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THE CRAFTSMAN
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Contents oJ Ão¡Ume Lne
ÏYLI L1¯LMÏY 1¯11 ¯L IJY11 1H1Ü
MUmDer Lne
Wiliam Morris: Some thoughts upon h life, art
and influence
Wiliam Morris: His Socialistic Career -
The Firm of Morris & Company, Decorators -
The Opera of "Patience" and "The Aesthetic
Movement"
Morris and Bume-J ones -
The articles by Irene Sargent.
Editor" s Notes:
P Argument for Simplicity in House-
hold Furshings - - -
Pro Patria
Style and Its Requisites
MUmDer 3«o
John Ruskin: A word regarding h life and pub
lic service
The Rise and Decadence of the Craftsman: P
Historical Note
" Back to the Soil ": A Review
Quotations from Ruskin - -
Tie's Changes in the Destinies of P
Ruskin's Work -
"The Land in Decay": A Review
The Seven Lamps
The articles hy Irene Sargent.
Editor's Notes:
Chosen from the words of John Ruskin
Utility, Simplicit, Beauty
Enthusiasm vers�
' . . .' .
PAGE.
1
15
25
33
39
I
IN
N
1
1 3
21
27
33
37
40
46
I
IN
N
II
NU
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MUmHer 3¡ree
The Gilds of the Middle Ages: Their Paralels
and Analogues
A New Irish Industry
Our Illustrations
The Word Gild: Its Defintion and Etymology -
The Gild Merchant
Later Mercantile Companies - -
The Qualifications of a Mediaeval GiIdsman
The articles by Irene Sargent.
Editor's Notes:
Concerg choice in color
In praise of labor and liberty
Stages i the development of household
art
MUmHer toUr
The Distaff, Idyl 7V, of Theocritus of Syra-
cuse
English eersion by Irene Sargent.
l
34
40
45
45
46
47
i
,
t
Y
,
N
Notes gathered from the History of Textiles 3
by Irene Sargent.
Revival of English Handicrafts: . The Haslemere
. Industries
25
by Mar SchencR Woolman
The Life History of a Design
Brain and Hand
-
by Irene Sarent.
The Fireside Industries of Kentucky
from notes by Mrs. Hettie Wright Graham
Editor' s Notes:
The Influence of Material Things
Inermis
-
- -
33
41
45
v
,
Y
5
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MumDer ti¬e
Robert Owen and Factory Reform l
by Irene Sargent.
T races of the Franciscans i Califoria
-
29
by Edwin Markham.
A Word Concerning Some Great Religious Orders 38
by Irene Sargent.
A Visit to the Shop �f Wilam Morris
42
by Efeed Pomeroy, A. M.
The Planning of a Home 48
MumDer bix
The Gothc Revival l
by Irene Sargent.
The Economic Foundation of Art 33
by A. M. Simons.
The Modern Craftsman: The Question of His
Liveliod
-
- - - 42
by lelen R. Albee.
''The Art of Building a Home," by Parker and
Unwin: A Review 47
by Irene Sargent
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L-1
october. MDCCCC1
The
iCra sman
· '
WILLIAM Mo R��' -'
ÜODC thou¿hts
H·· f·f
upon ¸
!! lô ¡ C` ¾O¡H u IO UCOCC
PbIishcd on Ihc t:rs1 day
0Î cach mon!I by THE
UNITED CRAFTS ð!
EAST"OOD, NEW YORK
tr:cc ÇÇ cc¬1s thc coy]
Copyright, 1901 by Gustave Sticl�ley
WL.3
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THE CRAFTSMAN
OCTOBER MDCCCCI
CONTENTS
Wilm Morris: Some thoughts upn h life, a ad i-
fluence.
Wiliam Morris: Í career as Ü biat.
The firm of Morris and Company, Decorators.
The Opera of Patience and the Aesthetic Movement
Two Frends: Morris and Bume-ones.
The articles written by Irene Sargent.
PUBLISHERS· ANNOUNCEMENTS
�SUBSCRITIONS: Subscription price $2.00 the yæ, i
advance, pstpaid to any address i the United States or
Lnd, and to begin with any desired number.
�REMITTANCES: Remttances may b made by Post
Ofice money order, bn cheques, express order, or in
pstage stamps.
�·CHANGE OF ADRESS: When Ü change of addres
u desired, both the old and the new address should be
given, and notice of the change should reach th ofice
not later than the fifteenth of the month, to affect the
succeeding issue. The publishers cannot be respnsible
for copies lost through failure to notify them of such
chges.
The United CraftU, Publishers, Eastwood.
New York.
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FOREWORD.
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ii FOREWORD
practIcewæevmywberestrenuouslyoppm,wItbtbedIrectaImol creatinganJ
prlectIngtmart-arusan. ¡naoepting tbe MorrIs prIncipIe, tbe UnIted Ctalb
recognize æ tbat ItImpIies: FItst: t�raIsingol tbe generalInteIIigence ol t�
workman,bytbeIncreaæolm leIsure and tbe multIplicatIon ol bIs meam ol
cuIture and pIeæure. Scmd: a knowlæge ol dtawing æ a basIs ol aII tm
manualæ andæoneol tbeuentIaIsol a prImaty educatIon wbicb sbaII be
wortbyolt næe.
Witb tbIs genetal IntelIigenæ as workng cap|ta]
tbeUnited Craludonotæ�tlromtbeIr membms æ Innate manuaI dexterIty,
but,strIctIy Inaccordance wItb tbe Mortb prIncIple, tbey empIoy tbe nærut
avaiIabIeædtoaccompIisbtbework atband. U tbIs way,interætandaplm-
utable excItement are awakened In tbe workman, andtbe tbIng created bybis
braIn and bnds becomæ tbe cbiId ol m love wbIcb be sek to develop and
beautilytotbeextentolbisownresoutces.
AgaIn,astbetendency towatd coperationandcon-
structIve5oIalismIsoneoltbemostmatked si¿nsoltbetImeztbeUnItedCralts
putpoæto extendtbeIrInlIuence by lormIn¿ gtoups ol aæocIatæ at numerom
lavorable poInts tbtougbout tbe country¦ tbese aæoiates beIng at wIll actIve
workets andbandictaltsmen¦ oryet agaIn,busIneæ litms or privateindIvIduaIs
wbodesIretobuIId upanational art basæ upon sound aætbctIc and eonomIc
prIncipIes A tbesimpIestmeansattbeIrdIspoælol makngknowntbeuæut-
ence and ob]ed tbe UnIted Ctalts bave lounded tbe montbly perioIcal ol
wbicbtbepteæntnumberu tbe lIrstIæue. ¯bepmtionnowtakenbytbepubIi-
cauonwIllbemaIntaIned,andeacbsucæ IvenumbetwIIIdealwitbtberelatIom
olæ tolabor.
A Is mostlItting, tbe inItIaImonograpb Isa crItIcw
andstudyupontbeüle andwotkolWIIlIamMortIs,wbose taImts, time, ener-
gIæandlortunewetedevotedto pracucsl attempts towatd pacelul revolutIon
and relotmtIon In popuIar att and in tbe condiuon ol tbeworkman. ¯be
artIcle,baædupontbetworecognizedautborItIes,MackaIIandAyImerVaIIance,
u a sImpIestatementollact, accompanIed by |nlerences and Jeducuons wbIcb
arenaturalandobvIous

¯besecondnumberol 44 ¯beCraltsman' wlloIlow
witbadmilarmon@rapbupon)obnRuskin,wboseinlIuencewæ anImpt
lactor Intbearustic andetbIcal deveIopmentolWIIIIam Mords, as u ev|dnu
by tbelettenwrIttendurIn¿tbelatter'sstudentdays at Olord. ¯be pbaæ ol
Ruskintobecomdered,IsbisahItudetowatdtbegreatbuIIding-artoltbeMIdle
A¿es,wmcb grewoutolanintenæcIvicandcoperativespIrit,wbmpulsauons
weteleItuntIltbengauonsoltbeRenamncepedoloreverstIlled anJ nmæ
tbem. ¯be newsub]utwIIIbe anotberpIealora artdeveIopdby tbe ple,
lott�peopIç and ln wbIcb tbecralumanandtbecItizensbaIlbIntImatelyam.
¡na subæuentwur, tbe4' R ol meGId5ystmln
ßutopet, wIIIbe comidered,wItbamaIntenanceoltbemmepintolview,lrom
wbIcbattwilIbregardænota æmetbIngapattltomcomon and every<ay
mUO, butratbera tbevetymæmolreaIzIuglile.
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¸1
cI IUu¯
Suqgestions for a Dining Room.
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Ciliard Coom of Ernest I. Wite,
Svr�cuse, N. Y.
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c Corner fom the 'illiard Coom of Ernest I. Wite.
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WILLIAM MORRl
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WI LLIAM MORRIS
L ¯MLLLM tbc namc OÍ ¾mam ÑOrrís
bas ÍOng síncc bcOmc a bOuscbOÍd WOrd
tbrOugbOutPmcríca, yct tbc prsOnabty OÍ
tbc mn, as WcÍÍ as bís grcat þart ín thc
WOrÍd's WOrk, ís dcÍínítcÍy knOWn but tO
tbc ÍcW. Mís Was a vcrsatuc gcníus, cacb
þbasc OÍ WmOb agÍs tO a mOrc Or Ícss cxtcndcdþubÍíc.
¯O studcnts OÍ lítcraturc bc ís
an ínnOvatOr ín bís art} Onc WbO íntrOduccd a ncW
cÍcmcnt íntO tbc NíctOrían agc} a pct WbO, bcgínníng
bís carccr as an PngÍOÎOrman mcdíacvaÍíst, ncxt drcW
ínsþíratíOn ÍrOm tbc Lrcck and Latín cÍassícs, and ÍmÍÍy
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at Íírst band, mÍucnccs ÍrOm tbc bcandínavíans WbO
þcOþÍcd ÌccÍand. b Íítcraturc, ¼íÍÍíam NOrrís ís tbc
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OþíníOn, "sbOuÍd bc ÍOr aÍÍ OurraccWbattbctaÍc OÍ ¯rOy
Was tO tbc Lrccks.¯
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rcþrc�cnts a mOst ímþrtant ÍactOr m tbc þrOgrcss OÍ
mOdcm art. Mc Wasamcmbcr OÍ tbatgrOuþOÍ bmt,
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Îínctccntb Lcntury, rcvOÍutíOnízcd tbc natíOnaÍ scboÍ OÍ
þaíntíng, and gcncratcd a currcnt OÍ acstbctícísm WbOsc
víbratíOns arc stíÍÍ ÍcÍt,nOt OnÍy ín tbcþarcntcOuntry,but
as WcÍÍ ín Pmcríca and ín Îrancc. ÎrOm m rcÍatíOns
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þractícal cnIus, NOrrís cvOÍvcd a systcm OÍ bOuscbOÍd
art, Wbíc h ÍargcÍy sWcþt aWay tbc ugÍy and tbc
cOmOnþÍacc ÍrOm tbc Üngüb míddÍc-cÍass bOmc. Mc
sO bcamc an c�rt ín Wbt bc bímscÍÍ Was þÍcascd tO
caü �'tbc Ícsscr OÍ Íüc.¯ Mc Was a mndícraÍtsmn,
.
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2 WI LLIAM MORRIS
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WI LLIAM MORRI S
ÍOr hím an æ8y VíctOry. tís accOmpüsbmcnts ín thc
VaríOus arts and crMs tO Wmch hc succcssíVcÍy dcVOtcd
hímscü, haVcbcn chrOnícÍcd andcrítìcíscd ÍrOm tímc tO
tìmc, and ín VaríOuscOuntrícs and Íanguagcs. Üut ít ís
nOt gcncraÍÎy apprccíatcd that hís art and m bOcíaÍísm
Wcrc assOcíatcd íntcgraÍÍy Wìth cach Othcr, Or, rathcr,
that thcy Wcrc but tWO aspctsOÍ thcsamcthmg. tOW-
cVcr,thís Íact bccOmcs cVídcnttOany OncWhOWìÍÎ ÍOÍÍOW
hís ÍíÍc Whích, ín íts íntcÍÎcctuaÎ aspccts, aÍthOugh ìt Was
apparcntÍy sub]cct tO abrupt changcs, Was, ín rcaÍíty, Ü
ÎOgícaÍ cXpansíOn OÍ íntcr<cpndcnt ídcas.
Ít ís as an artíst-sOcíaÍíst that
Wc WíÍÎ brícÍÎycOnsídcr hím.
¯hc tradítíOns OÍ m Íamuy
surrOundcd m Wíth cOnscrVatìsm. tc Was bOrn OÍ
aUÍucnt parcnts WhOsc WæÍth íncrcascd duríng hís chíÎd-
hOOandyOuth. tísÍatbcr,a LOndOnLítybankcr,gaìn-
íng acOntrOÍÍíngíntcrcstínprOuctíVccOppr-míncs, grcW
WcaÎthy byOnd ms OWn cXpctatíOns, and Was thus abÍc
tO aUOrd m chíÎdrcn thc mOst dcsírabÍc cducatíOnaÎ and
sOìaÎ adVantagcs, as aÍsO tO sccurc tO thcm, at hìs OWn
dæth, a Vcry cOnsídcrabÍc ÍOrtunc.
¾íÍÍíam NOrrís, thc cÍdcst OÍ
ÍíVcsOns,WasdcstíncdÍOrthcLhurch,andÍOrthatrcasOn,
Was cntcrcd, at thc ac OÍ ÍOurtccn, at NarÍbOrO LOÍÍcgc,
thcrc tO bc cducatc undcr cÎcrícaÎ mastcrs. tVcn ín
thcsc carÍy days, thc charactcrístícs OÍ thc Íuturc artìst
and thínkcr WcrcmOst markcd and sínguÍar. ¯hc bOy
Was lathcr tOthc man. ¯hcÍaXdíscípÍínc,thcWcakncss
OÍ thc schOÎ OrganíZatíOn actcd ín nO unÍaVOrabÍc Way
upn thc schOÍar WhOsc mOraÍ and physícaÎstrcngthgaVc
hím a uníguc pÍacc amOng thc studcnt by. Hathcr,
thcsc cOndítìOnsaÍÍOrdcd hm Opprtuníty ÍOr cuÍtíVatmg
hìs índíVíduaÍ tastcs and ÍOr dcVcÍOpíng hís pccuÍíar
pOWcrs. ¯hc schOOÍ übrary at NarÍbOrO Was rích ín
WOrks upn archacOÍOand cccÎcsìastícaÍ archítccturc,
and thrOugh thcsc, Wít hìs rcmarKabÎc pWcr OÍ assìmí-
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WI LLIAM MORRIS
ÍatíOn, hc rangcd atWuÍ. tc thcrc acguìrcd that accur-
atc knOWÍcdgc, Whìch, Íurthcr dcvcÍOpd by mìnutc
cXamìnatìOn OÍ aÍÍ cXutíng mOnumcnts,cOnstìtutcd h a
grcat authOrìty upn LngÍìsh LOthìc, and, at thc samc
tìmc, a prOtcctOr OÍ thcmcdíacvaÍcathcdraÍsandchurchcs
agaínst thc vandaÍìsm OÍ soaücd ''rcstOratìOns.¯ P
schOÍ-ÍcÍÍOW at NarÍbrO dcscrìbcs NOrm as Onc WhO,
ìvcn tO sOÍìtudc and mOnOÍOgucs, Was cOnsìdcrcd ''a
ttÍc mad¯ by thc Othcr bys' a drcamcr WhO ìnvcntcd
and purcd ÍOrth cndÍcss stOrìcs OÍ ''kmghts and Íaìrìcs,¯
ìn Whch Onc advcnturc rOsc Out OÍ anOthcr( thc taÍc
tÍOWìng On ÍrOm day tO day, thrOughOut a WhOÍc tcm.
PnOthcr pccuÍìarìty thcn nOtíccabÍc ìn h Was thc rcst-
Ícssncss OÍ hìs Íìngcrs. ¯hc naturaÍ undcvcÍOpd crms-
man sOught an OutÍct ÍOr hìs manuaÍ actívìty ìn cndÍcss
ncttìng. ¼híÍc studyìng ìn thc Îargc schOÍ-rOm, hc
WOrkcd ÍOr hOurs tOcthcr, Wìth Onc cnd OÍ thc nct
Íastcncd tO a dcsk and Dìs Íìngcrs mOvìng autOmatìæy.
PÍtOgcthcr, thc ìmprcssìOn madc by NOrrìs upn hìs
assOcìatcs OÍ thOsc dys Was that OÍ a by rcmarkbÍcÍOr
hìs physìcaÍ ÍOrcc and hìs ìntcnsc ÎOvc OÍ naturc, but
WhOsc schOÍarshìp Was guítc Ordmry, barrìng hìs ìntì-
matc acguaìntancc Wìth Lgush hìstOry andarcmtccturc.
Lævìng NarÎbrO, NOn
pas�cd undcr thc tutOrshìp OÍ a ìh Lhurchm OÍ tìnc
amìnmcnt and charactcr, OÍ Wìdc sympthìcs and OÍ
cuÍtìvatcd tastcs,WhìchcXtcndcdtOthcÍincarts. Hcspn-
sìvc tO thc ncW ìmÍucnccs, thc by dcvcÍOpd mtO a mOrc
thn Íair cÍassícaÍ schOÍar, and rcccívcd thc ìnsþratìOn OÍ
thc strOngÍy índívíduÍ Íítcrary and artístìc WOrk OÍ m
Íuturc yærs. ÜutthcdccísívcmOmcnt OÍ hìsÍíÍc Ocurrcd
ìn )unc, 1852, Whcn On passíng hìs matricuatìOn cX-
ìnatìOn ÍOr LXctcr LOücgc, LXOrd, hc Ocupìcd a dcsk
ncXt tO that OÍ LdWard Üunc-|Oncs, WhOWas dcstmcd tO
bc hìs ÍiÍcOn and mOst íntmatc Írícnd. LOìng mtO
rcsìdcncc m Wat hc hmscü caücd thc mOst butiÍuÎ OÍ
thc ancícnt cítícs OÍ LngÍnd, thc amOsphcrc OÍ LxOrd
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WI LLIAM MORRIS 5
_ &
bcamc ÍOr m a ÍOrcìn pÎacc ÍOr that c guaÎíty OÍ
mcdíacVm thOuht an cuÎturc, Whích, m hís maturc
yærs, prmcatc hís prsOnaÎíq and VíVìÍícd cVcç píccc
OÍ WOrk, íntc cctual and manuaÎ, prccdín ÍrOm m.
LOnccmg thc _racíOus mucnccs OÍ thc O uníVcrsìty
tOWn, hc WrOtc tc m ÎìÍc'
��¯hcrc arc many pÎaccs ín
tngÎand Whcrc a yOung man may gct as gOd b k-
Îæmg as ín LXOrd( bt nOt Onc Whcrc hc can rcccíVc
thc cducatíOn Whích thc ÎOVcüncss OÍ thc grcy cìtyuscd tO
gìVc us.¯
·
¯hcìmpuÎsctOWardmcdíacVaÎ-
ísm Was Íurthcr strcngthcncd ín NOrrìs,durínghìsundcr
graduatc days, by a study tOur thrOugh thc cathcdraÎ
tOWns OÍ trancc,¬nOtabÎy HOucn and Pmìcns,¬as WcÎÎ
as bya cOrsc OÍ rcadíngWhích gaìncd m an íntmatc
acguaìntancc Wíth trOíssart and Wíth thc Prthurìan
Îcgcnds' tWO WcÎÎs OÍ thOught ÍrO WhOsc íncXhaustìbÍc
dcpths hc drcW an cndÎcss chaìn OÍ artìstìc motifs.
