# Finding out Transformation parameters and Evaluation

of New Coordinate system in Sri Lanka

F. L. Karunaratne.
August, 2007

Finding out Transformation parameters and Evaluation
of New Coordinate system in Sri Lanka
by

F. L. Karunaratne.

Individual Final Assignment (IFA) Report submitted to the International Institute for Geo-information
Science and Earth Observation in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Professional
Master Degree in Geo-information Science and Earth Observation, Specialisation: (Geo-informatics)

IFA Assessment Board
Chairman: Prof. Dr. Ir. M.G. Vosselman
Supervisor: Dipl. Ing. K.A. Grabmaier
Second supervisor: Drs. R.A. Knippers

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR GEO-INFORMATION SCIENCE AND EARTH
OBSERVATION
ENSCHEDE, THE NETHERLANDS

Disclaimer
This document describes work undertaken as part of a programme of study at the International
Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation. All views and opinions expressed
therein remain the sole responsibility of the author, and do not necessarily represent those of the
institute.

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Abstract This task is discussed about Sri Lanka old and new geodetic coordinate systems. Comparing the residuals of the computed coordinates. But no way is available to solve this problem. After introducing new coordinates system some changes of coordinates are appeared in the old control points. This study tries to solve this problem considering the coordinates of 32 control points common to the both systems. . whether errors of coordinates are random or systematic. second and third order polynomials by computing corresponding coefficient of each polynomial. As a third method to solve this problem. differences of coordinates of all control points (errors) are plotted as error vectors and try to identify. datum transformation parameters are computed from old system to new system by Bursa wolf formula. Then coordinates of old control points are transformed to new system by using computed parameters. Finally. better transformation method is identified as the solution to problem. Then for direct transformation of two dimensional coordinates are done by computing corresponding parameters of first order for each separate area of the country. Direct transformation of two dimensional coordinates from old system to new system are done using first. Considering old and new coordinate systems as two different datums. datum transformation parameters of new coordinate system are computed using Bursa wolf datum transformation formula. In order to evaluate the new coordinate system datum transformation parameters and the process of coordinate transformations from WGS84 to local system. i . MATLAB is used as the programming software and matrix operations are applied to achieve a least square solutions.

A. I express my most profound gratitude to my loving wife Sriya and her parents for patiently take care of house hold management and looking after our two kids Santhusha and Pramuditha through out my long absence. Mr.D. who always motivated me for higher education. ii . And also thanks to Mr. Sri Lankan government and Survey Department of Sri Lanka are also acknowledged for giving me this valuable opportunity to enable me to carry out higher studies and provided necessary information for this study. Hendrikse for giving valuable guidance and instructions to complete my IFA successfully. Sarath Paranage and to other staff members of Geodetic Survey Unit of Institute of Surveying and Mapping in Sri Lanka. Who provided excellent supervision and guidance through out this study and their efforts are highly appreciated. Michel Morgan and Dr. second supervisors Mr. R. K. I would like to also thank to Mr. sponsored by the NUFFIC. A special thanks to Mr. S. Grabmaier.P. to Mr. Dampegama for giving valuable instruction to carry out this task. Finally. Which provided the funds for my higher education. To my first supervisor. Knippers . It is also impossible to acknowledge by any word the long term contribution of my parents.J.A. Sanath Wijewardane and. A special thank also go to my GFM3 class mates and to Sri Lankan friends for creating friendly environment during the staying period in the Netherlands. Dr.Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge the Netherlands Government. This work would have not been possible without the assistance of the academic and technical staff of ITC.

