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Almost every religion has particular indication against abortion after a certain period of pregnancy but permits within a short period of time. But the debate about ethical issues of abortion is still as controversial as ever. we found it difficult to come to a definite conclusion.Abstract Abortion is one of the major and popular pregnancy termination methods which have been widely practiced around the world. Another group of people argues that expectant should be given the right to decide whether to give birth to her fetus or not. The proponents of termination of pregnancy through abortion base their opinion on the reason the expectant normally abort. In fact abortion with logical reasons seems ethical. 2 . In our effort to know and evaluate the opinion of both group. A large number of people consider abortion as a completely unethical as they believe that abortion murders the fetus and the expectant does not have the right to terminate the life of that fetus. Existing law in most countries permits abortion as a means of contraception but try to minimize the rate of this pregnancy termination considering the recent increasing order of its practice.
Ethical issues in Abortion 2.4 Reasons of undertaking abortion 3. Conclusion 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 References 3 .Ethical Issues in Healthcare (Abortion) Table of Content Page Number Abstract 1. Introduction 2.3 Philosophical Ethics and Abortion 2.1 Religious Ethics Regarding Abortion 2.2 Legal issues with Abortion 2.
Some people consider abortion as murder while some says it depends on the decision of the expectant depending on the circumstances. doing abortion is a wrong expectant for a woman. In this paper we tried to emphasis on the most key subject is if pregnancy termination through abortion is ethically granted or not and should it be given lawful legality or not. Ethics is the disciplined study of morality. to the tune of six million annually (World Health Organization. To make a proper judgment on this issue. In a nutshell. even if used as directed. Abortion is one of the major permanent pregnancy termination methods which serve the purpose. No contraceptive is 100% effective.. law and every other aspects of our society. disturbing and unending. assuring fully free and knowledgeable choice and offer a loving home for children.e. unluckily. 1992). What is right and what is wrong widely differ 4 . a fetus is people with the equal rights to life as some other human being has. People from both sides have their own reasons and points why they support or oppose pregnancy termination through abortion and all those reasons and points have to be respected. virtue versus vice (Chervenak and McCuIlough. It is also found that abortion as a contraceptive method is used more than any other methods available around the world.1. Termination of pregnancy through abortion is in fact a sensitive. In some difficult situations expectant women find no other way than having an abortion. a concept that encompasses right and wrong behavior. touching and complicated matter which interests religion. It’s never easy to come to a conclusion if it is ethical or not. women have to terminate their pregnancy considering prevailing circumstances.2003). A large number of people support and demand for the termination of pungencies through abortion while another large portion oppose the concept of pregnancy termination through abortion and question it from ethical point of view. we must have complete and concise understanding about ethics and medical ethics and how they relate to creation of legislation on it. In some cases pregnant women are in a great dilemma whether to abort the fetus or not. at the time of beginning. According to Brody (1972). i. so unwanted pregnancies will continue to term. At a stage of their life. the debate regarding abortion is one of the most controversial. we do not have appropriate processes which are 100% useful in attaining this objective. Introduction Healthcare providers have to lessen unexpected and unwanted pregnancies. But.
It has been argued by Rosenfeld (1992). Even in some serious 5 . the worry about material and religious views and society’s outlook and culture. however it is not pleasing to see it made completely illegal. Serving the mother causes the termination of life of the unborn child.from culture to culture. Nonetheless. Every immoral thing is not necessarily illegal. The concern with abortion is that some people perceive it as murder of an innocent baby. What is right to some culture may be wrong to some other cultures. 000 every day. she already has two children and can’t afford more considering her ability to provide the children with equal right and facilities)”. If a woman claims “it’s her right to decide either taking more children or not depending on the situation (i. Yet another thing is important that is mental condition of the mother taking abortion. 2. raising query regarding human existence. Main discrepancies happen between legality and moral wrongness.e. it is yet a topic that arouses controversy. two people have concerns in abortion question. But how she will deny the right of the unborn child. we can hardly oppose her right. This is why we can’t say certain belief and conducts as completely ethical or unethical. and some people argue that expectant women has exactly no right in saying if the fetus is going to be born or is going to be terminated. The main purpose of this paper is not to make you take any side of the debate. Ethical Issues in Abortion Abortion has been frequently used around the world and has been practiced as a common contraceptive method since the commencement of recorded history. There are roughly 42 Million abortions induced every year to 115. for instance when life starts and what it is that makes us human being. This portion of people wants to state that a pregnant woman must give birth to her fetus. the fetus and its mother. the right of females to be in charge of their own bodies. “healthy women who want to complete an unintended pregnancy in the first trimester have few significant or negative emotional consequences. rather to help with sufficient points and reasons to evaluate both sides and get some clear understanding if abortion is ethical or not and how does existing law treat abortion. For an instance. being unfaithful in an individual’s wedding is immoral.. Mainly. the nature of the country’s responsibility to protect the fetus.