¯hc dcVcÍOpmcnt OÍ hìs sOcìaÎ
and pÎítìcaÎídæs Wzs sÎOWcr and Îatcr than hìs adVancc-
mcnt ìn Îìtcraturc and art. Õurìng hìs rcsìdcncc at
LXOrd, hcsaW nO Ob]cctíOn tO thc mOnarchìcaÍ prìncìpÍc(
but yct, ín thc abandOnmcnt OÍ hìs purpOsc tO takc tOÍy
LrdOrs, Wc may scc thc b�g OÍ hìs rcVOÍt agamst
cOnstítutcd authOríq. ¯h� sccuUrìZatìOnOÍ hìsmìnd,thc
Wìdcmng OÍ hìs íntcrcstscOnVínccd h that art and Íìtcr-
aturc Wcrc nOt mcrc handmaídcns OÍ rcÍìgìOn, but rathcr
mtcrcsts tO b pursucd ÍOr thcìrOWsakc( thatthcyWcrc
nO Îcss than thc mcans OÍ rcaÍìZmg ÎìÍc. ÎOr a shOrt
prìOd ìndccd, hc had chcrìshcd thc ídca OÍ ÍOndmg a
rcÍìOus ÜrOthcrhOd WhOsc patrOnWastObcbìra�ad
OÍ tc Prthurìan Îcgcnd, and WhOsc ruÍcs shOuÍd mcdc
bOth ccÍìbacy and cOnVcntuaÎ ÎìÍc. Üut thc ìdca OÍ acOm-
mOn OrganìZcd cÍÍOrt tOWarda hìghcr ÍìÍc,Whìchhadbccn
pÍacd by NOrrís and hìs grOup OÍ assOcìatcs¬Üumc-
}Oncs, tauÍkncr and Othcrs¬graduaüy changcd ÍrOm thc
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C WI LLIAM MORRIS
ÍOm OÍ a mOnastìc tOthat OÍ a sOcìaÍ brOthcrhOd. ¼ìth
thc passagc OÍ ycars, thìs sOcìaÍìstìc ìdca cXpandcd ìn thc
.
mìndOÍ ¼u NOrrìs, untìÍ thc ÍccÍìngs Whìch hc had
Íìrst cntcrtaìncdtOWardasmaÍÍcìrcÍcOÍprsOnaÍÍrìcnds cX-
tcndcd sO as tO cmbracc thc WOrÍd, ìts WOrk and ìts
íntcrcsts. ¯hcn, hc dccÍarcd hìmscÍÍ ín rcvOÍt agaìnst
cXìstìng authOrìtìcs( dcmandìng a cOndìtìOn OÍ sOìcty ìn
Whìch thcrc shOuÍd b ''ncìthcr rìch nOr pr, ncìthcr
mastcr nOr mastcr's man, ncìthcr ìdÍc nOr OvcrWOrkcd, ìn
Whìch aü mcn shOuÍd Íìvc m cguaÍìty OÍ cOndìtìOn, and
WOuÍd managc thcìr aÍÍaìrs unWastcÍuÍÍy, Wìth thc ÍuÍÍ
cOnscìOusncss that ham tO Onc WOuÍd mæn ham tO aü'
thc ræÍìZatìOn at Îast OÍ thc mæg OÍ thc WOrd'
LLNNLÎPL ¯Í.¯
buch an cvOÎutíOn OÍ thOught
was a dìrcct rcsuÍt OÍ NOnìs's studyOÍ thcartandcìtìZcn-
shìp OÍ thc NìddÍc cs, |ust as cvìdcntÍy as m Íìrst ídca
OÍ a rcÍígìOus brOthcrOO prOccdcdÍrOm an ardcnt study
OÍ thc stOry OÍ thc knìhts OÍ thc HOund ¯abÍc. ¯hc
ÍOmcr Íact hc acknOWÍcgcd dumgthccOurscOÍ adcbatc
On bOcmÍìsm, Whch OcuncdatLambndgc,m J 884. t
statcmcnt u as ÍOüOws:
4' Ì haVc cOmc thOrOughÍy tO
undcrstand thc mamcr OÍ wOrk undcr whìch thc aH OÍ
mc NìddÍc P cs Was dOnc, and that ít ísthcOnÍymamcr
OÍ WOrk Whìc can tum Out ppuÍar art( OmytOdìscOVcr
that ìt ís ìmpssìbÍc tO WOrk ín that manncr m m prOÍìt-
grìndìng sOcìcty. bO On aü sìdcs Ì am drìvcn tOWard
rcvOÍutìOn as thc OnÍyhOp,and Ì Ü grOWìngcÍcarcrand
cÍcarcr On thc spcdy advcnt OÍ ìtmavcçobvíOus ÍOm.¯
¯hc succcssívc stcps OÍ h
study and thc spcìÍìc accOmpÍìshmcnts Whch gavc h
cÎaìm tO thc rccOgnìtìOn and gratìtudc OÍ many sOrts and
cOndìtìOns OÍ mcn arc íntcrcstìng and sìgnìÍìcant. tu
índívíduaÍìty and ÍcarÍcssncss asscrtcd thcmscÍvcs m m
ÍìrstchOìcc OÍ a prOÍcssìOn( ÍOr havìn rcccívcd hìsbacca-
Îaurætc dcgrcc, hc sOrcÍy dìsappìntcd m Íamuybybínd-
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! _.
WI LLIAM MORRIS ¯
1g 1D¦:Í 1 t>>':1.:¦1> 1 t1LX1'1t'.1:. ¯1:
g't/] 1 1¦ t.11 .t1 11 11W >: tg':.t:1 :t.::
'::':1.: 1 1: ¦>' 1 1: D:¦
_
1: W:t1/
1>×' D11: .t¦¦:¦ ':gt'1:1 1: D:1 11W1g t'¦.
>1'¦1¦ t¦Ü11:Dt1¦: 1: >t1:'¦b1g 1W:¦ 1 1:
¦xt ¦.t: t11 1: צ11 1 t'.Y:.¦ : /:1 b1g
j1:¦11:1
^ 1: >':¦:1 1¦t1.: 1 D:
t11 11:t1 1 1x1D:1t'/ :/1:1.: W:L 111::¬
D1: W1:1:' Wt¦ 1: t'.1:11g.t 1' 1: t'¦.
t.1/ 1N1''¦ 1t :1m 11:O11.:1 t r'1:¦¦11
Ü1 W111 ¦:m 1 1t/:b:1 1: 1¦1.L t1: ×m
1:.1't1' W11 111:'¦t11¦ 1: ':t/: /t1:¦ 1 O11·
¦'1.11 t11 1Ï:1 t11 W11k11W¦t1th:D1¦r¦
>11 t11 t1:'Wt'1 >:t1| Î W111 ¦::Dt¦1t1tm
¦1 .111¦1g N1''¦ /tg1:/ : 1t >/ 1'.: 1 1¦O1D·
Dt111 1:Í:.1t D1't t11p'¦11t1Í1:1.: 1:Wt¦
1:¦1:1 1 ':1::D t11 1c:/t: 1: 1:1 1:æ11tU:1
Ü1g¦1 1:X't/: t'¦

_
1: t>>':1.:¦1> 1 N1''¦
t¦ t1 t'.M:. t¦:1 11/ 11: D111¦ >1 11'1 m
ID: W1 1: g'm g 1 .11.:1't11 Ñm.1 O1t't.
:'Z:1h, 1: gtm:

a k11W:1g: 1 ×1 >'1.>: æ1
1:t W1.1W111 1t/: ':j1':1 t 11g t×'m¦ag
.t11 '1Dm 1'11t!/g:1p'¦11 t¦ tm:1¦
t¦ t >11:' W:': 1:/:' >11 : t:Y/:>'t.> u¦: t11
:/:1 11 >tM1g m '¦ 11D: m 1859, t1: 44 Ü:1
t11¦:´ tL>11 L111/Ï:1 1:m>1/:1t1:¦:¬.:¦
1 h¦ ':11 a11 m1W·¦11:1 1 t'.1:.1': Ìhp
¾:bb; t1mg11: t:' 11 Ú: :¦:m 1c 11
N1''¦¦ 1':.11¦ :¦×.tÍ / 1 1: 1:¦g 1 1: 1:':'
t11 ¦ 1I11g¦ ¯1: b:1 t11¦: >'1/:1 1 b t1
:×.1mg >111g Ì ¦ ':Dt'ct>: t¦ b1g1:'¦t
:ttD>: 1 1: '://:1 t'¦. 1¦: 1 ':1 >'.cm 11D:¦iC
t'.1:.1': 44
_
1: b111¯ 1t¦ '::T:1 1 t¦"1t
W111:'1 ':1 >111g W1.1 >:.tD: 1: >'11Q 1 al
1: .1t'D1g 111¦:¦ 1 1: ¦>.t:1 4 _1::1 Pm:
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8 WI LLIAM MORP,IS
rcvtvaÎ( aÎthOugh tt may bc satd tn þasstng, that tt ts
amOst cntírcÍy LOthtc, Wtth a strOn Îrcnch tmucncc
agarcnt.¯ Îtnaüy, ìt ts knOWn that thc hOuschOÍd
dccOrattvc arts ÍOr Whích LngÎand bccamc sO ÍamOus tn
tbc Îattcr þart OÍ thc ntnctccnth ccntu, grcW Out OÍ thc
dcstrc OÍ NOrrts tO þrOvtdc a suttab͸ c Omc ÍOr hìs ÎOvcÍy
brtdc, and m avOWcd cÜOrt tO makc mat hOc thc mOst
buttÍuÎ dWcÎÎtng-þmcc tn thc ktndOm.
¯Og mc cXcrcuc OÍ m
tngcutty mmuraÎ andccìÎtng OmcntattOn, m cbOtd-
cry dcstgn, and ìn Othcr arttsttc mcdìus, hc acguìrcd
þracttæÎ czprtcncc as a dccOratOr. Pnd ÍrOm mcsc
bcggs grcW thc WOrk Whtch cngagcd m ÍrOm mat
tmc ÍOrWard unttÎ hts dæth. ¯hc acVì OOnscgucnt
upn thc þÎannìng and Íummg OÍ thc cd tOsc´
ÍOÎÎOWcdupnamOdOÍtdÎcncss,nOtmrcguOtmNOns's
yOuth( but Wtth thc OOmtng OÍ thc ncW mtcrcst8, thc
tcdcnctcs OÍ carÎtcr rcars dtsaþparcd ¯hccgcmcs8 Ot
thc makcr, thc ¡Oy L craÍtsmanshtþ scDcd m, ncVcr tO
rcmX thctr hOÎd. Pnd thc dræms OÍ a mOmsttc ÜrOthcr-
hOOd Whtch had bcn thc OOnstant accOmþamcnt OÍ h
LXOrd days, cvOÍvcd tntO thc dcÍtnttcídæ OÍ a OOmgy
OÍ arttsts þÎcdgcd tO þrOducc buttÍuÎ thmgs.
buch Was thcO OÍ mc Ím
OÍ NOrrts ö LOmþany, Whtch, bstdc thc OhtcÍ WhO
dcvOtcd tO tts succcss hís cxaOrdmary taÎcnts, ms ttmc
and hts ÍOrtunc, tncÍudcd amOng ttsmCbrs othcr mcnOÍ
gcntus and grOt attamcnt1 NadOX ÜrOWn, VhOsc Þígh
þÎacc tn Lngbsh þamtíng stands tda acknOWÎcdgcd(
Lantc LabrtcÍc bOsscttt, WhO unttcd ìn hsc thcíncOn-
gruOus guabItcs OÍ thc tdæÍtst, thc arttst and thc astutc
tinanctcr( Üunc-]Oncs, WhO dtd mOst tO þcrptuatc and
cnnObÍc thc Lngbsh ¡rc-baþhacÍttc tradìttOn} Îmþ
¼cbb, thc buudcr, as Vc knOW, OÍ thc '' bcd tOusc,¯
Ibc mastcr Ot þrOprItOnandOÎcnt,Whcthcras aþþÍtcd
to thc Îargcr masscs OÍ archttccturc,Or yct tO 8maÎÎ Ob]ccts
OÍ tntcHOr dccOratíOn( and ÍtnaÎÎy ÎauÎkncr, Îcss gtÍtcd
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WI LLIAM MORRIS =
astcly m the others, but who was a forthright
cr� a valuable assoiate as an exprt accountant,
and whose loyalty and longing for m friends had drawn
m fro h mathematicl tutorshp at Oxord to take up
the restless lfe of London.
It is certain tht no oter such
fir m ever b orgaed; since it was compsed of
Oxord graduates of distinction, and artists of alredy high
reutation; since, also, its commercial object was wholy
subrdinate to the interests of art. The m employment
of the Company was, at first, ecclesiastical decoration, as
the socalled aesthetic revival was then in progress among
the London churches. This movement, whch was
entailed by the vigorous study of history made by the
High-Church party, created a demand for mural decoration,
stained glass, tiles, carving, metal work and altar­
embroideries, aU of which, by reason of the pculiar talents
and tendencies of Bume- ones, Morris, Brown and
Î auIkner, could b most inteligenty supplied. m the
decade I860- 1 870, the Morris fin executed windows for
Salisbury Cathedral, and for certain of the College churches
at Oxord and Cambridge; whch works are today
objects of pilgrimge for those interested in the modem
reviva of one of the most beautul of the arts of the
Middle Ages. At the same time, very successful expri­
ments in tapstry-weving and cabnet-making were in
progress, as may b leared from the reprt of the jury of
awards at the Intertional Ebition of 1 862. ¯m
reprt, refering to the objects of household art shown by
the Morris fin, declares that "the general forms of the
furture, the arrangement of the tapstry, and the
character of the details are satisfactory to the archeologist
- from the eactess of the imitation, at the same time tat
the general efect is excellent." _
It is needess to trace the
developent of the Îz at length; since the results of it
work my b mesured by any one who has the me
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11 WI LLIAM MORRI S
to compare the household art of England and America, as,
it stands today, with the ugliness and barrenness of the
upr and middle class homes of those countries, forty
yers ago. But it must be remembered that to the tm
capital, invention and control were suppled practicaIy by
Morris alone. His architectural instinct, the quality i
which lay his unique strength, buit up the material
fortunes of the Company from the merest financial nothing,
at the same time that it assured the complete aetetic
success of the enterprise by carrying the arts of design to
their highest form.
As the desire for butiful
surroundings spred from ecclesiastical into seculr life,
the cl for incresed and diversified production made
hevy demands upn Morris's time, strength and financial
resources. But his energies and his spirit of sef-sacrifice
never failed or flagged. He was always persistet,
sagacious and industrious. m order to revive the arts
ana crafts which so bautified the otherwise strenuous le
of the Middle Ages, he made the most practical ad costly
experiments in dyeing, weaving and printing. I the
exercise of the first of these crafts, he suppleented aU
that could be lered from boks and from chemical tests
in his own vats by a thorough apprenticeship among the
dyers of: Stafordshire. And the results of m labr
justified the means which he so ungrdgingly employed;
for he succeeded in raising to an unexpected degree of
bauty, the art which, since the introduction of the æes
at abut the middle of the nieteenth century, had falen
ito deplorable decline. As a colorist, Morris takes rank
among the great masters. He followed the bst tradtions
of Oriental art; usig but few elements and obtaiing m
efects by skiully varied juxtapsition and contrast. Hi
system of color hs been somewht misundersto by
bth buyers and imitators; for the pacock-blues, olive­
greens and rusty reds domant i the stage setting of
44 Patience" and other sates upon the " Aesthetic Craze,"
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WI LLIAM MORRIS 1 1
Wcrc 8tmpÎy QrOVt8tOnaÎ cOÎOr8u8cd durtngthccarÎy yær8
OÍ thc ttm, and 8ct astdc by thc c8tabÎt8hmcnt OÍ thc
NOrrt8 dyc-hOu8c, Whcrc ÍuÌÎ Írank huc8 OÍ mdtgO bÎuc,
m8ddcrrcdandWcÎdycÎÌOWWcrc prÍcctcd, and CpÎOycd
i mc prOducttO OÍ thc bcauIuuÎ tÜ cr8míth carpcI8
and ÑOtOn tap8trtc8 and chmt2c8.
¡n tcXItÎc Íabrtc8 thc prOgrcs8
mdc by NOrrt8 Wa8 nO Ìc88 8urc and raptd than m Ihc
an and craÍt Whtch Wc hVc |usI cOn8tdcrcd. Ît8
agrcctattOn OÍ ncc�8tttc8 and hOW tO accOmpü8h thcm
Va8 8Îtkc m al hcÌd8 OÍ practtcaÎ WOrk. tt8 aIIammcnI8
tn thc WæVtng OÍ Mp8try arc c8pcctaÎÎy rcmarkabÌc and
charactcrt8ttc. tc crtItct8cd thc LObcÎtn8 tacIOrtc8 a8
hVtng dcgradcd 8 "Ítnc art¯ tnIO a mcrc 'uphOÎstcrcr´8
tOy,¯ and thcnÍOrc 8ct htm8cH tO rcVtVc thc craÍt. m
dUJuÎt OÍ an cXt8tmg tn8tancc Whcrc thc actuaÎ WcaVtng
prOc88 mtght b Ob8crVcd, NOrrt8 gaIhcrcd dctatÎ8, a8
b8t hc mtght, ÍrOm an OÎd trcnch OhtctaÎ handbk,
pubÎt8hcd prtOrtOthcÜOVOÎuttOn. tccau8cd8 handÎOOm
tO bc 8ct up m m OWn bdrOm at ÍcÎm8cOtt tOusc,
tamcr8mtth, and, tn Ordcr that thc ncW mtcrc8t 8hOuÎd
nOt mtcncrc Wtth . m Ordtnary OcupattOn8, hc Wa8
acOu8tOcd tO practt8c WcaVmg tn thc carÎy mOmg
hOr8. tc 8O graduaÎÎy bcæmc an cXpcrt WOrkman,
and cVcn dcVt8ctcchntcaÎtmpOVCcnt8upn thctrcnch
ht8tOrtcaÎ 8y8tC. bdccd, hc m8y b 8atd tO haVc
rætOrcd thc 8pÌcndtdand aÎmO8tcXttnctart OÍ thcÍuIccnIh
and 8tXtccnIh ccnIurtc8. ¯ht8 8tatcmcnt t8 ¡u8tutcd by
thc bcautuuÎ WOrk8 tn arra8' 44 ¯hc btar OÍ ÛcIhÌchcm,¯
and thc 8crtc8 tÎÌu8trattng "¯hc _uc8tOÍ thcbanLraaÌ,¯
dc8tgcd ÍOr thcgrætdtníng-rOmOÍ btOrc taÎÌ, ncar
tarrOW.
,
A thudart,·thatOÍprtnttng�~
tO thc practtccOÍ Whích NOrrt8dcVOtcdmuch te durtng
Ihc Îatcr ycar8 OÍ m ÎíÍc, WOuÌd 8ccm at Ítr8t tO bc
rcmOVcd ÍrOm thc 8phcrc OÍ thc Qrc dccOratOr. Ûut Wc
Ímd thc 8ccrct OÍ tht8 dcVOttOn tn thc WOrd8 OÍ thc aHst
,
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IÜ WI LLIAM MORRI S
himself: 44 The only work of a which surpasses a
complete mediaeval book i a complete mediaeval build­
ing." And hence we realze that here agai the
architectural instinct provided impulse and energy. As
Morris had realized erly in le the impssibility of raising
buildings worthy to compare with mediaeval structures,
and had found the cause of such impssibility to le i the
adverse circumstances under which the modem workman
is compelled to labor, deprived of pleasure in the work of
h hands, so the great-hearted reformer and arist set
hmseH to remedy the wrong, and to restore the lost
pleasure to the worker. His architectural studies led him
to Socialism, and when his hops of efecting great
iprovements in the economic conditions of his country
passed away, he was thrown back upn h own resources
to impress his convictions upn the world. So the
establishment of his printig-press at Kelmscott Manor,
coincides with h withdrawal from active Socialism.
