customers across North America use the service every day to monitor usage, evaluate the effectiveness of energy-saving programs, establish benchmarks for usage performance, gain a better understanding of how their entire organization uses energy, and more.
Energy Profiler® is an intuitive Windows-based tool for the analysis of energy usage and pricing. It is used for a variety of purposes by load researchers, pricing analysts, utility account managers, major energy customers, and energy services consultants. Energy Profiler is your all-in-one tool for energy usage and pricing analysis.
Energy Profiler is the choice of Account Managers who want to win and retain customers through superior service. Using Energy Profiler, you can get the best deal for your customer by demonstrating immediately the change in your customer's bill under alternate rate structures, and/or alternate energy usage patterns. You can quickly see the effects of: Shifting from one rate schedule to another Switching from one supplier to another Moving on-peak usage into off-peak periods Aggregating individual billing accounts Any combination of the above, for any rate schedule
Chapter 4 - ION Software
The RTP capabilities of Energy Profiler are a total solution for RTP program design and implementation. You can also define on-peak and off-peak periods. Features Energy BOSS features include: Powerful rate configuration Summary billing for multi-premise customers (e. and display data overlays such as weather conditions. recurring and installment charges Page 68 Chapter 4 . The software processes interval data directly into billing determinants. or you can incorporate it into an existing CIS to perform the complex calculations required to bill commercial and industrial accounts. If rate analysts. Energy BOSS Energy BOSS® provides utilities with an advanced billing solution that addresses the needs of their most important customers. and customers are all working with different packages. You can use the software as a stand-alone billing system. Energy Profiler allows major energy customers to: Identify anomalies in energy usage Improve operational efficiency Reduce energy costs Make informed purchase decisions Take part in Real-Time Pricing programs Understand Energy Usage Energy Profiler presents load data in highly intuitive charts and graphs to provide a clear picture of your company's energy usage. These risks can be mitigated or eliminated altogether a software tool such as Energy Profiler. and it supports the complex rates and customerspecific contracts used in billing major energy customers. there is a high risk of miscommunication with potentially disastrous results.g. accounting staff.Energy BOSS System Design Handbook Graphical and tabular results are instantly available for any of these "what if" scenarios. chain accounts) Conjunctive billing to aggregate usage from multiple accounts into a single set of billing determinants Multiple commodities and services on one bill Support for one-time. Energy Profiler is also a strategic tool that metered energy customers can use to better understand their energy usage and manage their energy costs. You can manipulate load profiles graphically to view changes in usage under different conditions. What happens to your bill if you move some of your demand to an offpeak period? Or bring down your peak demand by ten percent? Energy Profiler lets you answer these and other similar questions instantly. customer account managers. program managers.ION Software .
E-VEE™ was designed from the outset to meet the needs of utilities. such as minimizing manual processes. E-VEE Whether in regulated or restructured markets. Chapter 4 . due dates and contract parameters Validation and exception reporting (through E-VEE™) Management reporting PDF output for electronic bills Energy BOSS can store and easily update contract parameters.E-VEE can handle user-defined validations. and enabling the growing number of downstream applications that rely on meter data. providing utilities with the option of using the system as a traditional on-site application or as an online service requiring a minimum commitment of internal resources.E-VEE utilizes a highly scalable database and client/server architecture that easily handles increasing volumes of meter data. CSV files) and export of accounting information. You can readily integrate Energy BOSS with an E-VEE meter data management system to deliver a complete solution from data collection to billing. multiple export queues. scaling up to handle the increasing volume of meter data.The software is based on industry standards and provides many options for creating automatic data exports and reports via its user interface.A combination of automation and flexibility cuts down the time it takes for meter data to be processed. Automation . utilities of all types face many of the same challenges. socket support. improving throughput. allowing the system to handle whatever terms a given customer has negotiated. MV90. Features E-VEE also addresses all of the requirements for a lasting meter data solution: Feature Rich . The system is easily linked to other utility applications through direct import of data from various sources (e. meter changeouts. a highly intuitive component that simplifies the creation and maintenance of even the most complex rate structures. Flexibility .g. Customer data is made available rapidly to billing. increasing productivity and allowing resources to be applied to other value-added activities. Scalability . and other systems automatically and simultaneously.Manual processes slow the throughput of meter data and introduce the potential for error. At the heart of Energy BOSS’s billing capability is the RateWizard. Throughput .. and pre-estimated data archiving.ION Software Page 69 . CIS. As volume increases. more processing power can be added by simply upgrading the server hardware—no significant changes to the software are required. E-VEE reduces the level of human intervention required for meter data processing.System Design Handbook E-VEE Customer-specific billing cycles. Energy BOSS is also Web-enabled. Energy BOSS is based on a modern 3-tier architecture that ensures scalability and ease of maintenance. It allows utilities to consolidate meter data from a variety of sources into a single repository from which to serve the growing number of applications that rely on it.
existence checks. Spike tests. E-VEE offers an extensive set of validation and editing procedures to take meter data from raw file to billing and settlement quality in a fraction of the time required by legacy systems. Both applications draw on the E-VEE database. and cross-validation with manually collected data can all be performed automatically. E-VEE does not require programming—the business rules behind the various procedures are completely database-driven. Page 70 Chapter 4 . wireless systems. More importantly.Utilities collect data from a number of sources including meter data collections systems (i.E-VEE System Design Handbook One Database . and can be seamlessly integrated. These data flows must then be consolidated. MV-90). Add Energy BOSS for a sophisticated billing solution designed to handle the unique needs of major commercial and industrial customers. market operators. Couple E-VEE with Energy Profiler Online to deliver a valuable service to customers while providing a convenient way for internal groups to view customer data on their desktop—all using the same tool.ION Software . hardware checks. and other energy companies. Once the validation and estimation parameters are set up in user-defined validation groups. the result is a single repository for all of the utility's meter data from which all downstream applications can be served. E-VEE takes in data from any number of sources. sum tests. customers can be assigned to those groups through the user interface.e.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or NTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Managing Network Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Infrared/Optical Communications . . . . . . . . 93 Page 71 . . . wireless. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Ethernet Gateway Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Dialing Out to Remote Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPS. . 75 Bus Wiring Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Time Synchronization Method: ION Software. . . . . In This Chapter ION Enterprise Network Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Modem Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Communication Links Communications between ION software and meters can occur through serial cables (RS-232. . . . . . 72 ION Network Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Ethernet Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RS-485). . . . . . . . . . . 73 Building Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Converting to RS-485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Time-Synchronization Blackout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Serial Communications . . . . Ethernet (10Base-T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . 90 Clock Module Settings . . . . . . . . 86 Internet Connectivity . . . . . . . . . 80 Modem Gateway Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or modem links (telephone. . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Immediate Notification from Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and fiber optic). . . 10Base-FL fiber optic). . . . . . . 79 Using a COM Converter with a Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software resides on a single workstation or at any location in a Windows network.ION Enterprise Network Communications System Design Handbook ION Enterprise Network Communications An ION Enterprise network consists of devices that are connected to each other through a variety of communication links. ION software services control communications among the software and devices. The diagram below illustrates an ION Enterprise network. Page 72 Chapter 5 .Communication Links .
Communication Links Page 73 . configured. ION software also has management tools to help you with system and database maintenance and configuration: Remote Modem Setup. License Manager. Chapter 5 . or TCP/IP port on the primary server. or reconfigure a site or device. modem. Every time you add. or duplicated. trim the system log database. Each of these applications is registered in the network configuration database. Reporter. Virtual Processor. Software The following ION software applications make up the key components of ION Enterprise software: Management Console. Network Configuration Database In order for ION software to recognize all the software and devices. Your interface to the Network Configuration database is the Management Console software component. A complete ION Enterprise power monitoring and analysis network can be created using the building blocks described below. it is not necessary to create a site for Ethernet devices. Virtual Processor Setup. and view system events. and Device Upgrader. Diagnostics Viewer.System Design Handbook ION Network Building Blocks ION Network Building Blocks The power-monitoring network that you build in ION Enterprise reflects the way that your physical communications network is wired. servers. enable advanced meter security. removed. as well as define software security. Database Manager. In the Management Console. the Network Configuration database is updated. and intelligent devices that can be added. and ION Setup. The Network Configuration database resides on the primary server. they must be registered in a Network Configuration database. which maintains the information for all other workstations to access. delete. Sites ION software arranges all of the devices in the network based on their physical location and the type of communications link on which they reside. The ION Enterprise network is built in the Management Console graphical interface using sites. Database Manager. Vista. Designer. modems. Simply click the Devices icon. The following sites can be created in the Management Console: Direct (Serial) Site: a direct-connected RS-232 or RS-485 network Modem Site: a remote serial site connected by a modem Ethernet Gateway Site: a gateway that transfers data between an Ethernet device and an RS-485 chain of connected devices NOTE In the Management Console. a site contains one or more intelligent devices that are accessible via a serial. You can set up dialout modems and connection schedules.
Building a Network using the Management Console 1. via Ethernet. add an “Ethernet Gateway Site.” (When you add an Ethernet Gateway Site.g. Building Your Network The details of your ION Enterprise network are stored in the Network Configuration database. These devices must be registered in the Network Configuration database using the Management Console. and that use ION software-supported protocols. or Ethernet Gateway) Workstation and COM port to which the site connects Baud rate for the site (for Direct-Serial. The following details are required: Type of device (e. Then. add devices to your sites. including the TCP/IP port where the loop of serial devices is connected. Only personnel with appropriate authority should use the Management Console since changes to the Network Configuration database can result in an unstable or unusable ION software network. so you can communicate directly to the meter and through it to the meters on the RS-485 loop. or through a gateway. and Ethernet Gateway sites) Site name (your choice) Modem type and telephone number (for Modem sites) Baud rate (must be the same for all devices at any one site) IP address and IP Port number (for Ethernet Gateway sites) 2. you provide information about the Ethernet gateway device.Communication Links . ION 7650. The following site details are required: Type of site (Direct-Serial. ION 8500. To model this in your ION Enterprise operations network using the Management Console. 3720 ACM) Site to which device belongs Name for each device (your choice but must begin with a letter) Unique Unit ID of the device (for devices on RS-485 networks) IP address and IP Port number (for devices on Ethernet networks) Installation Example Assume that your physical communications network has an Ethernet Gateway site connected to an Ethernet network via an ION 7550 meter.Building Your Network System Design Handbook Devices Devices are normally ION or ACM meters but can also include other manufacturers’ devices that can connect to ION Enterprise network serially. Modem. Identify the sites to which each workstation physically connects. first add a “New Ethernet Device” (ION 7550 meter). Modem. Page 74 Chapter 5 . Next. add each “Serial Device” on the RS-485 loop. Your interface to the Network Configuration database is the Management Console.) Finally.
RS-485 allows for longer distances. The COM128 provides four RS-485 ports with support for up to 128 devices (32 devices on each port). Your computer is a DTE device. so RS-232 devices can connect to RS-422 ports. modems. To do this conversion you need a COM32 or COM128 converting device. designed for serial communications between a computer and up to 32 external devices. The COM128 is ideal for installations that contain more than 32 remote devices. DB-25 Connector DB-9 Connector Chapter 5 . RS-485 is an enhanced version of RS-232. Commonly used serial interface standards are RS-232 and RS-485. If you are connecting to more than one device. (The opposite of serial is parallel where several bits are transmitted concurrently as in Ethernet connections. Converting to RS-485 To communicate directly between a computer and multiple ION meters. Power Measurement offers two such converters: the COM32 and COM128. you must have and specify a communications port on the computer and the device.Communication Links Page 75 . or intelligent electronic devices. The EIA (Electronic Industries Association) has also defined new RS-422 and RS423 standards. These terms indicate the pin-out for the connectors on a device and the direction of the signals on the pins. RS-485 is similar to RS-422 but can support more nodes per line. which are backwards compatible with RS-232. Connections between the Computer and COM Device An RS-232 cable can have either a 25-pin D-type connector (DB-25) or a 9-pin Dtype connector (DB-9). or that have devices positioned at distances greater than can be reached with one 4000-foot cable. you need to convert this standard to RS-485. The device at one end of the cable is known as Data Communications Equipment (DCE). The COM-32 box converts the RS-232 interface to a single RS-485 port supporting up to 32 power meters. while at the device at the opposite end is called Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). allowing connection to one device. displays. you need an RS-232 to RS-485 converter box. Maximum cable length between the computer and the COM32 is 50 feet. up to 4000 feet from the computer. RS-232 is currently the most common standard for serial communications and is the standard used on most computers. The RS-232 port on the COM32 is available as a female DB-25 connector.System Design Handbook Serial Communications Serial Communications Serial sites are a group of devices that transmit data one bit at a time. Personal computers usually have an RS-232 port for interfacing to printers. so COM32 is configured as DCE.) To communicate between computers and meters serially. The COM32 interfaces to the RS-485 bus through a shielded twisted pair cable connected to its “Data +” and “Data -” terminals.
This capability is required because RS-232 is a full duplex standard. must be wired as follows: Use a good quality shielded twisted pair cable for each RS-485 bus. Devices connected on the bus. the COM128 supports a CTS-WAIT feature in which RS-485 packets are buffered until the CTS (Clear To Send) line indicates the RS-232 device is ready to receive the data. including converter(s) and other instrumentation. There are two ways the COM32 and COM128 control data transfer: (1) If the RTS (Request To Send) signal is asserted. The length of the RS-485 cable connecting all devices cannot exceed 4000 ft. if RTS is de-asserted. they transmit data onto the RS-485 bus. (1219 m). AWG 22 (0. the COM32 and COM128 optically isolate the RS-232 and RS-485 sections. In DTE mode. while RS-485 is half duplex.6 mm) or larger conductor size is recommended. and when data is present. Data Transfer The COM32 and COM128 control whether the RS-232 device (e. the risk of exposure to transient voltage surges and spikes is substantially higher than for RS-232 lines. the RS-232 line is monitored.g. they listen for RS-485 data and pass it through to RS-232. Maximum cable length between the computer and the COM128 is 50 feet. Because RS-485 buses are generally quite long. The COM128 is switch-selectable to act in DTE or DCE mode. (2) If the RTS signal isn’t available. An adapter plug is supplied in case your RS-232 cable has a male DB25 connector. allowing only one device to transmit at a time. To protect computer equipment.Bus Wiring Considerations System Design Handbook The RS-232 DCE and DTE ports on the COM128 are available as male DB-9 connectors. Bus Wiring Considerations Up to 32 devices can connect to a single RS-485 bus. An RS-232 port is provided for each mode. The COM128 interfaces to each RS-485 bus through a shielded twisted pair cable connected to its “Data +” and “Data -” terminals.Communication Links . where signals are transmitted and received simultaneously. and run through electrically noisy environments. Ensure that the polarity is correct when connecting to the RS-485 port (+) and (-) terminals of each device. it is automatically transmitted onto the RS-485 bus. Page 76 Chapter 5 . computer) listens or transmits onto the RS-485 bus.
Straight-Line Topology The straight-line wiring method is illustrated below. This allows for easy removal of a device for servicing when required. with the (+) and (-) terminals of each device connected to the associated terminals on the next device. Each end point of the straight-line bus must be terminated with a ¼ watt resistor. including noise in the communications cable. The COM128 can exist at any position on the RS-485 bus. you should only use either straight-line or loop topologies. Note that connections are shown for one RS-485 port only. These termination resistors reduce signal reflections that may corrupt data on the bus. including an end point. Recommended Topologies Devices on an RS-485 bus are connected in a point-to-point configuration. Consult the cable manufacturer’s documentation for the exact impedance of your cable. Use an intermediate terminal strip to connect each device to the bus. While you can use many topologies to connect devices on an RS-485 communication bus. CAUTION Do not connect the shield to ground at both ends of the segment. For an AWG 22 shielded twisted pair cable. The value of the resistor should match the line impedance of the cable. values between 150 and 300 ohms are typical. Chapter 5 . This lets ground loop currents flow in the shield.System Design Handbook Bus Wiring Considerations Connect the shield of each cable segment to ground at one end only.Communication Links Page 77 . The COM128 supports four RS-485 buses simultaneously. Termination resistors are connected between the (+) and (-) terminals of the device at each end of the bus.
The infrared/optical port is compatible with ANSI Type 2 magnetic optical communications couplers. The infrared port on some meters can also be used for energy pulsing. These wiring methods are known as 3-way star or tee types and create branches in the main RS-485 bus. or DNP 3. Infrared/Optical Communications An ION meter’s infrared/optical port can communicate real-time measurements to ION software via ION. To enable infrared communications. Too many cable connections results in signal reflections causing interference. be sure to account for all cable segments. Loop topology does not require termination resistors and the COM128 can exist at any position on the RS-485 bus. To do this. Page 78 Chapter 5 . Modbus. protocol. which exists in the meter’s software. baud rate.Infrared/Optical Communications System Design Handbook Loop Topology One advantage of loop topology (shown below) is that a single open circuit fault condition anywhere on the loop does not result in the loss of communication between the workstation and any of the remote devices. Once you have completed the meter’s configuration. for RS-485 connections to a device via an intermediate terminal block. For example. The optical magnetic coupler is purchased separately. connect the magnetic optical coupler to the front panel. RTS delay. choose the ION software module you wish to use for pulsing (kWh Pulse. The device is now ready to communicate with ION software. for example).0 protocols. CAUTION Ensure that RTS/CTS is disabled for the infrared port’s site in the Management Console. and terminal strips. and unit ID. you must add the lengths of cable between the device and the terminal block to the total cable distance. converters. and specify the infrared port in its setup register. Calculating Overall Cable Length When determining the overall length of an RS-485 straight-line or loop connection. Just select the comm mode (infrared).Communication Links . Connection points include meters. Connection Methods to Avoid Do not connect more than two cables at any point on the RS-485 bus. you must configure the port’s Communications module.
System Design Handbook
In the Management Console component of ION Enterprise operations software, remote sites that use radio modems or leased-line modems are configured as Serial sites, not as Modem sites. ION software Modem sites are designed for telephone modems, which require a brief pause before communicating. Radio modems and leased line modems do not require this pause, therefore, no commas are needed before the telephone number string.
A modem converts a computer’s digital signal into an analog signal that is transmitted over telephone lines, wireless channels, or fiber optic links. Modems can be external or internal to the server computer. An external modem is encased in a box separate from the server computer. An internal modem may reside on a printed circuit board plugged into one of the computer’s expansion slots. It may also exist in software, where the computer’s processor handles all the data communications. External modems are generally preferred because they have carrier detect (CD), receive (Rx), and transmit (Tx) lights that indicate how the modem is functioning. RS-232 is the standard interface for connecting computers to external modems. Even if you have a very fast modem, the rate that your modem can receive data is limited by the rate at which the remote modem can transmit data. For example, if the remote modem only operates at 1200 bps, your modem must receive the data at the same rate. Another point to consider is that some telephone lines cannot transmit data reliably at high rates. Your modem features may include: Auto-answer: Allows your computer to receive calls in your absence. Data compression: Fewer bits are transmitted but information is sent intact. The receiving modem must be able to decompress the data using the same compression technique as the transmitting modem. One disadvantage with this process is that the risk of error increases with greater data compression. Flash memory: This allows you to update transmission protocols without having to purchase a new modem. CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data or CDPD is a data transmission technology developed for use on cellular phone frequencies. CDPD uses open cellular channels (in the 800 to 900 MHz range) to transmit data in packets. This technology offers data transfer rates of up to 19.2 Kbps, quicker call set up, and better error correction than using modems on an analog cellular channel. Wireless modem: A modem that accesses a private wireless data network or a wireless telephone system, such as the CDPD system.
Chapter 5 - Communication Links
Using a COM Converter with a Modem
System Design Handbook
Choosing a Modem
To streamline modem configuration efforts, we recommend that you use modems supported by Power Measurement. These modems are listed at www.pwrm.com. If you intend to use a modem that is not supported, you can use the Modem Configuration Utility to add your modem to the database, and configure it using the information provided in the modem’s user manual.
Using a COM Converter with a Modem
The COM128 is the recommended interface between a modem and an ION meter. A telephone or radio modem typically acts as an RS-232 DCE device. The COM128’s DTE port can be connected directly to the modem’s DCE port with a regular RS-232 cable.
To configure the COM128, you must decide how it will provide timing control (flow control) signals to the RS-485 ports: an internally fixed baud rate, automatic detection of the modem’s baud rate, automatic baud detection with carrier detect (CD) for data flowing back to the modem, or an RTS signal from the modem. Handshaking Considerations One other main consideration for the COM128 is whether the modem requires RTS/CTS handshaking. If it does, the RTS/CTS flow control function on the COM128 should be enabled. This forces the COM128 to buffer all RS-485 data received until the CTS line indicates that the modem is ready to receive the data. Most radio modems require this mode, as do some telephone modems. Refer to your modem’s operation manual to see if your modem provides or requires this handshaking. Power Supply Considerations The COM128 is configured for use with devices that supply their own power. Some RS-232 devices, such as short-haul modems and line drivers, receive power from the DTR pin of the RS-232 line. The COM128 can be configured to support these devices, supplying 5 VDC @ 10 mA to the DTR pin of its DTE or DCE port. ION Software and Modems ION software can dial out through modems to remote sites in a variety of ways. You can set up one-time dial-outs to execute with a click of the mouse, or you can create scheduled dial-outs that occur automatically. The ION software Remote Modem Setup utility lets you configure your modems and your computer’s serial port. You can choose from a set of recommended modems, add new modems, or create your own custom modem setup. You can also edit your modem’s internal configuration strings, command strings, and messages.
