A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION CHAPTER-11 .

1 I NT R O DU C T I ON The project work entitled a STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION with special referenceto Hyderabad Industries Ltd; Thrissur is mainly conducted to identify the factors which willmo t i v a t e t h e e mp l o ye e s a n d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s i n H yd e r a b a d I n d u s t r i e s Lt d , Thrissur.Management‘s basic job is the effective utilization of human resources for achievements of organizational objectives. The personnel management is concerned with organizing humanresources in such a way to get maximum output to the enterprise and to develop the talent of people at work to the fullest satisfaction. Motivation implies that one person, in organizationcontext a manager, includes another, say an employee, to engage in action by ensuring that achannel to satisfy those needs and aspirations becomes available to the person. In addition tothis, the strong needs in a direction that is satisfying to the latent needs in employees andharness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization.Employee motivation is one of the major issues faced by every organization. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinates or to create the ‗will to work‘ among thesubordinates. It should also be remembered that a worker may be immensely capable of doing some work; nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work. A manager has tomake appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Hence thiss t u d i e s a l s o f o c u s i n g o n t h e e mp l o ye e mo t i v a t i o n a mo ng t h e e mp l o ye e s o f H yd e r a b a d Industries Ltd.The data needed for the study has been collected from the employees through questionnairesa n d t h r o u g h d i r e c t i n t e r v i e ws . An a l ys i s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h a s b e e n d o n e b y u s i n g t h e statistical tools and data‘s are presented through tables and charts.1

1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM The research problem here in this study is associated with the motivation of employees of HYDERABAD INDUSTRIES LIMITED, Thrissur. There are a variety of factors that caninfluence a person‘s level of motivation; some of these factors include 1. The level of pay and benefits, 2.

The perceived fairness of promotion system within a company, 3. Quality of the working conditions, 4. Leadership and social relationships, 5. Employee recognition6 . J o b s e c u r i t y 7. career development opportunities etc.Motivated employees are a great asset to any organisation. It is because the motivation and Jobsatisfaction is clearly linked. Hence this study is focusing on the employee motivation in theorganisation. The research problem is formulated as follows: ―What are the factors which help to motivate the employees? 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THESTUDY T h e s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d t o e v a l u a t e mo t i v a t i o n o f e m p l o ye e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A g o o d motivational program procedure is essential to achieve goal of the organization. If efficientmotivational programmes of employees are made not only in this particular organization butalso any other organization; the organizations can achieve the efficiency also to develop a good organizational culture.Motivation has variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individual‘s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism and turnover. Employee delight has to be managed in more than one way. This helps in retaining and nurturing the true believers ―who can deliver value to the organization. Proliferating and nurturing the number of ―true believers‖ 1 is the challenge for future and present HR managers. 1 HRM Review (The ICFI University Press) July 2008 2

This means innovation and creativity. It also means a change in the gear for HR polices and practices. The faster the organizations nurture their employees, the more successful they will be. The challenge before HR managers today is to delight their employees and nurture their creativity to keep them a bloom.This study helps the researcher to realize the importance of effective employee motivation.This research study examines types and levels of employee motivational programmes andalso discusses management ideas that can be utilized to innovate employee motivation. Ith e l p s t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s t o s u p p or t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g s t r a t e g i c g u i d a n c e f o r organizations that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs. 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.4.1 Primary objective 1.To study the important factors which are needed to motivate the employees. 1.4.2 Secondary Objective. 1.To study the effect of monetary and non-monetary b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d b y t h e organization on the employee‘s performance.2.To study the effect of job promotions on employees.3.To learn the employee‘s satisfaction on the interpersonal relationship exists in theorganization.4 . T o p r o v i d e t h e p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ‘ s performance. 1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 3