Again, his pwer of quick
absorption and assimilation made him a past master of
the craft, in which he was also aided by his previous
hand-ilumination of favorite pm, and his studies in
wo�ngravig. The Kelmscott Press created priting
as a fine art in England and America, ppularized god
design in bok-overs, and produced a series of beautiful
boks, the finest of which, the great folio edition of
Chaucer, was a tribute of Morris to the literary guide and
master of his youth.
m the full activity of his labr
as printer and publisher, death overtok him; but not
before he had drawn the prtrait of the ideal handicrafts­
man, in whom we recognize his ow likeness.
.
44 The tre workman," he says,
''must put hs own individual intelligence and enthusiasm
into the gos which he fashions. He must have a
natural aptitude for hs work so strong that no education
cn force h away from rs spcial bent. He must be
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WI LLIAM MORRI S 1 3
aÍÍOWcd tO tbmk OÍ Wbat bc ís dOíng, and tO vary bís
WOrk as tbc círcumtmccsOÍ ítvary, andmOWn mOds.
Mc must bc ÍOrcvcrstm g tOmakctbc þíccc at Wbícbhc
ís at WOrk bt|cr m thc Íast. Mc must rcÍusc at
anybdy's bíddíng tO tum Out,~Í WOn't say a bad,~but
cvcn an mdíhcrcnt þíccc OÍ WOrk, Wbatcvcr tbc þubüc �
Wants, Or tbínks ít Wants. Mc must bavc a vOícc, and a
vOícc WOrtb Íístcmng tO, m tbc WbOÍc aÍÍaír.¯
.
¯bc þrOuctíOn OÍ tbís skcd
bandícraÍtsman Was, m NOrrís's bcÍícÍ, an ídcaÍ nOt
bcyOnd ræÍízatíOn. tís systcm Was tbat OÍ scttíng tbc
ncarcst prsOn tO dO Wbtcvcr WOrk nccdcd tO bc dOnc.
Mc þrcÍcrrcd gcncraÍ íntcÍÍígcncc tO ínnatc manuaÍ
dcxcnty. Mc ínvcígbcd agaínst tbat cxccssívc dívísíOn
OÍ ÍabOr Wbícb cramþs and stcríÍízcs tbc mOdcm artüíccr.
Mc dcmandcd a knOWÍcdgc OÍ draWíng as tbc basís OÍ a!Í
manuaÍ arts and as an csscntíaÍ cÍcmcnt OÍ a gcncraÍ
cducatíOn Wmcb sbOÍd b WOrtby OÍ tbc namc. b a
WOrd, bc sOugbt tO unítc tbc artíst and tbc WOrkmm ín
Onc prsOn, and tbus tO þrcvcnt tbc makg OÍ dcsígns
Wbícb tbcdcsígncr L nOt þrOducc Wítb hís OWn bands.
PÍtbOgb tbc aHístíc þnncíþÍcs
OÍ NOrrís bavc bcn gucstíOncd, ít ís acknOWÍcdgcd tbat
prsODÍÍy bc mdc tbcmsucccssÍuÍ. bbís OWn casc,bc
dídnOt dívOrcc þractícc andtbcOry} síncc tObís ímmcnsc
prOductíOn OÍ dæígns,¬Wbícb m tcx|íÍc Íabrics aÍOnc
numbcrcd mOrc tban síx bundrcd,¬bc addcd tbc cxprí-
cncc OÍ a tbOrOugb craÍtsman. ÎurtbcmOrc, bc díd nOt
aÍÍOW bís OWn mtcrcsts and OccupatíOns, abOrín and
cxactíng tbOugÞ tbcy Wcrc, tO bmd bím tO tbc Íargcr
gucstíOns OÍ tbc bOur,ín Wbícb bc cOuÍd bc OÍ scrvícc tO
hís cOuntry, Íæ ccntury and tbc WOrÍd} as ís cvídcnccd
by bís actíOn and þrOmíncncc ín tbc bOcícty ÍOr thc
ÏrcscrvatíOn OÍ Pncícnt ÜuíÍdíngs, and by tbc ÍcrÍcss
cntbusíasm Wítb Whcb bc dísscmínatcd COcíð!tsItC
prOþaganda. Mc Íaíd dOWn nO empty tormuÍas, and le
bís mastcr Lauccr's ''ÏOurc ÏarsOn,¯ tirst bc Wrought,
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14 WI LLIAM MORRIS
and aÍtcrVard hc taught. As Wc haVc bÍOrc 8atd, hu
art and h bOCtausm Vcrc Onc and tnscparabÌc¦ ÍOr hc
cntcrcd upn hts pÍtttCaÍ OOrsc bÌankÍy tOrant OÍ
cCOnOmtCs and tn thc cÍÍOrt tO makc psstc ÍOr thc
VOrkman ''a Ìuc tO VhtCh thc prCcpttOnandCrcattOn OÍ
bcauty,¬thc cn¡Oymcnt OÍ ræÍ pÌcasurc that ìs,¬shad b
ÍcÍt tO bc as ncCcs�ry as dauy bræd.¯ LtKc tarÍmm,
hc sccmcd tO bÍtcVc that thc rcÍattOns OÍ m tO man
haVc ÍOrmcd an asCcndìng cVOÍutìOnary scrtcs, dcVcÌOpd
thrOuh thc suCOcsstVc OrganìO prtOd8 OÍ hìstOry, mO
that thcy arc nOV undcrgOtn Ü Íast Ortsts, at VhOsc cnO,
thcsc rcÍatìOns haVtng bccn UO8c OÍ mastcr and sÌaVc tn
thc anOtcnt rcpubÌtCs, krd and 8crÍ m thc NddÌc A

i
CapttaÌut ad Íabrcr m thc mnctccnth Ocntury, s
uÍttmatcÍy, undcr thc hapy µ OÍ Sil, bCOmc
thOsc OÍ brOthcr and brOcr
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WILLIAM MORRIS :
HIS SOCIALISTI C CAREER.
EIOR'S NOTE.-I tbeeffort to offe anaourateprtrmt¬ketcb of
Wil Morris, the artist-solit, hndicraftsman, ptandmanof bne,we
hve thought bt not to conceal thoe characteristics which sparted him so
widely from tbemen of h clas and condition. The force and even vehemence
of m nature led him to extreme which are inconceivable to the calm-mnded
aud conservative.
But in his violent a.d sudden reversion from the active tothe contempIauve
Iile, we may se tbe effort of a trly practcal man of bis timeto control the
impuls of the prophet within m, who loked forward to a distant age when
all soial wrongs should be righted, and tbe reltion of man to manshould be
Um of brother to broth.
We ptent the personality of William Mors with neither praie nor
blae; but simply with the stIonthat if wetakehim for aII in all, weshall
notson se m ü aain
S
LLÌbm u a WOrd OÍtcn VagucÍy andìndíscm-
atcÍy uscd¦ síncc ìts dcÍínítìOn duÍcrs grætÍy ín Ihc
VaríOus grOups OÍ thOsc WhO prOÍcss íts príncípÍcs.
¯bcrcÍOrc, m Ordcr IO undcrstand thcmcIhOdsOÍ IhOught
and actíOn OÍ any índíVídualcÍassìnghìmscÍÍamOngthOsc
scckìng a rc-ad]ustmcnI OÍ thc prcscnt rcÍatíOns bctWccn
m and man, i ís ncccssary IO díscOVcr Ihc gcrm-ídcas
OÍ thc índíVíduaÍ, and IO cOnsídcr Ihc cnVírOnmcnI Whích
ÍOrccd thcsc ídcasíntO dcVcÍOpmcnt and prOductívcncss.
m Ihc casc OÍ ¼ímm mOrrís,
Ihc cVOÍutíOn u mOsI ínIcrcstíng, m IhaI ít prcscnIs a
sÍOW, nIuraÍ, nOmÍ prOccss, díVídcd íntO Ihc thrcc
phascs ObscrVcd ín aÍÍV mngs' a Wcak ínÍancy¦ a
VìgOrOus mturíty¦ a IrObcd and passíVc dccÍínc.
ÎrOm dOcumcntary cVídcncc,
Wc lcarn tht ín yOutb mOrrís hd nO Ob]cctíOn IO thc
pcípÍc OÍ mOnarcby. Ìndæd, m undcrgraduaIc uIIcr-
anccs ín mc LXOrd and Lambrídgc aaìnc [Wmcb
Was ÍOundcd by mmscÍÍ and m Lctcr ÍÍcgc Írícnds)
haVc a Iruc Lrlym rmg, Wbcn bc s�s '
"1æþÍc baVc Ü kg, Ü
lcadcr OÍ sOmc 8On, ahcr aü' Wbcræ mcy arc surcly
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ÏC WI LLIAM MORRIS
-
right, only Ï wish they would not chose kg critic­
mob."
The passage quoted was writte
m 1 856, when Morris was as yet the country-bred boy,
the easy liver and aristorat. But the iuence of certain
of h colege associates was like seed lef to germinate i
h mid. His friends, Price and Fauler, brought to
Oord actual knowledge of the inhM conditions of
human life in the great idustrial areas of Egland.
Their practical enthusiasm for Factory Acts, for sanita­
tion, for all that implied the bttenent of the condition of
the working classes gradualy replaced i the mnd of
Morris what we may call h prsonal Mediaevalim;
that is : the tendency to excessive heroworship, and the
desire to isolte hmself from the common le of the
world He came very slowly to recognie that the
classes, or strata of society are interdepndent ; tt hrm
to one means han to all ; that true freedom, rea morality
and livig art depnd upn the physical and soil well-
bing of the masses.
.
Morris's stge of developent
at the outbreak of the RussoTurksh ¼m, which proved
to b a crisis in his lfe, may b describd as nothg
beond a fran and thorough libralism; bt yet the
trend of h evolution as a ther was ten plainly
visible. Ths moment has ben caled by one of hs
most sympathetic biographers : " The Parting of the
Ways." It was the bginng of hs conversion to a
definite and do¿tic soialm. The ocasion m b
briefly descrbed.
mthe autumn of 1 876, England
was stirred by the reprts of Turkish massacres i
Bulgaria, and public opinion rallied to the Russian and
Christian side ; but, durng the course of a few weeks,
the iluence of the Tory ministry so changed the
dominant sentiment that the country seemed abut to
take up arms in the cause of Turkey. Then it was that
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WI LLIAM MORRI S 17
¼m NOrrís, mhcrtO knOWn Omy as an arbst and
lítOary man, addrcsscd ms nOW tamOus lchcr tO " ¯hc
LOndOn Lady ÎcWs,¯undcrthcOaptíOn t " nlandand
thc ¯urks.' Phcr scamng thcauthOrs Ot thc ulgarían
masæOrc8 and thc party ín ngland Wmch, tOr pütícal
and OL crOíal ræsOns, Was rædy tO cOndOnc thæ,
NOrrí8 dOlarcd ml mc ¯Orícs, ín Oasc lhcy prccípítatcd
thc OOunu íntO dctcndín thc ¯urk, WOuÍd tínd OnÍy
8hmc m VOtOry. tccndcdbyan agÎlO lhc WOrkíng
mcn, rOmíng lhæ, lOr lhc lírsl üc, Ü Ü Orgamcd
by 8trugbng lOWard Olcarcr kghl and mghcr grOund.
tO a tínal ærÛ, hc bggcd lO msOríb mscü, ín
cOpany Wím ÜUdknc, trÕ thc|mstOmn, and ad
Othcr mcn WhO hc ælæc, Ü 44 an hy8lcíæl 8cntí-
mcntm8t.n
¯hc Wa pr8í8tcd ín ít8
æ o,andlOmælmc püdælOruí8,1hcastcQucstíOn
P88OíatíO Wa8 ÍOmcd by mc lrícnd8 Ol ncutrty and
paOc. tOr a mædng Oadcd ín lhc íntcræl8 Ot m
OrgatíO, m ]anuary 1878, NOrru OOpscd a sOng
ín sugH Ot lhc Ob|Ol Ol lhc mccbng, and bgmníng
wt thc WOrds t 44 ¼æc, LOndOn Lads.¯ LOllabratíng
Wíth thc ptnOt-pl, Üumc-)Oncs, thc artíst dcí��d a
pladOm tíckct bg a Vígncdc cntítlcd : ''Ümd ar.
Ìt � íntcrcstíng tO kOW ml bthlhæcunusual sOuVcm
arc cXtant ; bng prc8crcd ín a VOlumc Ot dOumOts
banng upn thc Laslcm _uætíOn.
NOrrìs had nOW ín míddlc mc
shOWn he kcOy 8cmílíVc tO thc prOblcm8 Ot mOdcm
cívímabOn. ¯hrOugh a dccp study Ol mcdíacVal art and
cítucnshíp, hc had OOc tO b a bOíalíst ín thc tnc
8cnsct nOl a prOQgandíst and a dcstnOtíVc ag0nt, but
rathcr OncWhO rcgardcd hístcllOW-bíngs ín sOmc dcgrcc
as cOpOns, and WhO cæscd nOt tO advOatc çuíty,
gO-Wíll and kdncss. m dcÍmmg thc bOíaksm Ot
NOrris, a Wcll-kOWn Pmcrícan cnbc has saíd t "Íl
grcW Out Ot hís lOVc Ol a, Whích mcd hm tO b
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18 WI LLIAM MORRIS
aÍÍ mcn Wíthín íts dOmaín.¯ Pnd sO ít WOuÍd agar ;
síncc accOrdìng tO m OWn tcstìmOny, and that Ot m
trícnds and bOgraphcrs, hc cntcrcd upn m sOLtíc
carccr ígnOrantOÍccOnOmícs } tOWhíchstudy hcattcrWard
dcVOtcd much gO-Wm , and, at tíUtcs, ít must b cOn-
tcsscd, íÍÍ-dírcctcd aÍthOgh sínccrc cÍtOrts.

trOmthccOndítíOnsOt ítsog
and ærÍy dcVcÍOpmct, thc bu Ot ¾m NOrrís
Was aÍWays ÌargcÍy lrO lrOm dOcunc and dOg. Ít
Was ínnatc m hís bcmg, UOugh hís cOmpÍctcuncrstand-
íng Ot thc pmcípÍcs trOm Whích trcc mc and a purc art
L aÍOnc spnng. Ps tOrmumtcd m hís mínd, ít Was a
systcWhích WOuÍd abÍísh, cntìrcÍy, Or m græt p,thc
índíVíduaÌ ctÍOrt and cOmptítíOn OnWhích mOdcn sOí
rcsts, and substíIutc tOr ít cOpratíVc actíOn } Whíc
WOuÍd ínuOucc a mOrc prÍcct and cguaÍ dístnbutíOn Ot
thc prOducts Ot Íabr, and WOuÍd makc Íand and capìtaÍ,
as thc ínstcnts and mæns Ot prOuctíOn, thc ¡Oínt
psscssíOn Ot thc mcbrs Ot thc cOmuníty.
¾íth such bcÍícts as thcsc,
NOnís sct mmscÍt tO dcD
Ouncc Wth pn and VOícc thc
mOdcn índustríaÍ and ccOnOmc systcm. trOm thc pÍat-
tOm OÍ thc taÍÍ Ot \níVcrsíty LOÍÍcgc, LXOrd, hc crìcd
Out tO thc undcrgraduatcs btOrc hím: �'Ít ís my bsmcss
hcrc tOníght and cVchcm tO tOstcr yOur díscOntcnt,¯
and as a practicaÌ stcp tOWard a ncW Ordcr Ol sOícty, hc
cOunscÍcd thc yOung mcn t m bncath thcr stabOn,
i Ordcr tO bæ dOWn thc æmgbancrs btWccn cÍass
and cÍa8s.
trOtOts arOscagaínst thcdctcc-
tìOn Ot thc man Ol psítíOn,WcaÍth and cducatíOn ÍrOm thc
cÍss íntO Whích hc Was br. Lcrtaín Ot m acguaínt-
anccs, and mOng thC cVcn thOsc WhO kncW hím Wcü,
rcgardcd m bOíaÍísm as a suddcn, unrcasOnbÍc,
mcxpÎícabÍc actíOn. ¯O such as thcsc aÍWays rcamcd
umnOWn thc ÍOn stnggÍc, thc dccp brOdmg, thc
hcsìtatíOns and thcdíscOuragcstmOughWhíchÃOrrís
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WILLIAM MORRI S I¯
pa8scd dumg m carær a8a bOtaÍt8t. Pccu8tOmcd tO
Ítnd ht8 mOught8 and acttOn8 mtscOn8tncd by thO8c WhO,
Wtm ÎthÎc ptn8, mtght haVc undcr8tO thw, hc rmcd
m ÎOncÎtnæ8 Wtth 8 tOchtng pathO8'
�� I h8Vc had 8 bÍc OÍ m8uÎt8,¯
hc Oncc 8atd.
Ågæ, m 8 QrtVatc Îcttcr, hc
WrOtc On ÎcW `æ´8 Lay, 1881 :
' Ì haVc OÍ Îatc bcn 8OmcWh8t
mcanchOÎy. • • • ¾hcn Onc u u8t 8O much 8ub
ducd, Onc u apt tO tun mOrc 8pc ÍrOm üg OÍ
Onc´8 OWn a a tO mOrc WOrthy mattcr8 ; and my mtnd
u Vcry ÍuÎÎ OÍ thc græt Ohangc, Whtch Ì hO, t8 8ÎOWÎy
Omtng OVO thc WOrÎd. ÎOr WtB yOu prha8 ü tt
OcrwOntOu8 Or8upr8bbOu8, u ¡ try tO ¡Otn thOught8 WtIh
yOu tOdy tn Wrtttng a WOrd OÍ hOp ÍOr thc ncW yær ;
that tt may dO Ü gO tun OÍ WOrk tOWardthcaba8cmcnt
OÍ thc rtch and thc rat8íng up OÍ thc p r, Whtch t8 OÍ a
Utn8 mO8t tO bc ÎOngcd ÍOr ; IíÎÎ pOÎ m,at Îa8t, rub
Out rOm th trdtcboc8aÎIOgcthcrthc8cdrcadÍuÎWOrd8 t
HL and ÍLLÜ.¯
tOur yær8 Îatcr, D 8O8c OÍ
dc8patr 8Ü tO haVc 8tOÎcn OVcr m, aÍtcr Onc OÍ m
Vt8tt8 tO thc La8t Lnd OÍ LOndOn. tc Wrttc8 '
"Ln bunday, Ì Wcnt 8-præch-
tng btcpncy Way. Ny Vt8tt tntcn8cÎy dcprc88cd mc, a8
thcsc La8tWard Vt8tt8 aÎWay8 dO ; thc mcrc 8uctch OÍ
hOu8c8, thc Va8t ma88 OÍ uttcr 8habbmæ8 and uncVcnüuÎ-
nc88, 8tt8 upn Oncbkc8mghmrc. ÀOu WOuÎdprhap8
haVc 8mtÌcd at my cOngrcgattOn ; 8Omc tWOty pOpÎc m
a ÎthÎc rOm. • • • ¡t t8 a grætdraWback that ¡ m
·
t
m tO thcm rOughÌy and unahcctcdÎy. Í dOn´t 8ccm tO
haVc gOt at thc yct~yOu 8cc tht8 GRAT LLPbb
L\Lt Îtc8 btWccn u8.¯
¡n thc chOrt tO m8kc pÎatn tbc
íntcnsc, ÎOncÎy and ÎOÍty Qr8OnaÎíty OÍ ¼u NOn,
Wc arc, pcrhp8, ÎO8íng8tght OÍ mcVOÎuttOna8abOìaÎt8t.