Chapter 5 - Communication Links
System Design Handbook
Modem Gateway Communications
Modem Gateway Communications
Every ION meter except the ION 7300 and ION 6200 meters offers an internal modem option. The internal modem can be shared by 31 other devices on an RS485 chain. This unique “ModemGate” capability reduces costs, simplifies wiring, and improves reliability because you don’t have to purchase additional external modems or power supplies. If you have multiple meters linked on an RS-485 loop, only the first meter requires the internal modem.
The internal modem supports all standard modem protocols at transmission rates from 300 bps to 33600 bps. Data received by the modem is transferred to one of the meter’s RS-485 ports. The meter comes with an FCC-compliant telephone cord so that you can connect the internal modem to the telephone network. After installing the meter’s power supply, communications, and voltage/current connections, you plug one end of the telephone cord into the meter’s RJ-11 socket and the other end to a wall jack. If you decide to use a different cable than the one supplied, ensure that it is FCC Part 68 compliant. When ION software dials up the modem site, it sends an initialization string to the modem. You can define the modem’s initialization string using Designer or ION Setup software, but you shouldn’t change the default setting unless you are familiar with AT commands.
Dialing Out to Remote Sites
You can schedule specific times and days when a server connects to a modem site. This is done using Connection Schedules button in the Management Console. You can also perform a one-time dial-out by right-clicking on a modem site or device in the Management Console and selecting Connect. Once you are done, right-click on the site or device to disconnect.
Chapter 5 - Communication Links
The Alarm Server dedicated modem is contacted and the alert is passed to the Alarm Server. In such a scenario. only one meter contains an active Alert module. Following is a sequence of steps that outlines the process: 1. The other meters. and initiates an alert using a remote-site modem (an internal modem within an ION meter or an external modem) programmed to dial the Alarm Server’s dedicated modem phone number.Immediate Notification from Meters System Design Handbook Immediate Notification from Meters The ION Alert module is available on the ION 7350. ION 8400 and ION 8500 meters. paging services) in response to any condition you specify. 2. A meter at a remote site records a power system priority event. although you can arrange to have it contact other parties like paging services. a dedicated phone line. ION 7550. It requires a dedicated modem. equipped with setpoints and digital outputs. typically launches the ION Enterprise Connection Manager to establish communications with the remote meter and upload its data. ION 7650. You can configure the module to immediately dial ION software or other parties (e. and a dedicated COM port on the ION Enterprise server computer to avoid conflicts with other ION software components. pass event information to the meter that contains the active Alert module. ION 7700. The ION Alert module can report high priority events from more than one meter on an RS-485 chain. Usually you configure the Alert module to contact ION software when a high priority event occurs. Alarm Server Data Retrieval from Remote Sites The Alarm Server is commonly used to receive alarms from a remote meter that is not continuously or permanently connected to the ION Enterprise network.Communication Links . Page 82 Chapter 5 . and when it detects that a priority event has occurred. ION 8300. The Alarm Server monitors a remote site for a priority event.g. A control wire must run between the digital output of the monitoring device and the status input of the meter with the Alert module.
and 10Base-FL standards that cover various topologies and cabling segment lengths. The Outage Dialback alert card uses a modem that is powered independently from the rest of the meter when a power outage occurs. These commands must be entered on the ION Enterprise primary or secondary server computer that is running the Alarm Server utility. You can bring Ethernet directly to your ION meters and workstations. Although the Alarm Server is typically configured to launch the Connection Manager which dials up the remote site and retrieves the logs from the devices.System Design Handbook Ethernet Communications 3. cost. 10Base-FB. Ethernet Communications The Ethernet links in an ION software network can be 10Base-T cables or 10BaseFL fiber optic lines. Physical variations of Ethernet include: 10Base-F: A 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses fibre optic cabling. and Digital Equipment Corporation. It’s also able to support virtually all popular network protocols. or employ serial-to-Ethernet converters. Chapter 5 . An extension to Ethernet is Fast Ethernet operating at 100 Mbps. A short ASCII-based message can be sent as an alert to ION software. Outage Dialback Alerts The Outage Dialback alert card lets ION 8000 series meters alert an operator during a power outage. The Outage Dialback card must be ordered with the meter internal modem option. The Alarm Server (which has been monitoring the phone line waiting for a remote meter to annunciate a priority event) receives the alert. This allows enough time for the modem to dial-out an alert. General Ethernet Capabilities and Network Topologies Ethernet is a 10 Mbps LAN (Local Area Network) specification invented by Xerox and developed jointly by Xerox. or via a pager. The Ethernet specification describes the implementation of the physical and data link layers of the OSI Reference Model (see below). and immediately requests that the ION Enterprise Connection Manager establish communication with the remote meter to upload its records. and ease of installation. The Alarm Server uses a series of command line arguments to specify the actions it takes when a priority event is reported. Many of the terms in this chapter are defined in the Glossary. A series of parameter switches are added to the command line to pass information about the event to the application that is launched. Intel. MV-90. 10BaseF includes the 10Base-10FP. the Alarm Server can also be configured to launch other applications. informing the operator that the meter is shutting down. Ethernet is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards because it offers a good balance of speed. A pager alert message can be directed automatically to an email address and/or a voice line with a third-party system provided as a service by a paging company or other software.Communication Links Page 83 .
presentation. A network workstation can execute its own programs. LANs and WANs A LAN (Local Area Network) is a computer network that covers a relatively small geographic area. 100BaseT: A 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet specification that uses unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring. LANs transmit data at much faster rates than telephone lines. star. Like the 10Base-T technology. although two or three OSI layers may be incorporated into one. forming a Wide Area Network (WAN). LANs can link as few as three workstations. The lower two layers are implemented in hardware and software. and physical media. interfaces to other applications. to another device. or ring). flow control. WANs can be global in scope. through the channel. error control. and the upper five are implemented only in software. but often link hundreds.Communication Links . Gigabit Ethernet is a future technology that promises a migration path beyond Fast Ethernet. The layers are named as follows: physical.Ethernet Communications System Design Handbook 10Base-T: A 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses two pairs of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling: one pair for transmitting data and the other for receiving data. Page 84 Chapter 5 . One LAN can connect to other LANs over greater distances via telephone lines and wireless channels. moving down to physical layer. Most of the functionality in the OSI model exists in all communications systems. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface). and reliable message transfer. and application. OSI serves as a teaching model rather than a standard to which vendors must precisely comply. The layers specify network functions such as physical links. starting at one device with the application layer. Control passes from one layer to the next. 10Base-T has a distance limit of approximately 100 meters per segment. Ethernet. and back up to the top layer. but these pulses contain more data than those in 10Base-T. connecting hundreds of branch offices and thousands of users. session. addressing. LANs differ from one another in terms of topologies (bus. as well as access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. such as laser printers. and Token Ring are different LAN specifications. network. The lowest layer (the physical layer) is closest to the wiring and the highest layer (application layer) is closest to the user. 100Base-T sends link pulses over a network segment. This means that many users can share expensive devices. Fast Ethernet raises Ethernet transfer rates with only minimal changes to the existing cable structure. most LANs are contained within a building or group of buildings. data link. data transmission protocols. but distances are limited. Ethernet Terminology OSI Reference Model The OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model is an ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union — Telecommunication Standardization Sector) standard that defines a network architecture for implementing protocols in seven layers. transport. with Ethernet being the most common for PCs. and communicate with each other.
System Design Handbook
Ethernet Topologies A network topology is the arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN. The three main topologies are star, bus, and ring. These topologies can be mixed; for example, a bus can connect a number of star segments. In a star topology, all devices are connected to a central hub that controls access. 10Base-T Ethernet and Fast Ethernet use a star topology. The primary advantage of this type of network is reliability, because if one of the “point-to-point” segments has a break, other segments continue to operate. Star networks are also relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks may occur because all data must pass through a hub. In a bus topology, all devices are linked together in series with each device connected to a long cable or bus. Any device can communicate with all other devices on the bus. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install, but a break anywhere in the cable causes the entire segment to be inoperable until the break is repaired. In a ring topology, all devices are connected to one another in a closed loop. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.
Ethernet Media An important part of designing an Ethernet network is selecting the appropriate medium. You have the choice of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) for 10Base-T and fiber optic cable for 10Base-FL. UTP is similar to telephone cable and comes in a variety of grades, with each higher grade offering better performance. Level 5 cable is the most expensive grade with the highest transmission rate, up to 100 Mbps. Level 4 and level 3 are less expensive, but cannot support the same data throughput. Level 4 can support speeds of up to 20 Mbps and level 3 up to 16 Mbps. Level 2 and level 1 cables are not used in the design of 10Base-T networks. Fiber optic cable is more expensive, but is necessary in situations where electronic emissions and environmental hazards are a concern. Because it does not conduct electricity, fiber optic cable is useful in areas where considerable electromagnetic interference (EMI) is present, such as on a factory floor. Fiber optic cable is also used in inter-building applications to insulate network equipment from electrical damage caused by power disturbances. The Ethernet standard allows for fiber optic cable segments up to 2 kilometers long, connecting nodes that aren’t reachable through copper media.
Chapter 5 - Communication Links
Ethernet Gateway Communications
System Design Handbook
Connecting Workstations to the LAN Network interface cards provide a physical connection between a workstation’s internal data bus and the Ethernet cable. You can plug the interface card into one of the computer’s expansion slots. Alternatively, your computer may connect directly to the Ethernet through an internal 10Base-T transceiver.
Choosing a New or Existing Ethernet Network
You should consider the pros and cons of connecting directly to an existing Ethernet network. With an existing network, the main advantage is that the entire infrastructure is already designed and maintained by your Information Systems (IS) department. You don’t have to spend any time or money selecting, purchasing, and installing the equipment. You don’t have to become familiar with Ethernet hubs, switches, routers, or other network components. The primary disadvantage of an existing network is that you aren’t in control of its operation. You may not be able to arrange for the network to be installed, maintained, and backed up as required for your particular application. You may not be able to put UPSs (uninterruptible power supplies) on hubs or other critical components. If the network goes down, IS has to fix problems according to general company priorities. You may not be able to conduct performance tests, or establish the type of security you want to prevent unauthorized users from changing meter configurations. You also have to share bandwidth with other users across your organization.
Ethernet Gateway Communications
An Ethernet Gateway site is an RS-485 chain of devices that communicates with an Ethernet network. Data is passed between the RS-485 and Ethernet networks through a gateway device such as the ION 7550 meter. Some ION meters support direct data transfer between their Ethernet and RS-485 ports, however, the ION 7700 meter must have an Xpress Card installed to support these features. You can also communicate through the Ethernet-linked meter directly to the RS-485 chain of devices. To do this, use the Management Console to create an Ethernet Gateway site. Then add each of the devices on the RS-485 chain to the site. Each RS-485 port that functions as an Ethernet gateway must be configured to use the EtherGate protocol. You can edit the Protocol setup register on the meter to select ETHERGATE from the list. Some ION meters let you direct the flow of data in a variety of ways. Ethernet data can be transferred to both RS-485 ports, or to just one of the RS-485 ports. If you use EtherGate on both RS-485 ports, the ID values assigned to the RS-485 meters must be unique across both networks.
Meters equipped with Ethernet offer MeterM@il messaging, and onboard web servers supporting HTML and XML industry standard formats.
Chapter 5 - Communication Links
System Design Handbook
With MeterM@il, ION meters can automatically email high-priority alarm messages, system status updates or data logs to anyone within the facility or around the world. MeterM@il messages are received like any other email: at a workstation, cell phone, pager, or PDA. Alarm emails can be sent to key facility personnel for timely notification of critical power conditions. Data logs can be emailed on an event-driven, scheduled or manual basis, conveniently working within firewall restrictions. Email is an expedient and cost-effective way to transmit power information over a corporate Intranet or the Internet. Sending Alarms via Email High priority events may occur at remote sites while ION software is not connected. You can configure a meter’s ION Alert module to immediately send an email in response to any condition you specify. The message includes a description of the event, the date and time it occurred, its priority, and information about the meter. Sending Data Logs via Email An ION meter can email data logs every hour, every day, or at any other interval. You can configure the meter’s ION modules to send emails containing any data you specify, such as fault analysis, historical trending, or coincidental min./max. information. A data log email includes the names and numeric values of the data, the time they were recorded, and information about the meter such as the type, owner, and serial number. To set up MeterM@il, you need: An SMTP mail server. You need to know the IP address of the SMTP mail server so that the meter can be configured to send email to it. The SMTP mail server can reside on the same local network as the meter or can be accessed via a dial-up connection. The following components are optional: A BootP server. This automatically configures an ION meter’s network settings via the Bootstrap Protocol. It saves you from having to configure all the settings through the meter’s front panel. Any ION meter with WebMeter support has the BootP server enabled by default. A network administrator should manage the BootP server, and assign an IP address and other settings to the server. When the ION meter is booted up, BootP automatically transfers the IP address and network settings to the ION meter. The meter then polls the BootP server every six hours for an IP address in case it changes. A firewall is a security scheme that prevents unauthorized users from gaining access to a computer network, or that monitors transfer of information to and from a network. If you need to access the meter from beyond the corporate network, then a firewall is highly recommended. To email data logs, use Designer software to set up your own combination of Data Recorder, Log Mail, and Periodic Timer modules. The Data Recorder module stores measurements, then the Log Mail module retrieves these measurements and sends out emails when triggered by the Periodic Timer module.
Chapter 5 - Communication Links
Managing Network Traffic
System Design Handbook
Meters with onboard web servers let you view real-time data and perform basic meter configuration using any standard web browser, keeping deployment costs low. Built-in web pages display a range of energy and power quality information and meter configuration tools. To set up WebMeter capability, you need: An Ethernet network An ION meter with an Ethernet port and WebMeter support. Power information and basic meter configuration via the onboard web browser is enabled by default. You can disable basic meter configuration with Designer software. The ION meter can be connected to your corporate LAN Ethernet network like any other network device. Accessing the Meter via a Web Browser To view real-time information at your desktop, start up your web browser and type the meter’s IP address into the address field. Then select one of the viewing tabs entitled Real-Time Data, Revenue Measurements, or Power Quality. You have access to real-time measurements such as: Per-phase, average, and line-to-line voltages and currents Total and per-phase power (kW, kVAR, kVA), power factor, and frequency Accumulated energy, and peak demand Voltage disturbances, voltage/current harmonics, THD, crest factor, and K factor Typically, you do not have to change the basic parameters after your ION meter is put into service. But if you need to change a measurement for your specific application, then you can do this using a web browser.
ION meters can also exchange information using industry-standard XML format. This simple machine-readable format supports easy integration with other reporting, spreadsheet, and database applications.
Managing Network Traffic
Performance is important when you’re building a network of software components and hardware devices. You want to ensure that data throughput remains high for your power monitoring application and for the rest of your company’s information systems. The first step is to review network load benchmarks and understand the effects of various system configurations. Then you can determine the best way to optimize performance. You may decide to isolate network-intense communications segments with hubs or switches. Other options include increasing meter transmit delays, controlling the number of direct meter-to-Ethernet links, and adjusting how Vista displays real-time readings.
Chapter 5 - Communication Links
A 10 Mbps Ethernet network with over 30 users might have a throughput of only 3 Mbps because of packet overhead and collisions.System Design Handbook Managing Network Traffic Factors that affect network loads are: distribution of ION software components. In general. One way to solve this problem is to divide the network into segments. etc. Hubs Hubs (or repeaters) connect multiple Ethernet segments. Dividing Your Network into Segments As more users or applications are added to a shared network. intensity of data logging. and databases.Communication Links Page 89 . Chapter 5 . Bad or misaligned packets are removed to prevent errors from propagating through the network. frequency of client requests. A multi-port twisted pair hub allows several point-to-point segments to be joined into one network. This means that all segments are contending for data transmission and only get a portion of the total network bandwidth. Bridges also filter network traffic to only those packets needed on each segment. but all ports on a hub have to share a single 10 Mbps network and collision domain. switch. linking four or more full Ethernet networks. Network speed decreases with this type of processing. each running at 10 Mbps. but overall efficiency improves in more complex networks. allowing a LAN to grow significantly larger. or router. with each Ethernet segment having 10 Mbps of bandwidth shared by fewer users. Routers Routers filter out network traffic by protocol rather than packet address. A packet is examined for its destination address and then forwarded to only those ports to where it needs to go. Hubs allow LANs to extend beyond normal distance limitations. A cutthrough switch only examines the packet destination address before forwarding it to its destination segment. resulting in higher performance. Vista can query the database and transmit information one screen at a time. separating the network into separate collision domains and increasing data throughput. the greatest intensity of information flow is between the Log Inserter and Query Server services. Switches Switches are extensions of bridges. frequency of alarm conditions. and are required in star topologies such as 10Base-T. Bridges Bridges support a full Ethernet segment for each port. Collision rates increase as more nodes are added to the shared “collision domain” of a single Ethernet network. an eight-port switch can support eight Ethernet connections. To reduce network traffic. A store-and-forward switch examines the entire packet to catch packet errors. There are two types of switches: cut-through and store-and-forward. Both types of switches separate a network into collision domains. For example. A hub takes an incoming data packet and copies it to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see the packets. which occur when multiple nodes attempt to send data at the same time. a growing number of processes compete for the transmission of data packets. so each port gets 10 Mbps of bandwidth. with all segments joined by a bridge. Routers can also divide a network into subnets so that only traffic destined for particular IP addresses can pass between segments. This increases the frequency of data collisions.
you should consider the following factors for every workstation: Resources: Workstation performance is directly influenced by the speed of the processor. In the extreme case. such as modems. To synchronize clocks. If multiple methods are used. the meter should filter out unnecessary data and transmit only the relevant parameters. and fiber optic cables. not all data at once. One disadvantage is that the risk of error increases with greater data compression. all data logs have timestamps that are relative to a uniform time base. this can result in missing or duplicated logs. and the number of tasks performed.Time Synchronization System Design Handbook Workstation Resources and Data Links To maintain an acceptable level of performance across your network. Once synchronized. Other network links. For example. You have a choice of continuous (Ethernet) or noncontinuous (modem) channels. Page 90 Chapter 5 . Over a brief period. Time synchronization signals are broadcast periodically over the network. The longer the duration between connections. or arrange for a direct ION software connection. and 10 Mbps for Ethernet. Speed of connection: A high-speed Ethernet backbone ensures fast data transfer between workstations. Speeds range from 9. each meter learns how its internal timing differs from that of the broadcast source and adjusts its timekeeping to compensate. This allows you to achieve precise sequence-ofevents and power quality analyses. Very accurate time synchronization is achieved with this method. the timestamps will differ for the sites and devices using separate time synchronizing methods. if the workstation needs power quality information. Amount of information transferred: For maximum throughput along noncontinuous channels like modems. It is important that only one method of time synchronization be used on each network. use ION software. twisted wire pair. which impact how quickly you can retrieve event and logged data. up to 115 kbps for serial communications. an NTP server or a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to broadcast time signals across the network. you can increase the frequency of connections: install GPS receivers at the remote sites. infrared.Communication Links . coaxial cable. Data compression: To get around any speed restrictions. the larger the error in time synchronization. If this occurs. each meter continually assesses its ability to remain synchronized with the incoming broadcasts.6 kbps for modems.6 kbps or 33. the amount of RAM. the workstation should retrieve only useful data. you may want to compress the data so that fewer bits are transmitted but the information is still intact. can cause bottlenecks. Continuous or non-continuous connections: Workstations can be connected to metering sites through telephone lines. Meters at modem sites are synchronized each time they are connected. Time Synchronization Time synchronization lets you synchronize the internal clocks of all networked meters and devices.
or within ± 2 ms (typical) of other meters in the network. ION Setup can be used for manual “one-time” timesyncs to an individual meter. Once you have done this. Use an NTP server for systems where time synchronization is not critical. or NTP Use ION software for systems where time synchronization is not critical: ION Enterprise can synchronize a meter’s clock to within ± 16 ms (typical) of other meters in a serial network. you should familiarize yourself with the Clock module settings. you need to be familiar with certain features of the Clock module. and the ION 7700 and ION 7300 series only have the INTERNAL setting. It uses your computer’s clock. If you install a GPS receiver. Once the power is restored. Time Synchronization Method: ION Software. set the Clock Source setup register to INTERNAL. Chapter 5 . each meter auto-corrects the internal clock based on the measured line frequency.1 sec (worst case) of other meters in an Ethernet network.System Design Handbook Clock Module Settings Before you configure time synchronization on your network. You can use Designer software or the front panel’s Setup menu to configure the Clock module. you can decide which synchronization method you want to use. In order to correctly set up time synchronization with your single meter or network.Communication Links Page 91 . the clock once again synchronizes with the line frequency. COMM: Use this for the Clock Source if you set the Sync Source setup register (see below) to a COM port to receive GPS time synchronization signals. depending on the method of time synchronization. the ION 7550 / ION 7650 meters have two. If a power outage occurs. the clock automatically synchronizes with the meter’s internal crystal until power is restored. GPS. Over a long period of time. NTP can synchronize a meter's clock to within +/. INTERNAL: If you prefer having the meter itself provide timekeeping. Use a GPS receiver if you require time synchronization to within ± 1ms of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). you’ll need an additional serial network. Clock Module Settings The Clock module controls an ION meter’s internal clock. You need to configure the Clock module’s Setup registers to correspond to the type of time synchronization you desire. this form of time keeping is highly accurate. The clock then synchronizes to the meter’s internal crystal. Clock Source used for Synchronization The Clock Source setup register has three settings from which to choose. LINE FREQUENCY: When the Clock Source is set to monitor the ISO Grid Operation line frequency. Meters synchronize with the line frequency by default. The ION 8000 series of meters have all three settings available as options.