..........20 6... Problem ......................................................................22 iii . Objectives............................. Problem ....................20 6........1.................................18 5..............5.............................................. Why Select MATLAB?................................6..............................................................................20 6........................ Input ...................4.............................3...................................................21 6..................5....Table of contents 1.............. ...........................2............... Polynomial Method ...........................1.................3 1............................................................................................ Identifying and Analysis of Problem...19 5..........13 4...........................11 3............................3.. Transformation Parameters Using First Order Polynomial ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..2..........................................................18 5............................................................................................................... Historical Background... Introduction .....................................7 2...................................21 6...........................3............................17 5...........................................................6...................................... Coordinate Systems on the Earth. Coordinate Transformation .................... Datum Transformation ............3 1..........................................1..............................................22 6...................4............................................ Computed Parameters and Coordinates...... Methodology ............1...........5.............................14 4...................7 2......................................................6..............................................18 5............................................................................... Method of Solution in MATLAB................................................................................15 4.............3..................................3...........14 4.....................................3................ .........................................................................10 3........................ Datum Transformation Parameters of Coordinate Systems .................... Transformation Parameters Using First Order Polynomial (Centre of Gravity Method)...........2.......21 6.....................1............................ General Introduction .....4 1................................................18 5..........................................................................................................................14 4.................................................................... Technical Reasons Behind the Problem ................................................2.................................... Comparison of Computed Coordinates ...5..........................................................................20 6...............................................3 1.........5....................4 2.........................................................21 6.......................9 2.................................... Sri Lanka Datum 1999 (SLD99) ................................................................. Seven Parameter Transformation (Bursa Wolf Formula).............................................2.......................................................1.............4...............................3........... Datum Transformation Method........................................... Computing of SLD99 Coordinates Using Parameters in SLD99 Report.......................... Conclusion...... ...20 6...4......................... Introduction ......................2.......................... Evaluation of SLD99 Coordinate System ........4....................1.....15 4....................14 4..................6................11 3.................................. Analytical Approach...................... Computed Parameters from Old System to SLD99...........5...............1..................................11 3.............................................................................11 3............... Comparison of Datum Transformation Parameters. ......4 1................................ Methodology ....................................... Structure of the Report............................... Conclusion..................4......................6..................... Introduction .................................................................................................19 6................................... Conclusion.................................................... Procedure in MATLAB..................................6............... Introduction ..............2.................3 1... Current Problem Faces with Coordinate Systems..........................8 2........................................................ Available Data.............................................................................................................................................................................................. Introduction ...................................................................13 3. Computation of Datum Transformation Parameters ( WGS 84 to Old System).....................7 2...................................3........................ Procedure...

...................... 22 6.................m...................................................................... Introduction ..................3........ 41 Para_SLold_To_SLD99_20points.................................... Problem..........................................8........................9.........2.......................................................... 58 Poly3_20_modified.........m....................................... 31 8...................................... 23 6............... 32 Refferences ......................................................................................................................m ..................................................................................... 47 SLold_To_SLD99_Com20_check12........................m.......m...................... ................2................................................... 25 6.................... 23 6.. Transformation Parameters Using Second Order Polynomial................................................ 28 7............................................................8.......... 24 6...............................................9................................................................................................ 52 Poly1_Mean20..................... Computed Parameters and Coordinates............... Problem........................................ Graphical Representation ............................................................. 27 7....................9...................................m .................................................................................................... Recommendations ..............7.............. 60 Error_Vector_plot. 35 Cartesian Coordinates...................... 40 Appendix C (List Programs & Text Files) .... 49 Poly1_20.....11.................................................... Methodology............................... 35 Equation in Transverse Marketer Projection.........................................................................................7.................................................................................. 34 Appendices ....................................................................................................................................................................... 24 6.... Transformation Parameters using Third Order polynomial..................................... Methodology.............8.... 38 Coordinates of SLD99 by Second order polynomial(32 Points).............................6.............1.............................................................................................................. Conclusion.............................................1......................................................................... 63 iv ............7........ 35 Appendix A ............................6..................................................... Conclusion..............................10... Analysis of Errors by Vector Plotting ........2................... 23 6...................................................................... 23 6................................... 31 8.................... Conclusion.....m................................................................3...............m .1....... 30 8.................. 54 Poly2_20......................................................................................4.........................................................2........2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Computed Parameters and Coordinates.......................... 27 7................ Computed Parameters and Coordinates.............................. Parameters and Computed Coordinates............................................ 25 6.........................................................................................1...............m ..................... 34 Websites and Accesed Dates ............................................. 23 6........8.....3................................................................................................................................................... 23 6......................... (Forward equation) ...... 38 Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial ............................................................................................................................. Problem................ 22 6......................... 37 Appendix B (Computed Coordinates and Residuals).............. 22 6........................................................................................................... Comparision of Coordinate differences with Polynomial Order .....................7...................................................... Conclusion and Recommendations ................................ 27 7.................. 56 Poly3_20... Computed Parameters and Coordinates...................................................................................................................................................... 62 Poly1_Northern8_final................................................1............... Transformation Parameters Using Third Order Polynomial (Modified Type).................................... 36 Converting atitudes and Longitudes to XY Coordinates..................................4............. 34 Books................................. 36 Converting Latitude and Longitude to XY coordinates (Inverse equation) ......... 39 Coordinates of SLD99 by Third order polynomial (modified-32 Points) ............................................................................................ 26 7.........................................................................................

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...............2 Triangulation network of Sri Lanka in 1930 (old coordinate system)......1 Sri Lanka Geographical location ..... 13 Figure 4.......1: Coordinate transformation from WGS84 to SLD99 ..................... 6 Figure 3..................................................... .........List of figures Figure 1... 12 Figure 3........... 16 Figure 7............................................................ 28 vi .............. 3 Figure 1.........................2: Computation procedure of transformation parameters.....................1 Complete procedure for transformations between different datums and projections......................2: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Northern area....................