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20 WILLIAM MORRIS
¼c havc sccn that thc Îastcm _ucstíOn, ín ít8 pmsc Ol
1 876- J 878, Was thc actívc causc OÍ h cOnVcrsíOn tO thc
Íaíth ín Whích hc dícd. ¾hcn hc cntcrcd upn h
nOvítmtc, by h OWn cOnlæ8íOn, hc had nOt sO much as
gncd Ad bmíth´8 �, ¾æÍth Ol WadOns,¯ Wmch lOr
Lngusmcn u thc Læí8 Ol OOOO8. WOr hd hc
ccn hcard Ol ÜícædO Or ÄÌ Næ. M bu
lrOm thc bg g Wa8 Ol thc hæ, nOt Ol Uc hæO
��Uc �c d pW�
OÍ absOrptíOn æd æsímdbOn Wmch æcd m t
mastcr succcsshcÍy a b dOZcn a and cralts, hcgaíncd
a thcOrcttckOWÍcdgc Ol UcpÍítíca and æmÌ príncípÍæ
Whích hc adOptcd mídWa m mc P undcrstOd by
h, bOíaÍísm rcpræctcd thOsc hQæ Ol mc Ubríng
cÍassc8 Wmch hd b cguíÚcd mOm m aguartcr-
ccntury prcVíOusÍybymccOÍÍap8cOl mcmOVccntkOWn
a8 Lhartísm: Whích dondcdrccOgüOn bythc gOVcm-
mcnt OÍ thc cítíZcmmp m1dmc hM ríghu Ol mcWOrk-
mg Mø
A pubÍícprOÍæ8íOnOl laíth Wa8
madc by NOrrí8 ín ¡Og thc8O cdbOcía LcOra!íc
tcdcrauOn, Whích rOsc m' 1883 Out Ol thc uO Ol thc
HadícaÍ, Or LíbraÎ cÍub8 Ol LOndOn : mcsc bctn Orgam-
ZatíOn8 WhOsc Ob|cct Was tO advOatc mc rO and
cOntrOÍ OÍ ÍarÍmcnt by mæg ít8 mcbr8 habí!uaüy
8ubscrvícnt tO thcír cOnstítucnts. ¯hc rísc Ol thc tcdcr-
atíOn markcd thc lust apparancc ín LngÍand OÍ mOcm,
Or scícntíÍíc bOíaüsm, and thclírst stcp Ol thc ncW bdy
Was tO mstítutc a scncs Ol mcctíng8 ÍOr thc díscussíOn Ol
" Íractícal Hccmcs lOr Írcssíng Îccd,´ thc 8ub|cct8
íncÍudmg thc nOW ÍM �� Lít tOur8 LaW,¯ " trcc
NcaÍs ÍOr bchOl LhíÍdrcn,¯ and Uc " ÎabOatíOn OÍ
HauWays.¯ I thc Íírst ducussíOn NO partícípatcd,
and hís adhcsíOntOthcbOy,bæuscOl hhíghchractcr
and grcat rcptatíOn, Wa8 cOtcd æ a nOtabÍc VíctOrylOr
thc æusc. Ìndccd, sO ímprtant Was ít rcgardcd, that a
prOmcnt bOíaüst cncd Out :
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WI LLIAM MORRI S 21
at a sigle ste ̯
44 It m doubled our strengh
.
The progrÜ e of the Demo
cratic Federaton to whch Morris subscribd was virtual y
a schee of Stte Soialism; that is : the joint ownership
þaU mebrs of the Stte of the land, and of the instu­
met and mens O poduction ; the distribution among
the membrs of the produce, by a pblic act, prfored
accrding to rules lid down by te Stte ; the negation
of ownership ��nof the members O the Stte of thigs
that do not in the using.
To these theries, distant from
the acoplshent, were joined practcal mesures for
the bttermet of the condition of the working m, and
for Uc exincton of comptition.
Toward the evils of the modem
cmecial syste Morri was espcil y bitter. He
dcrib the ams of today Ü 44 workig conciously
for a liveiho, and blidly for a mee abstracton of Ü
wold-mrket, bt wth no thoght of the ware passing
mgh Uæ mæ¯
¼m Uc8c hM automata
he Uu cm m oen of Uc Mddle Age :
.
44 Wo woked directly for ther
negbr, udetdg the wants, ad wth no middle
MÜ cg bte the."
• 44 Now," he ctinue, " pple
work under the dcton of a absolute mter whose
pwer u restained by a tade's uno, i absolute hos­
to that master. I the Mddle Ages, they worked
under the drecio of mcu ow colletive wl by means
of tade guilds. The old systen in its simplicity,
assumed tat commerce was made for man ; whereas
our mode system u bsed on the assumption that man
u made for commerce ; that he unot an inteligent beng ;
but a mache, or pnof a machie tt yielos but one
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22
WI LLIAM MORRIS
rcsuÍI' Ihc dcgradaIíOn OÍ Ihc czIcmaÍ surrOundíngs OÍ
mc, Or, símpÍy and pLy' \ÎtP¡¡ÍÎLbb.¯
¯hc WOrk OÍ mOrru ín Ihc
ínIcrcIs OÍ Ihc ÎcdcraIìOn [and íI Was arduOus and ÌOng
cOnIínucd) u Vcry WcÍÌ índícaIcd by Ihc IíIÍcs OÍ ÍOur
Ìccturcs Whích hc dcüVcrcd ín Ihc Ìargc IOW Ot Ihc
Lmtcd ÌngdOm' " \ scÍuÍ ¾Ork Vcrsus\scÍcss ¯Oí̦¯
''Prt and Labr¦¯ ''míscry and Ihc ¾ay LuI OÍ Ít
;tt
''tOW WcLìVc and tOW Wc míghI LíVc.'
¯hc ÌOyaÍq OÍ thc gæt man
|O Ihc ÎcdcraIíOn and íIs ínIcrcsIs Was ÌímìIÍcss ¦ buI Ihc
bOcíaÍísm OÍ Ihc bdy rapídÍy assumcd a d@Iíc and
sccIarían cOÍOríng. ¯OWard thc cd OÍ 1884, a rupIurc
Occurrcd ín Ihc O�aníIíOn, and mOn Was Ihc mOsI
ímprIanI and ínÍÌucnIìaÍ Íígurc amOng thc scccdcrs ¦
síncc Ihc brOad-míndcd paIríOI and bumIarían rcVOÍIcd
agaínsI Ihc asscrIíOn IhatÜ bOcíast, WOrIhy OÍ mc nmc,
cOuÍd nOI ÌíVc and WOrk OuIsìdc thc ÎcdcraIíOn.
P ncW cÍub, Or bdy, " ¯hc
bOcíaÌísIíc Læguc,¯ OÍ Whích mOrm Was Ihc Ircasurcr,
Was nOW ÍOmcd, WìIh Ihc pqæ OÍ prOmOIíng HcVOÍu-
IíOnary ÌnIcmIíOnaÌ bOcíaÍísm. A OhícíaÍ ]OumÌ OÍ
Ihc Læguc Was ímmcdíaIcÍy ÍOundcd, and íIs ÍírsI íssuc,
undcr Ihc namc OÍ " ¯hc LOmmOnWæÍ,¯OpncdWìIh an
íntrOducIOry cOÍumn, WríIIcn and sígncd by mOrrís,
Whích Was ín adVancc OÍ any sOcíaÍìsuc scnIìmcnIs prcVì-
OusÍy czprcscd by h. Ìn Ihc cOursc OÍ Ihc arIícÍc, hc
ObscrVcd'
II
Ít ís Our duIy IO aItack
unsaríngÍy Ihc míscrabÍc sysIcm Wþch WOÌd makc aü
cìVaIíOn cnd ín Ü sOícq OÍ rìch and p r,OÍ sæVcsand
UaVc<Wncrs.¯
.
Pnd agaìn'
"¼c assumc as Ü mahcr OÍ
cOursc IhaI a gOVcmcnIOÍ pHVucgcd prsOns, hcrcdíIary
and cOmcrcìaÍ, æn nOt act uscÍu tOward Ihc cOm-
mumIy. ¯hcír psìtìOn ÍOrbìds ìt. ¯hcír arrangccnIs
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WI LLIAM MORRIS 23
tOr thc dístnbutíOn Ot thc pÍundcr Ot thc WOrkcrs, mcír
8tnggÍcs tOr mc nabOnal sharc Ot thc cplOítatíOn Ot
barbarOus ppÍcs arc nOmg tO us, cXccpt sO tar as thcy
may gíVc us an OppHuníq tOr ínstm íng bOíam íntO
m ` , d ¯ Ü Ü •

³hc Læguc adVOatcd lhc
OOpÍctc dcstnOdOn Ot ætmg sOcía cOndítíOns ; OÜOíng
as a substítutc a btatc m Whích Íand, capítal, mOmncç,
tactOrícs, WOrkshOps, mæns Ot transít, mncs, ,
and aB mæn8Ot þOucíngand dístríbutíngWælth 8hOl
bc dccUrcd mcOmOn prOprty Ot a
Luríng a mcmbrUp ín thc
Læguc Ot s yærs ( 1 8841 890), NOrrí8 Was unWæícd
ín hís cÜOrts as a Wrítcr and�bÍíO8pakcr, and gcncmus
tO thc pínt Ot UVí8hncss Wíth m príVatc OOntríbutíOm tO
thc ænscs Ot mc bdy. ¯WO hundrcd tuty íssuc8 Ot
''¯hc LOmmOnWæl¯ psscd thrOugh hís hd; ÌcOturcs
Wcrc dcÍíVcrcd by h m aÍÍ prt8 Ot thc ÄgdOm,
írrcspctíVc Ot Wæmcr and prsOmÍ OOmtOrt ; hí8 8uprb
OOÍÍcctíOn Ot ærÍy ríntcd b k8 Wa8 8acrüíccd tO mc
causc mt m lOVcd ; and, tOÍÍOWmg m Othcr lræsurcs,
m hæm Wa8 thrOWn unrudgmgy íntO thc baÍanOc.
1 887, at thc OuÍmímbOn Ot
thc aOutc 8mgc Ot m bOcíaum, NOrrís tOk p ín mc
gathcríng Ordcrcd tO asscmbÍc ín thc ¯rataÍgar bguarc,
and tO bc OOmpscd Ot dcÍcgatcs trOm thc HadícaÍ Llubs
Ot LOndOn, thc bsh ÎatíOnal Laguc, thc LcmOcratíO
tcdcratíOn and tbc bOíaÍístíO Læguc. P spctatOr has
thus graphícaÍÍy dcscríbcdthc dcmOnstratíOn, as thc græt
cOncOrscOtpOpÍcbgan tO pr Out Ot thc bguarcOOWn
ÎarÍíamcnt btrcct t
' Ln thcy camc, Wíth a sOrt Ot
ínæístíbÍc tOrcc,¬and ríght ín trOnt¬aOng thc rcd
tags, síngn wíth aÍÍ h míght, Was ¾u íam NOns.
tc had thc acc Ot a Lrusadcr, and hc marchcd as thc
Lrusadcrs must haVc mrchcd.¯
Ps ín thc æsc Ot thc mt
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24 WI LLIAM MORRI S
OgætíOn, narrOW and dangcrOus tcndcncícs dcvcÍQd
Wíthm thc bOcíambc Lguc Whích dríÍtcd tOWard LOm-
muníst-Pnarcm. ÍuÍc thus h cOmpíOn8 Wcrc
rætívc OÍ aü authOríty, NOrrís, aÍthOugh bÍícvíng m a
cOmpÍctc cguaüty OÍ cOndítíOn ÍOr aü prsOns, ínsístcd that
thcrc must b a pubÍíc, L sOcíaÍ cOnscícncc, tO rc8traín
thc dcsírcs and passíO OÍ ínmíduab; WíthOut WhíO
PuthOrky thcrc cOuÍd b nO bOcícq.
b, Oncc agam, NOrrí8 lOd
mü dctachcd ÍrOm thOsc WhOm hc had chOscn as
cOpníOn8 ín 8OíaÍ prQrcss,and ín J 890, ín hís tarcWcÍÍ
artícÍc ín ''¯hc LOmmOnWæÍ,¯ hc aCOWÍcdgcd that
thc ídcaÍs lOr Whích hc had sO ÍcrvcntÍy Ubrcd, æd
Whích at tímcs had sccmcd tO m sO nær Ol rætíOn,
Wcrc dísmnt and ímpaÍpbÍc. tc rcbrcd lO Wrítc h
mOst ímprmnt and maturc WOrk upn thc �mtmOVc-
mcnt, Whích hc gavc tO thc WOrÍd undcr Uc tíÚc OÍ
''bOm8m, Íts LrOW and LutcOmc.´
.
tOr thc rcm yæ ol h
Íuc hc Was p8sívc ín thc causc. tc rcOgc thtUc
aOuuUtcd WrOng8 Ol Oturícs L not b 8ct ngbti Ñ
mHmc , Uat thc cVOÍutíOn OÍ bM hq c ot
m o0 m VO gdu
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I '
THE FI RM or
, � .
t -
·V /
MORRIS & COMPANY, DECORTORS.
T
HS fi, by rC of its pculiar cnsttution,
stands uique in the history of bnes vetures.
Forty rears since, had its scheme b ofered to pactic
men L afairs, i would have b rejected wth srcsm
and rdicul Eve now to the pudent-minded, a simir
enterrise would see to b Jackig in the elements which
asure succes. Two fetures of its organizatio ælr
spial commet. Fistly: It was copse of at,
studets and literary men whose asprations and ocup­
ü drew the away fom the metho of the shop and
the counting-ro Secondly : It was founded for the
poductio of objects demdig the highest orlity of
concepion and the most accomplished w i eecuton,
upn a capital which was merey nomin
The ide of the Fi Ï
aost equay m two implses on te part of íb
membs : the desre for an intimate assoiation toethe,
which shold eted to athe concer of le; m
also to fursh and decorate a single bL which was to
b the pnanet home of Wilm Mor.
.
I undergraduate days at O-
fo, Moris and Bue-Jones had devied Ü relgio
brtherhod in which they bth hopd to lve, clstered
and as cebate. But as thei thought was gradually
seularzed by yers and by London ·rence, they
came to reze tht the dÜd of modem te is for
work and not meditaton. S, the drem of the moastery
condensed ito a rel workhop, and the brothers of m
regous order evolved ito handicrafsmen.
The hose buit for Morrs by
h frend and fellow-student in archtecture, Php Webb,
was compleed Ü to it work i brck and wood i 1 859.
But owig to wht has bee called by a crtc : ''The
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ÂC WI LLIAM MORRIS
tÍat ugÍmcs8 Ot thc currct artícÍc,¯ thc OWncr and h
grOup Ot artíst-trícnds sct thcmclVæ tO thc dcsígníng Ot
thc hOusc tunshíng8 and utcnsíÍs ; trOm thc tabÍcs,
cupbOards and 8cttÍc8 dOWn tO thc tírc-dOgs, ændcstíck8
and tabÍc-gÍass.
¯hc succcs8 attcndant upn
thcsc cdOrt8 Was rccOgcd at ít8 practtcaÍ and pssíbÌc
VaÍuc ; and thc ídcaOt thc tírm, as ít WOuÍd nOW appr,
Ocurrcd símuÍIancOusÍy tO a numbr Ot thc prOspctíVc
mcbCrs ; thc tWO OÍdcst and bcst-knOWn artíst8 Ot üc
mup, bO8sctIí and tOrd NadOX ÜrOWn, haVmg thc
Íargcst sharc ín cstabÍí8híng thc cntcrprí8c ; WhíÌc ít must
b ackOWÍc�cd lhat thc pÏcncc Ot thc WOrk and
íntÍucnccWas ucaÍOnctOthcpatícncc,cncrgy,cnthusíaÐ
and Orígty Ot Wil NOrrí8.

¯hc tm Was m íntO cXíst-
cncc ín Ap 1 86 1 , and an asscssmcnt Was madc Ot Onc
pund 8tcr pr 8harc ; Onc 8harc bg hcÍd æch
mcmbcr. sænty 8um and an unsccurcd Oan Ot
Onc hundrcd punds trOm Nrs. NOrrís, mOthcr Ot thc
arüst, tunhcd thc uadín� æpíUÌ tOr thc Ítrst yær.
hc mítíaÌ 8tcp Ot thc ncW
assOcíaüOn Was tO mkc íts cXí8tcncc kOWn tO thc
pubÍíc, by mæ Ot a círcuÍr Ìcttcr Whích, by rcasOn Ot
íts styÍc and cOntcnts, aWakcncd much cLcnt,
antagOnum and cVcn rídícuÍc.
Pt thís príO, thc practícc Ot
thc dccOratwc arts Was undcrstO tO b a supnícíaÍ
accOmpÍísmcnt suítcd tO aÜucnt yOung ladtcs ; and thc
cuncnt OpmíOn Ot thc tradcsman Was such that nO prsOn
Ot cuÍturc and psítíOn WOuÍd ÍíghtÍy sub|cct hímscÍt tO
thc rcprOach Ot haVtng sOÍd h bíHhríght. Îndccd, thc
prc|udícc cxcítcd by thc círcuÍar can scarccÍy bc apprccí-
atcd at thc prcscnt tímc, ÎOr díd thc bíttcr OppOsítíOn
cOmctrOmOncguartcraÍOnc. ¯hchadcsmc thcmscÍVcs
rcscntcd thc íntrsíOn íntO thcír adatrs Ot a bOdy Ot mcn
WhOsc traíníng had nOt bcn í crcíal, and WhOsc
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WI LLIAM MORRIS 27
iuence, they foresaw, would b destructive to their
syste.
The efect of mpressure from
without was to consolidate the membrship of the firm,
to kindle the common enthusiasm, and to establish a
healthul freedom of criticism between te employers and
the employed. The situation was a novel one, and as
the work was carried farher and farther afield, the idels
rose to heights which were, at the beginning, unsuspcted
by the bldest meber of the friendly circle.
The original intentions of the
Firm are bst understod by reference to the circular
letter, and as t is bcome an historical document,
quotations from it are of real signiicance to those
interested in the development of the decorative arts.
The copsition of the letter bears traces of what has
been. cald 44 the imprious accent " of Rossetti ; but, as
we know, after events more m justified the initial
clims made by the artits.
first titl of the Fi :
The letter i headed by the
'4 Morri, Marshal, F auIer
ö Cpany, Fine PH Workmen in Painting, Carving,
Furture and the Metals j�' and the names of the members
folow i alphabeticl order.
.
·
The document then proeeds :
''The growh of decorative a in this country has now
reached a pint at which it seems desirable that artists· of
reputation should devote their time to it Althogh no
dubt prticulr instances of success may b cited, still it
must b generally felt that attempts of this kind hitherto
have ben crude and fragmentary. Up to this time, the
want of that artistic suprvision, which can alone brig
about hrmony btween the various parts of a successful
work has ben incresed by te necessarilr excessive
otlay consequent upn taking one individua artist fro
m pictorial labrs."