Note that ION Setup will not timesync automatically — you must perform the following instructions every time you wish to synchronize this meter.Communication Links .Time Synchronization Method: ION Software. though RS-485 is recommended if more than two meters are being synchronized. If you are already using a serial link for communications with ION Enterprise. (It is disabled by default. ION Setup uses the computer’s time. Page 92 Chapter 5 . GPS. you need a dedicated serial network. Time synchronization values are set when sites or Ethernet devices are defined in an ION Enterprise network. or NTP System Design Handbook ION Software Time Synchronization ION Enterprise provides time synchronization by default. You enable time synchronization or set custom intervals for any device in any site through the Management Console. Either RS-232 or RS-485 networks can be used for GPS time synchronization. The COM128 is not recommended if used in Repeater Mode. Use ION Setup for initial time synchronization (when putting the meter into service) or when manual time syncs are required. GPS Receiver RS-232 / RS-485 Converter ION Network GPS Serial Network ION Devices Supported GPS Receivers GPS Receiver True Time XL-DC series Datum ExacTime Series Arbiter 1092 Clark and Associates GPS-200-ASCII 1 Comm Module Protocol Register Setting GPS:TRUETIME/DATUM GPS:TRUETIME/DATUM GPS:ARBITER GPS:ARBITER-VORNE1 GPS:TRUETIME/DATUM GPS:ARBITER-VORNE is only supported in the ION 8000 series and ION 7550 / ION 7650 meters. GPS Time Synchronization To implement a GPS scheme. you need a second serial network to transport GPS signals.) The communications port and protocol used for communications between ION Enterprise and the networked devices is automatically used to send time synchronization signals to all connected ION devices. If your GPS receiver output is RS-232 use the COM32 or equivalent RS-232/RS-485 converter that does not buffer communications. ION Enterprise sends out a time sync packet and the time is set once the packet is received.
15.System Design Handbook Time-Synchronization Blackout IRIG-B GPS Time Synchronization The IRIG-B option is available on all ION 8000 series meters. the utility may schedule a recording every five minutes during an hour period (i. compatible with the IRIG-B00x format. 45. 50. NTP Time Synchronization (ION 7550 and ION 7650) To implement NTP time synchronization. predetermined intervals. ION Enterprise has time-synchronization blackouts enabled automatically. 55.. the meter may miss one of the recording intervals. If a time synch moves the meter clock forward. If a regularly scheduled time synch is not sent due to a blackout interval. the meter may get two records with the same timestamp. Telecommunications and Timing Group. If a time synch moves the meter clock backwards. Time-Synchronization Blackout Time-synchronization blackout is defined as a duration when time synchronization cannot occur.. 10. See the TCP/IP Network Connectivity technical note and the Clock module description in the ION Reference for more information on configuring NTP time synchronization with ION meters. 35. your meter must be connected to an Ethernet network with access to an NTP server. the software continues trying to send the time synchronization signal every 15 seconds until the blackout period expires and the time synch is sent.Communication Links Page 93 . The standard is outlined in the IRIG-STANDARD 200-98 “IRIG Serial Time Code Formats” prepared by the Timing Committee. Chapter 5 . These meters accept unmodulated IRIG-B time code via twisted pair. 5. 10. See the Time Synchronization and Timekeeping technical note for more information on Time-synchronization blackout. 30.e.. 15. Range Commanders Council. 25.. 60). This duration is distributed evenly before and after the interval. Power Industryspecific IRIG-B applications include: power quality monitoring and sequence of events recording highly accurate time stamping for revenue billing (1ms) system stability monitoring NOTE This option requires a receiver capable of unmodulated IRIG-B time code output (not included). The blackout intervals are every five minutes as follows: 0. 55. Utilities often record power usage at regular. 20. Each blackout is 2 minutes and 30 seconds in duration. IRIG-B is the industry standard for GPS time synchronization. For example. 40. 20. The time synchronization blackout feature seeks to protect the time before and after these recording intervals by not sending out any time synch signals at those times. 5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Modbus Master Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The meters can interface directly to PLCs. . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Using Telnet and Hyperterminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . relays. 107 Analog Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ION meters and software provide third-party system interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cost analyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . water. . . . . . and billing calculations. . . . . .6 ION and Third Party Systems To unify your diverse operations and automate facility-wide analyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 ION Logging and Data Sharing . . . . . . . . . in addition to gas. ION Enterprise operations software can communicate with other devices and software applications to perform demand management. RTUs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 ION Software Database Tools . . . and compressed air monitoring devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Modbus Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Page 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment . distributed control. . . . . . . 109 External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Modbus Slave Configuration . . . 102 MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol . . . . . . . . 100 PROFIBUS-DP Protocol . . 98 DNP 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and switches. . . In This Chapter Protocol Interfaces to Other Systems and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Digital Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . .
and TIM-ION (for MV-90). RTU mode has greater character density and higher throughput. Defining Data Characteristics with ION Software Modules Every ION meter has a set of software modules that control its communication ports. Modbus is a master/slave protocol where the master initiates transactions and the slave responds with the requested data or action. control. Unlike traditional Modbus transactions. or include PLCs. Inside the ION software modules’ setup registers.0. control. and enable/reset functions to implement. Refer to the ION Reference or each meter’s User Guide for details on how to configure ION modules using ION Setup or Designer software. transmits binary characters. which is supported on ION meters. and accounting functions. disturbance analysis. DNP 3. RTUs. load forecasting.ION and Third Party Systems . you can specify the characteristics of incoming or outgoing data: protocols to use. switching. In ASCII mode. PROFIBUS-DP. power system parameters to communicate. and billing systems. multi-drop system that supports up to 247 slave devices. Page 96 Chapter 6 . ION devices can easily integrate with your existing energy management. Combine them with other devices to perform monitoring. Interface ION devices to your Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). each byte contains two ASCII characters. Distribution Monitoring Systems (DMS) and Energy Management Systems (EMS). Port Serial Ethernet Modem Infrared Corresponding ION Software Module Communications Ethernet Communications Infrared Communications Modbus Protocol Modbus RTU and Modbus/TCP protocols were developed by Modicon Corporation. RTU mode. Modbus/TCP was designed to communicate Modbus messages in a peer-to-peer TCP/IP networking environment. data acquisition. A Modbus network is a single-master. and transducers in a ION software network.Protocol Interfaces to Other Systems and Devices System Design Handbook Protocol Interfaces to Other Systems and Devices ION meters and software communicate through industry standard protocols: Modbus. the TCP/IP protocol stack requires a “connection-oriented” approach where individual transactions can be opened and closed without any specific action by the client or server. Modbus devices can be set up to use one of two transmission modes: RTU or ASCII.
for write requests. For ION 7300 and ION 8000 series meters. detect undesirable conditions and respond with a corrective action or an alarm. any Modbus slave device. modem and infrared ports of an ION meter. Ethernet. In that role. It can import and export data over the local Modbus network. The write capability lets masters send control or reset commands directly to slave devices. Data can be served up to the outside world through the meter’s front panel display or any of its communication ports. the master uses Modbus/TCP protocol and the meter responds without any special setup. For more details on using Modbus and ION meters. First. refer to the following references available from www. For read requests. they can write data to and read data from. If there are no inputs connected to the Modbus Slave module. access to events and waveform logs must be communicated through the ION protocol.ION and Third Party Systems Page 97 . Chapter 6 . The ION Virtual Processor Modbus slave modules also have this write capability. A Modbus master can read and write to any ION meter that is slave on a Modbus network. a master can now write data to the Modbus Slave module input registers. and controller for a network of Modbus-enabled devices. Modbus master extends the “reach” of an ION meter by enabling it to act as a local data concentrator. choose the hardware port(s) through which you want to transmit data in Modbus format. The Modbus master gets the data from the inputs of the Modbus Slave modules when it reads these registers. For an Ethernet port. These hardware ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software.com: Online ION Reference ION and Modbus Technology technical note Common Modbus Registers document Modbus Slave Configuration Both ION meters and the Virtual Processor can be configured as slaves on a Modbus network. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the corresponding ION software module.pwrm. ION meters that support Modbus Slave modules allow a portion of the fixed Modbus map (address range from 40001 to 41800) to connect to any ION module output. The Virtual Processor and some ION meters can act as Modbus masters. the slave sends data back to the master. as well as the ION 7300 and ION 8000 series meters support access to data logs via Modbus. processor. the slave receives data and writes it to the appropriate register. The ION Meter as a Slave Device You can use Modbus format for real-time data communications on the serial.System Design Handbook Modbus Slave Configuration The Virtual Processor and ION meters can make real-time data available to Modbus masters using the Modbus protocol. The ION 6200 meter.
The information required to write to ION registers through Modbus is available in the Common Modbus Registers document. Use Designer to configure the corresponding ION modules known as Modbus slaves. The Virtual Processor as a Slave The Virtual Processor can act as a Modbus slave by accessing a Modbus network through the serial ports on your workstation. A Modbus slave module’s setup registers specify the Modbus format. as well as change setup register values to configure the meter’s operation. Modbus Master Configuration There are three ways to bring Modbus data into an ION Enterprise energy management system: ION Enterprise as a Modbus master (using the Modbus Device Importer) ION meter as a Modbus master ION Virtual Processor as a Modbus master Page 98 Chapter 6 .” The Modbus Slave modules convert an ION meter’s data into Modbus format for Modbus master devices. Sending or Writing Data to an ION Meter A Modbus master device can send data to an ION meter. choose the hardware port through which you want to transmit data in Modbus format. scaling. If these settings don’t suit your needs. and reset metering functions. Each Modbus slave module outputs a number of power system parameters. First. Refer to the ION Reference for a description of the Modbus Slave module. you can modify the setup registers or re-link modules to other power system data. You can easily change these parameters if you want to communicate different data.Modbus Master Configuration System Design Handbook The module can then receive data from another set of ION software modules known as “Modbus slaves. and base address settings. Before configuring modules you must prepare the network using the Virtual Processor Setup software utility. You can use this data to enable. Note that the Modbus register remains the same if you specify a different parameter. This hardware port is controlled by ION modules that exist for the Virtual Processor. disable. NOTE Your Modbus slave port must be separate from the ports that connect to ION meters or that function as Modbus masters.ION and Third Party Systems . Modbus Slave Modules on ION Meters Modbus Slave modules are pre-configured to communicate common power system parameters in a specified format.
RTUs. energy. The Virtual Processor as a Master The Virtual Processor can act as a Modbus master. scaling capability. demand. and status parameters from a network of ION 6200 meters and third-party Modbus slave devices such as PLCs. The Modbus Device Importer allows you to create a Modbus map for your Modbus slave device. and function codes. The ION Meter as a Master Device An ION meter acting as a Modbus master accesses the Modbus network through a serial port. so you can quickly access readings from you desktop. The Modbus Import module allows you to read data from a Modbus slave. current. Within an ION meter the Modbus Import and Export modules are used to perform Modbus master functions. choose the hardware port(s) through which you want to transmit data in Modbus format. Chapter 6 . a new “Device Type” is created that can be accessed in the Management Console for communications configuration. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the corresponding ION Modbus software modules used for mastering functions. Once the map is imported into the Network Configuration database. In addition. Use the Virtual Processor Setup utility and Designer software to configure the Modbus Import and Modbus Export modules. The slave can be an ION meter or a third-party device.ION and Third Party Systems Page 99 . These modules allow configuration of data types. accessing the Modbus network through either the serial port or Ethernet port. you can associate a Vista diagram with the Modbus slave device. This hardware port is controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software. For example.) In the Management Console. (This “Device Type” can be used for any Modbus slave devices requiring the same Modbus map. you can configure communications for the Modbus slave device the same as any ION device – the Modbus slave device has the same “look and feel” as an ION device. THD. an ION 7550 meter acting as a Modbus master can collect voltage. and I/O devices. power factor. First.System Design Handbook Modbus Master Configuration The Modbus Device Importer ION Enterprise operations software can be set up as a Modbus master using the Modbus Device Importer. a user-friendly interface. The Modbus Export module allows you to write data to a Modbus device for controlling devices such as remote relays. These ION modules determine Modbus master functions. NOTE The Modbus master port must be separate from the port that connects to ION meters. and import it into the Network Configuration database where all meter and device information is stored.
multiple masters. For more details on using DNP and ION meters.0 and ION Technology technical note Port Configuration You can use the DNP 3.pwrm.DNP 3. RTUs. choose the hardware port(s) through which you want to transmit data in DNP 3. These hardware ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software.0 objects or vice-versa.0 Protocol System Design Handbook DNP 3.0. the protocol makes unsolicited responses. By including the source and destination address of each message. DNP 3.” The DNP Slave Import. Any device can transmit a request or response at any time. These modules receive data from another set of ION software modules known as “DNP slaves. It consists of four layers that adhere to the Enhanced Performance Architecture standard defined by the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission).0 (Distributed Network Protocol Version 3.0 format. too. DNP 3. (Data logs and waveform logs must be communicated through the ION protocol.ION and Third Party Systems .com: ION Reference DNP and ION Technology technical note DNP Device Profile document for your meter Multiport DNP 3. Set the protocol in any of these modules to DNP 3.0 is required to interpret the settings in the DNP Slave Options and DNP Slave Export modules.0 Protocol DNP 3. Page 100 Chapter 6 . refer to the following references available from www. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the corresponding ION Communications modules. modem. and general peer-topeer operations easier. Export.0) is a peer-to-peer protocol that was designed to achieve inter-operability among substation computers.0 is managed by the DNP User’s Group whose members represent utilities and equipment vendors.0 can be transmitted by a range of media such as RS-485 and packet radio.) DNP master devices can also activate the meter’s outputs for control actions.0 protocol for real-time data communications on serial. Some meters support DNP over Ethernet. An in-depth understanding of DNP 3. First. and other devices. ION meters can make real-time data available to a DNP network. Consult the references listed above for more detail. and infrared ports. and Options modules convert an ION meter’s data into DNP 3.
The Scaling register determines whether or not the meter’s measurements are scaled for output to a DNP master. DNP Slave Options Module The DNP Slave Options modules provide per-session settings that affect all DNP Slave Export and DNP Slave Import modules associated with that session.ION and Third Party Systems Page 101 . An event object is generated when a static object exceeds a deadband threshold. A static object is a real-time value of a data point. The DNP Slave Import module also allows the meter to react to control commands from a DNP master. This ensures that the DNP master receives valid data even if. and event objects associated with that DNP point. Chapter 6 . for example. event. If these settings don’t suit your needs. Each subsequent value. Don’t make any changes to the setup registers in the DNP Options module unless you understand the effects that the changes will cause. for example. and frozen event. or frozen objects. event. and its related DNP point. is addressable by the appropriate offset from that BasePoint. you can modify the setup registers or re-link the modules to other power system data. IONZero and IONFull specify the range of source values while DNPZero and DNPFull specify the range of output values. or Analog Input data into DNP static. Data can be imported into an ION meter from a DNP control relay or analog output device. frozen static. DNP Slave Export Module The DNP Slave Export module supports four categories of DNP data objects: static. Binary Counter. The DNP Slave Export module converts an ION meter’s Binary Input. Or.System Design Handbook DNP 3.0 Protocol DNP Slave Module Settings The DNP Slave modules are pre-configured to communicate numeric or Boolean values in a specific format. A frozen static object or frozen event object represents the value of the static or event object at the moment when a DNP master issues a “freeze” command. phase A voltage. the source values are 32-bit and the master can only handle 16-bit. The DNP Slave Import module takes a DNP Analog Output or Binary Output object and converts it into an ION numeric or Boolean value. frozen. The DNP master can then read the static. you can add additional DNP Slave Export modules and link the desired ION parameters to them. The BasePoint register maps the first value in a DNP Slave Export module into a DNP point number.
The file is also available on the website at http://www. IonZero and IonFull specify the lower and upper limits of ION values while the ProfiZero and ProfiFull specify the minimum and maximum PROFIBUS values. PROFIBUS Slave Export Module Settings PROFIBUS Slave Export modules format ION data into PROFIBUS-DP response packets and make them available to PROFIBUS master devices. PROFIBUS-DP is the most popular version.ION and Third Party Systems . Port Configuration You can use the PROFIBUS-DP protocol for real-time data communications on the Profibus ION 7300 ports. Four scaling registers determine how ION data is scaled for output to a PROFIBUS system. PROFIBUS allows multiple masters and their distributed peripherals on one bus. This hardware port is controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software.GSD file that must be installed on your PROFIBUS master device so that the ION 7300 can communicate with your PROFIBUS network. efficiency. and low connection costs. A floppy disk is included with your ION 7300 PROFIBUS. optimized for speed. See the PROFIBUS Slave Export module description in the ION Reference for more information. data link layer. Application functions are defined in the user interface. This disk contains a PROFIBUS. These data blocks contain 8 bytes of setup and control data. with values ranging from –2 147 483 648 to +2 147 483 648. and user interface.com.pwrm.PROFIBUS-DP Protocol System Design Handbook PROFIBUS-DP Protocol PROFIBUS is a vendor-independent field bus standard used in manufacturing. If the default settings don’t suit your needs. it uses a streamlined OSI architecture: physical layer. you can modify the setup registers or re-link the modules to other power system data. They are called PROFIBUS Slave Export modules and must be configured using Designer or ION Setup software. The response packets are represented by 32-bit signed integers. and process control. plus 24 bytes of power system measurements. Page 102 Chapter 6 . building automation. To ensure fast data transmission.
pwrm. or TIM. MV-90 software is a multi-vendor translation system developed to collect and analyze data from many different brands of meters. TIM_ION Configuration TIM_ION may be currently installed on your system. 606 or later).). PT/CT ratio. the meter must exist as an “ION recorder” in MV-90. or Ethernet ports. baud rate. and cartridge readers. For ION meters. You also specify characteristics such as the units of measure. These hardware ports are controlled by the ION Communications module that exists in the meter’s software. and the time difference between local time and universal standard time.2 or later). and provide billing management capabilities. The TIM_ION. Inc. If TIM_ION is not installed. MV-90 supports multiple methods of data retrieval. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the module. Every TIM converts metered data into MV-90 database format. including dial-up modems.ION and Third Party Systems Page 103 . Adding an ION Meter to MV-90 For MV-90 to access data from an ION meter. including ION meters. modem. They are available at www. a subsidiary of Itron Inc. the protocol translator is called TIM_ION. in which case you can specify TIM_ION and continue. you can configure your sites and meters. After you have added an ION meter. and length of interval between readings. a software package used by hundreds of electric utilities to analyze electricity and gas data collected from commercial and industrial sites. you need to install it (if it is available in your system). When you add ION recorder. phone number of meter site.System Design Handbook MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol ION meters (except the ION 7300 and ION 6200 meters) are compatible with MV90. and for MV-90 for Windows (release 2. refer to the ION Reference and the technical note ION and MV-90 Technology. Once you have set up TIM_ION in MV-90.com. device ID. For more details on using MV-90 and ION meters. MV-90 communicates with each brand of meter through a protocol translator known as a Translation Interface Module. maximum number of history logs the meter can store. ION meters can supply information directly to MV-90 via modem or Ethernet links. or order it from UTS. handheld readers. number of dials (number of digits where rollover of a cumulative value occurs).EXE file is available for MV-90 for DOS (releases 506. MV-90 communications occur through an ION meter’s serial.” which are parameters it supplies to MV-90. MV-90 was developed by UTS (Utility Translation Systems. define all 16 of its “channels. encoder type (cumulative or non-cumulative). tolerances. specify values such as: TIM number. number of times per hour that the meter logs data. Chapter 6 . TIM_ION is not compatible with release 405 of MV-90.
use a terminal application such as Windows HyperTerminal. Gateway address and SMTP address. Meter Clear Functions – there are two options available in this menu: one returns you to the Main Menu. ION 8000 series. IP address. but when it is available. These methods of connection are available for the ION 7300 series. the Telnet menu options are: 0) 1) 2) 3) 4) 9) ?) Logout Ethernet Settings Ethernet Stats Meter Clear Funtions Factory Login Switch to Debug Parser (and route msgs to telnet) Displays this menu Logout – select this option to log out of the meter. use a telnet application such as Microsoft Telnet. If your meter is connected serially or through a modem to your workstation. Ethernet Stats – there are three options available in this menu: one for viewing various Ethernet statistics. and one clears the meter Event Log Display. and ION 7650 meters. Using Telnet Use Telnet if your meter has Ethernet capabilities.) Page 104 Chapter 6 . (The Meter Clear Functions option is only available for ION 8000 series meters.Using Telnet and Hyperterminal System Design Handbook Using Telnet and Hyperterminal If your meter is connected to an Ethernet network. Ethernet Settings – there are two options in this menu: one for viewing your current communications settings and one for configuring your IP Boot option. Subnet mask. A Telnet session lets you: Access certain Ethernet communications module settings Display Ethernet statistics Access certain Power Meter module settings Access certain Factory module settings Clear the front panel event log display on an ION 8000 series meter Configure Factory module setup registers for Current Probe Input applications Telnet ION Meter Menu Not all ION meters have a Telnet menu.ION and Third Party Systems . ION 7550. and end the Telnet session. and a third option for resetting these statistics. one for viewing an Ethernet collision histogram.