Actually our religions teach us about right and wrong and make a permanent belief in our hearts. Several Roman Catholic Churches allowed abortion or any other contraception until the embryo was believed to have a soul. We get our main ethical beliefs from our respective religions. unplanned pregnancies comprise 50% to 60% and 40% in the developing countries. But in some circumstances when the life of the expectant is in danger. some pregnant women do not want to go for having abortion as the society’s outlook toward abortion is negative and they regard abortion as an unethical practice. According to Roman Catholic teaching. If we consider a fetus as an individual. 1992). Paradoxically. 6 . Three most leading monotheistic religions.cases. then no question about ethics and human rights comes. people from every religion take abortion. it is really tough to decide what the expectant should do. She should save her life or take a big risk of having delivery. 1992).. most recent statistics illustrate 40% of women take an abortion and 2 to 3 out of 10 pregnancies ends in abortion.Islam. few terminations were performed (Connelly. Koyama and Williams (2005) expose to know about the consequence of abortion as of a public health situation issue by looking only at abortion rate. Christianity and Judaism – are not agreed in their lessons within their respective religion. a human fetus is a person from the moment of the individual's first cell (nova vitae) (Beller and Zlatnik. the prevention of abortion states that though abortion only became widely experienced in later 20th century but in older times. referring an 80 days period for female fetus and 40 days period for male fetus.1 Religious Ethics Regarding Abortion Ethics is directly related to religions. In the Hippocratic Oath. then abortion is murder and of course unethical but if we don’t. Roman Catholic women undergo proportionately more abortions than members of other religions (Beller and Zlatnik. Different religions and cultures have separate views regarding ethical issues. One out of four pregnant women in the world has either an unexpected birth or an abortion. Ethics and human rights relate to abortion when we evaluate if a fetus should be considered as an individual or not from the time of creation of his or her first cell. Whatsoever the religious outlook is. as well as maternal morbidity plus death. 2. and in Canada and the U. 2008).S. In the Eastern European countries and United States.
But law need to be concrete. in accordance with civil and panel code. Legal issues concerning pregnancy termination through abortion is completely dissimilar in different countries. 2. pregnancy termination had been legalized even before the Roe versus Wade decision (Beller and Zlatnik. The Islamic belief says that the soul get into the fetus on the 120th day. It is also provided that abortion is allowed in Islam if there is a good reason but it can’t exceed 120 days period into the pregnancy. after a long public discussion. scientific and legal debates. In most cases these counseling is to discourage aborting the child. Callahan. pregnancy termination through abortion within 10 weeks of gestation was made lawful. Some community or group may consider some issues unethical which can be ethical to some other group of people as there is no ethical code followed around the world. termination of pregnancy devoid of logical medical cause was prohibited before 1982 and subject to incarceration. including Germany and Hungary. 1992. Yet Law regarding abortion and other contraceptive means varies from country to country. So according to that Islamic belief. After rigorous community debate and approval of the religious and legal authorities.2 Legal issues with Abortion Being something immoral or unethical does not make it illegal. directive and conclusive. require that a pregnant woman be provided with counseling prior to undergoing an abortion (Germany: Penal Code. In Turkey. 1992). In the USA in 1973. Beck. pregnancy termination through abortion after 120 days period is totally forbidden. such as that of California and New York. C.H. The abortion laws of a number of countries. But in some states of the USA. This happened after decision of Supreme Court on Roe versus Wade in that year.In Islam. it can be concluded that pregnancy termination through abortion before 120 days is not prohibited. 7 . Pregnancy termination practices were executed at the time of the ancient Egyptians. law authorizing termination of pregnancy through abortion was granted. 1997).
So. (ii) as health care providers. Norbert emphasized on the appropriate reason for undertaking abortion as a means of pregnancy termination. 2009) During the 1950s and into the late 1960s. 1992. claims that fetuses with severe handicaps can be – like all other fetuses – aborted. As health care suppliers.In the Hippocratic Oath. too (1995. we have to provide safe contraception methods for women who do not want to become pregnant. So. Kadayiffi et al.. women should have the right to decide whether to keep the pregnancy or not (Callahan. as Hippocrates stated in his book named Epidemics: 'As to disease. 2001). Make a habit of two things. than to harm another. From the point of view of medical ethics. Norbert Hoerster. In his Gorgias he mentioned that "It is better to have harm done to you. a well-known German philosopher. as born human beings with severe handicaps they have to be protected and respected like all other human beings. 1992). to help to or to at least do not harm' (Chervenak and McCuIlough." He debated saying that it is superior to have another make injustice to you than making injustice to another since one damages his or her own soul by doing injustice to others. he argued that this is a worse harm to oneself than any other pain which comes from the hands of other people. 2. we have some key principles to follow:(i)Confidentiality (ii) beneficence-based obligation (iii) always telling the truths (iv) human right (v) autonomy based obligation (vi) decision making 8 . 159). Socrates’ this point of view provides clear indication of abortion being unethical as the expectant willingly harm the fetus through abortion.3 Philosophical Ethics and Abortion The great philosopher Socrates was one of the earliest to make significant contribution in the field of ethics. (iii) the number of unwanted pregnancies and children should be reduced for the sake of mother and baby. the movement to legalize abortion rested on several contentions as follows: (i) illegal termination of pregnancy does great harm to the woman who has the abortion. Borow and Shoenfeld. abortion is tempered to the medical ethics from both in its actual form and contemporary reformulation such as made in the World Medical Association's 1948 Declaration of Geneva (Kivity.