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ÜÕ WILLIAM MORRI S
ÅttcrcnUrgíngupnthcadVm
tagcs OÍ abOn andcOpmtíOn,and haVíng cnum0r
atcd thc cUsscs Ot Ob¡ccts tO bcþOduccd by thc tm,m
lcttcr cnds With thc sub¡Oíncd cOncísc pragraph, m
scntímcnt Ot Whích ís WOthy tO scrc as a tcXt tOr thOw
WhO præch thc gOspÍ Ot hOuschOld artt
' ¡t ís OnÌy rcguísítc tO statc
Íuncr tht WOrkOÍ aü thcabOvccmscsWbccstímatcd
ÍOr, and æccutcd ín a busíncss-mc mnncr ; and ít u
blícvcd tht d dccOratíOn ínvOÍvíng rathcr thc ÍuXu
Ot tastc thn tc luXury OÍ cOstltncss Wul b ÍOund much
Ícss cXpnswc than ís gcncraüy sugscd.¯
³hís UststatcmcntWasabd
antly prOVcn by thc aÛpmcnts Ot mc NOn
Îím, Or rathcr bythOsc Ot NOrns hímscü,WhO Ñght
a 8lcnt rcvOÍutíOn ín thc mOst ncccssary ans and ca,
and WhOsc ínÍlucncc havtng bautítícd thc Ïglísh
míddlc-class hOmc, graduaüy ínVOlvcdmc ÏcW ¾OrÍd i
thc mOVæcnt tOWard truc acsthctícísm.
ü Wc tOüOW thc hístOry OÍ thc
tm, Wc tínd mat, at thc bcg g Ot thc yær J 862,
thc OrgantZatíOn Was m tuÍl WOrkmg Ordcr. A Íurthcr
calÍ Was at that timc madc Ot nínctccn und8 stcrm
[Onc sharc rcrrcscnbn æch mcmbr) , thus raí8mg thc
paíd-ín capita tO Onc undrcd tOrty nds, Whích Was
ncvcr íncrcascd b thc dtssOluttOnO thc Ím ín 1874. A
ÍcW hundrcd pnds Ot Íurthcr capttal Was suppÍícd by
ÍOans, Whích brc, Or Wcrc suppscd tO br, íntcrcst at
Íívc pr ccnL , thæc lOans cOmíng trOm NOrm hímscÍÍ,
Or trOm hts mOthcr. ¾Ork dOnc tOr thc Íím by any
mcmbr Was crcdítcd tO hís accOunt at tucd ra|cs, and
paíd, luc Othcr dcbts , Wmc NOrrts, as gcncraÍ Mgcr,
rcccivcd a saÍary Ot Onc hundrcd Íu punds.
^Ítcr thc Î cr Ot alÍ arbstíO
cntcrprucs, mc tm passcd thrOugh many críscs and lcd
ÍOr scvcral ycars a tnc Ühcm cXistcncc. ÍrOuctíO
Was nccssaruy slOW, Ü ít Was thc rcsult Ot cXpOt
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WI LLIAM MORRIS
.9
and venture. Sales were uncertain, since the ef rt of
production was doubled by the task of creting an inteli­
gent purchasing public. And, hardest of al, there was
no reserve upn whch to draw. The extension O
the business, although finaly reuneratie, at times
unbalnced the finances, and Morris, little by litle, cast
his entire fortune into the rapidly developng scheme.
But owi to h industry, sagacity and constancy, the
Fin survived, and a cpitl bgan to form itself from the
accumulated profits. These lst were, in stict lw, ad
according to the first contract, equally divisible among
the pers who, it is needless to say, bre very unequal
shares in the labr of designing and executing ; none
bide Morrs and FauIer devotg their exclusive time
to the afirs of the compny. Hece, tough the iital
fault of the enterprise, arose unplesnt complctions
which impaired and even destoyed friendships, ad
nearly led to disaster, at the time of te disolution and
reconstutn of the Firm in J 874.
As the Compny etended its
activiies, w Wch were at first largely conined to the
poducton of household furure and stained
"
lass,
Morris was subjected to the sarcasm of Rossetti. ' T op
has taken to worsted work " wrote the Chief of the
Pre-Raphaeltes ; using the Lr name afplied to
Morris by rs intimates, Ü a shorened for L Topsy,
and as indicting h thick mop of m. The " worsted
work," or rather embroidery in crewel, was applied to
dark serge of Yorkshire manufacture, and designed for
mural decoration. I after years, this material with its
awied oÏent, was suprseded by the chintzes and
ppr-hngngs which became the staple proucts of the
Fin. Stll later, were developd the beautiful carpts
and tapestries upn which Morrs lavished the bt ef orts
of his study and manual skil , as wel as a wealth of
tme and physica strength.
Mdway i te siies, mc
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30 WI LLIAM MORRI S
lortuncs oI thc Íim improvcd with thc spræd ot
Hituahsm, owing to which movmcnt comsions tor
church dccoration wcrc rcccivcdingræt numbcr , Uumc-
]oncs, Nadox Uro¬n and Norris Iumhing cartons tor
staincd gÌass, and Norris aonc thc dcsi¿sIor hggs,
aÍmr¬Ioths and lÌor-tiIcs.
¯hc work oI thc Fin thus
rapidÌy incrcasing, and thc originaÍ workshops in Hcd
Lion buar , W. L. provmg insudicicnt, thc qucstion oI
rmovaÍbccamcimprativc. ÏtwasIirstpropscdtomkc
additions to thc Hcd Ìousc at \pton,¬so that Uumc-
]oncs as ¬cU as morris might livc mcrc,¬and to Íocatc
thc ncw workshops in thcvicinity oI thc butiluÌ rcsi-
dcncc. Uut t pIan wasrcjcctcdbcausc oIthcdstancc
oI thc pÌacc Irom London, and thc düIicuIty oI contq
travcÌ in stormy and wintry wcathcr. ¯hcn morris
Iound hmscü lorccd to chosc bctwccn giving up dc
homc, which hc had hopd to makc thc most aHistic
housc in bngÌand, and thc aÍtcmtivc oI rctir!ng trom thc
Lonpany into which hc had put so much oI h bst
thought and work. Ìc chosc thc Íattcr Oursc, and did
Iurthcr vioÌcncc to h IccÍings by rcntm Ü housc m
Quccn bquarc, UIomsbuç, largc cnough to scrvc as
bth Ìivin pÌacc and workshops. Írom thc Hcd Ìousc
hc rcc in thc autumn oI 1 865 ; Ìcaving bmd m
spIcndid art-trcasurcs which wcrc to cubros tor
JispÌaccmcnt, or cÌsc by thcir vcç naturc ucmovabIc.
buch wcrc thc muraI pamtings in tcmpra cxccutcd by
Uumc-]oncs , thc sidcbard dcsigncd by Íh±p Wcbb ,
and thc t¬o grcat cupbards,thc onc paintcd with ''¯hc
Narriagc ol Kg Hcnc ," thc othcr with thc storyoIthc
ÌicbÌungcnIicd. Àhc Hcd Ìousc monis ncvcr æw
again, sincc, as hc ackno¬Icdgcd,thc cxpricncc wouÍd
havc bcn to painluÍ lor h. ¯hcncw homcinQu cn
bqurc was not aÌtogcthcr without digty, as it was
situatcd in thclasmonabÌcsuburboI thcLondon oIQuccn
Ac and brc dutinct marks ol ìu oÍd-tmc spIcndor.
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WI LLIAM MORRIS 31
ÏOr thc ncXt tíVcycars, NOrrís
ÍíVcd and ÌabOrcd ín LOndOn ; dcVOtíng thc tímc saVcd by
OOmbímg hís WOrkshOþ8 and rcsídcnOc tO tcOhníæÍ
cXprímcnts and tO ncW btcrary studícs. Luríng t
príOd, thc busíncs8 a a Ot NOrrí8 ö LOmþany Wcrc
drcOtcd by a Nr. ¯ayÍOr, a man Ot artísttO tastc and
ÍínanOíaÍ abíÍíty, undcr WhOm thc Ím bOamc OrganíZcd
a þrOsþcrOu8. ¯hcsc ycar8 Wcrc aÍsO markcd by thc
rcOcíþt Ot thc tírst ræ y ímrtant OOmmíssíOn ín nOn-
cOOÍcsíastíOaÍ dcOOratíVc WO t thc mura dcOOratíOn Ot
mc Lrccn Lg ÜOm at thc bOuth tcnsíngtOn
muscum, WhíOh tOdy rm mtaOt, and WhíOh,
MthOugh Ot hæVy tust OOst, ís nOW rcgardcd by thc
muscum authOrítícs as thc mOst cOOnOmíOaÍ OutÍay cVcr
mdc upn thc buíÍdíngs. ¯hc WOrk, trOm íts sínguÍar
mcrít, þrOVcd tO b Ot t VaÍuc ín makíng knOWn thc
mc Ot thc Ïm and thc 8pOítíO OharaOtcr Ot ít8 þrOduO-
do. P8 u usuaÍ, suOOcs8 cngcndcrcd suOOcss, and thc
bsíncss cXtcndcd sO rapdÍy a8 cVcn tO Oausc aet
MOng thc mcbrs Ot thc LOmrany. Ps Wc haVc scO,
thc æptaÍ, ínVcnüOn andOOntrO WcrcsuþþÍícd þraOtíOaÍy
by NOrrís, WhO, ncVcHhcÍcss, undcr thc OrígínaÍ mm-
mcnt Ot thc þarmcrshíþ, OOuÍd nOt OÍaím gætcr ríght8 i
- |hc Mgcmcnt Ot thc asscts Ot thc Ím many Ot h
ÍíVc Or 8u assOOíatcs. Ln thc Othcr hd, thc mcmb8
whOsc OOmcOtíOn Wíth thc Ím Was sÍíght, míght, at
any mOmcnt, tínd thcmscÍVcs scríOus ínVOÍVcd ín thc
ÍíabÍítícs Ot thc bíncss, WhíOh had b cstabÍíshcd
þrKr tO thc þassagc Ot thc Límítcd LOmþany POt. ¯hc
Otíts, attcr thc tust ycar Or tWO, and tOr scVcraÍ rcasOns,
had ncVcr bccn díVídcd. Üut thcsc ÍcgaÌ OÍíms nOW
rcprcscntcd sums WhíOh ínVOÍVcd íntríOatc OaÍcuÍatíOns,
and Whích, ít scttÍcd, WOuÍd dram thc rcsOurOcs Ot thc
busíncss, thal u tO 8ay t thc þríVatc tOrtunc Ot ¾üÍíam
NOrrís.
¯hc QucstíOn Ot díssOÍutíOn
hVíng bcn dísOusscd, thrcc Ot thc parmcrs t Üunc-
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32 WI LLIAM MORRIS
)Oc8, tauücr and ¾cbb, rctu8cd tO aOOcpt any OOn8íd-
cratìOn ín rcspOl tO thOìr OU a8 prmcr8 , Whílc thc
Othcr te 8tOOd tOr thc 8trìOt Ìcttcr Ot lhcír ÌcgaÌ ríght8.
¯hc psìtìOn Ot thcÌaltcr gOp í8 cXpÌaíncd ín thc WOrd8
Ot an adOncy ¦
44 ³hat a8 ín thc ínOcpbOn Ot
thc tum nO mcbr ínVc8tcd mOncy, nOr gaVc any tímc
Or Ìabr,WthOtbcngpaídat an agræd ratc, thc p8ítíOn
Ot thc 8cVcraÌ mcbcr8 Oughl tO b OOn8ídcrO a8 cQuaÌ
ín rcspt tO thcu OUm8 On thc æ b Ot thc tm;
mrdcr, thc gO Wìü Ought tO b takO at lhræ yæ8´
purcha8c and Ought L b íncÍudcd ín thc 8aíd a88ct8.´
¹hc cXtrcc mq Ol 8uOh
cU í8 mc8t , 8ínOc thc a88Oíatc8, Othcr m
NOrrì8, and byOnd thc Íìr8t a88c8æcnt, had OOntríbtcd
nOthíng tOWard thc OaþìLL ¹hcy had æ8O, a8 thcy
aVOræ, b paíd On cVcry Oca8ìOn WhO thç had
gVO a8í8tanOc, Or Íunhcd dcsígm Or Othcr WOrk tO
dc LOmpny, by Wmch arrangOOt NOrrí8, ín u
þtíOc, Wa8 rcÍæ8cd trO ObugatìOm tOWard thc. Üul
mc u8u cOntcst blWccn ÌaW and cQuìty cmcd. LOng
æd cOmpÍíOatcd ncgOtìatìOns Wcrc madc On Oc 8ídc and
te oe. tncndshíp8 Wcrc brOcn, and amOng thC,
ml Ol bO88cUí Wìth NOrrì8 Wa8 ncVcr agaìn rOcWcd.
tím y, thc dì8sOÍuüOn Wa8 cHcOtcd, but WíthOut 8atí8tac-
IíOn tO thc cOntcstanu, anda ncWmOamcíntO cXí8tOO
i Narch, 1 875, bamg thcnac Ol NOrrí8 ö LOþny,
and undcr thc 8Olc managccnt and prOprìctOr8híp Ot
¾m NOrrì8 , Üunc-)Onc8 and ¾cbb rctuìng thcu
íntcræt8, but cOntìnuíng tO aìd Wìth dc8ígn8 tOr 8taíncd
gÌa88 and tumturc.
Pt la8t, thc WOrld´8 Vcrdíct
ncd thc ín|urìc8 mìctcd by Írìcnd8 upn thc upríght
Ü and thc græt arbt. %Orrì8 í8 t da hOnOrcd ín
�Und, trmcc and Pmcrìca a8 a r8Ona uníQuc i
thc nínctccnth Ocntury, anda8 OncWhO praOtucd lhcmO8l
cs8cntìaÌ art8 md Oratt8 OnÌy tO tran8bgmc thc
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THE OPER OF •• P A TIENeE ••
AND
" THE AESTHETI C MOVEMEN1:·
A
_LPѯLÑ-LLίLÑXsíncc,thcLbrt-bumvan
Lpcras Wcc at thc hcít Ot thcir barrcÍ-Oan
tamc. Üut ít Was ímpssíbÍc thcn tO dccídc upn tcu
pIcnt vaÍuc. ÎOW, at thc prcscnt dístancc Ot tímc,
mcsc ÍívcÍy satírcs upn pÍítícaÍ abuscs, art mOvccnts
and sOcíaÍ va�rícs psscss a dístínct vaÍuc as hístOrícaÍ
dOcumcnts. ¯hc gcncratíOn �hích has arísc síncc thcy •
Wcrc cOmpscd, gaíns mgh mc a mOrc rapd and
vítaÌ undcrstandíng Ot thc tmcs Whích thcy ætíríZc m
ít WcrcssíbÍc tO dOthrOugh thcmcdíum Ot hístOrícsand
bíO raphícs aÍOnc. tOr tO thcsc, by ræsOn o thcr
dramabc tOm, thcy stand ín thc rcÍatíOn Ot ppÌc tO
bOks. trOm t pínt Ot vícW, thc mOst VaÌubÌc Ot
thcm aü ís " Ìaüccc,¯ thc Ovcrchargcd pcturc Ot thc
acsthcbc mOvcmct Ot 1 870- 1 880. I t æsc, as
aÍWays, thc Vc cxaggcatíOn Ot thc æncaturc bbays
mc pOWcr Ot tc thg ærícaturO. ÜunthOmc md
PrchíbaÍd arc rídícuÍOus and grOtcsguc OnÍy bæusc thcy
rcgrcscnt thc prvcrsíOn Ot guaÍítícs, cuÍturc æd gracc
Whích míght, but tOr thc bías Ot thc mdívíduaÍ, havc bc
vcry rcaÍ and vcry tOrcctuÌ. ¯hc "acsthcbc maídcm'
WhOsc rhymc mOvccnts and uttcranccs arctOÍÍOWcd
such spntancOus Ìaughtcr trOm thc audítOry, may b
cÍassítícd Wíth Íítcrary parOdícs and travcstícs Whích arc
succcsstuÌ ín thc dc rcc that thcy Ottcr a sharp cOntrast
Wíth thc bcauty Ot thc OrígmaÍ WOrk.
¯hc kcy-nOtc Ot thc acsmctíc
mOvccnt Was sínccríq. ¯hc tOíbÍc hcÍd up tO rídícuÍc
m ''Îatícncc¯ u attcctatíOn t
''Ny mcdíacvahmunOt rcaÍ,¯
cOntcsscs ín a burst OÍ cOnÍídcncc thc arch-prctOdcr WhO
mOmcntaríÍy ís Írccd ÍrOm hís dcvOtccs.
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WI LLIAM MORRIS
�, Í ÌOVc yOu Wíth a tOurtccnm-
ccntury ÎÌOrcntìnc trcn¶¯ ìs anOthcr dccÌaratìOn WhOsc
aÌÎìtcratìVc Otchìncss cOnccaÌ8 a dccþr mæg m i
suspcctcd by tbc many WhO appLud ìt. ¾ìth an ' m
WOrd ¯ drOppcd hcrc and thcrc, " Îatìcncc ¯ VìtaÍìZcs thc
hìstOry OÍ tbc rcVOÌutìOn cÍÍcctcd m thc cXtcnb Ot
LngÍìsh mìddÎc-cÍss ÍìÍc by Huskín,Îrc-ÑaphacÍìtìsmand
aÍÌ that thìs tcrm ìmpÌìcs.

¯hc acsthctìc mOVccnt Wa8
Íar ÍrOm bìng suprÍìcìaÌ } nOr Was ìt cVcn cOnÍìncd t a
sìngÍc branch OÍ ìntcrcst. Ít arOsc trOm rOt8 hìddcn
dccpÍy ín LngÌìsh thOuht and ÌìÍc. Ít Was pcrhaps
¾aÎtcr bcOtt WhO, m h rOmanccs, Íust dìspÌaycd a
rc .ncdìacVaum, Whcn
h
darcd, m thc Íacc OÍ an
cÍÍctc cLssìc art tO asscrt and gÎOrµ thc ma¡cstìc buj
Ot LOthìc archìtccturc. PcXt camc thc PngÎO-LthOÎìO
mOVcmcnt at LXOrd, Whìch aÍthOugh cuÍmting m
J 845 Wìth thc scccssìOn OÍ )Ohn PcÑn tO thc HOman
Lhurch, cOntìnucd ÌOng aÍtcrWard tO bc a prOdìgìOus
ÍOrcc } rcstOrìng tO Lngüh churchcs and church scrVìccs
sOc part Ot tbcu OrìgìnaÎ buty and symbÎìsm, and
thcncc carryìng ìntO sccuLr ÌíÍc a ÌOVc OÍ thc Îìnc P,
Whìch Wcrc rcardcd ìn thc NìddÌc Pgcs as thc hand-
maìdcns OÍ rcÎìgìOn. PnOthcr 8Ourcc Ot thc acsthcttc
mOVccnt ìs ÍOund m thc Wrìtmgs OÍ Huskìn, Whích
bccamc ÍOr thc Îrc-HaphcÎìtcs a ncW OspÌ and a tíXcd
crccd. Îmüy, thc dìrcct causc Ot thc aH mOVcmcnt
must bc rccOgìZcd ín thc pWcrtuÍ ðnd scü-ccntcrcd
pcrsOnaÎìty OÍ LabrìcÍ HOsscttì, WhO drcW aÍtcr h and,
ÍOr a tìmc, mOÎdcd as hc Wìücd, thc tWO yOungcr mcn,
NOrrìs and Üunc¸Oncs, thc ræÌ and cdcctnc WOrkcrs ín
thc Îrc-haphacÍìtc, Or acsthctìc mOVccnt. ¯hcsc
thrcc Írìcnds, tOgcthcr Wìth tOmn tunt, |Ohn LVcrctt
Nuìs and NadOX ÜrOWn, Ìaìd thc tOundatìOn8 tOr thc
prcsct cmìncncc OÍ LngÎì8b art, pìctOrmÌ and dccOratìVc.
m J 82J , )Ohn LOnstabÍc pe
dìctæ Ut Wìthìn uycars thc a OÍ h ntìOn WOÌd
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WI LLIAM MORRIS 35
haVc cæscd tO cXíst. Latcr, ín thc tOrtícs, busK
rccOrdcd tht thc bO� Pcadcmy LXhíbítíOns rcpcaIcd
agaín and agamt ¯hc samc ÍOOÍísh taccs tn símpr,
thc samc brOWn OOWs ín dítchcs, thc samc Whttc saíÍ ín
sguad and mc samc sÍíccs Ot lcmOns ín sauccrs.¯ Prt
hd bccOmc a tashíOn, styÍc had dcgcncratcd íntO man-
ncrísm, and Î crísm md tallcn íntO pctttncss.