All Commands. Display All Commands – select this option to display every Terminal Command that can be used in HyperTerminal. Security Help.” Use Windows HyperTerminal to access certain meter module settings if your meter is connected serially or through a modem to your workstation. the Factory Login and Logout menus are available. Time Help. Display Comm Help Screen – this option is not used if your meter is connected serially to your workstation. Chapter 6 . Using HyperTerminal NOTE Ensure that the meter COM port you are using has its Protocol register set to “Factory. Reset Help. Factory Login – this menu is reserved for Technical Services’ use.ION and Third Party Systems Page 105 . Display Comm Help. and Calibration Help. Miscellaneous Help. A HyperTerminal session lets you: Access certain Factory module settings Access certain Power Meter module settings Clear the front panel event log display on an ION 8000 series meter Configure Factory module setup registers for Current Probe Input applications Factory Terminal Menu The Factory Terminal menu options are: ? ALL? COMM? MISC? RESET SEC? TIME? KAL? LOGIN LOGOUT Display Help Screen Display All Commands Display Comm Help Screen Display Misc Help Commands Display Reset Help Commands Display Security Help Screen Display Time Help Screen Display Calibration Help Screen Factory login Logout Display Help Screen – select this option to display the Factory Terminal menu (menu displayed above).System Design Handbook Using Telnet and Hyperterminal Switch to Debug Parser (and route msgs to telnet) – there are eight screens with options available in this menu: Help. In addition.
or read the meter lock state. Display Security Help Screen – select this option to enable/disable password or hardware security. and control power circuits. You can meter electricity. ION Software Modules for Defining I/O Characteristics Every ION meter has a set of software modules that control its analog and digital I/O ports. You can also transmit control signals or send information to RTUs. refer to the technical note Digital and Analog I/O. and display the battery statistics. and data output functions. air. monitoring. Page 106 Chapter 6 . For details on how to link and configure these ION modules using Designer or ION Setup software. or the ION Reference. and water.ION and Third Party Systems . each meter’s User Guide. Logout – select this option to log out of the meter and end the session. all from a single unit. 1970) Human meter time: day/month/year and hour:minute:second Display Calibration Help Screen – select this option to display or configure meter calibration parameters. or zero/full scale values. count transducer pulses and breaker trips. gas. Only qualified and properly trained personnel should perform servicing. restore the factory framework.Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment System Design Handbook Display Misc Help Screen – this option lists commands that allow you to repeat the last command. Inside an ION software module’s setup registers. such as pulse width. Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment Analog and digital inputs/outputs (I/O) help you implement control. hazardous voltages are present that can cause severe injury or death. and measure flow rates. relays. signal polarity. and meter firmware version. oil pressures. These voltages are present throughout the connected status inputs. read power-up style. alarming. and transformer temperatures. Factory Login – this menu is reserved for use by Technical Support. Display Time Help Screen – select this option to set or display: Meter time: Unix time (seconds since January 1. and reset fatal error. you can specify characteristics for the incoming or outgoing signals. Display Reset Help Screen – if your security level allows you to perform resets then this screen lists the following options: full or partial factory initialization. steam. CAUTION During normal operation of the meter. as well as monitor equipment status. meter release version.
or track security breaches. By default. the digital inputs are configured to operate with internal excitation. Chapter 6 . closed/unclosed positions of doors to meter enclosures. The position of these jumpers defines whether the I/O Expander uses the internal excitation power supply for the digital inputs. which means the meters use an internal 30 VDC power source to send out currents that detect whether relays are open or closed.or externally-excited. on/off status of generators. If you want to confirm the status of a breaker. it should have an auxiliary circuit that indicates whether it is open or closed. the I/O Expander board must first be disassembled to access a set of jumper blocks. armed/unarmed conditions of different zones in a building alarm system. If you need more information on the external boards. Another option is to have the inputs read pulses from gas. steam. you interface the meter’s digital input to a transducer that monitors the transformer and turns on if such a condition exists. If you want to check for over/under conditions of a transformer. improve maintenance. the number of times a breaker has tripped. please see the “External I/O Boards” section of this chapter. or other electricity meters. Meter ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 1 Digital Inputs on Meter1 0 0 4 4 16 16 8 0 0 0 Digital Inputs on External Boards 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 8 8 8 Some of these inputs require the installation of an optional circuit board inside the meter. water. Specifications The total number of both internal and external digital inputs on each ION meter is listed below. See the meter’s data sheet for complete details.System Design Handbook Digital Inputs and Outputs Digital Inputs and Outputs Digital Inputs Digital inputs are necessary for status monitoring or pulse counting applications. or the number of rotations completed by a device. or accept an external excitation supply. The digital inputs of the ION 8000 series can be self. Digital inputs let you monitor the closed/ unclosed positions of breakers. Status monitoring can help you prevent equipment damage. for example. You can also have the digital inputs count transducer pulses to indicate.ION and Third Party Systems Page 107 . The digital inputs of the ION 7000 series meters are self-excited. If an external power supply is required for the digital inputs. or over/under pressures of transformers.
Cable Lengths for Digital Inputs The length of cable that digital inputs can support depends on the size of cable. generators. or kWh pulses if the receiving device determines energy usage by counting pulses. The wire should be shielded twisted pair. To detect a short. On ION 7000 series meters. properly shielded to reduce the effects of induced noise. resistance across the leads must be less than 5k.Digital Inputs and Outputs System Design Handbook The digital input ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software. resistance between 5k and 1M is non-deterministic. Specifications ION meters offer solid state and electromechanical relay outputs. The external boards are described in the “External I/O Boards” section of this chapter. The specifications below are for 50 ohm max loop impedance: 2000 feet for 24 AWG wire 3000 feet for 22 AWG wire 5000 feet for 20 AWG wire 7500 feet for 18 AWG wire. together with Counter modules for counting status changes. the Digital Input modules are pre-configured at the factory. use Designer or ION Setup software to check that the corresponding software modules are configured appropriately. To detect an open. Digital Outputs An ION meter’s digital outputs can provide on/off control signals for capacitor banks. An external power supply must be available to sense whether the relay is open (no current) or closed (current is flowing). One ION “Digital Input” software module corresponds to each physical input port. Consequently. After connecting the digital input ports to field equipment. Meter ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 2 4 4 4 7 7 0 Digital Outputs on Meter1 0 Digital Outputs on External Boards 42 42 42 0 0 30 Page 108 Chapter 6 . or other equipment. They can also send out status signals. and External Pulse modules for resetting the Counter modules. the resistance across the leads must be greater than 1M.ION and Third Party Systems . Each digital output is a dry contact relay (switch) that is either open or closed.
The ION 7300 can have a total of 4 digital outputs. Digital Output. Then choose one of the ION Pulser modules and specify the infrared port in its setup register. Voltage-based signals aren’t as reliable because induced voltages or ground potential might affect the signal level during transmission.ION and Third Party Systems Page 109 . or Calibration Pulser module. kVAh. two ION Pulser software modules are pre-set to send pulses every 1 kWh and every 1 kVARh to the solid state relays on the meter. use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the software modules and specify signal characteristics. Analog Inputs and Outputs Analog Inputs An ION meter’s analog inputs can receive electrical signals from transducers. Chapter 6 . In the ION 7300.8 Wh measured and is controlled by an ION Calibration Pulser module. ION 7550 or ION 7650 meter for energy pulsing applications (kWh. On the ION 6200 meter. Digital Output. A Pulser module takes an instantaneous pulse and converts it to either a complete pulse or a transition pulse on a hardware channel. or 0 to 10 V voltage. except the ION 7500 RTU. rotations. which derive those signals from flow rates. 2 The digital output ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software.System Design Handbook Analog Inputs and Outputs Meter ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 1 Digital Outputs on Meter1 0 0 0 8 8 8 Digital Outputs on External Boards Some of these outputs require the installation of an optional circuit board inside the meter. The ION 7300 meter’s infrared port can also be used for energy pulsing. Energy Pulsing from ION Meters If you want to use one of the digital outputs on an ION 7300 series. kVARh). All the ION meters. To do this. or Calibration Pulser module. It outputs a pulse for every 1. disable the default configuration. pressures. A Digital Output module takes a Boolean input and sends it out a hardware channel as a constant level or a complete pulse. A “Digital Output” or “Pulser” software module corresponds to each physical output port. assign it any Pulser. also have Calibration Pulser modules. either on the meter or on an external board. See the meter’s datasheet for complete details. After connecting the ports to field equipment. 0 to 1 V voltage. If you want to configure the LED for other energy pulsing applications (kVAh. ION 8000 series. temperatures. You need transducers that transmit industry standard signals: 0 to 20 mA current. one of the solid-state relays (DO4) is pre-configured for calibration pulsing. and fluid levels. you must set the communications protocol to INFRARED I/O. ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters. then assign it any Pulser. kVARh).
The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters offer optional plug-in cards with 4 analog inputs that monitor DC signals. use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the software modules and specify signal characteristics. Meter ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 1 Analog Inputs on Meter1 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 0 Analog Inputs on External Boards 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 These inputs require the installation of an optional circuit board inside the meter. After connecting the analog inputs to field equipment. an ION meter can measure power and energy. The analog outputs issue industry-standard 0 to 20 mA current signals. An “Analog Input” software module corresponds to each physical input port. 0 – 20 mA. Meter ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 0 4 4 Analog Outputs on Meter 0 0 0 Analog Outputs on External Boards Page 110 Chapter 6 . e. Specifications The number of analog inputs on each ION meter is listed below. For example. The analog input ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software. and makes the result available to the meter. The external boards are described in the “External I/O Boards” section of this chapter.ION and Third Party Systems . then send that information to an RTU. You can configure some to be AC signals and some to be DC. The external boards are described in the “External I/O Boards” section of this chapter. Analog Outputs An ION meter’s analog outputs act as transducers. See the meter’s datasheet for complete details. scales it.g.Analog Inputs and Outputs System Design Handbook Specifications The number of analog inputs on each ION meter is listed below. however all 4 must have the same input rating. An Analog Input software module takes a signal from an input port. The ION 7700 meter’s optional plug-in board provides 4 double-ended voltage or current inputs.
If the input rises above the value specified in the Full Scale setup register. Like onboard I/O. Note that a ION 7300 TRAN unit with this sort of card cannot be ordered with a remote display unit. Likewise. The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters offer optional plug-in cards with 4 analog outputs that deliver DC signals.com or contact Power Measurement. External Digital Outputs for ION 7300 Meters You can replace the open collector outputs on the ION 7300. External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander You can change the number of inputs and outputs available to ION meters through external I/O boards. Just plug Grayhill analog or digital I/O modules into the boards. allowing you to control external devices by delivering a specific current or voltage.ION and Third Party Systems Page 111 . There are nine Grayhill modules of varying functionality to choose from. the output remains at the Zero Scale value and the lowest possible value is sent to the hardware port. Chapter 6 . The REB provides four slots into which you can plug Grayhill digital output modules. visit the web site at www. An “Analog Output” software module corresponds to each physical output port. the functionality of these external Grayhill hardware modules is controlled by ION software modules inside the meters. or Pulser modules specify output signal characteristics. Analog Output. For more information on Grayhill racks and modules.grayhill.System Design Handbook External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander Meter ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 4 4 4 0 0 0 0 Analog Outputs on Meter 0 0 0 Analog Outputs on External Boards 30 4 4 4 The analog output ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter’s software. use Designer or ION Setup software to set up the software modules and specify signal characteristics. After connecting the analog output ports to field equipment. while the Digital Input or Analog Input modules define incoming signals. the output remains at the Full Scale value and the maximum possible value is sent to the hardware port. An Analog Output software module takes a numeric value and scales it for output to an analog hardware port. ION Digital Output. if the input falls below the value specified in the Zero Scale register. ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters with an optional REB (Relay Extension Board).
Analog Grayhill Module Restrictions — Power Supplies Power requirements and hardware restrictions limit the number and placement of analog Grayhill modules on I/O expansion boards. you must have two power supplies (one for each expansion board). Slots 8 through 14 support digital input. Each expansion board offers 15 slots into which you can plug Grayhill I/O modules. Failure to remove the jumper voids the ION 7700 meter’s warranty. not the analog input modules. Set the Digital Output or Pulser module’s Port setup register to the digital output port (D1 to D4) to which the relay is connected.) Expansion Board B always requires a separate power supply. and slot 15 is not used. Expansion Boards for the ION 7700 Meter The expansion boards provide multiple analog inputs. If you only need to install a maximum of 6 analog Grayhill modules. digital output and analog output Grayhill modules only. The table below summarizes the restrictions on analog I/O devices. analog input and analog output Grayhill modules. no matter what the configuration. digital output. Slots 0–7 do not support analog input devices. and/or digital outputs. You cannot mix inputs and outputs within these two groups of slots. so you can have a maximum of 7 per board. NOTE Slots are numbered on the expansion boards. To install the maximum number of analog I/O Grayhill modules.ION and Third Party Systems . Other restrictions apply to the use of analog I/O Grayhill modules. so you can install a maximum of 15 analog output modules per board. (Refer to the ION 7700 Installation & Basic Setup Instructions for jumper location. then you must remove the associated jumper from the board. only slots 8 through 14 support analog input modules. Slots 0 through 7 support digital input. As noted above. These power supplies are purchased separately. digital inputs. Slot 15 is not supported. as discussed below. however. Analog Grayhill Restrictions — Direction of Installation The direction of all modules in slots 0 through 7 and slots 8 through 14 must be the same. Page 112 Chapter 6 . Note that if you have a separate power supply for Expansion Board A.External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander System Design Handbook You can use ION Digital Output or Pulser modules to control the functions of the Grayhill relays. analog outputs. Analog output modules can populate both slot groups on the expansion board. you can have all inputs in slots 0 through 7 and all outputs in slots 8 through 14 (or vice versa). you can power Expansion Board A directly from the ION 7700 meter.
a standard AC/DC supply.ION and Third Party Systems Page 113 . The analog output version of the I/ O Expander must be powered by an external source. The I/O Expander equips an ION meter with eight digital inputs. If the I/O Expander is not ordered with the ION 8000 series meter. B: 7 AI. four Form A digital outputs.0 connector. you can install and configure I/O points without affecting the meter’s operation. You can perform any sort of analysis that you need to make decisions. you can use an external I/O Expander.System Design Handbook ION Logging and Data Sharing Max # of Analog Inputs Board A WITHOUT Optional Power Supply Board A WITH Optional Power Supply Board A WITHOUT Optional Power Supply + Board B 6 7 13 Max # of Analog Outputs 6 15 21 Max # of Analog Devices 6 15 21 Possible Maximum Configurations Any combination up to 6 total Board full A: 6 AI. ODBC-compliant (Open Database Connectivity) database. Terminal strips simplify connections to external equipment. ION Logging and Data Sharing ION software stores all system data in an industry-standard. RS232 and RS-485 links are made through standard DB9 and captured-wire connectors located on the I/O Expander. 8 AO A: 6 AO. You can also formulate energy cost estimates or track the real sources of power quality disturbances. and apply simulation and modeling techniques to forecast the results of changes to operational processes or expenditures like substations. or –1 to +1 mA. no more than 15 feet away from the meter. It connects to the meter via a standard Molex Micro-Fit 3. 8 AO A: 6 AO. Because of this capability. B: 15 AO A: 6 AI. Another version offers four analog outputs (0 to 20 mA scalable 4-20. the low-profile connectors between the meter and the I/O board let you easily remove the meter without disconnecting all the attached I/O wiring. B: 7 AI. B: 15 AO Both boards full Board A WITH Optional Power Supply + Board B 14 30 30 External I/O Expander for ION 8000 Series Meters To get enhanced analog or digital I/O with the ION 8000 series meters. The I/O Expander also provides a convenient location for the ION meter’s RS-232 and RS-485 communications wiring. Chapter 6 . and four Form C digital outputs. a breakout cable (ordering accessory) is required to get access to communications. The I/O Expander is mounted separately. Plus. you can bring power system data into third-party software applications and adapt the information into formats that make sense for your organization. Because the I/O Expander board is external. scalable 0-1) in place of the four Form A digital outputs.
ION software comes with pre-configured power quality. ODBC is an industry standard method of sharing information between a database and other applications. For customizable reporting capabilities. stored on the network. or somewhere in between. The open architecture allows your other software applications to access information from the same database in which ION software logs metered data. Reporter software. The following components form the basis of a ION software information system: Digital power meters and other monitoring devices Vista Query Wizard Log Inserter and Query Server (formerly the Log Server) Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) Page 114 Chapter 6 . You can also arrange to have the reports automatically sent to a printer. (Other third-party report generation packages. the ODBC-compliant database makes data-sharing across your entire organization possible. You can distribute them automatically via email or fax. event-. resulting in unique uses of the tools provided. cost. To get you started quickly. maintenance. load profile.ION and Third Party Systems . For more details on data-sharing. A dynamic database automatically tracks configurations. very sophisticated. These include the Log Inserter service. Reporter software accesses information from the database to generate energy consumption. can also be applied. or saved in Internet-ready HTML format. and database management functions.) Your system will have distinct operational requirements. such as Crystal Reports. You can quickly retrieve data through Standard Query Language (SQL) commands to create custom reports. Reports are schedule-. refer to the ION Enterprise User documentation available from www. You can also customize these ION software reports to incorporate virtually any type of data and perform further analysis using Microsoft Excel's mathematical and graphical functions.ION Software Database Tools System Design Handbook In addition. or manually-driven. ION Software Database Tools Several ION software and third-party components interact to perform a variety of data collection. you can also use Microsoft Excel in conjunction with the Reporter software. Query Server service. An ODBC-compliant database also eliminates the need for large log files on the hard drive of local workstations. ION software features automated archiving where old data is periodically transferred to a removable disk. and operations planning. billing and load profile reports.pwrm. You can use these reports for bill verification. Microsoft Excel is recommended. The system can be very basic. and standard databases. usage tracking. and power quality reports. so you can make changes to any meter without having to go offline and restart the software.com. information retrieval.
The Log Inserter initiates and controls data collection and organizes data storage. It automatically reconfigures when you add or remove workstations. You can configure the Log Inserter manually using Designer software to create each link between device recorders and the database. Log Inserter and Query Server The Log Server service has been split into two separate services: the ION Log Inserter Service and the ION Query Service. Manual configuration also provides increased control over logging functions. or if you use multiple Log Inserters.” the Log Inserter automatically configures all the links between the databases and monitoring devices. providing a point-and-click interface to the ION databases. Manual configuration is required if you have a very large system. and the functions of the internal components and ION Enterprise services. Vista Query Wizard Vista lets you display logged data from your power system. The Query Wizard component of Vista walks you through the creation of SQL queries. When in “Auto-Mode. and provides connection string information used by WebReach. Chapter 6 . or devices. With the Query Wizard. several hundred meters). software components. and 3000 ACM series digital power meters.System Design Handbook ION Software Database Tools Reporter Database Manager The sources of data stored in the database are monitoring devices such as ION 7000 series.ION and Third Party Systems Page 115 . ION 8000 series. The Log Inserter typically runs only on a primary server workstation. You can configure the Log Inserter yourself. The Query Server processes queries made on the database and controls data retrieval. provided your system does not include a large number of logging devices (i. anyone with little or no SQL experience can generate functional database queries. You can customize both the Log Inserter and the Query Server with Designer software. Log Inserter ION Modules NOTE Refer to the online ION Programmer’s Reference for complete descriptions of the ION modules in the Log Inserter. If you need to modify the Log Inserter’s operation. The Query Server is responsible for retrieving data for display in Vista. you should be familiar with the different modes of operation. AutoMode is recommended for all ION software users. or you can let the Log Inserter perform and maintain its configuration for you.e. it controls the flow of data into the ION database. and you can monitor the Query Server’s operation using Vista.