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION A hypothesis is a preliminary or tentative explanation or postulate by the researcher of whatthe researcher considers the outcome of an investigation will be. It is an informed/educatedguess. It indicates the expectations of the researcher regarding certain variables. It is themost specific way in which an answer to a problem can be stated.Research hypotheses are the specific testable predictions made about the independent andd e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s t u d y. H yp o t h e s e s a r e c o u c h e d i n te r ms o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r independent and dependent variables that are going to be used in the study. The researchhypothesis of this study is as follows. Ho: There is no significant relationship between incentives and employee‘s performance.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between career development opportunities and theextent of employee motivation Ho: There is no significant relationship between performance appraisal system and theextent of motivation. Ho: There is no significant relationship between interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e organization and extent of motivation. 1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. R e s e a r c h i s a s ys t e ma t i c me t h o d o f f i n d i n g s o l u t i on s t o p r o b l e ms . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge.According to Clifford woody, ―research comprises of defining and redefining problem,formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data,reaching conclusions, testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulatedhypothesis‖ 2 1.6.1 Sampling Design. 2 Kothari C R . ―Research Methodology-Methods & Techniques‖2 nd revised edition (2007) New AgeInternational Publishers- New Delhi. 4

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION A sample design is a finite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Simplerandom sampling is used for this study. 1.6.2 Universe. The universe chooses for the research study is the employees of Hyderabad Industries Ltd. 1.6.3 Sample Size. Number of the sampling units selected from the population is called the size of the sample.Sample of 50 respondents were obtained from the population. 1.6.4 Sampling Procedure. The procedure adopted in the present study is probability sampling, which is also known aschance sampling. Under this sampling design, every item of the frame has an equal chanceof inclusion in the sample. 1.6.5 Methods of Data Collection. The data‘s were collected through Primary and secondary sources. 1.6.5.1 Primary Sources. Primary data are in the form of ―raw material‖ to which statistical methods are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations.The primary sources are discussion with employees, data‘s collected through questionnaire. 1.6.5.2 Secondary Sources. Secondary data‘s are in the form of finished products as they have already been treatedstatistically in some form or other.Th e s e c o n d a r y d a t a ma i n l y c o n s i s t s o f d a t a a n d i n f o r ma t i o n c o l l e c t e d f r o m r e c o r d s , company websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondarydata was also collected from journals, magazines and books. 1.6.6 Nature of Research

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristicsa b o u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o r p h e n o me n o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . De s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h a n s w e r s t h e questions who, what, where, when and how.Al t h o u g h t h e d a t a d e s c r i p t i o n i s f a c t u a l , a c c u r a t e a n d s ys t e ma t i c , t h e r e s e a r c h c a n n o t describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causalrelationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can besaid to have a low requirement for internal validity. 1.6.7 Questionnaire. A well defined questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system.A defeated questionnaire was carefully prepared and specially numbered. The questionswere arranged in proper order, in accordance with the relevance. 1.6.8 Nature of Questions Asked. The questionnaire consists of open ended, dichotomous, rating and ranking questions. 1.6.9 Pre-testing A pre-testing of questionnaire was conducted with 10 questionnaires, which were distributeda n d a l l o f t h e m w e r e c o l le c t e d b a c k a s c o mp l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . On t h e b a s i s o f d ou b t s raised by the respondents the questionnaire was redialed to its present form. 1.6.10 Sample A f i n i t e s u b s e t o f p o p u l a t i o n , s e l e c t e d f r o m i t wi t h t h e o b je c t i v e o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g i t s properties called a sample. A sample is a representative part of the population. A sample of 50 respondents in total has been randomly selected. The response to various elements under each questions were totaled for the purpose of various statistical testing. 1.6.11. Variables of the Study. The direct variable of the study is the employee motivation.

Indirect variables are the incentives, interpersonal r e l a t i o n s , c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t opportunities and performance appraisal system. 1.6.12. Presentation of Data. The data are presented through charts and tables. 1.6.13. Tools and Techniques for Analysis. Correlation is used to test the hypothesis and draw inferences. CHAPTER 22. LITERATURE REVIEW Rensis Likerthas called motivation as the core of management. Motivation is the core of ma n a g e me n t . M o t i v a t i o n i s a n e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u me n t i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e ma n a g e me n t i n inspiring the work force .It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