¯hc Írc-baphaclítcs rcVOltcd
agaìnst cÍassícísm as a tOrcígn cÍcmcnt íntrOduccd íntO
Lngland by bír)Oshua bcynOlds and hís cOntcmpOrarícs,
tOr WhOm thc Íatcr Ítalían schOls rcprcscntcd aÍl that ís
bcautítuÍ and dcsírabÍc ín art. ¯hcy tuncd tOr aíd and
ínspíratíOntO mcdíacVaüsm,astO thcríulandOmmOn
ínhcrítancc Ot thc mOdcn natíOns. hcy rc¡cctcd thc
tacíÍtty tataÍ tO ídæs, thc �tístíc subtcrtugcs anO cOnVcn-
tíOns Ol thc tOÍÍOWcrs Ol ''Uc grand styÍc }¯ scckíng thcír
ídcs and mOdcÍ8 m artst8 WhO ÍíVcd ín a tímc Whcn
Uman thOuht tcccd, aÍthOugh ít struggÍcd Wíth an
ímprtcct mcdíDm Ol �cssOn}¬sOmcttmcs cVcn tO thc
pt Ol chíÍdíshncss. ¯hus ín thc OÍd Ítalíans and OÍd
tlmgs thcy tOund thcír mastcrs, WhOm thcy díd nOt
8crVíÍcÍy ímítatc, but tO WhOm lhcy Wcrc atbactcd as t
thc tOundcrs Ot a ntíOnl and ppuÍar art.
³hc mcdíacVaísm Ot ÜOsscttí,
¾ü ÑOrrís and Üunc-)Oncs ÑÜ rca. Ít Was duc
tO naturaÍ ímpuÍsc, tOstcrcd by ¡udícíOus study, and
rcVcalcd ín sínccrc and bautítul lOms, Whcthcr thrOugh
thc mcdíum Ol píctOríaÍ, dccOratíVc, Or ptíc art, and
Whcthcr dcríVcd trOmün,trcnch,Or ÎccÍandtcsOurccs.
I cL On Wíth thc mcn Ot thc thutccnth and tOurtccnIh
ccntuncs, thc Lnglísh Írc-baphacÍttc p8 and att
Wcrc rcstÍcss, passíOnatc and ímagínatwc. Líkc th0m,
tO, thcy bcgan thcír WOrk ímpcrtcctÍy traíncd tn
tcchníguc. Üut aÍÍ that Was mgcnuOus and pardOnabÍc
tO thc crttíc, ín thc carÍy mastcrs, bccamc, ín thc mOdcn
Lnlíshmcn, Opn tO thc rQrOach OÍ abcctattOn, mdOÍcncc
and cVcn dcgcncracy. Pgaín, thc sub¡ccts and títÍcs
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36 WI LLIAM MORRI S
OhOsc by thc rcÍOmcrs and OVatOrs Wcrc as ncW tO
mc bgÍísh car, as Wcrc thc ÍOms and cOlOrs by Whích
thcy cxprcsscd thwclVcs ln paíntíng and dccOratíOn,
strangc tO thc Lnglíshcyc ¯hcscÍactsthcrcÍOrc bccamc
a ÎíVcÎy causc ÍOr rídícuÌc, WmOh Was Íurthcr strcn-
ccd by a ÍOllOWín gaíncd ÍOr thc Írc-phatcs
amOng pcQlc OÍ WOu-b rcbncmcnt and ÌíttlcOrígínalíty,
tO WhOm a that Was síngular m thc ncW mOVcmcnt
appcaÎcd, but WhO Wcrc, by naturc, bund and dcaÍ as tO
íts truc mænín� and am. S, as ít i clcVcrly pt ín
thc Opra OÍ II Patícncc:¯ ' Ny mcdíacValísm u nOt
rcaÍ,¯ must haVc bccn thc hcart,-~ nOt thc ÍípOnÍcssíOn
OÍ My a posmr OÍ thc ctghtccn scVcntícs and cíghtícs.
Pt that tímc thcrc Wcrc dOubtlcss numcrOus rcplícas OÍ
ÛunthOnc, thc " crushcd ¯ csthctc, and OÍ PrchíbaÌd,
WhO aÍtcr h ÌOng Wandcríngs in nm o Íac md
pcsy, ÌOyaÌÍy rctuncd tO h mílkaíd lOVc.
P sccOnd doratíOn abVc
guOtcd Ímm ' tatícncc,¯ calls ÍOr spcíal cOmcnt : " Í
ÌOVc yOu Wíth a ÍOurtccnth cctury tlOrcntínc Írcnç.¯
Pnd as bcÍOrc íntímatcd, t i nO ÍOrtuítOus aÍlítcratíVc
cObínatíOn OÍ WOrds. Ít i Wít OÍ thc 8ubtlcst and
kccncst kO Ít btrays a prÍcct appcOíatíOn OÍ mc
thmg carìcaturcd, bsìdc amusìng thc car OÍ thc lístcncr,
¡ust as thc spcakcr OÍ thc scntcncc amuscs h cyc by a
nmcÎcss tOuch OÍ OVcr "íntcnsíty.¯ tOr thc ��tOríaÍ
cXplanatíOn OÍ thc phrasc Onc hs O� tO g cc at
ccnaín OÍ tbc pa

an sub|ccts OÍ UíOcüí, nOtably thc
Ían:Ous ''bpmg,´¬Whcrcín thc grcat dcOOratíVc artìst
sO admrcd by tbc LngÌìsh Írc-Haphaclítcs, has draW
tOgcmcr ín a mOVìng, dancíng grOup thc cXubcrmt mc,
yOuth æd strcngthtypìcaÎOÍ thcÍtaÎíanhcVìVaÎOÍLcttcrs.
m " Îatìcncc,¯ hOsscttì, ¾íl-
Ììam NOrrìs and Üurnc-]Oncs rcccìVc cacb a sharc OÍ
ÎíVcÌy gOO-naturcd pÎcasantry. hOsscttì u a tarct ÍOr
Wìt as tbc ÍOundcr and mastcr OÍ thc " ÎÎcshÎy bcÎ OÍ
ÎOtry ,¯ thc rcVìVcr OÍ ObsOÎctc ÍOrms OÍ mctrc thc
,
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WI LLIAM MORRI S 37
dcVíscr OÍ rcÍram m Whích sOund OVcrpWcrs scnsc, sO
that, as ÜunthOmc i madc tO say OÍ h OW Vcrsæ'
" ¯hcy mcan nOmg.¯
¯hc parOdy upn Wil
NOrrís appaÎs tO thc cyc rathcr than tO thc Üt Üun-
thOmc and thc maídcns arc cÎOthcd m What may bc
caÎÍcd thc transítíOnaÎ cOÎOrs OÍ mc NOrru Íírm OÍ
dccOratOrs. ¯hc paÎc OÎíVc garb OÍ thc Pcsthctc, thc
pcacOk bÍucs and pmcgranatc tOncs sccn ín thc rObs
OÍ thc chOrus, Wcrc OÍÍcrcd by NOrrís as thc Íírst prOtcst
OÍ art agaínst thc aníÍínc dycs OÍ cOmmcrO, Whích hc
dcnOunccd Ü 44 hídcOs, crudc, ÎíVíd and chæp.¯ PsO,
thc sunÍÎOWcr, Wmch i aUcctcd byÜunthOmc and Wmch
grOWs dcarcr tO h ín prOprtìOn as hc ís 44 Orushcd,¯
untíÍ ín thc Îast tabÍcau hc uscs ít as a sOÎacc and
smcÎd¬thís tOO ís a mddcnrccOgnítíOnOÍ thc art-ínÍÍucncc
OÍ NOrrís. tc, as a dccOratOr, crítícíscd thc dOubÎc
sunÍÍOWcr as 44 a cOarsc and duÍÍ pÍant,¯ WhíÎc hc praíscd
thc sìngÍc bÎOm OÍ thc samc spcícs as 44 bth íntcrcstíng
and bcaumuÎ, Wíth íts sharpÍy chìscÎÍcd ycÍÍOW ÍÍOrcb
rcÎícVcd by thc guaíntÍy pahcmcd sad-cOÍOrcd ccntrc
cÍOggcd Wíth bcs and buttcrÍÍícs.' ¯hc prcÍcrcncc OÍ
thc artíst, and hís dccOratìVc usc OÍ a dcspíscd pÍant
raíscd thc síngÍc sumÍOWcr tO such hígh ÍaVOr that ít
sprcad ÍrOm mc Ürítísh ÌsÍcs tO thc amtOcratìc gardcns OÍ
Pcríca, Whcrc ít sm bÍOms as a surVíVaÍ OÍ thc
"Pcsthctíc LraZc ¯ OÍ thc ærÍy cíghtccn cíghtícs.
Üut pìguant and mírth-prOVOk-
mg as arc thc sarcasms ín 44 Ìatícncc ¯ agaínst HOsscttí
and NOnís, thcy yícÍd ín pìnt OÍ subtÍcq tO thOsc
dìrcctcdtOWardÜumc-)Oncs. LVcryÍrcgucntcrOÍpcturc-
shOps can rccOgntZc thc OrtgínõÍs OÍ thc 44 staíncd gÍass
attítudcs ¯ OÍ thc ÍunnydragOns,asthcytWístthcmscÍVcs
íntO aÍmOst ímpssíbÍc cOntOrttOns tO gaZc 44 sOuÍÍuÍÍy¯ at
thcír hÍícs. ÏOr arc thc gcsturcs OÍ thc chOms Îcss
ÍõíÍíar, as thc ÍOng, sÍcndcr "dcVítaÍíZcd¯ ams arc
cXtcndcd ín hcÍpÍcss adOratìOn, Or thc sìnuOus bdícs
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38 WILLIAM MORRI S
¬avc and writhc in an cxtasy oI lovc¸and ptry r thcy
arc cach and aÌ! to b Iound in thc Uumc-)oncs b k ol
studics, and rccur again and again in such mastcrpicccs
as thc " Nrror ol Vcnus," "Laus Vcncris," " Lc LI
d'Aour," and " Lovc Aog thc Huins."
P!togcthcr, in vicw oI thc
intcrcst a!rædy notcd and bccausc oI many subt!ctics
untouchcdupn in thc prcscnt sÍight criticism, thc opra
ol ''Íaticncc " shouÍd b prcscrvcd asa '' !ittÍc cÍassic,"
conmg thc rapidÍy dra¬n skctchc oI tmcc most
imprmnt Iigurcs in thcart-Íüc oI thc ninctccnth Omq.
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MORRIS AND BURNE-JONE.
A
N rccOrd Ot thc ütc Ot ¼ím NOrrís WOuÌd b
índccdíncOmpÍctc,unÍcss ìt cOntaíncd a mOrc thn
passíng rctcrcncc tO hís taíthtuÍ trícnd and sympathctíc
cæd¡utOr, bdWard Üunc-)Oncs. ¯hc tWO Wcrc ¡Oíncd
tOgcthcr by What WOuÍd appar tO b thc strOngcst bnd
Ot human cOmpaníOnshíp : a cOmmuníty Ot tas|cscOupÍcd
Wíth a dívcrsíty Ot tcmpcramcnt. ¯O t uníOn NOrrís
tumhcd thc mascuÍínc, and Üunc¸Oncs thc tæc
cÍcmcnt. ¯hc Onc Was passíOnatc¬Ottcn tO thc dcgrcc
Ot víOÍcncc, actívc, scÍt-rcÍíant, cvcn aggrcssívc. ¯hc
Othcr Was cOntcmpÍatívc, cndOWcd Wíth a LríscÍda-mc
patícncc, ímagìnatívc, ídæÍístíc. Üy bÍOd bth Wcrc
Lts, 8trOng ín racíaÍ charactcrístícs. I thOuht and a
bth Wcrc mcdíacvaÍísls, WíIh lhc dístmctíOn that NOrrís
Was atuactcd by PngÍOÏOÏ arcmtccturc and Íítcra-
turc ; WhíÍc thc ídcas and cXprcssíOnOt Üurnc-)OncsWcrc
cOÍOrcdWíth a prOnOunccdÍtaÍíanísm. ÎOrt dm crcncc
te tírsl studícs Ot cach artíst Wcrc pÍÍy rcspnsíbÍc :
thc cOÍÍcgc Ííbraç at NarÍbrO md lhc ÌOatíOn Ot lhc
cOücgc ítscÍt prOvídmg NOrru Wím línc and abunOt
matcríaÍ tOr archOÍOgícaÍ rcsærch ; Wmc Üumc-)Oncs u
knOWn tO havc rcccívcd thc ímþsc lOWard an artístíc
carccr trOm a draWíng Ot HOsscttí'8, Wmch tcÍÍ íntO hís
hands duríng h trcshman ycar al LXOrd. I bth
mcn aÍsO thc ÍOng cOursc Ot ycars díd but tum thc ínítíaÍ
ímpuÍsc : NOrrís bcæc a crætOr and ínvcntOr, bÍd,
cXpcrímcntaÍ, and ch-mõæn, mc thc buíÍdcrs Ot thc
mírtccnthccntuÇ,WhOmhca OWÍcdgcdas h mastcrs,
mOdcb and guídcs ; Üunc-)Oncs,L thccOntrary,uníquc
i gcníus and prsOnaÍíty, Íabrcd m artístíc sOÌítudc,
ægÍíttÍctOrmcWOrÍd'sappÍausc,andrcmaíníngtaíthtuÍ
tO h ærÍy ídæÍs Wíth a truÍy tcmc cOnstancy. ¯hc
¡Oínt accOmpÍíshmcnts Ot thc tWO mc prOduccd upn thc
a Ot thcír límc an mucncc that u quítc ímmæsurabÍc,
Ü tO dcpth, brcadth md Ìastíng c cct. ¯Ogcthcr, thcy
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40 WI LLIAM MORRI S
nO OnÍy rcdccmcd thc LngÍuh dcCOratíVc arts ÍrOm a
dOdcnt, dcnatíOnaÍíZcd statc, but thcy Oarrícd thcm tO Ü
pOínt WhíCh COmmandcd aCknOWÍcdgcmcnt and prOVOkcd
ímtattOn ÍrOm tranCc, ÍLly and Lcrmany. LVcn m
thcír scparatc, pcrsOnal gms¬NOrrí8QtíCaÌgcníus,ín
Üunc-}OncspíCtOríalþWcr,~thcysOmcdtOsuppÍcmcnt,
baÌanCc and supprt caChOthcr. ¯hcy rcCctVcd mcntaÍ
ímprcssíOns, thc Onc trOm thc OUcr, Wíth a rapídíty and
dcÍtCaCy brn OÍ OÌOsc OOmpmOnshíp and thc þWcr tO
ÍccÍ and scc m OOmOn. Üut thcy adVanOcd tO m
íntcÍÍcCtuaÌ and spmtu 8ypathy fo WídcÍy dídcríng
OírCumstanCcs.
Une NOns, Üunc-)Oncs
OOntcndcd ín OhíÍdhO and ærÍy yOuth WHh unÍaVOrabÌc
surrOundíngs. tu mtcÍaOu!tícsWcrctarddydcVcÍOpd,
and cVcn Whcn aWakcncd, Wcrc maturcd Omy thrOugh
ínVínCíbÌc dctcmtíOn and patícnCc. ¹hrcc ycar8 thc
scníOr OÍ hís Írícnd, hc Was bOn mÜm gham,ín 1 833,
Whcn as yct thc nmc OÍthís græt ÍaCtOry-tOWn, VuÌgar-
uOíntO ' ÜruÜgcm,¯8tOdÍOraÍÌthatu OOmcrCíaüy
OOntcmptíbÍc and spuríOus. tc Was thc sOn OÍ a smaü
shOpkccpcr, and hc grcW up ín an austcrc, drcarÿ hOmc,
apart ÍrOm thc tcncr ínÜucnCc OÍ WOman, as hís OnÍy
sí8tcr, hís c!dcr by a ÍcW ycars, had dícd m hcr ínÍanCy,
and hís mOthcr at hís bírth. ÍmagínatíVc Ìítcraturc Was
ÍOrbíddcn hímthrOughthcrcÍígíOusprc¡udíCcsOÍmsÍathcr,
and thc by thus ÍOrCcd tO a starVatíOn WhOsc pangs hc
but haÜ rcaÍíZcd, suÍÍcrcd On ín síÍcnCc and sOÍítudc, sínCc
hc madc but ÍcW aCQuaíntanCcs and Opncd hís hcart tO
nOnc. NænWhíÍc hís cduCatíOn Was nOtncgÍcCtcd,ashc
Was cntcrcd, at thc agc OÍ cÍcV0n, at fg LdWard´s
CChOÍ, by hís Íathcr, WhO hOd tO maKc htm a CÍcrgy-
man OÍ thc PngÍíCan hurCh Luríng thc ycars OÍ
prcparatíOn ÍOr hts dcstíncd prOÍcssíOn, hc aCQuucd a
KnOWÍcdgc and ÍOVc OÍ thc C!asstCs and OÍ hístOry, WhíCh
OnCc hc had mct WíIh hts Írtcnd NOrrís, bcCamc Uc bJsu
OÍ cXcndcd rcadíngs and OÍ Wídc gcncrm Outurc
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WI LLIAM MORRIS 41
Pt tWcnq, Üumc-)Oncs passcd
íntO Lctcr LOücgc, LXOrd, mcctíng NOrrís On thc tírst
day Ot tcrm, Wímn a Wcck bccOmíng ms ínscparabÍc
trícnd, and attcrWard Wrítín�Ot m:
" rOm thc tírst Í kcW hOW
díUcrOt hc Was trOm aü thc mcn Í had cVcr mct. He
tled Wíth Vchwcncc, and sOmc!ímcs Wíth VíOÍcncc. Ì
ncVcr kncW m Ìanguíd Or tírcd.¯
_
hístírstapprccíatíOncOntínucd
tO bc thc samcínkíndanddcgrcc. ÎOrWhcncVcrÜumc-
)Oncs WrOtc Or sþkc Ot hís trícnd, ít Was Wíth a haü-
Íæc admírabOn tOr thc aggrcssíVc, stur, path-
mak g guaÍítícs ín Whích hc mmscü Was aÍtOgcthcr
Ìackíng, ¯hc undíVídcd íntímacy Ot lhc tWO undcr-
graduatcs OOntínucd UOughOut thcír rcsídcnccat LXOrd,
cach gíVíng and lakíng m sharc ín aü that madc tOr
íntNÍcctuaÌ adVancOcnt, thc Wídcníng Ot íntcrcsts and
thc Opníng Ot ncW Víslas Ot thOught and Íítc. Üunc-
)Oncs, tíÍÍcd Wth cnthusíasm tOr thc LcÍtíc and bcandína-
Vían mythOÍOgícs, gaVc thc ímpÍsc Whích Ìcd tO lhc
grætcst Ìítcraç achícVcmcnt Ot NOnís. tís cOmpaníOn-
shíp, tOO, díd much tO raísc art tO a pÍacc by thc sídc Ot
Ìítcraturc ín thc daíÍy Ìítc Ot hís trícnd, síncc hís charactcr-
�tíc draWíngs, knOWn as ")Oncs´s LcVíÍs,´ and cagcrÌy
sOught attcr by hís tcÍÍOW-studcnts, arOuscd thc Íatcnt
manuaÌ dcXtcríty Ot NOrrís, WhO shOrtÍy bcgan tO cOVcr
!hc margíns Ot hís bOks and Ìcttcrs Wíth archítccmraÍ
motifs and tÍOríatcd Onmcnt.