System Log Service The System Log service operates on all primary or secondary workstations. This is primarily for use by Technical Services. If you add and configure the Diagnostics module. nor are they installed by default. Page 116 Chapter 6 . While External Boolean modules can be created using Designer software. and startup and shutdown messages from ION software applications. you can view a progress log that tracks the Log Inserter’s operation. Log Acquisition module — Collects logs from the devices and the Virtual Processor and inserts them into the ION database. If the System Log service on a workstation shuts down. and compliance information for the Log Inserter and the Query Server.ION Software Database Tools System Design Handbook ION software modules control the Log Inserter’s operation. If you require assistance using the software. It provides operator control for enabling and disabling log acquisition. you can configure the following ION modules in Designer software.ION and Third Party Systems . these modules are not part of a typical Log Inserter. system errors. serial number. you use Vista to examine how node communications and log retrieval operations are proceeding. dialog box messages are displayed only when a problem occurs. based on an event priority level that you specify. When the Log Inserter is in Auto-Mode. System events are generated by ION software applications. you can configure the System Log service to write other system events into the Windows Application Log. External Boolean module — This is another module often associated with the Log Inserter. The Diagnostics module provides you with more detailed performance diagnostics. the System Log service collects them and passes them to the Log Inserter’s System Log Controller module. a message appears in each of the other ION software applications whenever a system event is generated until you restart the service. Log Inserter Interface Once the Log Inserter is configured. or click Cancel. when the Diagnostics option is enabled. Factory module — Lets you view the revision information. Inside this window. All system events are written into the Windows Application Log if the System Log service shuts down. System Log Controller module — Collects system events from a server workstation and converts them into ION-compatible format. System events include operator log-ins. If desired. The System Log Controller’s output is connected to a Log Acquisition module for insertion into the database. refer to the Online Help. The System Log service operates silently. This lets you keep a backup log of ION software system events that can also be viewed in the Windows Event Viewer. it creates a System Log Controller module for each ION software server workstation. Diagnostics module — Provides diagnostic information on the nodes and sites in your system and stores it in the database. a simple window interface is all that appears. Some advanced knowledge of the Log Inserter and Services is required to interpret some of the information provided by these modules. not by the power system. When internal ION software system events occur. If the Log Inserter isn’t in Auto-Mode. device status messages.
) In the diagrams. the Network Configuration database. so they are not discussed in detail here. such as the database engine.System Design Handbook ION Software Database Tools Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) The RDBMS is the central point of the ION software information system. which are the ION database. You can consider the RDBMS as a single component in most cases. the database clients. For more information on database management. The Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (MSDE 2000) manages the ION Enterprise databases. Database Server Database Files Database Clients ODBC Links The Log Inserter. Components of the RDBMS The RDBMS includes three main components: the database server.ION and Third Party Systems Page 117 . ODBC links are made when a software component accesses the database by referencing a Data Source Name (DSN). refer to the ION Enterprise Help. (Other components. it is useful to understand how the components inside the RDBMS interact. however. operate without user interaction. and the System Events database. and the database file. the RDBMS is represented as a single component (a gray cylinder). Query Server. Chapter 6 . NOTE Refer to the Sybase SQL Anywhere documentation for further information about the RDBMS components. and Reporter all use ODBC links to connect to a database client.
Database Seat Licenses Each connection between a database client and the server typically requires one seat license.ION Software Database Tools System Design Handbook Each component that writes to the database (such as the Log Inserter) or reads from the database (such as the Query Server. After you’ve designed custom reports and configured the Excel workbooks. In turn. billing and load profile reports. Reporter Software Reporter software lets you define. reports are updated automatically. either in response to a power system event or following a specified schedule. and manage comprehensive reports based on the data in your database. generate. You can also configure reports to automatically email selected recipients after updating. ION software comes with pre-configured power quality. You can also generate custom reports that incorporate virtually any of the data stored in the RDBMS and perform further analysis using Excel's advanced mathematical and graphical functions. Database Manager Utility Use the Database Manager utility to configure scheduled archives. and trims of the ION Enterprise databases. or if you extend the use of the ION software database beyond the standard configuration. Reporter retrieves data from the RDBMS. The database server (in combination with the database engine) handles all insertions into the database and distributions of data retrieved from the database. backups. or Reporter) connects to a database client through an ODBC Data Source. whenever a database client has a request to insert or retrieve data. There may be several connections between database clients and the server at any one time. it communicates with the database server. You must purchase additional seats if you connect to the database with a third-party application. You can also perform these operations manually. Page 118 Chapter 6 . You launch this utility from the Management Console. Vista. and processes it into a finished report in Microsoft Excel format.ION and Third Party Systems . The Data Source creates an ODBC link between the ION software or third party component and the database client. ION software ships with enough seats to operate each ION software database tool.
The utility can then trim (when that task is selected) the same information out of the main database file to make room for more database information. then trim the database. For that reason.ION and Third Party Systems Page 119 . While you can re-install ION software. It is recommended that you always archive information first. The Database Manager archives data by creating a new database file that is configured in the exact format of the existing database. it is critical to plan for regular database backups and implement an archival system that provides permanent storage for backed-up copies. You can perform these tasks manually. and produce custom archives that include only the types of data that you wish to keep (i. trim the live database. you can create archives based on specific date ranges).e. Chapter 6 . You can archive a live database and trim (delete) records without stopping the database engine. or you can create an archive/trim schedule in the Database Manager utility. The Database Manager utility is a graphical utility which can archive and trim your database. This method is recommended for all ION Enterprise systems. you can only recover a lost database if you have access to a backup. Database Backup and Archival The data in your database is irreplaceable. The utility also generates the ODBC Data Sources necessary to access your archived databases.System Design Handbook ION Software Database Tools The Database Manager provides additional database management functions that are specific to the ION database. It lets you perform database backups. Archiving and Trimming a Database The simplest method to control database size is regularly archiving logical sections of the database and then trimming (removing) these sections from your main database file.
and whether or not the scheduled task is enabled by default. 3. Recommended Backup/Archival Frequency The Database Manager has a number of preconfigured scheduled tasks. but it must have some operations performed on it to allow it replace the live database. and trims. but the schedule for the maintenance tasks are fixed. copy the backup file into the live file location. There are a number of tasks performed on the database when a maintenance job is executed.ION Software Database Tools System Design Handbook Restoring an Archived Database Restoring an archived database is easy using the Database Manager utility. Shrink the database. The following is an ordered breakdown of a scheduled maintenance: 1. on which databases these scheduled tasks are performed. and reattach the file. 4. The maintenance schedule for each database is as follows: ION_Data maintenance job occurs daily at 2:00 AM. 2. The following table explains which tasks are preconfigured.) Page 120 Chapter 6 . The backup file is a file copy of the live database. ION_SystemLog maintenance job occurs daily at 7:05 AM. archives. The Restore command performs these operations for you. Check database fragmentation and defragment if the fragmentation level is more than 10%.ION and Third Party Systems . leaving 10% free space in the database file afterwards. Update statistics for all the tables in the database. Database Scheduled Task Archive Trim Backup Maintenance Backup Maintenance Trim Maintenance Enabled by Default? No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ION database (ION_Data) Network Configuration database (ION_Network) System Events database (ION_SystemLog) You can determine the frequency for your scheduled backups. Check and track the database size. Send an email alert if any maintenance step fails. 5. It is not possible to simply detach the live file. taking only a few seconds to complete. ION_Network maintenance job occurs daily at 7:30 AM. (Note that the disk usage monitor starts at 7:00 AM.
but not at a custom-built price. . . or customize them for your particular applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Capacitor Bank Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Substation Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Designer Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Power Quality Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Demand Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 ION Technology ION is a software architecture that provides state-of-the-art solutions for your power monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . analysis. . . . . . It’s like having a system built to your specifications. . . . . . 125 Popular Module Links . . . . . . . so you don’t have to keep re-investing in equipment to add functionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 ION Modules Supported by Each Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . The same products can satisfy changing needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In This Chapter ION Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ION Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and control needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Cost Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Page 121 . . You can use the default configurations in meters and software. . . 126 ION Timing Considerations . . . . . . . . .
This Power Meter module calculates average power consumption over a specified interval. These ION modules are contained within the operating software of ION meters and ION software Virtual Processors. Add a Periodic Timer module that provides a trigger for recording every 24 hrs. you can combine a Power Meter module. and writes the results to output registers.. ION allows you to process power system data and construct new features through building blocks known as ION modules.ION Technology . The Sliding Window Demand module is used to calculate block and rolling block demand. For example. In place of conventional power monitoring designs with fixed features. You don’t have to waste any time or space with unnecessary readings. and output registers. and a Data Recorder module to create a Demand Recorder feature. Many popular features are preprogrammed. 3. Link a Data Recorder module to log the time-stamped demand values. 2. If you want to create or dismantle features. process. or assemble in different ways to meet the demands of your application. Each ION module performs a dedicated task. and by linking groups of ION modules in software. A module reads data at its inputs. manipulates this data according to user-specified information in setup registers. Designer software lets you change settings graphically. setup registers. ION modules transfer. so system setup is fast. a Demand module. and store power information through their inputs. Take a Power Meter module and link its kW output to a Sliding Window Demand module*. 1. Suppose you want to record demand values every day at the same time. calculations.ION Architecture System Design Handbook ION Architecture ION is a software architecture that makes your power monitoring system flexible and adaptable. ION offers a set of functional building blocks that you can use right out of the box. or data storage. Page 122 Chapter 7 . you can build the features you require. You can link an ION module’s output register to the inputs of other ION modules using Designer software..
Power quality monitoring: This framework detects and counts disturbances and records associated data including multi-cycle waveforms. The Sliding Window Demand module. revenue metering. Default configurations are different for every type of meter. harmonics logging. used to calculate block and rolling block demand. monitor harmonics in real-time on any phase. substation automation. min/max logging. provides a stable operating voltage reference. and lost customers. or assemble your own set of ION modules to match your specific requirements. You can stay with these defaults. and shortened transformer life-spans. and operations planning. and transients often lead to equipment failures. loss compensation. A network of continuously-active ION meters at various loads and feeders can determine the sources of these problems. Chapter 7 . Power quality disturbances such as harmonics. capture short-duration events. and faults. sags. Alarms can be generated for any condition you specify. Power Quality Monitoring ION meters keep you apprised of your power quality. capacitor bank switching. voltage sags.System Design Handbook ION Solutions ION Solutions ION meters come with default module configurations that provide capabilities such as energy and demand calculations. record high accuracy multi-cycle waveforms. Based on all this information. nuisance breaker tripping. Implement specialized features for power quality monitoring. Analyze surges. and transfer this data to your existing SCADA system. demand and load management. helping you avoid operational shutdowns that cost you in time. ensuring that corrective actions can be implemented immediately. and alert you of phase imbalances. you can select the most suitable protective devices and UPSs to avoid future interruptions. and Modbus slave communications.ION Technology Page 123 . resources.
Predicted Demand from the Sliding Window Demand module (used to calculate block and rolling block demand). you can monitor and combine data about each substation’s voltage. Or if it’s the weekend. This way. you can configure your facility’s demand control to satisfy your exact needs. breaker positions. and operating conditions. The Arithmetic module then sends the calculated results to the Digital Output modules. you may want to eliminate expensive demand surcharges. and time-of-use information from the Scheduler module. It accepts facility temperature data from the Analog Input module. To do this. The Arithmetic module plays a key role in gathering all the relevant data and deciding on a course of action. ION can respond automatically to changes using high-speed setpoints that control substation equipment and automatically notify you of alarms. control.ION Technology . With ION modules. maybe shutting off some lighting systems is acceptable. and Sag/Swell modules. you can have access to comprehensive ION measurements and records from wherever you are. The ION framework below is one example of how you can manage loads using prediction and scheduling. When a limit is reached.Demand Control System Design Handbook Demand Control To control power costs in your industrial facility. All these functions are possible using ION modules such as the Power Meter. and demand levels. Substation Automation Distributed ION meters lets you automate the operation of substations by providing remote monitoring. current. The power of ION is that you have a virtually unlimited number of options. If the temperature is higher. you can avoid setting new demand peaks that impact your billing for subsequent calendar periods. Analog and Digital Input/Output. Additionally. and information access functions. predict upcoming demand. you can set different predicted demand limits for weekdays and weekends. and as soon as your demand exceeds a certain value. you can turn off the air conditioning if the facility’s temperature is less than 30°C. and it’s a weekday. Arithmetic. you have to monitor power usage. you may want to turn on an auxiliary generator. disturbances. shed non-essential loads or start up auxiliary generators. From a central location. Page 124 Chapter 7 . Data Recorder. In this particular framework.
Using the ION Arithmetic and Digital Output modules. If you are planning facility expansion or upgrades. Arithmetic. potentially preventing expensive failures. Integrator. Capacitor Bank Switching Capacitor banks are often used to correct a facility’s lagging power factor. ION software can integrate this information and promptly disseminate it to the appropriate people. You can implement cost allocation features with a combination of Power Meter. there could be several capacitor banks with different kVAR ratings. It can also save money on the utility bill. Whether or not a specific bank should be operated may depend on several factors: present power factor or load kVAR. ION meters and ION software Virtual Processors can track power factor. you can make complex decisions about when to turn on or off each capacitor bank. This can easily be accomplished with ION Setpoint modules controlling Digital Output modules. These Digital Outputs send trip and close signals to the capacitor bank. and penalty tariff structures. Correcting power factor reduces the kVA load on facility or utility transformers. Chapter 7 . as utility companies commonly include penalty charges for customers with poor power factors. In more complex situations. and Data Recorder modules. ION can identify problem areas or opportunities for extra capacity and capital cost deferrals.System Design Handbook Cost Allocation Cost Allocation ION offers an economical way of attributing portions of your monthly power bill to various equipment and systems in your operation. A basic control scheme switches a fixed capacitor bank in or out based on the monitored power factor or consumed kVAR. demand peaks.ION Technology Page 125 . other currently energized banks. manual or protective lock-outs. bringing it closer to unity. or even the harmonic levels in the system. even accepting data from third-party HVAC and PLC systems.
Page 126 Chapter 7 . etc.ION Technology . Desired Operation Breaker trip counting Cost calculations Delay of operation after setpoint1 Demand control (load shedding) Demand peak recording Disturbance counting Energy calculations Fuel level recording Phase imbalances Power factor lag statistics Power quality analysis Relay control with multiple setpoints1 Status of breaker.Popular Module Links System Design Handbook Popular Module Links You may want to implement power monitoring. and control operations using the module links suggested below. maximum values. switch. high harmonics. analysis. Sliding Window Demand module is used to calculate block and rolling block demand. low current. or relay Service continuity verification Scheduled disabling of setpoint Tamper detection Time-of-use revenue metering Transformer temperature recording Trending. ION modules are described later in this chapter. recorded at daily intervals 1 2 ION Module Links Digital Input Virtual Processor & XML Import Setpoint Demand Demand Sag/Swell Power Meter Analog Input Symmetrical Components Power Meter Sag/Swell Setpoints Digital Input Setpoint Scheduler Setpoint Power Meter & Time-Of-Use Analog Input Power Meter Power Meter & Periodic Timer Counter Arithmetic One-Shot Timer Arithmetic or Setpoint Maximum Counter Integrator Data Recorder Data Recorder Setpoint Pulse Merge AND/OR or Arithmetic Data Recorder Counter Setpoint Data Recorder Integrators Data Recorder Sliding Window Demand2 Maximum Data Recorder Data Recorder Counters Counter Waveform Recorder Digital Output Data Recorder or Digital Output Digital Output Data Recorder Setpoint conditions can be high demand. demand Trending.
and drag it onto the node diagram. and as such. changing links between modules. Designer Software Designer software lets you configure meters and Virtual Processors by creating new ION modules. if you link: High-speed Power Meter → Maximum → Data Recorder The whole framework operates at high-speed (1 cycle update rate). the update rate of the first module in the framework determines the update rate of the whole framework. If you use an Analog Input module (with a 1 second update rate) instead of the high-speed Power Meter module. Here is an example of two different toolboxes: To add a module. or editing setup registers inside existing modules. press and hold the left mouse button over the icon. If you link multiple modules together to perform a function. it is important to keep in mind whether you want the framework to be a high-speed or high-accuracy framework. The Designer toolbox displays icons for all of the modules available in the ION meter or software node you have open. the framework operates as high-accuracy (1 second update rate). Many modules can also be configured to operate at high-speed. locate its icon in the Designer toolbox. high-accuracy update rate of ION modules on most platforms is one second. The number of highspeed capable modules is usually limited. For example. are updated every cycle. you should only use them if necessary. including the Maximum and Data Recorder modules. Chapter 7 . When programming or linking ION modules.ION Technology Page 127 .System Design Handbook ION Timing Considerations ION Timing Considerations The standard.
setup registers. To view a module’s setup registers. Inputs are shown as triangles on the left side of the module.ION Technology . Designer shows a single line for each link.Designer Software System Design Handbook The node diagram provides a graphical view of all the modules operating inside the ION meter or software node: A module is represented by a simple box. Page 128 Chapter 7 . Grouping windows contain additional modules. Links between one module’s output registers and another module’s inputs appear as black lines. Output registers are shown as triangles on the right side of the module. Double-click grouping windows to open them and display the modules they contain. showing the module’s name and a representative icon. and output registers are listed in the ION Reference. right-click near the center of the module. The ION Module Setup dialog box appears. Right-click near the center of a module to view and edit its setup registers. showing a list of setup registers available for configuration: Complete details on each ION module’s inputs.
Refer to the online ION Reference manual for more information on each module.ION Technology Page 129 .System Design Handbook ION Modules Supported by Each Platform ION Modules Supported by Each Platform This chart lists the ION modules supported by various meters and software. ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7500 RTU ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 ION Virtual Processor ION Module Name ION Modules Supported by Each Platform Alert Analog Input Analog Output AND/OR Arithmetic Averaging Bin Calibration Pulser Clock Communications Convert Counter Data Acquisition Data Monitor Data Recorder Diagnostics Difference Summation Digital Input Digital Output Display Display Options Distributed Boolean Distributed Numeric Distributed Pulse Disturbance Analyzer DNP Slave Export DNP Slave Import DNP Slave Options Event Log Controller External Boolean External Numeric External Pulse Chapter 7 .
ION Technology .ION Modules Supported by Each Platform System Design Handbook ION Module Name Factory Feedback FFT Flicker Harmonics Analyzer Harmonics Evaluation Harmonics Measurement Instr Xformer Correction (ITC) Integrator Launching Log Acquisition Log Export Log Mail Mains Signaling Evaluation Maximum Minimum Modbus Export Modbus Import Modbus Master Device Modbus Master Map Modbus Slave One-Shot Timer Periodic Timer Power Harmonics Power Meter PROFIBUS Slave Export Pulse Merge Pulser Relative Setpoint Sag/Swell Scheduler Scroll Security Option Security User Setpoint Signal Limit Evaluation ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7500 RTU ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 ION Virtual Processor Page 130 Chapter 7 .
System Design Handbook ION Modules Supported by Each Platform ION Module Name Sliding Window Demand* Store Symmetrical Components Thermal Demand Time of Use Transient Voltage Selection Waveform Recorder Web Page XML Import ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7500 RTU ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 ION Virtual Processor * Sliding Window Demand module is used to calculate block and rolling block demand. Chapter 7 .ION Technology Page 131 .