to create the will to work among the subordinates .It should also be remembered that theworker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is notwilling to work .creation of a will to work is motivation in simple but true sense of term.Motivation is an important function which very manager performs for actuating the peopleto work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization .Issuance of well conceivedinstructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed .A manager has to makeappropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Effective motivationsucceeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see thatit is executed efficiently and effectively.I n o r d e r t o mo t i v a t e wo r k e r s t o wo r k f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s , t h e ma n a g e r s mu s t d e t e r mi n e t h e mo t i v e s o r n e e d s o f t h e wo r k e r s a n d p r o v i d e a n e n v i r o n me n t i n w h i c h appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction .If the management is successful indoing so; it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. Thiswill increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organization .There will be better utilizationof resources and workers abilities and capacities. 2.1 The concept of motivation The word motivation has been derived from motive which means any idea, need or emotiont h a t p r o mp t s a ma n i n t o a c t i o n . Wh a t e v e r ma y b e t h e b e h a v i o r o f ma n , t h e r e i s s o me stimulus behind it .Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motivecan be known by studying his needs and desires.There is no universal theory that can explain the factors influencing motives which controlmans behavior at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives operate atd i f f e r e n t t i me s a mo n g d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e a n d i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e h a v i o r s . Th e p r o c e s s o f motivation studies the motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior. 2.2 Definition of Motivation.

According to Edwin B Flippo, ―Motivation is the process of attempt ing to influence othersto do their work through the possibility of gain or reward. 2.3 Significance of Motivation Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to givet h e i r l o ya l t y t o t h e g r o u p , t o c a r r y o u t p r o p e r l y t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Th e following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated.1 . T h e w o r k f o r c e w i l l b e better satisfied if the management provides them w i t h opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers willcooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towardsthe goals of the enterprise.2 . W o r k e r s w i l l t e n d t o be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills a n d knowledge so that they are able to contribute t o the progress of the organization. Thiswill also result in increased productivity.3.The rates of labor‘s turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low. 4 . Th e r e w i l l b e g o o d h u ma n r e l a t i o n s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s f r i c t i o n a mo n g t h e wo r k e r s themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease.5.The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident will also be low.6.There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will beless. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business. 2.4 Motivation Process. 1.Identification of need2 . T e n s i o n 3 . C o u r s e o f a c t i o n 4.Result –Positive/Negative5 . F e e d b a c k 9

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 2.5 Theories of Motivation .Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979).Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Mcclelland‘sAc h i e v e me n t N e e d T h e o r y, B e h a v i o r M o d i f i c a t i o n t h e o r y; Ab r a h a m H M a l l o ws n e e d hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J.S. Adam‘s Equity Theory, Vrooms ExpectationTheory, Two factor Theory. 2.5.1 McClelland‘s Achievement Need Theory. According to McClelland‘s there are three types of needs; Need for Achievement (n Ach); This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons whosatisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire

for improvement andlack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts.They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easilyachievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement. Need for Power (n Pow) It is the desire to control the behavior of the other p e o p l e a n d t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style,while it negative application tends autocratic style. Need for affiliation (n Aff) It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in formation of informalgroups or social circle. 2.5.2 Behavioral Modification Theory; 10

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION According to this theory people behavior is the outcome of favorable and unfavorable pastcircumstances. This theory is based on learning theory. Skinner conducted his researchesamong rats and school children. He found that stimulus for desirable behavior could bestrengthened by rewarding it at the earliest. In the industrial situation, this relevance of thistheory may be found in the installation of financial and non financial incentives.More immediate is the reward and stimulation or it motivates it. Withdrawal of rewardincase of low standard work may also produce the desired result. However, researches showt h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y mo r e e f f e c t i v e t o r e wa r d d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r t h a n t o p u n i s h u n d e s i r e d behavior. 2.5.3 Abraham H Maslow Need Hierarchy or Deficient theory of Motivation. T h e i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s f o r mo s t o f mo t i v a t i o n t h i n ki n g h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d b y b e h a v i o r a l scientists, A.H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the ― Bible of Motivation‖. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it haswide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslow‘s theoryto interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations.The crux of Maslow‘s theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal

with ah i e r a r c h y o f n e e d s o f wh i c h s o me a r e l o we r i n s s c a l e a n d s o me a r e i n a h i g h e r s c a l e o r s y s te m o f v a l ue s . A s t h e l o w er n e e ds a r e s a ti s f i e d , hi g h er ne ed s e m er g e. H i g h er n e e ds cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator. Thisresembles the standard economic theory of diminishing returns. The hierarchy of needs atwork in the individual is today a routine tool of personnel trade and when these needs areactive, they act as powerful conditioners of behavior- as Motivators.Hierarchy of needs; the main needs of men are five. They are physiological needs, safety n e e d s , s o c i a l n e e ds , eg o n ee ds a n d s el f a c tu a l i z a ti o n n ee ds , a s s ho w n i n o r der o f th ei r i m po r ta n c e.