_
hc cÍOsc bnd bctWccn lhc
!WO yOung mcn cXcndcd untíÍ ít íncÍudcd tOur Or bVc
Othcrs tíÍÍcd Wíth thc samc aspíratíOns tOWard bæuty
and thc samc índctínítc dcsírcs tO dO sOmcthíng tOr
humaníty ; cach Wíshíng tO ßct accOrdíng tO hís OWn
VíÍÍ and Way. ³hus thrcc ycars passcd, duríng Whích
mOrrís dcVcÍOpcd íntO tbc mOst OrígínaÍ yOung þct Ot
LngÍand. Pt thc cnd Ot thís pcríOd, Üumc¸Oncs, scnsí-
twc and susccptíbÍc, yícÍdcd tO thc VíríÍc prsOnaÌíq Ot
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42 WI LLIAM MORRI S
HOsscttí, and 8ank OOmpÌctcÌy undcr h íntÍucncc.
¯hrOugh thc adVícc Ot thc Îrc-ÑaphacÍítc Ícadcr, thc
nOVícc cnthusíast bgan at Oncc tO paínt, WíthOut
acadcmíc tramg, Or thc crattsmanshíp ncccssarÿ tO
an aHíst. HOsscttí maíntaíncd that thc cmOrccddrudgcry
Ot cOpyíng trOm thc antíguc WOuÌd bÍunt, i ít díd nOt
dcstrOy, thc dcucatc mgínatíOnOthí8yOungcrtrícnd t an
OpíníOn tacn nOt WíthOt ræsOn, but Whích 8tríctÌy
canícd Out as ít Wa8, mght haVc lcd tO dísastcr, had thc
strcnuOu8 Íatcr cÍtOrts Ot Üunc-)Oc8 nOt atOncd tOr thc
dcÍícícncíc8OthístírstWOrk. Índccd,a8hcOnccrCarkcd
Ot mæü, m thc tccmguc Ot h art, at tWcnty-tíVc hc
Wa8 but tÜtcc, and btOrc hc cOuÌd adcguatcÍy cXprc8
thc [Ot hís tccbng md thc bæuty Ot h cOnccptíOns,
hcWas tOrccd tO8ubt hímscÍt tO thc Ordcal Ot patícnt
tOíÌ. ¯WO yær8 Ot 8tudy undcr thc dírcctíOn Ot ÑOsscttí
cOnstítutcd hí8 8OÍc art-OucatíOn, i Wc cXccpt thc tcrtíÌc
prOductíOn,thccOnstantObscrVabOnand cXprímcntWhích
tínaÍÍy rcndcrcd m thc grætcst 8cü-madc pamtcr Ot
mOdcntímcs. PttÜty,hchd bccOmca subbc,cXguísítc
draught, a cOn8uÜtc m88tcr Ot cOÍOr, an artíst Ol
sO rOnOnccd a prsOnaÌíty as tO b rcOOgníZcd m thc
sÍíghtcst skctch cOmg trOm m8 hand. Hi tauÌts, h
æggcmtíOns, mc thOsc Ot ÜmO, tO WhOm hc Obcr8
many pínts Ot ræCbDcc, 8cccd tO prOæd nOt trOm
ígnOrancc, Or Íack Ot rccptíOn but rathcr trOm tíXcd
príncípÍcs ínhcrcnt ín hí8 uatíc8 as Ü grcat dccOratíVc
paíntcr. Ín sOmc schcmc knOWn tO hímscü aÌOnc Uy,
WíthOut dOub, thc cXpÍanatíOn Ot hí8 pcuÍm træmcnt
Ot thc human bdy : thc m hæd, thc græt hcíght md
sÍcndcncss, thc Wcíght tmOWn upn Onc tOt,thc ínWard
arch Ot thc sm cncd Ícg, thc cOntrast m curVc btWccnthc
supprtíng and thc supprtcd sídc, and thc Othcr pínt8
nOtcd WíIhOut cXpDatíOn by thc trcnch crítíc, N. dc U
bíZcrannc, WhO sccms nOt tO rccaüthatprccíscythcbC
træmcnt prcVaíÍcd amOngthcÍatcrscuÍptOr8 Ot Lrcccc t Ü
Íact Whích, ín V.cW OÍ thc íntOc studíOusncs8 Ot Üunc-
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WI LLIAM MORRI S
Jones, indicates that the artist followed a definite syste,
insted of repating technical errors, until his senses were
so prverted that he saw beauty where only ugliness
existed. Another indication of an underlying system i
the work of Bure-Jones is found in his selediveess.
His bok of " studies," or preliminary drawings, shows
. how carefully his first intentions were modified agai and
agai, in order that they might fit together and become
integral parts of an imprtant picture. His was certainly
a completeness labriously acuired. He attained an
epressive line, but it was not through economic draughts­
manship. He had no afiity with artists le t,
Durer, Hokosai, te eghteenth centur Japnese, or
Forain, te moem Frenchn, i whose sketches­
spntaneous and yet restrained-it would b dificult to
say where ech le stops and where each bgns.
Conseuent upn selective­
ness : tht i te pwer to chose, absorb and assiate,
Bume-Jones ofered freuetly i m work suggestions
of earlier artists whom he had closely, but neve serviely,
studied. He was no brrower or tef, bt simply an '
honest, legtimte iertor of the gret capita and patri­
mony of art. Hi most marked preference was, of course,
for Bttice, wih whom he saw and felt i cL on.
Ti� taught him much i the handling of te orchesta
of color. Micheangelo's " Slaves " writhe on the
Eglish painter's " Wheel of Fortune/' as they were pur­
psed to suffer on te tomb of Pop Julius Second.
Leonardo ofen opned to h the secret of m alluring
curves. But it is simple justice to assert that, stren�ened
and formed by his contact with Ím and Gree art,
Bure-Jones never �lsiied his distinctive prsonality.
He recoged m own wherever he found it, mastered it
and ten displayed it without fear of question or criticism.
These unvarying methos,
adopted erly i life and pursued thrughout an art-areer
of forty years, the gradual gathering of materials, the slow
I
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WI LLIAM MORRIS
cvoÌutionOt apcturc~WhíchsOmctímcscztcndæUugh
a dcdc Or mOrc,~Ottcr cztrcmc cOntrastsWththcWays
Ot NOrrís, thc cÍOscÍy aüícd brOthcr-ín-art Ot Üumc¸Onæ.
ÏOr thc tírst namcd, a tcW mOnths Or Wæks sudíccd lOr
amg thc thcOry and practíccOt any sub|cct tO Whch
c agÍícd hímscü. tcÌabrcd Wíth a 44 tum¯ WOrthy
Ot NíchcÌangcÌO. tc prOuccd ín grt quantíq and at
rapíd ratc. tís dcvOtíOn,absOÍutctOr thctímcbíng,Wa8
gívcn succcssívcÌy tO a numbr Ot íntcræts, WídcÍy dütcr-
íng amOng thcmscÌvcs. tcÌOvcd,acccptcdthcgWhích
thc míng ÌOvcd had tO bstOW, and passcd On tO ncW
cOnqucsts. tc Was m aÌÍ mngs thc cOmpÌcmcnt and
Ogsítc Ot hís trícnd, WhO Íívcd aptrOm mcnandte
cOnccms, cÍOístcrcd ín m æ dcvOtÍy attcdant upn
mc HcvcÌatíOn Ot Üauty.
Pnd mus, bt tOr ¾m
NOrrís, thc mÌucncc Ot Üumc-)Oncs míght cvcr havc
rcmaíncdcOntíncd tO arístOratíc círcÍcs , síncc thc psscs-
síOn Ot grcat czampÍcs Ot píctOríaÌ art u thc prívíÍcc OÍ
thc tcW and WcaÍthy. LWíng tO thc Ìabrs Ot thc sc
artísanand apsücOt dcmOcracy,thcbarrícrsOt individual
ovncrsbip Wcrc cast dovn,and thc vork ol hís richÌy
cndovcd tncnd Was scattcrcd broadcast amon thc
pcopÌcthroughthc mcdíum Ot dccOratívc dcsíg. t has
bccn said that ''it vould bc a scrious undcng to
mæsurcthc lÌoodol buty purcdbythctWOcOÍabOrcrs
íntO thc WOrÍd.¯ Üut an ídca ol thc grcatncss Ot thcir
accompÌishmcnt may bc lormcd trOm thc smtcmcnt ol a
trustvonhycritic,vho dccÌarcs simpÌy and vithout thc
cmphasismtlcarscontradiction,that ''thcy rctOmcd thc
mstc Ot bngld.¯ Ähc churchcs, thc cOücgcs, thc
municipalmuscums and tbc homcs ol thcIr ovn count¡
barvitncss to thcir gcmus vbicb, c×crciscd as ít scnt
lorthlroma singÌc brain, gÌomicdandtransligurcdcvcry-
thmgtbat it touchcd , so that thc arts and cralts ol thc
MiddÌc rosc agam, and thc vorkshop vas rcstorcd
tothc bigh pbcc vbIch it ocupicd ín the tímcs Whcn
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WI LLIAM MORRIS
45
ÏÍOrcnccandÏurcmbcrgandthccathcdraÍcítícsOtÏrancc
tccmcd Wíth smpÍc, sturdyburcrs,WhOsctírstcarcWas
tO prcscrvc, thrOugh cOmmOn cOrt and OrganíZatíOn, thc
IradítíOns Ot thOr skíÍÍ, and WhOsc Íívcs Wcrc cOnsccratcd
to thc rcÍígíOn Ot bcauty.
LOnscgucntupnthcdccOratívc
rctOrm ín ÎngÍand, thc PpÍícd PrtshavcríscntrOm thcír
dccadcncc ín Ïrancc and havc bccOmc tímÍy cstabÍíshcd
ín thc \nítcd btatcs amOng a pcOpÍc mOst rcady Ot aÍÍ tO
rcccívc thcÍcssOns Ota truc acsthctícísm. Pnd thus thc
chancc mcctíng Ot tWO yOuths, a haü-ccntury síncc, On
tbc bcnchcs Ot an LXOrd LOÍÍcgc, Ícd tO thc Opcníng Ot a
vísta mtO thc past, Whcrcm Wc scc thc anccstOrs Ot tbc
mOdcrn natíOns buudíng and carvíng, patín and spm~
níng, thrOWmg íntO thcír WOrk thcír strcngth, thcír ÍOvc
and vcry sOuÍs. Pnd thc ÍcssOn tO bcÍcamcd trOm tbc
vísíOn ís that a rcaÍ art, crcatcd by thc pcOpÍc tOr tbc
pcOpÍc, ís abÍc nOt OnÍy tO bcautíty, but aÍsO tO símp͵
Íuc, tO uníty thc íntcrcsts Ot ad sOrts and cOndítíOns Ot
mc, anC tínaÍly to ree te mæg of te WOrd
common�6õ//h-
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46 WI LLIAM MORRIS
Vhcn thc changccomcs,itW
cmbraccthcvhoÌcol socicty,andthcrc¤mb no discon-
tcntcd cÌassÌclt to lorm thc cÌcmcnts ol a lrcsh rcvoÌution.
ít isncccssary that thcmovcmcnt shouÌdnot bignorant,
but intcmgcnt. Vhat l should hkc to havc nov lar
morc than anytbing cÌsc, ¤ouÌdbca bdy ol abÌc,high-
mindcd, comptcnt mcn,vbo sbouÌd act as instructors.
l shouÌd Ìok to thosc mcn to prcach vhat 5ociahsm
rcaÌÌy is-not a changc lor thc sakc ol changc, but a
changcinvoÌving tbcvcrynobÌcstidca!olhuman!ilcand
duty : a Ìilc m vhich cvcry humanbcinshouÌd íind un-
rcstrictcd scoplorhis bcstpvcrsand acuÌtics.
WILLIM MORIS:
Fi1st publc ufe1ance, afief becoming mebe1 of
Scialstc League.
Lducation i thc primc nccæ-
sity,and it i hopÌcss to attcmpt to rcconstruct socicty
vithoutthc cxistingmatcriaÌs.
WILIAM MORIS:
Leite1 to L.dy Cume-ones, Siembe1, ÍööJ.
l couÌd ncvcrlorgctthatinspitc
ol al dra¤backs, my vork is htuc Ìcss than pÌæsurcto
mc , that undcr no conccivabÌc circumstanccs vouÌd l
givcit up,cvcn Ü Ï couÌd. Òvcr and ovcr again, l havc
askcd myscü vhy shouÌd not my Ìot bcthc common Ìot.
My vork is simplc vorkcnough, much ol it, northat
tbc Ìcast pÌæsant, any man ol dcccnt mtchgcncc couÌd
do, Ü hc couÌd but ct to carc abut thc vork and its
rcsuÌts. lndccd, l avc bccn ashamcd vhcn l havc
tbought ol tbc contrast bctvccn my happy¤orkinghours
and thc unpraiscd, unrcvardcd, monotonous drudgcry
vhichmost mcn arc condmncd to. Ïotmng shad con-
vinccmc that sucb Ìabour astbis is god or ncccssary to
civmation.
WILLIAM MORRIS:
Lcre : U crt, Wealth and Ciches ; " gi�en at
8anchester Coal Institution, March ó, ÍööJ.
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AN ARGUMENT FOR SIMPLICITY
IN
HO US E H OLD FURN I S HI N GS
I
N aÍÍlhal c0nccrm h0uõch0ÍJjumíõhíngõ anJ Jcc0ralí0n� prcõcnl
lcnJcnctcõ arc loarJ a õtmpÍtctQ unknon ín lhcpaõl. 1hc
j0m 0jan_ 00)cC íõ maJc l0 c)rcõõ lhc õlmcuraÍ íJca JírcCQ�
jrankQ� 0jlcn aÍm0õl Itlh 0aÍJncõõ. Ïhc malcrtaÍõ cmpÍ0_cJarc
ch0õrn n0 Í0ngcr $0ÍcQ j0r lhcír ínlrínõtc YaÍuc� 0ul mdh a grcal
c0nõtJcralt0n j0r lhctr p0lcnlíaÎ 0cauQ. Ïhc çuaÍtltcõ lhuõ apprc-
hcnJcJarc lraccJl0 lhctrõ0urcc anJlhcn carcjuÍÍ_ JccÍ0pcJ0_ lhc
õkíh 0jlhc crajõman.
În lhc cíghlccnlh ccnlu_� lhc Îrcnch ca0íncl
makcrõ crcalcJ chamíng 00)cCõ õudcJl0 lhc paÍaccõ anJcaõlÍcõ 0j
lhc 0ÍJn00thQ. Ïhc_ rm·cÍÍcJtn ríchncõõ 0j malcrtaÍ: ín m00Jõ
0rJughÍ jr0m c0unlrícõ

and c0Í0nícõ JíjjtmÍl 0j acccõõ J ín c0õlQ
gtÍJtng anJ0lhcr appÍtcJ0rnamcnl J ín janctjuÍpaínltngmhtchczçuí-
õdc JcÍtcag 0jhanJÎíng aÎ0nc $aYcJ ]mm lníaÍg anJ ínõtgntjt-
cancc.
Öul loJa_� mkh lhc íJca 0j JmcÎ0pmcnl
mc_mhcrc J0mínanl�~¬ín lhc õctcncc$� ín cJucalt0naÎmclh0J$� ín
aÍÎ lhal junhcrõ human ínlcrc0urõc� c0mj0nanJpr0grcõõ¬c jtnJ
lhc m00J0jlhc ccnlu_ ímprcõõcJ up0n lhc malcríaÍ anJ ncccõõa_
00)cCõ 0_ mhtch mc arc õurmunJcJ. ÎYcn 0ur0cJõ, la0Ícõ anJ
chatrõ, tjpÍanncJanJczcculcJacc0rJíng l0 lhc nrmcr anJ õ0unJrr
íJcaõ 0jh0uõrh0ÍJ an, 0jjcr uõ a Ícõõ0n laughl 0_ lhcírj0m, õub-
õlancc anJjtntõh. Kc arc n0 Í0ngcr l0rlurcJ 0_ czaggcralcJ Íínrõ
lhc rcaõ0nõ j0rmhích arc paõlJtYtníng. Wc haIc n0ll0 JcaÍIùh
]aÍõtj_tng Ycnccrõ� 0r mtlh Jtõjtgurtng �0-caÍÍcJ0rnamcnl. Wc arc
n0l nrcrõõartÍ_ c0njr0nlcJ 0_ õu0õlanccõ prccí0uõ 0ccauõc 0j lhctr
lraJtlt0naÍ uõc� lhrtr rartQ, anJlhc JtjjtcÍQ allrnJtng lhrtr allatn-
mcnl. Wc arc� jtr8l 0j aÍÍ, mrl 0_ pÍatn õhaprõ mhtch n0l 0nÍ_
JrcÍarc� 0ul cmphasízc lhcír puq0õc. Ûr c_cõ rrõl0n malcrtaÍõ
Ihtch� galhcrcJjr0m lhc j0rcõlõ, aÍ0ng lhc slrramõ� anJjr0m 0lhrr
õ0urccõ jamíhar l0 uõ, arc, j0r lhalrraõ0n, tnlrrrõ/tng anJcÍ0çucnl.
Wc ma_� ín lhc am 0j 0ur rraJtng-chatr, 0r tn lhc Jrõk 0c]0rr
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iv THE CRAFTSMAN
�htch mcpaõõ0urI0rkÍng-Ja_, õmJ_lhcõÍnkÍgunJ0Îðù0nõÍn lbc
gratn 0j0ak, aõh, cÍm, 0r 0lhcr 0j 0ur nalNc T00Jõ, anJ tn õ0
J0tng, Îcam lhc m0nh 0j paltcnl, mcÍÎ-JtrcCcJanJõkthcJ Ía00r J
0jlhal Ía00r mhtch cJucalcõ J lhal tõ : ÍcaJõ 0ul anJJcÞcÍ0põ lhc
htJJcn ÞaÍucõ anJ çuaÍÙtcõ 0jlhtngõ l00 0jlcn ncgÍcCcJ0ccauõclhQ
a, jrcçucnlg õccn
PRO PATRIA
W
HEN ín lhc JccaJc 0j1870-1880, ÛcnlaÍan0cganl0rcccNc
ItJc-õprcaJadcnlt0ntn Îrancc, anJ0ccamc a ja�0mc l0ptc
0jc0nIcrõalí0n tn jaõht0na0Îc õaÍ0nõ, lhcrc Tcrc mn_ c0nn0tõõcurõ
mh0 JcntcJtl8 cÍatmõ l0 c0mtJctalt0n. Ïhcn dTaõlhalÆ. Ïhícrõ,
lhc ÍrcõtJcnl 0jlhc Îrcnch Ícpu0Ííc, õummcJ up tn a õtngÍc pdh_
õcnlcncc lhc rcaõ0nõ j0r lhc¸ naf prc)uJtcc Thtch rcjuõcJcuncng
l0 tJcaõ 0lhcrlhan lh0õc c0mccralcJ0_ Î0ng jamdtaríQ.