A company that generates power and is affiliated with a utility. the definitions listed here may differ from the ones you’ve seen previously. 10BaseT has a distance limit of approximately 100 meters per segment. which transport sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms that are 120° out of phase from one another. which by definition includes heat losses. The cable is thinner and more flexible then the coaxial cable used for the 10Base2 standard. A variation on the Ethernet standard. A variation of the Ethernet standard. 100BaseT is a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet specification that uses unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring. and energy expenses. but these pulses contain more data than those in 10BaseT. Also known as real/true power delivered to a load. Measured in watts or kilowatts (kW). Factors may include sales. Represents the portion of electrical power that does work. 10Base2 is a 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses 50-ohm thin coaxial cable with a distance limit of 185 meters per segment. and have attempted to include only those that are widely accepted. 10Base2 10BaseF 10BaseT 100BaseT Active Power. We have tried to avoid the use of ambiguous words that have multiple or unclear meanings. service. 3 Phase An electrical system with three different power-carrying lines. 10BaseF is a 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses fiber optic cabling. 100BaseT sends link pulses over a network segment. A note about power quality: Because power quality terminology is not consistent across the industry.A Glossary This glossary defines the various terms that are used in discussions about power monitoring systems. An accounting system that assesses product costs by identifying all factors that lead to final output. A variation on the Fast Ethernet standard. kW Activity-Based Costing Affiliated Power Producer Page 133 . and 10BaseFL standards that cover various topologies and cabling segment lengths. and determined by E*I*PF (voltage x current x power factor). Like the 10BaseT technology. 10BaseT is a 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses two pairs of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling: one pair for transmitting data and the other for receiving data. 10BaseFB. 10BaseF includes the 10Base10FP. A variation of the Ethernet standard.
flow. Utility and facility engineers must size their system equipment in VA in order to provide the current-carrying capacity to handle the worst-case situation. Speed control can be based on rpm. ASDs also reduce maintenance costs. reducing stress on drive components such as belts. valves for pumps. including compressors. The product of RMS voltage applied to a circuit and RMS current flowing through it. and power. The bargaining can be done by a marketer. and reducing the effects of fluctuating voltage from sudden motor startups. e. uppercase A is 65. Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) is a device that changes the speed that an AC motor rotates by changing the characteristics of the electricity (voltage and frequency) supplied to the motor. The standard ASCII character set uses 7 bits for each character. rather than by building a new generation facility. making it possible to transfer data from one computer to another. or volt-amperes (VA). and Air-conditioning Engineers. required to regulate the temperature and humidity of air in a building. Page 134 . Apparent power is a measure of the total electrical power capacity of a distribution system or component equipment. or other representative. One disadvantage is that some ASDs produce harmonics that can be harmful to other electronic equipment. Power supplied to a customer when the normal supply is interrupted. demand. ASDs start motors gradually. pumps.g. The equipment.System Design Handbook Aggregation 1) Combining data from multiple sites to determine total energy usage. Each letter is assigned a number from 0 to 127. Larger character sets that use 8 bits have 128 additional characters for non-English text and math symbols. and load profiles. Air Conditioning System Ampere Apparent Power. or crusher. or by purchasing from another source. pump. By operating the motor slower than the constant speed for which it is designed. Apparent power. 3) Estimating demand and scheduling deliveries of power to a group of customers. ductwork and piping. a buying group. 2) Forming a consumer group that can bargain for the best prices on electricity rates and services. the ASD saves energy (and energy costs) in cases where the motor runs a machine that doesn’t require full output most of the time. temperature. is not the active/true power of the circuit since power factor and reactive power are included in the total (apparent power = active power + reactive power). such as gears. ASDs are more efficient than conventional machine controls. Refrigeration. a code that computers use to represent English text as numbers. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). Decreasing motor speed may extend the life of the motor and the machine due to fewer resolutions and reduced stresses. A utility’s production or transmission cost that is avoided by conservation. pressure. VA ASCII Adjustable Speed Drive ASHRAE Avoided Cost Back-up Power American Society of Heating. evaporators. utilities have encouraged the purchase of ASDs. To reduce both peak electric demand and customers' energy costs. and outlet dampers for fans. such as a fan. The standard unit for measuring the strength of an electrical current.
A load in which the capacitive reactance exceeds the inductive reactance. The capacitance in a circuit resulting from adjacent turns on coils.” loads can create resonance conditions that cause harmfully high line voltages on the supply bus.System Design Handbook Ballast A device that provides a high initial voltage to activate the gas discharge in a fluorescent or HID lamp and then quickly limits the lamp current to safely sustain operation. so its ohmic value decreases when frequency increases. (Use “undervoltage” instead. current or voltage transients. so you need to deliver more power (and current) than necessary to do actual. which reduce internal losses in the lamp and conserve energy. Often used to describe sustained periods of undervoltage. This phase shift causes the active power for the load to be less than if the waveforms were synchronized. capacitor. Capacitive and inductive loads can cause excessive demand for current because the reactive power lowers active power even though current remains the same. useful work (see Power Factor). Since a capacitive load resists changes in voltage. or “leading. resulting from intentional utility operations to reduce power demand. Bridges can support a full Ethernet segment port. parallel leads and connections. the current waveform leads the voltage waveform in time.) Combining the costs of electrical generation. A mathematical logic unit that is comprised of only one of two values: true or false. transmission. and is expressed in Hz. its use should be avoided. The amount of occupied frequency space. Bandwidth Boolean Bridge Brownout Bundling Capacitance Capacitance. allowing a LAN to grow significantly larger. contributing to a load’s total impedance (impedance = resistance + capacitive reactance + inductive reactance). Page 135 . Electronic ballasts convert the lamp’s operating frequency from 60 Hz to a range between 20 and 40 kHz. so each port gets 10 Mbps of bandwidth. the current flow through the load leads the voltage. Distributed Capacitive Coupling Capacitive Load Capacitive Reactance The opposition to the flow of AC current at a given frequency by a capacitance. distribution. or from fallen power lines or utility equipment failures. since there is no formal definition for brownout. A ballast generally contains a small transformer. reduced by an amount known as reactive power. Bridges also filter network traffic to only those packets needed on each segment. An inherent property of an electric circuit or device to oppose changes in voltage and store electrical energy when a potential difference exists across it.e. and electronic circuitry. increasing data throughput. Coupling of a signal between two circuits due to discrete or parasitic capacitance between the circuits. determined by the difference between the high and low frequencies of a transmission band. Bandwidth is used to measure network capacity. Capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to the current’s frequency. i. A device that passes data packets between two network segments. and other services into a single rate charged to the customer. However. Capacitive. damaging currents and. when capacitors are switched on or off.
when the current exceeds a predetermined limit. The server can perform the back-end tasks that are common to similar applications. an open standard for two-way wireless data communications at 19. Server programs usually run on another machine on the network. A network architecture where clients request service from servers.14159. database servers run on platforms specially designed to perform queries. Captured Wire Connector CBEMA CD (Carrier Detect) CDDI CDPD CE Circuit Breaker Chiller Client/Server Page 136 . substation mounted. c = capacitance in µF. as well as the monitor. CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface). A capacitor bank may be pole mounted.System Design Handbook Capacitor A device that stores electrical energy and releases it back into the power system when required. or metal enclosed (pad mounted). CDDI transmits over relatively short distances. or high powered-processors. and peripherals. it offers both file and application services. In client/server computing. about 100 meters. software is separated into its constituent parts (modules).2 kbps over cellular telephone channels. the standards mark granted by CENELEC (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique). A connector type that is designed to safely hold bare stranded wire cable ends. Server programs fulfill client requests by performing the task. A thermal-magnetic device for opening an electrical circuit. The power rating of a capacitor is expressed by: kVAR = [2πfcV2]/1000 where π= 3. and file servers run on platforms with special capabilities for managing files. and V = volts in kV Capacitor Bank A collection of individual capacitor units grouped to form a particular kVAR and voltage rating. an implementation of FDDI over shielded and unshielded twisted pair cabling. If the server is the host operating system or network file server. Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association Curve. A signal generated by a modem indicating that a call has been connected. A refrigeration machine used to transfer heat from a fluid. which are executed in different memory spaces for easier development and maintenance. such as water in a chilled water system. to another fluid. thereby shutting off electric power. CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data). A server also manages shared resources such as databases. workstation CPU. CE (European Community). For example. Client programs send messages to server programs requesting that the server perform a task (service). Clients and servers run on platforms appropriate for their functions. keyboard. communication links. See ITI Curve. printers. f = frequency in Hz. Client programs run on PCs or workstations and usually manage the user-interface portion of the application.
For example. the primary winding is provided by the line conductor. to another like medium. and conductive coupling passes the full spectrum of frequencies. Noise voltage that appears equally from current-carrying conductor to ground. Different types of coupling include capacitive (electrostatic). a dielectric. Wound Primary transformers are used where very high accuracy or high voltage isolation is required. or direct.414. and a shield. The ratio of the crest (peak) value of the measured waveform to the RMS value of the fundamental waveform. Failure for such a load to operate properly can result in financial loss. damage to property. Also. burning natural gas to produce electricity and using the heat produced to create steam for industrial use. The current measurement range is the ratio of full scale primary current to full scale secondary current. or provides isolation. coupling is achieved by physical contact through wire. inductive (magnetic). The primary winding is connected in series with the conductor whose current is measured or controlled. The transfer of energy from one medium. The circuitry necessary to protect relay contacts from excessive and possibly damaging current caused by capacitive loads. Current Transformer/Power Transformer. In Wound Primary types. Devices whose operation is critical. Page 137 . the crest factor of a sinusoidal wave is 1. such as metallic wire or optical fiber. or common terminal. whereas inductive coupling favors transfer of lower frequency components. Capacitive coupling favors transfer of higher frequency components. There are two types of current transformers: Window and Wound Primary. The simultaneous production of power and thermal energy. or threats to safety. Capacitive coupling occurs due to mutual capacitance between the circuits. such as. fuse. including DC. Any type of breaker. and conductive (resistive or hard-wire). Distortion in the AC line current (deviation from the normal sine wave). and inductive coupling is a result of mutual inductance between the circuits. resistor. Instrument transformers that are used to reduce system voltages and currents to safe levels for metering purposes. tests equipment safety and gives certificate of approval. the primary winding is an integral part of the transformer and usually consists of more that one turn. a concentric cable consisting of a center conductor.System Design Handbook Coaxial Cable A transmission medium usually consisting of one central wire surrounded by an insulator and encased in either a wire mesh or an extruded metal sheathing. Generally used for measurement or control purposes to scale large primary or bus currents to usable values. or recloser that can open a circuit after sensing an abnormal condition. In Window types. Co-generation Common Mode Voltage Coupling Crest Factor Critical Load Current Distortion Current Interrupter Current Surge Limiting Current Transformer CSA CT/PT CSA (Canadian Standards Association). A transformer that scales AC currents up or down. Conductive.
fuses. power supplies. transmission. Delta-Delta Delta-Wye Demand.” Ability of a power producer to sell directly to the retail customer. distribution. Either a dry contact or solid state relay.System Design Handbook Delta A wiring system for distributing and utilizing 3-phase power. transmission. A surcharge applied by utilities after a demand peak is exceeded. and operating cogeneration equipment or auxiliary generators at the best available opportunities. or Energized and De-Energized). which they must do. DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) Rail. commercial. Detects only two states (ON and OFF. The connection between a delta source and a delta load. The utility’s ratchet clause may stipulate that the minimum billed demand is at least 40% to 90% of the peak demand recorded in the previous 11 months. even though the highest demand from a large industrial customer may occur during only one month of the year. and other services are divided into separate rates. kW or MW Demand Control Demand Ratchet Demand Side Management Deregulation Differential Mode Voltage Digital Input Digital Output DIN Dip Direct Access Page 138 . etc. A standardized mounting rail (named after the German standards organization) on which components (meters. See “sag. The voltage between any two active conductors. Such programs promote energy efficiency. breakers. fuel substitution. The connection between a delta source and a wye load. Utilities charge a ratchet to offset the cost of maintaining full generation capacity all year long. Reductions in kWh waste are achieved by accurately identifying department or cost center energy consumption. The rate at which electric energy is delivered to a load at a given instant or averaged over a designated time interval. or institutional organization to control peak demand to a management-specified target level. The modification of federal and state laws and regulations that govern the generation. Demand control is implemented by scheduling major electrical loads to avoid simultaneous peaks and by reducing energy (kWh) waste. load management. Three powercarrying conductors are used with possibly a fourth safety ground wire. This is currently leading to the “unbundling” of electricity. It is usually expressed in kilowatts or megawatts. The ends of each phase winding are connected in series to form a closed loop with each phase 120 electrical degrees from the other. Methods used by utilities to manage energy demand and reduce consumption by influencing when and how customers use electricity.) can be mounted via a snap-on connector. The voltage between any two power wires is the rated distribution voltage which is 208 Vac in North America and 380 to 415 Vac in other countries. and incentives for switching electricity use from mid-day to evening. where the costs of electrical generation. A series of strategies developed by an industrial. and distribution of electricity. measuring the benefits of equipment retrofits.
RTUs. Environmental Impact Statement The ability of a device to function properly in its environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic interference to any other equipment. distribution is the process of using feeders and circuits to provide power to devices. file transfer. The voltage at which a device fails to operate.0 DOE DPU Dropout Dropout Voltage DSM EEI EIA Department of Energy in the United States Department of Public Utilities in the United States Loss of equipment operation due to noise. For the utility. breaker positions. distribution refers to the process of routing power from the power plant to consumers.0 makes unsolicited responses. Any device may transmit at any time (not only when it’s recognized by a master). RS-422 and RS-423 standards for connecting serial devices. clock synchronization. For the consumer. See Power Quality Disturbance. DNP 3. Automating the operation of substations. and alarming of substations from a central location. It is managed by the DNP Users Group whose members represent utilities and vendors. demand. freezing data. and collision avoidance. The way power is routed to various sites or devices. The EIA sponsors a number of activities on behalf of its members. standards-based inter operability among substation computers. reportby-exception. and peer-to-peer operations easier. current.System Design Handbook Distortion Distribution Deviation from a normal sine wave for an AC quantity such as current or voltage. polling. Remote devices can communicate with each other because any device can send a request or response. and master stations (except inter-master station links) for the electric utility industry. Distribution Automation Distribution System Disturbance DNP 3.0) was designed to achieve open. It has been responsible for developing some important standards. By including the source and destination address of each message. including conferences and trade shows. DNP performs functions such as initialization. This requires remote monitoring. so the utility can automatically process data about each substation’s voltage. IEDs. EIS Electromagnetic Compatibility Page 139 . such as Ethernet and packet radio. DNP 3. See Demand Side Management. or an interruption. and operating conditions. such as the RS-232. control and set point outputs. Edison Electric Institute EIA (Electronic Industries Association) is a trade association representing the US high technology community. The equipment that carries or controls the supply of electricity from the local high voltage transmission lines to the customer. multiple masters.0 (Distributed Network Protocol Version 3. DNP can be carried by many different types of media. control. power disturbances. a sag.
Energy Service Company. inter harmonics. Factors affecting human welfare not included in the monetary cost of a product (i. mains signaling. with one kilowatt hour. For example. An extension to Ethernet is Fast Ethernet operating at 100 Mbps. efficient. air pollution caused by power generation). you can watch television for about 3 hours. The conductor that connects non-current-carrying parts of equipment enclosures to neutral. Generation (GG). EMI causes data errors. The Ethernet specification describes the implementation of the physical and data link layers of the OSI Reference Model.e. the integral of active power with respect to time.e. Plt. A standard that defines acceptable levels and evaluation criteria for flicker. a power supplier. i. They are exempt from PUHCA. the flicker measurement. which is the amount of work done by 1. EN 50160 bundles several other standards including IEC 61000-4-15 (flicker) and IEC 61000-4-7 (harmonics and inter harmonics). voltage deviations. Physical variations of Ethernet include 10BaseF and 10BaseT. For example. An exempt wholesale generator is a company that generates power solely for wholesale use and not to the public. isolation transformer). kWh Energy Management Process Energy Policy Act (1992) Energy Pulsing EPRI ESCO quipment Ground Conductor Ethernet Equipment Wholesale Externalities Page 140 . One pulse is sent out by a device for every “x” kWh. Legislation in the United States that authorized FERC to introduce competition at the wholesale level using new open access requirements for transmission and authorization of exempt wholesale generators. a non-profit organization established in 1973 and headquartered in Palo Alto. delivery and use affordable. must not exceed a value of “1” more than 5% of the time during a one-week observation period. A technique for developing the most energy efficient operation of a facility. Consumers are charged for electricity in cents per kWh. that manages science/technology research and development for the electricity industry. EPRI is organized into 5 groups: Customer Systems (CSG). Also. EPRI’s objective is to make electric power generation. and Power Delivery (PDG).System Design Handbook EMI EN 50160 EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is interference by electromagnetic signals on transmission lines. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). and environmentally sound throughout the world. Environment (EG). The capacity for doing work and overcoming resistance. A method of transmitting energy consumption information. and Digital Equipment Corporation. and more. the grounding electrode at the main panel or secondary of a separate system (e. A 10 Mbps LAN (Local Area Network) specification invented by Xerox and developed jointly by Intel. Energy.g.000 watts for one hour. Nuclear Power (NPG). The receiving device counts the pulses and can convert them back to kWh if it knows “x”. More than 700 utilities are members of the Institute. Energy is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). California.
In an AC power system. A short circuit on the power system.System Design Handbook Fast Ethernet An extension of the Ethernet specification. A high-pass filter lets all signals above a given frequency pass. FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). as a function of frequency. Data is safely preserved and uncorrupted during power failures. It subjects industrial loads to momentary interruptions. tree branches. It involves protective relaying where the recloser (or circuit breaker) operates faster than a fuse can blow. A device that heats up. A bandpass filter lets a given band of frequencies pass while attenuating all others. Because it preserves Ethernet data format. An increase or decrease in the power frequency lasting from several cycles to several hours. For example. A low-pass filter lets only frequencies below a given frequency pass. federal agency responsible for regulating interstate wholesale electricity markets and the interstate transmission of electricity. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface). It is usually triggered by lightening. a graph of the variation of the impedance of a system or a metering transducer. in voice transmissions between two people. Fast Tripping Fault FDDI FERC Filter Firmware Flicker Frequency Deviation Frequency Response Fundamental Frequency Full Duplex Fuse Page 141 . EPROM and EEPROM memory chips reside in ION digital power meters to store setup data. usually 50 or 60 Hz. Software instructions that are stored in Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) or Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM). In power quality terms. Arc furnaces are common triggers of voltage flicker on utility transmission and distribution systems. including calibration and voltage scales. Simultaneous data transmission between a sending station and a receiving station.5% and frequencies of 6 Hz to 8 Hz. and electrically opens a circuit after a period of prolonged abnormal current flow. melts. the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate. A common utility practice for clearing faults by momentarily interrupting current flow. they can talk at the same time and still be heard. or animals and can be cleared by momentarily interrupting the current. rapid variations in load current magnitude. Voltage flicker can be a result of loads that have continuous. An electronic device that attenuates certain frequencies while allowing others to pass through. These fluctuations cause perceptible lamp (lighting) flicker. is a 100 Mbps LAN specification for a token-passing network using fiber optic cabling with transmission distances of up to 2 km. existing 10BaseT applications and network management tools can be used on Fast Ethernet networks. A common term used to describe a series of random or continuous voltage fluctuations that are a maximum of 10% lower or higher than the normal voltage waveform. Fast Ethernet offers a speed increase of ten times. even at magnitudes as low as 0.
Conductor(s) in contact with the earth to connect with ground. icons. This electrode may be a water pipe. Harmonic distortion levels can be magnified by resonance conditions created by power factor correction capacitors. and windows are typical. and shortened equipment life. or the steel frame of the building. Metallic surface mats and gratings are sometimes used for this purpose. A potentially detrimental loop in an electrical system where two or more points. Distortion of the normal sinusoidal waveform by a series of harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. are connected such that they are not at the same ground potential. mechanical. driven ground rod. When two or more grounds have a potential difference between them. software user interface with pictorial and textual representations of information. A conducting connection from an electric circuit or device to the earth (or a substitute body). Ground Electrode Ground Fault Ground Grid Ground Loop GUI Half Duplex Handshake Harmonics Harmonic Distortion Harmonic Filter Page 142 . A device for filtering harmonics from the power system. they are referenced to ground. An undesired path that allows current to flow from a line to ground. For example. capacitance. Most are combinations of inductance.System Design Handbook FPA Generation Ground Federal Power Act The process of converting thermal. 180 Hz is the third harmonic of 60 Hz. which are nominally at ground potential. Data transmission in only one direction at a time between a sending station and a receiving station. Harmonic distortion can cause motors and transformers to overheat. relays and controls to mis-operate. regenerative motor controls. data corruption. rectifiers and computer power supplies. For example. induction heating equipment. transformer magnetizing currents. Often when characteristics of an electrical circuit are measured. in voice transmissions between two people. Voltage or current signals that are not at the desired 50 or 60 Hz fundamental frequency. 120 Hz is the second harmonic of 60 Hz. Sequence of messages exchanged between two or more network devices to ensure transmission synchronization. current can flow creating a new circuit or loop that can interfere with the normal operation of the system. such as variable frequency and DC motor drives. but instead at integer multiples of the fundamental. Harmonic distortion can be created by any electronic device that draws a non-sinusoidal current (a nonlinear load). and ground currents are conducted to and from earth. A system of interconnected bare conductors arranged in a pattern on or below the earth’s surface. Conventions such as buttons. GUI (Graphical User Interface). only one person can talk at a time and be heard. capacitor failure. Through this connection. and resistance. It provides safety for people working on a circuit in the area by limiting potential differences if the circuit becomes energized or a short circuit occurs. and many actions are performed using a mouse. the device maintains the earth’s voltage potential. chemical or nuclear energy into electric energy.