Vrooms Expectation Theory 13

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Vroom‘s theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Reward may be either positive or negative.Th e mo r e p o s i t i v e t h e r e w a r d t h e mo r e l i k e l y t h e e mp l o ye e wi l l b e h i g h ly mo t i v a t e d . Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. 2.5.6 Two Factor Theory Douglas McGregor introduced the theory with the help of two views; X assumptions areconservative in style Assumptions are modern in style. X Theory • Individuals inherently dislike work. • People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve the objectives. • People prefer to be directed Y Theory • People view work as being as natural as play and rest

• People will exercise self direction and control towards achieving objectives they arecommitted to • People learn to accept and seek responsibility. 2.6 Types of Motivation. Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because ite i t h e r b r i n g s t h e m p l e a s u r e , t h e y t h i n k i t i s i mp o r t a n t , o r t h e y f e e l t h a t wh a t t h e y a r e learning is morally significant.Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act acertain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades)

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower' theymust be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus.Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated,for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed.Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus: • Job performance =f(ability)(motivation) Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slowand long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are manyoptions and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, thereare broadly seven strategies for motivation.There are broadly seven strategies for motivation. • Positive reinforcement /high expectations • Effective discipline and punishment • Treating people fairly • Satisfying employees needs • Setting work related goals • Restructuring jobs

• Baserewards on job performance Essentially, there is a gap between an individual‘s actual state and some desired state and themanager tries to reduce this gap. Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulatethis gap. CHAPTER-33.1 INDUSTRIAL PROFILE 16

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION A s b e s t o s i s a g r o u p o f mineralswi t h l o n g , t h i n f i b r o u s crystals. Th e w o r d " a s b e s t o s " i s derived from aGreek adjective meaning inextinguishable. TheGreekstermed asbestos the "miracle mineral" because of its soft and pliant properties, as well as its ability to withstandheat. Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late1 9 t h c e n t u r y d u e t o i t s r e s i s t a n c e t o h e a t , e l e c t r i c i t y a n d c h e mi c a l d a m a g e , i t s s o u n d absorption and tensile strength. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed withcementor woven into fabric or mats. Asbestos was used in some products for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and hotplate wiringf o r i t s electrical insulation a t e l e v a t e d t e m p e r a t u r e , a n d i n b u i l d i n g s f o r i t s flame- retardantand insulating properties,tensile strength,flexibility, and resistance to chemicals . The main product ASBESTOS CEMENT SHEET is primarily a cement based product werea b o u t 1 0 - 1 5 % a s b e s t o s f i b e r i s n e e d e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e c e me n t i s we a t h e r p r o o f , e v e n through it absorbs moisture, the water will not pass through the product. Asbestos cement isused for corrugated sheets, slates, flat sheet for animal pens, cladding molded fitting, water s y s t e m r a i n w a t e r gutters, down pipes, under ground pipes and sewer pipes, s k i l l s , chalkboards. Most of the asbestos consumed globally is chrysolite. Russia, Kazakhstan ismajor producers of asbestos. The studies across the globe had not found any increased risk of carrier to the workers even at the levels of fiber/cubic centimeter, whereas the Indianchrysolite cement industry works well bellow 0.5 fiber/cubic centimeter. 3.1.1 Historic usage A s b e s t o s wa s n a me d b y t h e a n c i e n t G r e e k s wh o a l s o r e c o g n i z e d c e r t a i n h a z a r d s o f t h e material. The Greek geographer Straboand the Roman

naturalistPliny the Elder noted that the material damaged lungs of slaves who wove it into cloth.Charlemagne, the firstHoly Roman Emperor , is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos.WealthyPersians, who bought asbestos imported over theHindu Kush, amazed guests by cleaning the cloth by simply exposing it to fire. According toBiruniin his book of Gems,any cloths made of asbestos were called shastakeh. Some of the Persians believed the fiber was fur from an animal namedsamandar that lived in fire and died when exposed to water.17