.....................................6: Computed parameters for the third order polynomial .................................................. ....9: Residuals of Northings and Eastings of points used to parameter computation.....................................29 Table 7.............................2: Computed parameters by the first order polynomial (centre of gravity method)................2:Differences of computed and SLD99 report coordinates of the common 32 points......................................21 Table 6....................................................................................................................29 Table 7...1:Computed datum transformation parameters from old system to SLD99 system......................19 Table 6..... ....................22 Table 6...................2: Transformation parameters of Sri Lanka old system and SLD99.......................................17 Table 5..2: Maximum residuals for control points according to the area...............................8 Table 2......................................................................................28 Table 7.............................26 Table 7..............32 vii ...1: Computed parameters for the first order polynomial...............................30 Table 8.............................1: Datum Transformation parameters computed and corresponding report values...................9 Table 4............ ..........24 Table 6................................................5: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Western area .2:Computed SLD 99 coordinates from computed coordinates (check points are bolded) .......................................10: Residuals of Northings and Eastings in check points.................3: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Eastern area.............................................2: Computed parameters of polynomial in area vice.............................List of tables Table 2....................................................................1Coordinates of common control points...18 Table 5.................25 Table 6.......................................4: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Southern area...........................................................15 Table 4.............................

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Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 1 .

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htm ) 1. 1. Sri Lanka datum 1999 (SLD99) coordinate system has been using for all surveying and related purposes.1). and the maximum difference between these two coordinates at a point is close to 5. Old coordinate system (Jackson) referred the Everest ellipsoid (1830) with Kandawala as the datum (Figure 1. using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology.5 meters (Table 2.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 1. In order to correct some errors observed in the system two base lines (Each base line was about 5. Sri Lanka Datum 1999 (SLD99) In order to facilitate Geographic Information Systems and Cadastral Surveying. Historical Background Sri Lanka is an island in Indian Ocean with having about 65610 square kilometres.1. Systematic triangulation in Sri Lanka commenced at about 1857 with the measurement of the Negombo base. 10 secondary base stations and 262 new control stations with including 20 fundamental bench mark points. Figure 1.5 miles long and the distance between them was about 127 miles) remeasured with improved techniques (using invar tapes) and recomputation of frame work of principal triangulation was completed at 1930. Thirty two old points were also included to the new system. Since 1999.3. General Introduction 1. But this triangulation network was not observed for the Cadastral surveys accuracy. This system consist of one base station.about. Other control points of the old system were not observed in the new system due to non suitability for GPS observation.2. Current Problem Faces with Coordinate Systems. 3 . But it appears that the coordinates given by the new system (SLD99) and coordinates of old system (Jackson) of a control point are not taken a same value.1 Sri Lanka Geographical location (Source: http://geography. a new horizontal control network was established at 1999.2).com/library/cia/blcsrilanka. These old control points were included to new system to compute the transformation parameters to local datum. The difference between these two values is changed according to the area it refers.

When it deals with old map document. Chapter 2 – This chapter analyse the problem by considering coordinate systems .6. In addition to that resurveying of forest (Forest project) is also going on in this period. Finding out transformation parameters from old to new coordinate system in Sri Lanka using different methodologies. Therefore.1) are used in this study. 1. 1. current problems faces with coordinate system. ii. Datum transformation using Bursa Wolf formula.4. it is necessary to have conversion old coordinates to new system. 4 . Structure of the Report. historical back ground of Sri Lanka geodetic coordinate system. objectives of the task and available data to be used. Chapter 1 – This is an introduction chapter covers briefly explain.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka has been doing Cadastre surveying after the introducing of Title registration act at 1998. making a coordinate transformation formula has become as an essential task in Sri Lanka. old and new coordinate system. Direct transformation in two dimensional coordinates using first. In addition to the above surveying work also deal with old document with old coordinates. In addition to that geographical coordinates of the common points in WGS84 system with global ellipsoidal heights. Available Data Coordinates of 32 common points available in the two coordinate systems in the first order network of Sri Lanka (Table 2. Those surveys have to use control points which are established by GPS technology with new coordinate system. The followings describe the content of the chapters in this report. evaluate the datum transformation parameters and the SLD 99 coordinates given in the report. 1. But there is no proper guidance of methods how to convert old coordinates of map document to the new system. Objectives This study has the following objectives: 1.5. Considering common points in two systems. technical reasons behind it and datum transformation parameters of each coordinate system. It has to deal with old map document referring old coordinate system. Preparing a quality report for SLD99 coordinate system. Finally decides how to approach the problem. Some of control points will be taken to compute datum transformation parameters and the rest of the points will be used as check points to evaluate the validity of computed parameters. Orthometric heights of the common points are also available. second and third order polynomials. i. 2.