HID systems are the most cost-effective method of lighting industrial plants. sports fields. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). simple hypertext document formatting language that uses tags to indicate how a given part of a document is interpreted by a viewing application. is composed of National Committees representing all the industrialized countries in the world. A switching hub reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port. and some commercial buildings.Art. All mercury vapor and metal halide lighting systems. It defines flicker perception quantities called Pst values.System Design Handbook Harmonic Number Harmonic Resonance HID An integer that is the ratio of a harmonic frequency to the fundamental frequency. but all ports have to share a single network bandwidth. warehouses. “The object of the Commission is to promote international co-operation on all questions of standardization and related matters in the fields of electrical and electronic engineering and thus to promote international understanding. the protocol used by Web browsers and Web servers to transfer files. Heating. processors. HID (High Intensity Discharge) Lamps. Ventilating. servers. A condition in which the power system resonates near one of the major harmonics produced by a nonlinear load. such as a Web browser. such as text and graphic files. A flicker measurement standard that includes design specifications for flicker meters. and routers. Most digital flicker meters are based on this standard. A passive hub simply passes data go from one network segment to another. founded in 1906. A hub takes an incoming data packet and copies it to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see the packets. whereas node generally means any device on the network. IED (Intelligent Electronic Device). signs. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). ION meters are often referred to as IEDs. A common connection point for network segments required for star topologies. thus exacerbating any harmonic distortion. Hypertext is electronicallystored text that allows direct access to other texts by way of encoded links. roadways. workstations. Air Conditioning. Similar to the term node. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). except that host usually implies a computer system. an international organization that produces standards and guidelines covering most aspects of electricity use. Host HTML HTTP Hub HVAC IEC IEC 61000-4-7 IEC 61000-4-15 IED IEEE Page 143 . 2) A standard measurement technique for harmonics and inter harmonics. Hubs allow LANs to extend beyond normal distance limitations. the IEC. parking areas. including IEDs. developed so that readings from different devices can be reliably compared. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). an instrument that can perform local data processing and storage functions. A computer system on a network.” (Statutes . which are combined over 10-minute periods to produce Plt values.
contributing to a load’s total impedance (impedance = resistance + capacitive reactance + inductive reactance). such as lamps and motors. temporary non-power frequency change in voltage or current that is unidirectional in polarity.2). an inductive. so you need to deliver more power (and current) than necessary to do actual. useful work (see Power Factor).3) of power quality events. IEEE 868 IEEE 1159 Impedance. inductive reactance. and data exchange (P1159. the current flow through the load lags the voltage. i. It describes acceptable harmonics levels at the point of common coupling between the utility and the energy consumer. and conductor coils are inductive loads. Inductive reactance is directly proportional to the current’s frequency. A load in which the inductive reactance exceeds the capacitive reactance. high voltage transients are generated due to the collapsing magnetic field. Three IEEE working groups are expanding the 1159 standard. Introduced in 1986 and intended for analog measuring devices.1). When turned on. can exhibit an inrush current of up to 5 times its normal running current. When power is removed from the inductive load. draw a larger initial current because their impedance is lower at startup than during regular operation.System Design Handbook IEEE 519-1992 An IEEE-recommended practice. characterization (P1159. but below that of the visible light and ultraviolet. reduced by an amount known as reactive power (see Reactive Power).e. Ω Impulse Inductive Load Inductive Reactance The opposition to the flow of AC current at a given frequency by an inductance. and capacitive reactance. If the consumer doesn’t cause harmonics that exceed these levels. An IEEE-recommended practice for the proper monitoring and interpretation of electromagnetic phenomena that cause power quality problems. A report that gives functional and design specifications for flicker-measuring apparatus. A surge of electrical power in one direction. valves. It is measured in ohms. or a malfunction. The preferred term is impulsive transient which is a sudden. Inductive and capacitive loads can cause excessive demand for current because the reactive power lowers active power even though current remains the same. The peak value of current that a load requires when first being energized. so its ohmic value increases when frequency increases. or “lagging” load. Impedance consists of resistance. Inrush Current Infrared Page 144 . solenoids. This phase shift causes the active power for the load to be less than if the waveforms were synchronized. Since an inductive load resists changes in current. and/ or damage to electronic circuits. and these can cause arcing across contacts. The opposition to the flow of AC current at a given frequency. Devices such as motors. focusing on the measurement (P1159. relay coils. Electromagnetic waves whose frequency range is above that of radio waves and microwaves. the current waveform lags the voltage waveform in time. Certain types of loads. it has been replaced by IEC 61000-4-15. then the delivery of electricity should be reliable.
equipment failures. Delayed reclosing may cause a momentary or temporary interruption. IOU (Investor Owned Utility). (2) temporary.System Design Handbook Inter harmonics Voltages or currents that have frequency components that are not integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. Under this service. (3) sustained. induction motors. For large organizations. but available only within one organization. Instantaneous reclosing usually limits the interruption to less than 30 cycles. A short duration decrease in supply voltage or load current to less than 10% of nominal for a duration of less than 1 minute. cyclo-converters. a complete loss of voltage on one or more phase conductors lasting from 3 seconds to 1 minute. There are 3 kinds of interruptions: (1) momentary. It allows the general public – millions of people – to use email and access the World Wide Web for information or commerce. In most cases. Internet Intranet Interruptible Service Interruption Isolated Ground Integrated Resource Planning ION A grounding conductor that runs in the same conduit as the supply conductors. and control malfunctions. The Internet is a worldwide system of linked computer networks. setup registers and output registers. typically during peak service hours. Utility that is structured as a tax-paying business financed through sales of common stock. An Intranet is a private network using Internet-type tools. The main sources of inter harmonics are static frequency converters. some of them may be preceded by a voltage sag. It is insulated from the metallic raceway and all ground points throughout its length. Inter harmonics affect power line carrier signaling and cause visual flicker in displays such as CRTs. an Intranet provides employees with easy access to corporate and departmental information. IOU Page 145 . The duration of an interruption due to equipment malfunctions or loose connections is not as predictable. The process many utility commissions use to select the generation resources needed to meet future demand for electricity. The duration of an interruption caused by a utility system fault is determined by response time of the utility’s protective devices. When you combine (or link) several modules you can create custom functions on an ION meter. and arcing devices. It is organized under state law as a corporation for the purpose of providing electric power service and earning a profit for its shareholders. Sales and transportation service that is offered at a lower cost and lower level of reliability. Interruptions can be triggered by utility system faults. the price and availability charged take into account the price of the customer’s alternative source. When interruptions are caused by faults. These sustained interruptions are often permanent and require human intervention. a complete loss of voltage on one or more phase conductors lasting from 30 cycles to 3 seconds. Interruptible services are provided through individually negotiated contracts. power companies can interrupt customers on short notice. a complete loss of voltage on one or more phase conductors for greater than 1 minute. Each module consists of inputs. ION is a software architecture that is comprised of a functional building blocks called ION modules.
IPP ISDN ISO ISO 9000 ITI ITU-T K-Factor LAN Page 146 . This allows many users to share equipment. the international organization responsible for a wide range of standards. the greater the per-unit price. the ITU-T was created in 1993. The ITU-T works towards the worldwide standardization of telecommunications related to technical. The more electricity a customer uses. voice. A set of international quality management standards defined by ISO. including those relevant to networking and quality control. ITI (Information Technology Industry Council) Curve. A set of curves representing the capabilities of a device to withstand a voltage disturbance. peripherals. such as printers. as well as information (via email.12. and a host number to address the individual host. and other source traffic. and other devices. are characterized by their topology. FDDI. An IP address is written as 4 octets separated by periods (for example. 35. offered by telephone companies. low-error data network connecting workstations. replacing the former International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee (CCITT). and Token Ring. high-speed. such as Ethernet. and tariff issues. The curve. operational.110. developed by ITI (formerly called CBEMA). A 32-bit address assigned to network hosts (computer systems) using TCP/IP protocol. and allow companies to demonstrate that they have specific processes to maintain an efficient quality system. for example).System Design Handbook Interruptible Loads Inverted Rates IP Address Loads that by contract can be interrupted if the supplier needs the energy to meet other requirements. IPP (Independent Power Producer). The standards are not specific to any country. ISO (International Organization for Standardization). and physical media. A LAN covers a relatively small area. within a department or building. k-factor = (losses from load current with given RMS)/(losses from sinusoidal current with the same RMS) LAN (Local Area Network). or product. that permits telephone networks to carry data. extending up to a few thousand meters across.45). ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication Standardization Sector). in terms of the disturbance's magnitude and duration. protocols. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). is the standard for measuring performance of all types of equipment and power systems. Each workstation can execute programs and access other data and devices on the LAN. industry. The ratio of estimated winding eddy current losses in a transformer. Each address contains network and sub-network numbers for routing. Different types of LANs. a company that generates power but is not affiliated with an electric utility. A rate structure that prices successive blocks of power use at increasingly higher per-unit prices. a communications protocol.
A variation of the RMS voltage from nominal voltage for longer than 1 minute. The variation in the magnitude of the power load over a daily.e. Different loads can be cycled on and off. any one of which can shut down for five. (2) The amount of electric power required at any given time by industrial. The relationship between current and voltage is linear. Usually described in terms of an undervoltage. One factor that affects electric peaks is air-conditioning use. If the voltage of this signal is too large.to 15-minute periods without undue hardship. This may be with reference to peak hours. The EN 50160 standard specifies the maximum allowable mains signaling voltage for frequencies up to 10 kHz. non-essential loads are shed as soon as demand exceeds a certain value. ballasts. sockets and lamps. peak days or peak seasons. or residential energy consumers. i. including fixtures.g. and the green wire is ground. A package containing multiple protection devices to provide. A given condition between a phase conductor and a neutral conductor. In some cases.System Design Handbook Lighting Systems All components used in providing a building with artificial light. The management of load patterns in order to reduce power demand at peak load times or to shift some of it to off-peak times. The black (or red or blue) wire is the line conductor. the white wire is the neutral. including air handlers. A given condition between conductors of a multi-phase feeder. so the shapes of the current and voltage waveforms are the same. weekly or annual period. Line Line Conditioner Line to Line Line to Neutral Linear Load Load Load Management Load Profile Long Duration Variation Low-Side Surge Mains Signal Marginal Cost Page 147 . An electrical device that presents an essentially constant load impedance to the power source throughout the AC voltage waveform cycle. or wastewater treatment units. A communications signal carried on a power transmission and distribution system. (1) An electrical device that draws power and presents an impedance to the power source. commercial. The current surge that is injected into a transformer’s secondary terminals when lightning strikes grounded conductors in the area. similar to the way excessive harmonics and inter harmonics do. The voltage difference between the line conductor and the neutral is the supply voltage. the cost to produce one additional kWh of electricity). all current flow occurs at the fundamental frequency. for example. or voltage interruption. generally arranged in such a way as to provide a predetermined level of illumination. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across a linear load. it can interfere with the operation of electrical equipment. This type of load does not produce harmonics. electrical noise isolation and voltage regulation. which is therefore a prime target for load management efforts. 120 volts. The cost to increase output by one unit (e. overvoltage. lighting. One or more power-carrying conductors for power distribution. water pumps.
North American Electric Reliability Council Nuclear Regulatory Commission Non-Utility Generator Any device or processing location on a network. MV-90 was developed by UTS (Utility Translation Systems. or just Master. Devices can be set up to use either of two transmission modes: ASCII or RTU.). modem. The Master Control Station operates within a SCADA system. PowerView and ION Enterprise operations software perform advanced Master Station functions. The MV-90 system supports communication protocols for many large commercial and industrial electric and gas meters supplied in the United States and Europe. Modbus Remote Terminal Unit (RTU). and demand-side management capabilities. Modbus RTU can be carried by RS-232/485. or by performing the action requested. In RTU mode. function code. and energy aggregators. and dial in-bound telephone. a subsidiary of Itron Inc. serial communications network that supports up to 247 slave devices. Modbus RTU MTBF Municipal Utility MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure). An electric utility system owned and/or operated by a municipality that generates and/or purchases electricity at wholesale for distribution to retail customers generally within the boundaries of the municipality. MV-90 supports multiple methods of data retrieval. and routers. The Modbus protocol establishes the format for the master's query and slave’s response. including handheld readers. A protocol developed by Modicon Corporation. a statistical estimate of the time a component. national accounts. parity. All devices on the network must be configured for the same transmission mode and serial communications (baud rate. and error checking. The master can initiate transactions (queries). multi-drop. each byte contains two ASCII characters. printers. or can initiate a broadcast message to all slaves. collecting and analyzing data from RTUs as well as initiating control actions.System Design Handbook Master Control Unit Or Master Control Station (MCU or MCS). billing. The greater character density of RTU mode allows better data throughput. workstations. or operating unit operates before failure will occur. The master can address individual slaves. Modicon’s Modbus network is a single-master. Inc. and the slaves respond by supplying the requested data to the master. MV-PBS is a power billing system for complex revenue billing of large commercial and industrial gas and electric customers. servers. each message contains binary characters.). with fields for address. MV-90 software supplies more than 70% of major electric utilities in the United States with advanced metering. In ASCII mode. cartridge readers. including IEDs or other devices. MV-90 is a software package for acquisition and analysis of electric and gas usage data from large commercial and industrial meters. Another UTS software package. processors. or Ethernet connections. data. MV-90 MV-PBS NERC NRC NUG Node Page 148 . It provides the primary operator interface and manages overall system functions. etc. subassembly. A typical Master is a computer workstation or a programming panel.
session. The model defines a way to implement protocols in seven layers. and the least troublesome is on the output of a small power source serving one load. All nonlinear loads produce harmonics. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across a nonlinear load. Thus. loads with solid-state rectifiers. error control. The layers are named as follows: physical. flow control.g. harmonic currents occur at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. draw harmonic currents in different proportions. Control is passed from one layer to the next. For example. Noise causes undesirable effects in electronic equipment including PCs and programmable controllers. in turn. addressing. The lower the order of the harmonic current. The problems can be mitigated with filters. and reliable message transfer. Nonlinear loads also create harmonic voltages in the wiring system. During commutation. arcing equipment. 180 Hz. Nominal Voltage (Vn) Non-linear Load Notching A periodic voltage disturbance induced by the normal operation of electronics devices when current is commutated from one phase to another to produce continuous DC current. Noise can be triggered by electronic devices. so the exact curve is determined with testing. 600 V). which occur at each harmonic frequency of the current and in proportion to the current’s frequency. control circuits. or curved. and line conditioners. These voltages are propagated to all downstream points on the wiring system. OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model. interfaces to other applications. A voltage that appears between active circuit conductors. there is a momentary short circuit between two phases.System Design Handbook Noise Unwanted electrical signals that distort power signals. so small amounts of high order harmonic current can produce significant harmonic voltages. Noise consists of high frequency signals (lower than 200 kHz) that are superimposed on voltage or current waveforms and are present on a more or less continuous basis. data link. a network architectural model developed by ISO and ITU-T. 480/277 V. The layers specify network functions such as physical links. The amount of curvature is highly variable and unique to each non-linear load. the worst place to create a harmonic voltage is at a service transformer. Electrical device that draws current discontinuously or whose impedance varies throughout the AC voltage waveform cycle. 300 Hz. Normal Mode Voltage OSI Page 149 . aggravating the harmonics problem. A nominal value assigned to a system to designate its voltage class (as 208/120 V. then over the channel to the next device and back up to the top layer. The impedances develop voltage drops. e. presentation. the greater the waveform distortion (each integer multiple of the fundamental is called an order). and the upper five only in software. improved grounding. isolation transformers. The lower two layers are implemented in hardware and software. and switching power supplies. transport. pulling the voltage close to zero. 1 A of 3rd harmonic current produces three times the voltage drop that 1 A of 60 Hz current does. starting at the application layer in one device. The lowest layer (the physical layer) is closest to the wiring and the highest layer (application layer) is closest to the user. network. moving to the bottom layer. The nonlinear loads. 60 Hz. mainly by the flow of harmonic currents through the wiring system’s impedances (generally inductances). and application. The relationship between current and voltage is non-linear.
However. also known as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). A light sensitive element producing current. A time displacement of one waveform relative to another waveform. Displacement Page 150 . It is measured as the product of effective values of voltage and current with the cosine of the phase angle between current and voltage in an ac circuit. but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads. The rate at which work is done. Overvoltages are usually the result of switching off a large load or energizing a capacitor bank. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). Performance-Based Rates A type of network in which each device has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. a term used to describe load shedding and load cycling equipment. The power factor of the fundamental frequency components of the voltage and current waveforms. providing a guarantee of some level of performance. A voltage increase of at least 10% above the nominal voltage for greater than 1 minute. The overvoltages occur because voltage controls are inadequate. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler and less expensive. PMU (Power Management Unit). This differs from server/client (master/slave) architectures. outage is defined by IEEE Std 1008 as the state of a component that has failed to function as expected. PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). It can contain a header and footer (for synchronization and control) as well as user data. It is used in conjunction with a relay to turn circuits on or off depending on ambient lighting levels. or tap settings on transformers are incorrect. Utilities use the terms “outage” or “interruption” to describe similar phenomena for reliability reporting purposes. e. A value-added service offered by a utility. Overvoltage Packet PBR Peer-to-Peer Architecture Performance Contract Phase Shift Photoelectric Control PLC PMU POTS Power Power Factor.System Design Handbook Outage This term should be avoided in discussions of power quality.g. A source or a means of supplying power. not as a power quality disturbance. where some computers are responsible for serving others. expressed as amount of work per unit time and commonly measured in Watts or horsepower. level of power quality. a computerized controller that stores instructions for device operation and sequencing. A unit of information sent over a network. General term referring to the variety of worldwide telephone networks and services.
System Design Handbook Power Factor (kVA) The ratio of RMS value of active power to the RMS value of apparent power. To meet this demand for current. error control. These merchants typically do not own generating facilities. Disturbances include transients. The lower the power factor. General term referring to the variety of worldwide telephone networks and services. Power factor represents demand for electric current. but usually the highest that can be achieved is 0. Power pools are especially common in the northeastern US. The format of data transmitted between two or more devices. Power Frequency Variations The deviation of the power system fundamental frequency from it specified nominal value (e. data compression. Any disruption or distortion to the normal magnitudes and/or sinusoidal waveforms of voltages and currents. PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). harmonics. Not every protocol stack covers each layer of the model and often a single protocol in the stack addresses a number of layers at once. The ideal power factor value is 1. A company that buys and resells power. Public Utilities Commission Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 Power Marketer Power Pool Power Quality Disturbance Protocol Protocol Stack PSTN PUC PUHCA PURPA Page 151 . TCP/IP) that operate together and handle communications at some or all of the layers of a network specification like Ethernet. An inductive load produces lagging power factor (negative value) and a capacitive load produces leading power factor (positive value).g. and substations. also known as POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). The size and duration of the variation depends on the load characteristics and the response of the generation system to load changes. sags. transformers. These variations are a result of changes in the dynamic balance between generation and load on a power supply system. rather than with the utility system itself. so utilities charge customers who have low power factor. Devices must use the same protocol in order to communicate with each other. A set of related communications protocols (e.g. Penalties are generally imposed for power factors below 0. and interruptions. A group of utilities that coordinate the operation of their power plants and share the costs between themselves. causing misoperation or failure of equipment. 50 Hz or 60 Hz). the utility must build sufficient generating capacity with adequate lines. the higher the demand for current. Today. A protocol defines how addressing.95. swells. variations are more likely to occur with generators isolated from the utility system.9. resulting from the supply of power to inductive or capacitive loads. Higher than necessary power factor means that the utility must make unnecessary investments in equipment and distribution capacity.0. and other characteristics are represented in the data stream so that information can be processed properly once it reaches its final destination.
which by definition includes heat losses. hourly-based rates that reflect the time-varying cost of generating and transmitting electricity. RTP. Australia. United Kingdom. the automated system can manage a facility’s energy use. are stored and continually updated in the IEDs’ non-volatile RAM. Random Access Memory that can be read and written by a microprocessor. including energy. min/max values. the recloser shuts itself off again. It shuts off electric power when a problem. in turn. A load that exhibits capacitive and/or inductive reactance. In inductive loads. they sell power to utilities at the utilities' avoided cost). which can offset the effects of these inductive loads. the recloser remains off so that a utility crew can perform line repairs and restore power by manually resetting the recloser. Based on this RTP information. which is measured in kilovolt-amperes reactive (kVAR). Power providers in the US. The advantage over software-based monitoring and trending is that records are kept even when communications are unreliable or during a power failure. Utilities. A recloser then automatically tests the electrical line to determine if the problem has been removed. It represents the portion of electrical power that does useful work. and determined by E*I*PF. If there’s no more problem. If the problem is still present after three tries. Automated energy management systems in commercial buildings and industrial facilities can link to these hourly energy price signals from the utility. When you combine the phase-shifted current and voltage waveforms to produce power. where the price of electricity is established by supply and demand and customers can buy their power on this spot market for the best available price. which contains a 30-year battery and power protection circuitry. The power is reduced by an amount known as reactive power. RTP is also useful for retail wheeling. The real-time cost of electricity is the basis for a spot. can reduce peak generation costs and offer customers the chance to be rewarded for energy efficiency. Page 152 . market. the current waveform leads the voltage waveform. kVARs are typically first present in a distribution system as a result of inductive loads such as motors. (See Power Factor) RAM Reactive Load Reactive Power. Canada. Measured data. Inductive and capacitive loads create a phase shift between AC current and voltage. while in capacitive loads. reactors and transformers. and event logs. Measured in watts or kilowatts (kW). kVAR Real Power. the current waveform lags the voltage waveform (in time). Norway. Apparent Power = Active Power + Reactive Power. the resulting power (active power) that a load can use is less than if the waveforms were synchronized. kW Also known as active power delivered to a load. such as a short circuit. Power providers make better use of existing assets by leveling energy use over the day. especially important in remote locations. Real-TIme Pricing Recloser An electric switch for high voltage electric lines.System Design Handbook Qualifying Facility A generator that qualifies as a co-generator or small power producer under PURPA and has obtained certification from FERC (generally. occurs. or pool. the recloser resets itself and restores electric power. and New Zealand currently make RTP rates available to commercial and industrial customers. If the problem is still present. kVARs are then used in sizing power factor correction capacitors.