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Some archeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in order to preserve only their ashes, and prevent their being mixedwith those of wood or other combustible materials commonly used in funeral pyres. Othersa s s e r t t h a t t h e a n c i e n t s u s e d a s b e s t o s t o ma k e p e r p e t u a l w i c k s f o r sepulchralo r o t h e r l a mp s . I n mo r e r e c e n t c e n t u r i e s , a s b e s t o s w a s i n d e e d u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . Al t h o u gh asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact,ancient literatureindicates that it was prescribedf o r d i s e a s e s o f t h e s k i n , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e i t c h . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y u s e d t h e term asbestos for alumen plumosum, b e c a u s e t h e t w o t e r m s h a v e o f t e n b e e n c o n f u s e d throughout

history.Asbestos became more widespread during the industrial revolution; in the 1860s it was usedas insulation in the U.S. and Canada. Development of the first commercial asbestos mine b e g a n i n 1 8 7 9 i n t h e Appalachianfoothills of Quebec. B y t h e m i d 2 0 t h c e n t u r y u s e s included fire retardant coatings, concrete, bricks, pipes and fireplace cement, heat, fire, andacid resistant gaskets, pipe insulation, ceiling insulation, fireproof drywall, flooring, roofing,lawn furniture, and drywall joint compound.Approximately 100,000 people in the United States have died, or will die, from asbestose x p o s u r e r e l a t e d t o s h i p b u i l d i n g . I n t h e Hampton Roadsa r e a , a s h i p b u i l d i n g center,mesotheliomaoccurrence is seven times the national rate. Thousands of metric tonsof asbestos were used in World War IIships to wrap the pipes, line the boilers, and cover engine and turbine parts. There were approximately 4.3 million shipyard workers in theU n i t e d S t a t e s during WWII; for every thousand workers about f o u r t e e n d i e d o f mesothelioma and an unknown number died fromasbestosis.Asbestos fibers were once used in automobile brake padsand shoes. Since the mid-1990s, amajority of brake pads, new or replacement, have been manufactured instead with liningsmade of ceramic, carbon, metallic andAramid fiber (Twaronor Kevlar —the same material used in bullet-proof vests).Kent, the firstfiltered cigaretteon the market, used crocidolite asbestos in its "Micronite" filter from 1952 to 1956.The first documented death related to asbestos was in 1906. In the early 1900s researchers began to notice a large number of early deaths and lung problems in asbestos mining towns.Th e f i r s t d i a g n o s i s o f asbestosiswa s ma d e i n E n g l a n d i n 1 9 2 4 .B y t h e 1 9 3 0 s , E n g l a n d 18 A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION regulated ventilation and made asbestosis an excusable work related disease, about ten yearssooner than the U.S. The termMesotheliomawas not used in medical literature until 1931,and was not associated with asbestos until sometime in the 1940s.The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not actingquickly enough to inform the public of dangers, and to reduce public exposure. In the late1970s court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers andtried to conceal them.I n J a p a n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r W o r l d W a r I I , a s b e s t o s w a s u s e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e of ammonium sulphatef o r p u r p o s e s o f r i c e p r o d u c t i o n , s p r a ye d u p o n t h e c e i l i n g s , i r o n skeletons, and walls of railroad cars and buildings (during the 1960s), and used for energyefficiency reasons as well. Production of asbestos

in Japan peaked in 1974 and went throughups and downs until about 1990, when production began to drop severely. 3.1.2 Commercially available roofing materials The weather proofing material is the topmost or outermost l a y e r , e x p o s e d t o t h e we a t h e r . M a n y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f ma t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n used as weather proofing material: • Thatch is roofing made of plant stalks in overlapping layers. • WheatStraw, widely used in England, France and other parts of Europe. • Sea grass, used in coastal areas where there areestuariessuch asS c o t l a n d . H a s a l o n g e r l i f e t h a n s t r a w . C l a i me d t o h a v e a l i f e i n excess of 60 years. • Shingles , called shakes in North America. Shingles is the genericterm for a roofing material that is in many overlapping sections, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e ma t e r i a l . Th e wo r d i s a l s o u s e d specifically to denote shingles made of wood. 19

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 3.4. Product Profile 3.4.1 Charminar Aerocon panels. Charminar Aerocon Panel is a unique factory developed product that fulfills the followingGreen Building concept. • Raw material contains up to 40% Fly Ash (recycled power plant waste). • Excellent Thermal and Sound Insulation. • A good fire rating up to 2 hrs. -Depending upon thickness.