Íc JccÎarcJ: ¨ Ûc õh0uÍJn0lg0 l0_apan
Iílh lhc ÎaHhcn0n ín 0nc´õ mínJ. ´
. õtmdarprc)uJtcc haõ cõla0ÍíõhcJ tlõcÍj tn
lhtõ c0unl_ rcgamíng lhc uõc 0j mah0gan_ tn lhc jtncrptcccõ 0j
h0uõch0ÍJ jumtõhtngõ. Ïhc prcjcrcncc j0r lhtõ <00J, j0unJcd
pantaÍQ up0n tlõ 0cauQ, rcccNrJ a Þc_ õlr0ng tmpcluõ jr0m lhc
c0nncct0n 0jlhc T00JanJ0jccnatnjam0uõca0ínclmakcrõ Ttlh 0ur
c0Í0ntaÍ htõl0_, Thtch 0j Îalc haõ 0ccn $0 lh0r0ughÍ_ lrcalcJ 0_
¬mcrtcan aulh0rõ, anJõ0 lh0r0ughQ õluJtcJ0_ 0ur paln0líc cÍu0õ.
L0nõcçucnlÍ_, 0ur nahcpr0JuCõhaIc0ccnncgÍcCcJanJlhctrp0õõt-
0tÍtltcõ 0ÞcrÍ00kcJ. Dul íl tõ lmc lhal 0ak, aõh anJ cÍm, pr0pcrQ
lrcalcJ, p0õõcõõ adraCí0nõ lhal _tcÍJ l0 lh0õc 0jn0 0lhcr I00Jõ.
1hc unJuÍalt0nõ 0j lhctr gra/n, lhc õ0jl, un00lmõNr l0ncõ mhtch
lhc_ asõumc lhr0ugh õk/hjuÎp0Ítõh, lhc c0l0r-pÍa_ Thtch mm Oe,
lhctr õm00lh õurjäcc arc çuäÍdtcõThtch l0 0c apprccta/cJ nccJ 0nQ
to he jatrÍ_ 00õcHcJ. Ïhc tnlcÍÍtgcnl cra]õman tn 0urc0unl_ tõ
flOW raIsing 0crn0nhcrn T00Jõ l0 a pÍacc 0cõtJc lhl 0ccuptcJ q
/hc long- admired mah0gan_.
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OnonJaga Glf Club,
Svracuse, ¼. Y.
|nte·ior Clew.
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View o/ Veranda.
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STYLE AND ITS REQUISITES
T
HE m0õl rzçuíõílr lhíngõ ín nalurr anJínanarr lh0õr mhíc0 p088c88
an ínJrjína0Ír çuaÍíQ cahrJ õQÍr. Ïhr pírcr 0j Ítlrralurr, lhr
anhílrOraÍm0rk, lhr 0raultjuÍm0man, lhr jÍ0wcr manlíng ín lhí8 Íaõl
namrÎrõõ gracr �rraÍíkr unj0nunalr. Í0r ín 0rJrrl0gaín rrc0gnílí0nanJ
apprrcíalí0n ín a híghÍ_ cíÞuíZrJagr, Jíõunclí0n, lhal íõ l0 õa_ : õrpara-
k0n jmm 0nr´õ kínJ íõ nrcr8õa_. Dul lhíõ JíõlínCt0n muõl 0r namraÎ
andínhrrrnl : n�rr 80ughl a]lrr, aõõumrJ, 0r j0rcrJ. În lhr caõc 0]
00)rC8 cnalrJ0_ lhr antõl, 8QÍr muõl 0r a parl 0j lhr �r_ c0ncrplt0n J
andn0Í80mrl0íng c0n$c0uõÍ_ aJJrJín lhr mrchantcaÎrzrmlí0n.
Ïhr maõlrrõ 0j õQÍr, lhr chírjõ 0j lhr grral
8ch00Î8 <mughl ín 00rJtrncr l0 ímpuÍõr, 0rcauõr lhr_ mrn j0rcrJ jmm
wílhín J 0rcau8r lhr lhtng õrrn ín lhrír mrnlaÍ�tõt0n cnrJ 0ull0 0r 00rn,
l0 0rc0mr malrrtaÎíZrJ. Ïhr hnlrÍ, lhr c0Íumn, lhr arch mrrr n0l ín-
c0q0ralrJ ínl0 lhr 0udJtng arl 0_ Jrh0rralr õcÍrct0n, 0_ crílíc8 and
ÎramcJ r)rnmrnlaÍtõlõ. Ïhr õlrucuraÍ rÍrmrnl maõ õríZrJ 0_ lhr
r

anJjrÍÎ ínl0 pÍacr 0rnralh htõ porrjuÍgrasp : lhrrrõuÍlrrprrõrnl-
lng Thalmr rrc0gníZr n0m aõ Úrrk, 0rÍ0man, 0r mrJtarÞaÍ. Î0r JíJ
lhr N0grralÂahanõ, ÍapharÎ anJ ÆíchrÍangrÍ0, õlrtÞr ajlrr lhrír Jíõ-
língutõhíng lraÚõ. Ïhr harm0ntc c0mp0õílt0n 0j lhr 0nr, lhr ínjtnílr
Îínrar�anrQ 0j lhr 0lhrrmrrrõp0nlanr0uõ, c0nõlanlj0rcrõ mhtch nrrJrJ
¤0ll0 0rjrJ0rj0õlrrrJ0_ lhrtrp08õrõõ0rõ, 0j mhtch lhr_ mrrr a �tlaÍ
panJ ÎÕtng mtlh lhcm, and paõõíng ama_ al lhr Jralh 0jlhr ma8lrrõ,
nmrragaín l0 0r rrpralrJ.
.
ÓQÎr í8 lhrrrj0rr lhr çuaÍíQ anJ ríghquÍ p0õõr8-
8í0n 0] 0nr ínJíItJuaÎ, 0rcÎaõõ 0jínJí7íJuaÍõ. ÛlõtJr 0jlhrõr Íímílõ,
i u a jaÍ8r anJun)uõhjía0Ír aõõumplí0n. Wr jrrÍ lhtõ õlalrmrn͸l0 0r
mr <hrn <rpauõr l0 anaÍ_õr lhr ímprrõõí0nõ lhal0jlrn jahhkr Jíõc0mõ
up0n 0ur õrnõr8, aõ mrg0 up0n 0urma_õ 0jm0rk 0rpÍraõurr. Í0r rz-
ampÎr, lhr õízrrnlh crnlu_ Írrnch caõlÍr archílrCurr íõ � , õuí grnrrí$. `
Îl íõ
ínc0mpara0Ír ín ílõ ma_. Îl ÍrnJõ ílõrÍjl0 lhr nalurr ín lhr mtJõl 0j
Whích íl Ia8 crralrJJ ríõíng jr0m lhr ÍanJõcapr 0jlhr rí�rrÎ0ín æ a
8_
mpalhrlíc rrõp0nõr l0 lhr appral 0jlhr õk_, lhr malrr, lhr híÎÍ8 anJ lhr
j0rrõlõ. Íunhrrlhan lhíõ, ílrrprrõrnlõ lhr límr 0jílõ 0trlh. Û8õpÎcnJ0r
0j
malrnaÍ, ílõ 0ríÍhanQ 0jrzrculí0n, ílõ tmagtnalt�r, Îuzríanl, gracrjuÎ
0
�mrnl rrcah lhr 8rlíõltc, pÍraõurr-Í0Þtng Írancí8 Íírõl Th0 pæõrJ
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THE CRAFTSMAN
Idh htõ c0url jr0m chalrau l0 chalrau J aY0íJtng híõ 0ughrr-c�pmÎ,
Îanõ, Írõlhtõ Iaõlr 0j¤raÍlh õh0uÍJíncc lhc h0ncõlaní õam æ $h0p

krrpcrõ l0 Jtõc0nlcnl anJínõumCt0n.
Îo, Írla npr0JuCí0n 0jl0u õgÎr 0c æcmpÍcd
ín lhr hcan 0j 0ur ¬mrrtcan mrlr0p0Ítõ, æ h 0rrn J0nc ín $�cr�Î
n0labÍr ínõlancrõ. Ý r rrõuÍl íõ n0 Í0ngrr rdhrr pÍraõíng l0 lhc $ÍuJcnÍ
anJc0nn0íõõrur, 0r õalíõj_tng l0 lhr maõõrõ. Ïhc jcuJaÎ anílcUN lõ
b_ crnlurírõ 0ul 0jpÍacr ín a m0Jrm ctQ, pnõumabQ lhr 00mc 0jOíc
Íam anJ0mrr. Ïhr

0r0aJaIrnurõ, lrrmtn¸ç mdh lhr Ííjr, mærmrnÍanJ
ínIrnlt0nõ 0ja õctrnltjíc agr, j0m an ínc0ngm0uõ õrllíng j0r lhrõc 0ÍJ-
ltmr )rmrÍõ 0jan. 1r janlaõltc 0rnamrnl, lhr gag0_Írõ anJ gnjj0m
Ihtch 0rr-mn lhr mh0Ír anJcullhr õk_-Ítnr ín a 0undnJ mn0uõ <a_õ
haIc n0 Í0ngrr a rraõ0n j0r rztõlrncr. Ýg haIc Í0õl lhr õrn8c 0j
m_Mr_mdh mhtch lhr_ mrrr 0ncr tnIrõlrJ. Ý rtr mraníng hæ pæõrJ
jr0m lhr ItlaÍõlalr ínl0lhr J0matn 0jhtõl0rtcaÍínlrnõl. În l0r m0Îuh0n
0jan, lhrírpÍacr 0æ Í0ng 0rrn õuppÍanlrJ.
Wr can lhuõ g0 0n õrÎrCíng rzampÍcõ al�íÎÎ, and
surr aÎma_õ 0janYíng allhr õamr c0ncÍuõí0n. ¬ mrpaõõ Íhmugh lhc
ÎÍacr YrnJ0mr, Îartõ, mr arr al 0ncr tmprrõõrJ0_ lhr j0mÍ, õlalrÍ_
granJrur 0jlhr õumunJtng archtlrcun. Ý r ragrrõh0pprrmdhhíõ grõ
õhhJæZÍrJ0_ lhrgÍtllrnng jrtI0Íthrõ 0jlhr mrJr Ía Vatztõ unc0nõc0uõÍ_
õ0brnJ0_ c0njrJnhng lhrgraÞr0utÍJtngõ 0jlhr htõl0ncõçuanJ �htÍr lhc
õluJrnlJrÍtghlõlJímagtnr lhrõpacr aõdmuõlhaIrappranJunJcrÏmíõÍc
ÚanJ: anímalrJb_ Íumbrnng c0achrõ anJgdJrJõrJan-chaírõ, ¤00 lhrír
jntghl0jp0mp0uõgrnlÍrmrn tn ]otng7tgõ, anJ0jÍaJtrõtn hraÞ_ YcÍYrl
anJ0r0caJrg0¤ns.
¬gatn, aõ tn lhr jtrõl caõr crJ, Írl lhr cMrmu
0jlhtõ õQÍr 0r c0ptrJtn ¬mrrtca. Ïhr rrõuÍlmdÍ 0r a õpmõ, ÍdrraÍ
lranÍalt0n, manltng lhr Ít]r anJõ0uÍ0jlhr0ngtnaÍ. ¬õrnõr 0junjmrõõ
anJunnaùQ mthj0nÞrrprmaJr anJhunllhr tmdalt0n ¤htch, lhmgh
lhr Íack 0jõp0nlanrg, haõ n0]uõltjtcalí0n j0r brtngJ mhtc0 0aõ n0 0æíõ
0jantõltc mlh, anJmhtch rrpnõrnlõ n0 J0mtnanllh0ughl 0jlhr prn0J.
D0, aJIancng jr0m tnõlancr l0 tnõlancr, ¤r nach
lhr c0ncÍuõt0n lhl an_ an m0nh_ 0jlhr namr muõl õlrtkr dõ m0lõ Jrq
lnl0 lhr ùjr 0jlhr pr0pÍr, anJ muõl pmJucr æ jrrrQ anJ namraÍÍ_ aõ
J0rõ lhr pÍanltn õumtnrr.
Wr haIr lhuõ jar Jramn 0ur rzampÍrõjmm anhl-
lrOn, 0ulaõ lhr õmaurr tõ c0nlatnrJtn lhrgrralrr, õ0 an lhc Îrõõrr anõ
rrÍalrJl0 lhal 0jlhr 0ut/Jrr. DcuÍplurr anJpatnltng an dõ hnJmaíJs,
anJ h0uõrh0ÍJJrc0rah0n dõ aJ]unc anJaÍÍ_.
1r 00]rcõ mhtch j0m 0ur malrnaÍ rnItmnmrnl
rzrnup0n uõ an tn]urncr lhal tõ n0ll0 0r mdhõl00J. Íj mr, 0ur chtÍJnn
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THE CRAFTSMAN vii
zd0urõuccrõõ0rõarr l0 0rlmr ct/tZrnsanJtnlrgraÍpanõ 0jlhr L0mm0n-
raÍ/h, <c muõlch00õr canjclQ lhr 00]rcõ 0_ mhtch �e õumunJ 0ur-
�rÍYrõ J 0nngtng 0ur yuJgmrnll0 0rarup0n lhrm a jch_ a Tr J0 up0n
r 0ook, 0r õluJtrõ anJ 0cr c0mpant0nõ. Wr mcõÍ õupp0n an an
calrJ 0_ lhr pr0pÍr j0r lhc prJpÍr : õímpÍr, õtncrrr anJ õlmcuraÍJ an
1 <hrntn lhr JrõtgnrranJlhrcrajlõman õhaÍÍ0r 0nr anJlhr õamr tnJt-
ÞíJuaÎ, cahng j0r htõ onpÍraõcrr anJunaõõadrJ0_ c0mmrnahõm.
 tõ tn lhtõ õptnl lhallhr ÆaõlrranJ ¬õ0ctalc8 0j
l0c ÜnùcJ Lrajlõ pmJucr lhrtrm0rk anJamad rcõuÍlõ.
Ïhr antõltc çuahQ 0jlhr Íuõh 0r ÍrrJhaõ 0rrn
gcnrraÍÍ_ ígn0rrJ0_ lhr ca0tnrl-makcr. Ýhr õlrrngh anJJurabthQ 0jdõ
jt0n ha�r ÍagrQ cauõrJ dõ rmpÍ0_mrnl. Dul d ÍrnJõ dõrÍj raõtQ l0
arõlhrlíc c0Í0ranJlcMtÍr õchrmrõ. ÆaJr õ0jl anJpùa0Ír, �nJ nlatntng
i mraÍ Þanrgalt0nõ, tlgMrõ a mh0Írgamul 0jgrrcm, mtlh 0ccat0naÍ
mõggÍtnlõ punccahngmhal0lhrmtõr mrnal00 õptrtlÍrõõ maõõ 0jc0Í0r.
Íl tõ lhrn 0jlrn c0mbtnrJmtlh lhr mru0m l0nrõ 0j � � jumrJ 0ak, ´ ´ a mr
jtnJtl ín crnaín chatrõ anJõralõ rrcrn/QprcJucrJtn lhr m6rkh0põ 0jlhr
Un/lrJ Lrajõ. Ïhr c0mbtna/t0n cann0l 0r 0lhrr¤tõr lhan a pcrjrc 0nc,
u i íõ 0æcJuÿ0n Îamrr a JtõpÍa_rJtn lhr acmmn m00Jõ-
The examples of cabznet-making sfn in Íhu
mgazine are frOln lhc workshops of the
United Crafts, Eastwoo� 8. Y.
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I thc NíddÍc Pgcs,that gOÍdcn pcnOdOt thcartsand
æch mastcr-WOrkman adOptcd sOmc dcvícc Or Ícgcnd Whch,
Íayæ upn cvcry Objcct Ot hís crcatíOn, camc tínaüy tO
hs mdívíduaÌítyascOmpÍctcÍy as díd hís tacc,Or hís vOícc , m[
m knOWn byOnd thc burghcr círcÍc m Whch hc passcd m
and, attcr h dæth, bccOmm a magíc tOmuÍa, by Whích tO
|urc up hs mcmOry, cvcn tOugh thc yærs had muÌtípüæ m)
cOturícs.
mOng thc Ìccnds sO cmpÍOycd, thc Onc assumcd by
vanÎyck,thc carÍy Ícmísh paíntcr,hasrctaíncd íts tOrccand�
dOWn tO Our OWn day. Als {ch kanne (i Í m) appars
acrOss thc canvascs Ot thís tOurtccnth ccntur chef 0`ecole,
mcrc,WíthOut dOubt,as an ínspíratíOn tOWardczccücncc m
Whcrcm van Îck bcamc an cpch makcr. @aríng i
backrOund Ot hís mastcrÍuÍ prtraíts, ít has sOmcthíng Ot dct ` ..
and umOr, as i OtÍcrmg a cOvcrt chaÍÍcngc tO Ícss skíütuÍ Ìí¬¬º¬
¯hc Als {ch kanne Ot van byck, mc thc Qanc
rr
Otbarah Ücnrdt,rcdccts that scntímcnt Ot cOuragc,bÍdncss
�síst�Whích appaÍs tO aÍÍ truÍy víríÍc naturcs. ¯hus Ñ
m íam NOrrís, ín hís carÍy manhOOd, vísítcd thc LOW LOun
and thcrc grcW tírcd Wíth cnthusíasm tOr thc dccOratívc arts, I
tOund thís Ícgcnd and madc ít hís OWn. tc uscd ít, m Ír
transÍatíOn, tírst m tapstrics dcsígncd tOr hís Ow dWO g,
tma� ít bccamc ídcntuícd Wíth h, sO that thc òt je pui
rcaÍÍs h mcmOry as vívídÍy as dO thc dcsígns Whích sp tO
trOm thc hangmgs Ot Our Waüs, thc tíÍcs Ot Our tÍOrs,Or thc cO
OÍ thc b ks Wmch Ííc un Our tabÍcs.
¯hc samc Ícgcn u: íts mOdcm ÍÍcmísh tOm, Zls tk Á
has bcn adOptcd by tbc Nastcr Ot thc \nítcd Lratts. Ít
tOms an íntcrcstíng dcvícc Wíth a jOíncr's cOmpass, Whích u
mOst prmítívc and dístínctívc tOOÍ Ot thc WOrkcr ín WOO.
Ícgcnd ís turthcr accOmpanicd bythc sígnaturc Ot thc Nastcr O
Lrahs, Lustavc btíckÍcy, Whích, tOgcthcr Wíth thc prOpr dtc,
pars brandcd upn cvcry Objcct prOduccd ín thc WOrkshOp OÍ
ÜuíÍd.
mthís Way,authcntícíty u assurcd,cOmpansOnsOÍ
arc madc ssíbÍc, and cvc Íacuíty Ot íntOrmatíOn ís ætOrdm
mc Onc WhO shaü acguírc thc píccc.
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