Time required for the output voltage or current to return to a value within regulation after a step load or line change.g. Defined by the EN 50160 standard. Network speed decreases with this type of processing. transmission. 5 minutes). so its ohmic value remains constant. In a pure resistive load (a linear load). Resistive loads tend to cause RMS voltage drops that are usually not big problems for other equipment. Instantaneous Recovery Time The reclosing of a utility breaker as quickly as possible after interrupting the fault current. Routers can also divide a network into subnets so that only traffic destined for particular IP addresses can pass between segments. Reclosing.g. but overall efficiency improves in more complex networks. is the square root of the average of the square of the current. It is the arithmetic average of a parameter (e. Recovery Voltage Regulatory Compact Relay Reliability Council Resistive Load Ripple Control Signal RMS Rolling Block Router Page 153 . and distribution infrastructure. As each sub-period passes the parameter average is included in the total average while the average of the oldest period is removed. Routers filter out network traffic by protocol rather than packet address. or animals. The voltage that occurs across the terminals of a pole of a circuit-interrupting device upon interruption of the current. Forwards network traffic using one or more metrics to determine the optimal path. Permanent problems include power lines or other equipment damaged by lightning strikes or fallen trees. Also. active power) over a total demand period (e. Rolling Block is an averaging method. this is a mains signal with frequency between 110 Hz and 3000 Hz. This provides an average of the peak of AC current (both positive and negative) over time. the time required to bring a system back to its original operating condition after an interruption or dropout. Temporary problems are often corrected if the power is shut off. Typical times are 18-30 cycles. Also known as Sliding Window Demand (SWD). They don’t tend to create resonance conditions that cause harmful voltages or currents. wind-blown tree branches or wires. An electrically-controlled mechanical device that opens and closes electrical contacts when a voltage (or current) is applied. birds. Root-mean-square. An agreement in which a utility is guaranteed a particular profit (through electricity rates set by regulators) in exchange for building the necessary generation. A group of interconnected utilities that work together to assure system-wide reliability. A load in which the resistance exceeds the capacitive and inductive reactances. the frequency of the applied voltage has little or no effect on how much current flows through it.g.System Design Handbook Temporary problems include lightning. 15 minutes) that consists of one of more sub-periods of equal length (e.
and RTUs. a traditional SCADA system consists of a master station. (3) temporary. particularly motors. transducers. Sags deprive computers of power. This is necessary in order to safely disconnect a device from a live circuit. A mechanical assembly that allows shorting of the CT secondary connections. causing unexpected system crashes that lead to lost or corrupted data. Transmission of data one bit at a time. where several bits are transmitted concurrently.” “momentary. printers. lasting from 3 seconds to 1 minute. The duration ranges from ½ a cycle to 1 minute. modems. A short duration decrease in RMS voltage or current of between 10% and 90% of the nominal. encompassing “instantaneous. or wrapping (around instrumentation and power cables) designed to protect sensitive circuitry and cabling from noise sources (equipment that may generate electrostatic or electromagnetic fields). lasting from 30 cycles to 3 seconds. timestamps. The RTU detects. enclosure. The opposite of serial is parallel. timestamps and logs setpoint and digital I/O events.System Design Handbook RTU RTU (Remote Terminal Unit). lasting from a ½ cycle to 30 cycles of the power waveform. A grounded conductor or tower over power lines designed to intercept lightning strikes. Transducers measure general equipment parameters such as temperatures and pressures. or lightning. displays. Shielding reduces coupling between conductors. collecting and analyzing data from RTUs as well as initiating control actions. events that last a few milliseconds are recorded even if the master station scan time is at longer intervals. Sags can also damage or shut down equipment. and transducer capabilities. Usually described in terms of a transient. swell. (2) momentary. analysis. A variation of the RMS voltage or current for ½ a cycle to 1 minute. Because RTU functions are independent of the master station. Workstations usually have RS-232 ports for interfacing to digital power meters. Serial Service Territory Shielding Shielding Utility Lines Short Duration Variation Shorting Block Page 154 . Sags are triggered by fault clearing. and logs setpoints and digital I/O events. The master station provides the primary operator interface and manages overall system functions. There are 3 kinds of sags: (1) instantaneous.” and “temporary” variations. or other devices. A metal barrier. startup of heavy loads. and reduce their efficiency or life spans. The geographical area served by a particular utility company. Organization composed of rural customers that band together to generate or purchase power at wholesale and distribute at retail. sag. Commonly-used serial interface standards are EIA-approved RS-232 and RS-485. System Average RMS Frequency (Variation) Index SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) System. a device that detects. It communicates to a master station that provides the primary operator interface and data analysis functions. Rural Electric Cooperative Sag Sampling Rate SARFI SCADA Rate at which samples of a particular waveform amplitude are taken. or interruption. ION and ACM meters act as RTUs with the addition of control.
Social programs and other regulatory benefits currently included in utility rates.g. (2) momentary. Sometimes used to describe a “transient. devices with the same prefix on their IP addresses belong to one subnet. two-pair wire medium used in a variety of networks. SWD (Sliding Window Demand). One way that a swell can occur is from the temporary voltage rise on the unfaulted phases during a single line-to-ground (SLG) fault.” STP (Shielded Twisted Pair). on an Ethernet network. They are usually associated with system faults. utility assets (mainly high-cost power plants) that would lose value in a competitive market. a system of conductive paths among interconnected equipment. The duration ranges from ½ a cycle to 1 minute. is an averaging method. Stranded Costs/Investment. A short duration increase in RMS voltage or current of 10% to 80% above the nominal. 5 minutes). The part of a network whose devices share the same address component. Simplex Slave SLG Fault Sliding Window Demand Spike STP Stranded Benefits Stranded Costs Structural Unbundling Subnet Swell Page 155 .System Design Handbook Signal Reference Grid Signal Reference Grid (or Plane). (3) temporary. For example.g. lasting from 30 cycles to 3 seconds. lasting from a ½ cycle to 30 cycles of the power waveform. These could be stranded in an open market. Swells are not as common as sags. 15 minutes) that consists of one of more subperiods of equal length (e. Data transmission in only one direction from a sending station to a receiving station. A subnet improves network security and performance. but are also caused by switching off large loads and energizing large capacitor banks. A device that responds to master station requests for information. also known as rolling block demand. STP cabling has a layer of shielded insulation to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference causing data errors). lasting from 3 seconds to 1 minute. active power) over a total demand period (e. It reduces noise-induced voltages to minimize improper equipment operation. Single line-to-ground fault.g. As each sub-period passes the parameter average is included in the total average while the average of the oldest period is removed. Broadcast television is an example. There are 3 kinds of swells: (1) instantaneous. See Vertical Disaggregation. It is the arithmetic average of a parameter (e.
expressed as a percent. A list of terms. An isolating switch cuts off an electrical circuit from the source of power. T3 Tariff TCP/IP TDD THD Token Ring Page 156 . A general-use switch. THD is most affected by the level of harmonic current and the frequency response of the power system. The elements of TCP/ IP span several layers of the OSI Reference Model. indicating the severity of the distortion.736 Mbps through the telephone switching network. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Closing all three poles of a capacitor switch in sync with the power system to minimize transients. A transfer switch moves one or more load conductor connections from one power source to another. Digital WAN carrier line. There are two types of switches: cut-through and store-and-forward. It is intended to operate only after the circuit is opened by some other means. TCP and IP are the two best-known protocols in the suite. and rate information applied to various types of electrical service. Common name for the suite of protocols (or protocol stack) developed by the US Department of Defense in the 1970s to support communications across worldwide inter-networks. the ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic current to the RMS value of the rated load current or maximum demand fundamental current. Both types of switches separate an Ethernet network into segments. A cut-through switch examines the packet destination address before forwarding it to its destination. T1 transmits digital data at 1. Switch (in electrical circuit). TCP provides reliable full-duplex data transmission. A token-passing LAN standard developed and supported by IBM. is rated in amperes and is capable of interrupting its rated voltage. a percentage value that describes the harmonic content of a periodic waveform. For example. but this high value is not a significant concern because the magnitude of the current is low. type-of-service specification. T3 transmits digital data at 44.544 Mbps through the telephone-switching network. The IEEE defined TDD to avoid the use of misleading THD values and to characterize harmonic currents in a consistent fashion. Digital WAN carrier line.System Design Handbook Switch Switch (in computer network). but voltage remains the same. TDD (Total Demand Distortion). THD (Total Harmonic Distortion). Switching Station Synchronous Closing T1 A substation where connections are made between several distribution and transmission lines. fragmentation and re-assembly. intended for general distribution and branch circuits. a device that controls if an electrical circuit is open or closed. A store-and-forward switch examines the entire packet to catch packet errors. Token Ring runs at 4 or 16 Mbps over a ring topology. conditions. with each segment having 10 Mbps of bandwidth shared by fewer users. resulting in higher performance. an extension of a bridge. It is the ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic content to the RMS value of the fundamental. and IP provides features for addressing. many adjustable speed drives (ASDs) exhibit high THD values for input current when they are operating at very light loads. and security. linking four or more full networks.
For example. In a bus topology all devices are connected to a central cable. In a star topology all devices are connected to a central hub. There are two main types of transients: (1) impulsive. such as temperature and pressure. and can last a few hundred microseconds. in a bus-star network. Transients with principal frequencies less than 300 Hz are associated with resonance and transformer energization. Their peak magnitudes are typically 1. Time of Use A device for converting equipment parameters. a 2000 V impulsive transient can rise from zero to its peak value of 2000 V in 1.5 times the normal voltage.3 to 1. and (2) oscillatory. The level of an electromagnetic disturbance. then decays to half its peak value in 50 µsec. For example. Some oscillatory transients last tens of microseconds with primary frequency 5 to 500 kHz.3 ms to 50 ms with primary frequency less than 5 kHz is often encountered on utility sub transmission and distribution systems. An oscillatory transient lasting from 0. Impulsive transients are usually triggered by lightning. which are either positive or negative changes. An oscillatory transient lasting a few microseconds with primary frequency more than 500 kHz is often the result of an impulsive transient exciting the natural frequency of power system circuits. A sudden frequency and amplitude change in the voltage and/or current waveform. and star. These transients can also be the result of power system response to an impulsive transient. Computers translate the signal into data that we analyze with software. designates the volt-amps that a transformer can deliver for a specified time at a rated secondary voltage and a rated frequency without exceeding the specified temperature rise. In ring topology all devices are connected to one another in a closed loop. measured in kVA. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install.System Design Handbook Topology The shape of a LAN. but can approach 2 times. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. The output rating for transformers. called the bus or backbone. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage. Transducers are used in SCADA systems. which include both positive and negative values. Voltage transients between 300 and 900 Hz are caused by capacitor bank energization. but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances. ring. An electrical device for increasing or decreasing system voltage. but bottlenecks occur because all data must pass through a hub. Total Disturbance Level TOU Transducer Transformer Transient Page 157 . The three main topologies are bus. a high-bandwidth bus (or backbone) can connect a number of slower-bandwidth star segments. determined by the total emission of all pieces of equipment.2 µsec. These types of current transients can be triggered by back-to-back capacitor switching (energization). and such voltage transients can be triggered by cable switching. into electrical signals that are used by computers. Transients cause electronic component failures and shutdown of adjustable speed drives (ASDs). These topologies can also be mixed.
The wires can be shielded (STP) or unshielded (UTP). expressed in percent. Voltage unbalance can be caused by unbalanced single-phase loads on a 3-phase circuit. UTP Value-Added Service Vertical Disaggregation Vln Voltage Distortion Page 158 . The maximum deviation from the average of the 3-phase voltages or currents. Voltage unbalance is most important for 3-phase motor loads. divided by the average of the 3-phase voltages or currents. Undervoltages are the result of switching a load on. Voltage-line-to-neutral. switching a capacitor bank off. A voltage decrease of at least 10% below the nominal and lasting more than 1 minute. it is the infrastructure through which power moves around. UTP does not require the fixed spacing between connections that is necessary with coaxial-type connections. such as a blown fuse on one phase of a 3-phase bank. The voltage between a line conductor (A. guaranteed power quality levels and fast account access. distribution. the grid. Twisted pair is common in telephony applications and is increasingly common in data networks. Distortion of the AC line voltage (deviation from the normal sine wave). the process that covers the meter’s circuit board with a protecting layer against moisture (the conformal coating). and other services into separate rates charged to the customer. The undervoltage lasts until voltage system regulation equipment can bring the voltage back to within tolerances. Separating electric generation. This is done to protect the circuit board and meter from the effects of high humidity. or by capacitor bank abnormalities. or overloading circuits. B. Using symmetrical components. Relatively low-speed transmission method consisting of two insulated wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern. UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair). The high-voltage wires that connect generation facilities with distribution facilities. flexible billing. It is necessary to carefully coordinate use of the transmission system to ensure reliable and efficient service. unbalance is the ratio of the negative sequence component to the positive sequence component. Tropicalization and conformal coating. four-pair wire medium used in a variety of networks.System Design Handbook Transmission The process of transporting electric energy in bulk on high voltage lines from the generating facility (power plant) to the local distribution company for delivery to retail customers. An unbalance greater than 3% can result in significant motor heating and failure if there aren’t any protection circuits for the motor. power quality analysis tools. or C) and the neutral conductor (the ground conductor) in a four-wire Wye power system. and distribution functions of a utility into separate companies. Transmission Grid Tropicalization Twisted Pair Unbalances Unbundling Undervoltage Dividing the costs of electrical generation. transmission. transmission. Also known as. Examples include remote load management. A service offered by a power provider in a deregulated energy market to establish a competitive advantage that helps to retain or attract key customers.
divided by the average of the three phase voltages or currents. using the transmission facilities of one system to transmit power into another system. Retail wheeling is transmitting power to end users (e. Similar ends of each phase winding are connected together at a common point that forms electrical neutral and is often grounded. Sometimes it’s defined as the maximum deviation from the average of the three phase voltages or currents. satellite. selling generated electricity to wholesale buyers who resell to retail customers. or temperature changes. businesses and factories). such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. load changes. WAN (Wide Area Network). The power available from an electrical current of one ampere at an electrical potential of one volt. The public switched telephone network (PSTN) typically provides the links between remote sites but some organizations have established their WAN links using radio. The angular displacement between each point of the Y is 120 degrees. in percent. The purchase and sale of electricity from generators to resellers (who sell to retail customers) along with the ancillary services needed to maintain reliability and power quality at the transmission level. Watt Waveform Distortion Web Browser Wheeling Wholesale Power Market Wye Page 159 . microwave. the resulting two wires are said to supply single phase power. such as input-voltage changes. Deviation from an ideal sine wave. Wholesale wheeling is transmitting bulk power over the grid to power companies. One of the four power carrying wires is called the neutral wire. Most single phase power is derived from three phase power in this way. a data communications network that connects equipment across large geographic areas and often uses transmission devices provided by telephone companies. Often specified in relation to other parameters. There are four power-carrying conductors with possibly a fifth safety ground wire. used to access hypertext documents and other services located on remote servers throughout the World Wide Web and Internet. Voltage Imbalance (unbalance). A wiring system for distributing and utilizing 3-phase electrical power. homes. The transportation of power to customers.g. Imbalance is frequently expressed using symmetrical components: the ratio of the negative or zero sequence voltage to the positive sequence voltage. expressed in percent. The physical arrangement resembles a Y.System Design Handbook Voltage Fluctuation Voltage Imbalance A series of voltage changes or a cyclical variation of the voltage envelope. or in other words. a condition where the three phase voltage differs in amplitude and/or is displaced from the normal 120 degree phase relationship. Voltage imbalances are often a result of single-phase loads on a three-phase circuit. Voltage Regulation WAN Degree of stability in RMS voltage at the load. GUI-based application. or blown fuses in one phase of a three-phase capacitor bank. or other communications technologies. When the neutral and one of the three phases is separated from the other phases.
modems) are maintained for communications across a public data network. which is 120 VAC in North America and 220 to 240 VAC in other countries.g.System Design Handbook The voltage between any two of the three non-neutral power wires is the rated distribution voltage. The voltage between the neutral and any of the other power wires is the voltage supplied to a typical wall output. which is 208 VAC in North America and 380 to 415 VAC in other countries. computers) and Data Communications Equipment (e. X.25 A protocol stack that defines how connections between Date Terminal Equipment (e. Page 160 .g.
30. 34. 106. 20. 119 configuration 115 query wizard 115 seat licenses 118 Decision tree 19 Demand control 18. 106. 78 EtherGate 86 Ethernet communications 18. 112 Analog outputs 110. 114 Energy pulsing 28. 78. 31. 79 dial-outs to remote sites 80 high priority events 87 internal modems 81 . 37. 23. 113 DNP 3. 114. 37. 85 Flow rates 28. 122 G Gas 28. 28. 124. 30. 114 Buy-versus-build decisions 18 C Capacitor bank switching 123. 96. 35. 114. 113 topologies 85 External I/O boards 111 External I/O for 73xx ION 111 External I/O for 7700 ION 112 F Feeder monitoring 21. 106.0 25. 34. 24. 23. 24. 34. 31. 36. 125 Cost control 18. 30. 24. 26. 96. 29 D Database 114 archiving 114. 123 Hyperterminal 105 I Information sharing 26. 36. 37. 30. 37.A Activity-based costing 18 Adaptability 29 Air 28. 109 B Bill verification 18. 27. 30. 26. 83. 51. 106 Alarming 22. 23. 27. 35. 123. 96. 86 media 85 performance 89 M Maintenance 18. 124 CTs 28 Customization 29. 29. 25. 78 Inputs/outputs 20. 31. 27. 125 Cost allocation 18. 28. 36. 112. 114 LonTalk 96 E Energy logging 21. 31. 83. 30. 106. 124 Analog inputs 109. 112. 34. 84 Leased-line modems 79 Load control 36 Load profiling 28. 57. 25. 78 ION technology 28. 114 Billing 34. 100 meter slave configuration 100 L LANs 83. 23. 78 Modem communications 24. 35. 96. 113. 106 ION EEM 50 ION protocol 31. 31. 29. 26. 35. 112. 103. 113 Digital outputs 108. 107 Gateway sites 74. 118 Control 19. 74. 27. 125 Infrared communications 27. 29. 86 Grayhill modules 111 H Harmonics 18. 124 Deregulation 18 Digital inputs 107. 109 Fluid levels 28. 26. 114 Master Stations 11 Modbus 28. 24. 27. 27. 28. 36 main feeders 21 sub-feeders 18. 125 CDPD 79 Cellular communications 30 Clients 117. 22 Fiber optic 27. 23.
34 Serial communications 21. 115 Status monitoring 106 Steam 28. 88 Time synchronization 90 blackout 93 method 91 Transient detection 18. 28. 96 Power factor 18. 106. 125 Power quality 18. 27. 27. 109 PTs 28 W WANs 84 Water 28. 23. 27. 36. 106. 30. 113. 106. 96. 106. 30. 124 T Telnet 104 Temperatures 28. 103 meter configuration 103 N Network loads 88 Throughput 29. 96 Security 30 Sequence-of-events 18. 24. 107 Web access 18 R Radio communications 27.ModemGate 81 MV-90 28. 50. 26. 25. 123. 28. 34. 74. 81. 28. 123. 100. 114 Revenue metering 18. 37. 35. 125 Optical couplers 78 U UPSs 123 V Voltage sags 18. 107 Substations 18. 35. 24. 37. 34. 124 Power supplies 28 Pressures 28. 100. 106 S Satellite communications 30 SCADA 11. 123 RTUs 11. 25. 22. 114. 127 SQL 114. 118 Operations planning 18. 86 RS-232 to RS-485 converters 75 RS-485 topologies 77 Servers 117. 26. 34. 29. 109 . 31. 113. 25. 96. 28. 114. 123 P Passwords 30 Performance guarantees 18 PLCs 25. 30. 118 Service entrance 21 Setup 27. 123 O ODBC 113. 34. 31. 25. 35. 100 Radio modems 79 Real-time pricing 18 Report generation 18. 114. 96. 56. 31. 28.
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