• Factory cured panel -Dry construction at site. • Completely re-locatable. • Proven suitable for seismic and cyclone prone zones Other Benefits: • Fast track construction -Tongue and groove joining system allows faster construction. • Light weight -allows easy handling and erection. • Excellent water & termite resistance. • Can be given any surface finish Applications: 31

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and sidecladding in: • Industrial/ Power Plant Cladding • Control Room • Prefabricated site offices • Prefabricated Houses, Canteens and Rest Rooms • Partitions • Police Stations • School Buildings •

Telephone Exchanges • ATM Cubicles 3.4.2 Charminar AC roofing Sheets. Charminar AC Roofing Sheets have been the No.1 roofing sheets of choice for more than 50years now. Providing roofing to millions of low cost houses and to industries, commercial businesses and for several public utilities. Charminar sheets are widely known for their superior quality and durability. Special Features • Strong & durable • Weather-proof • Less noise during rains • Non-corrosiveCharminar Concreted Roofing Sheets are made from Fibre, Portland cement and Binder.Fibre in these sheets acts as reinforcement like steel in RCC. These are owing to their quality, strength & durability. These are manufactured to exceed the requirements of strengthspecified in the relevant Indian standards. Standards • IS: 459-1992 Specification for Corrugated and Semi-Corrugated Asbestos CementSheets.32

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION • IS: 3007 - 1999 Code of practice for laying of Asbestos Cement Sheets, PartI,Corrugated Sheets. • IS: 1626 (Part3) 1994 - Roofing fittings. Applications Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and sidecladding in: • Industrial buildings of all types • Food Storage Godowns •

Warehouses & Cold Storages • Poultry farms, dairy farms and other agricultural sheds • Garages, Verandahs and Outhouses • Houses • School buildings • Public Utility Sheds • Cooling Towers • Cinema Halls • Stadiums • Railway & Bus Stations CHAPTER-44. ANALYSIS ANDINTERPRETATION OF DATA 4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS4.1.1 Response about the support from the HR department 33

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 64%24%12%InfluenceDoes not influenceNo opinion (Chart 4.16) INTERPRETATION The table shows 64% of the respondents responded that incentives and other benefits willinfluence their performance 4.1.9 Management involves you in decision making which are connected toyour department. SLNOPARTICULARNUMBER OFR E S P O N D E N T S P E R C E N T A G E 1 Y e s

4 7 9 4 2 N o 0 0 3 c i a 3 a 5

O a o l 6 l 0 1 0

c s n l T 0

y o t (Table 4.17)49

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 94%0%6%Y e s N o O c c a s i o n a l l y (Chart 4.17) INTERPRETATION The table shows 94% of the respondents agree that they the Management involve them indecision making which are connected to your department. 4.2 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS Ho:

There is no significant relationship between incentives and employee‘s performance.MeanStd.D e v i a t i o n N I n c e n t i v e s 1 . 7 2 . 5 7 3 5 0 Employee performance1 . 5 0 . 7 0 7 5 0 Correlations IncentivesEmployee performanceI n c e n t i v e s P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n 1 . 6 5 5 ( * * ) 50

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION S i g . ( 2 t a i l e d ) . . 0 0 0 Sum of Squaresand Crossproducts1 6 . 0 8 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 C o v a r i a n c e . 3 2 8 . 2 6 5 N 5 0 5 0 Employee performancePearson Correlation. 6 5 5 ( * * ) 1 S i g . ( 2 -

t a i l e d ) . 0 0 0 . Sum of Squaresand Crossproducts1 3 . 0 0 0 2 4 . 5 0 0 C o v a r i a n c e . 2 6 5 . 5 0 0 N 5 0 5 0 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Inference: Since the Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 -tailed) the null hypothesis that is― There is no significant relationship between incentives and employee‘s performance ‖is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed. H 1 : There is significant relationship between incentives and employee‘s performance. Ho: There is no significant relationship between career development opportunities and theextent of employee motivationMeanStd.D e v i a t i o n N career develo pmentopportunities3 . 7 0 1 . 0 3 5 5 0 extent of motivation3 . 3 6 1 . 3 1 7 4 5 Correlations career developmentopportunitiesextent of motivationcareer developmentopportunitiesPearsonC o r r e l a t i o n 1 . 9 0 9 ( * * ) 51