but the most frequent reason for having an abortion is that the pregnant women are not ready for the all the responsibilities of the unborn child. pp.. But we must see the picture from different viewpoints.2. 2008). both the expectant and the fetus are “guiltless” where right of both can be argued but it seems more understandable that the expectant has a right to have abortion. in reply to social rather than medical concerns. Judith Jarvis Thomson maintains in her article “A Defense of Abortion” that the right to live does not include the right to make use of a foreign body even if this means having the fetus aborted (Thomson 1984. There are some serious reasons that might make abortion ethical. abortion is efficiently practiced on demand (Ingham et al. most of them are not ready as they are not wedded to and not willing to marry the guys who saturated them. Yet again.4 Reasons of undertaking abortion Women may get expectant for so many reasons. 177) In case of rape. Although. It would really be brutal and cruel to compel the expectant who had been raped to give birth to a kid. 174 and pp. 9 . Compelling her not to terminate the fetus through abortion is to remind her of the rape which can be a strong mental stress on her. the greater part of these abortions is executed. In Britain. more than 90 percent of abortions are approved done to guard the mother's bodily or psychological health. Let along enforcing any law against her abortion.
the knowledge about abortion should be established by the provider by asking a few questions. it can be concluded that abortion within 120 days of pregnancy is ethical from religious point of view. Possible risks and complications.3. abortion after 120 days of pregnancy is considered murder of the fetus as the soul comes into the fetus within 120 days. Yet in some countries use of abortion require sufficient reasoning. pain reduction measures to control the pain level of the woman who goes through abortion. significant ethical concerns should also be addressed. For the improvement of medical services. 10 . Existing legislation around the world permit abortion as a means of termination of pregnancy. birth of the child may be a threat. At the end. then without any logical reason abortion is unethical. So. the focus of contraceptive methods like abortion is in need of beginning with and prioritizing the needs of women about abortion issues. it can be said that abortion should be undertaken as early as possible after getting pregnant and it should not be undertaken without any logical reason. it is really a tough job to decide if abortion is ethical or not. But it can be said that if the fetus is considered as a human being. But these laws have been imposed in past century before these legislations abortion was considered unethical. for instance the pregnancy is for rape where the birth of the child will continuously remind the women about the rape or maintain the health condition of the expectant. Conclusion Even after taking a close look from different viewpoints. Again. pregnant women should have certain right based on prevailing circumstances. as well as the availability of medical abortion. The aim is to establish how the application focuses on the significance of planning the family and abortion services. Therefore. According to different religious views. It is also important to establish the understanding of the category of unwanted pregnancy for the women involved.
Germany: Penal Code (C. p. McGill Journal of Medicine. B. Atay Y. 2009. Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population Cambridge. Reproductive Health Matters. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 35. Kivity.A. Hoerster.. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Rosenfeld. The Israel Medical Association journal IMAJ. American Family Physician. 219. 45(1). R. J. Thomson on Abortion. Emotional responses to therapeutic abortion. and Shoenfeld..18-29.. Norbert (1995). R. Ingham. 1997) sec.335-340. Callahan D 1992 The abortion debate: can this chronic public illnessbe cured? Clittical Obstetrics attd Cytiecology 35.137-140. Beck. Demir C 2001 Maternal fetal tip ve etik. Chervenak FA.. Y. M. McCuIlough LB 1992 what is obstetrics ethics? Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 35. 11 . 2008. Abtreibung im säkularen Staat. 720-728. et al. Kadayifci O.581-584. 16(31 Suppl). Koyama. Connelly. and Williams. 1992. p. 2008.. Urunsak IF. eds. 709-719. 11(10).References Beller FK. Broody.. Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women’s Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States 199-200 (2000). Philosophy and Public Affairs. p. M. 783-791.. 1472-1486. 1(3). Reasons for second trimester abortion in England and Wales. Ankara. Hippocrates’ Oath is challenged..H. In: Beksa? ve ark MS (eds) Obstetrik Matertnal -Fetal Tip and Perinatoloji. S. 2005. Hungary: International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights. Medical Network and Nobel. Borow. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. A. Zlatnik GP 1992 The beginning of human life: medical observations and ethical reflections. p. 1972. Abortion in Medical Institute Curricula.
“A Defense of Abortion. 173-188.Thomson. World Health Organization 2003 Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems. Geneva. (1984). pp. 12 . Switzerland. Judith J.” in: The Problem of Abortion. 9-17.
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