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION S i g . ( 2 t a i l e d ) . 0 0 0 Sum of Squaresand Crossproducts5 2 . 5 0 0 5 2 . 1 1 1 C v a r i a n c e 1 7 1 1 . 1 8 4 N 5 0 4 5 extent of motivationPearsonCorrelation. 9 0 9 * * ) 1 S i g .

. o . 0

(

( 2 t a i l e d ) . 0 0 0 . Sum of Squaresand Crossproducts5 2 . 1 1 1 7 6 . 3 1 1 C o v a r i a n c e 1 . 1 8 4 1 . 7 3 4 N 4 5 4 5 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Inference: Since the Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) the null hypothesis that is ―There is no significant relationship between career development opportunities and theextent of employee motivation‖ is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed. H1: There is significant relationship between career development opportunities and theextent of employee motivation Ho: There is no significant relationship between performance appraisal system and theextent of motivation.MeanStd.D e v i a t i o n N Performance appraisal system2 . 4 0 1 . 1 4 3 5 0 Extent of Motivation2 . 6 0 1 . 3 5 5 5 0 Correlations performanceappraisalsystemExtent of MotivationPerformanceappraisal systemPearsonCorrelation1 . 9 6 2 ( * * ) S i g . ( 2 t a i l e d ) . . 0 0 0 Sum of Squaresand Cross6 4 . 0 0 0 7 3 . 0 0 0 52

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION • No n f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e p l a n s s h ou l d a l s o b e i mp l e me n t e d ; i t c a n i mp r o v e t h e productivity level of the employees. • Organization should give importance to communication between employees and gainco-ordination through it. • Skills of the employees should be appreciated. • Better carrier development opportunities should be given to the employees for their improvement. • If the centralized system of management is changed to a decentralized one, thenthere would be active and committed participation of staff for the success of theorganization 5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The limitations of the study are the following • The data was collected through questionnaire. The responds from the respondentsmay not be accurate.57 A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION • T h e s a mp l e t a k e n f o r t h e s t u d y w a s o n l y 5 0 a n d t h e r e s u l t s d r a wn ma y n o t b e accurate. • Since the organization has strict control, it acts as another barrier for getting data. • Another difficulty was very limited time-span of the project . • Lack of experience of Researcher. 5.5 CONCLUSION The study concludes that, the motivational program p r o c e d u r e i n H Y D E R A B A D INDUSTRIES LTD is found effective but not highly effective. The study on employeemotivation highlighted so many factors which will help to motivate the e mployees. Thestudy was

conducted among 50 employees and collected information through structured58 A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION questionnaire. The study helped to findings which were related with employee motivational programs which are provided in the organization.The performance appraisal activities really play a major role in motivating the employees of the organization. It is a major factor that makes an employee feels good in his work andresults in his satisfaction too. The organization can still concentrate on specific areas whichare evolved from this study in order to make the motivational programs more effective. Onlyif the employees are properly motivated- they work well and only if they work well theorganization is going to benefit out it. Steps should be taken to improve the motivational programs procedure in the future. The suggestions of this report may help in this direction. 5.6 SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The present study on employee motivation helps to get clear picture about the factors whichmotivates the employees. This in turn helps the management to formulate suitable policy tomotivate the employees. Hence, the motivational level of the employees may also change.59 A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION The factors that motivate the employees may change with change in time because the needso f e m p l o y e e s t o o c h a n g e w i t h c h a n g e i n t i m e . S o c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g a n d c l o s e observation of factors that motivate the employees is necessary to maintain a competentwork fo rce. Only with a competent work force an organization can achieve its objective.Moreover, human resource is the most valuable asset to any organization. A further studyw i t h i n d e p t a n a l ys i s t o k n o w t o wh a t e x t e n t t h e s e f a c t o r s mo t i v a t e t h e e mp l o ye e s i s r e q u i r e d .