second and third order polynomials are used to identify better polynomial for direct transformation of two dimensional coordinates by considering residuals. Then points are clustered considering the vector direction and first order polynomials are separately applied to each area. Chapter8– This chapter is reserved for Conclusion and Recommendation to make clear the objectives in relation to the results for the purpose of implementation. Then compare with SLD99 values with the help of residuals. Chapter7–Differences of coordinates of common control points are plotted as error vectors. Chapter 6– First. Using these parameters new system coordinates are computed for the check points. Then compare the computed coordinates by polynomial with SLD99 values.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Chapter 3 – This chapter describes some important theories. Calculation of datum transformation parameters and coordinates are done. datum transformation parameters from old to SLD99 system are computed. Chapter 5– Considering old and new coordinate system as different datums. various transformation steps between coordinate systems relating to this task and procedure of computing Bursa wolf parameters. Chapter 4-This chapter mainly evaluate the SLD99 coordinate system. Finally compare those values with SLD99 report values. 5 . equations .

2 Triangulation network of Sri Lanka in 1930 (old coordinate system) (Source: Principal Triangulation. Sri Lanka) 6 .Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Figure 1. Survey Department.

Identifying and Analysis of Problem 2.21m in Easting and 0.16710’’ E 070 00’ 01. Technical Reasons Behind the Problem Sri Lanka use Transverse Mercator projection as the map projection. to identify distinctly the new system from the old system . old and new coordinates are changed 0. 2.729000’’ N 0. SLD99 report says. Projection parameters of the new (SLD 99) system are given bellow.9999238418 500000 m 500000 m Coordinates of the Pidurutalagala station in new system is differed from old system due to introducing of new value to that point.2. Introduction In this chapter try to identify technical or theoretical reasons behind this problem. By analysing above mentioned things.69750’’ N 0. Due to above mentioned slight change in the angle coordinate. Therefore. Central meridian Latitude of origin Scale Factor at Central Meridian False Northing False Easting 800 46’ 18.1. due to new adjustment of the network. Pidurutalagala station has been used as the latitude of origin and the central meridian of the old system.9999238418 200000 m 200000 m Here.1 7 . But quantity of contribution of this change will depend on the area. more attention is drawn to study about projection parameters of the map projection and datum transformation parameters of both old and new coordinate systems. it has been changed. Coordinates given to the common control points in the new and old system are different and it is shown in Table 2. false Easting and Northing values of new system were used as 500000 m N and 500000 m E.160000’’ E 070 00’ 01.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 2.945m in Northing. path of solution is identified to suit the available data. Central meridian Latitude of origin Scale Factor at Central Meridian False Northing False Easting 800 46’ 18. For this purpose . This will effect to coordinates of other areas also. The projection parameters for the old system as follows.

Datum Transformation Parameters of Coordinate Systems To establish SLD 99 coordinate system. Survey Department. it has been used GPS technology. it is very difficult to decide how to use old coordinates with the new control points.3.1Coordinates of common control points (Source: Report on Sri Lanka datum 1999. But this global datum is not suitable for Sri Lanka due to higher undulation value available with the geoid.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka In cadastre surveying control traverses are used to maintain the necessary accuracy. According to the SLD99 report this error implies bad adjustment of the old network . Sri Lanka) 2. When it deals with old map document. Table 2. It refers World global Reference system WGS 84. 8 .

) In order to evaluate SLD99 coordinate system. Comparison of those values with the SLD99 report values.000000” 1.1930251” ±0.6950677” 3.0000000393 ± 10.2: Transformation parameters of Sri Lanka old system and SLD99 Parameter Rotation origin Xo Rotation origin Yo Rotation origin Zo Shift Dx : Shift Dy Shift Dz Rotation about x-axis Rotation about y-axis Rotation about z-axis Scale factor Sri Lanka old system 0.0000008051 (Source: Report on Sri Lanka datum 1999. using common points in the both system.000m 0. Survey Department. Sld99 system refers same Everest ellipsoid.4730161” 1.0000 m -86.0000 m 0.3273 m ± 6. Sri Lanka) 2. Transformation parameters of both systems from WGS84 to respective datums are given in table 2. the rest of the control points are used as check points for independent checks.7131 0. All calculations are done in MATLAB soft ware using matrix operations. • Coordinates of SLD99 system are computed using datum transformation parameters given in the SLD99 report.000m 0.000m 0.0000000000 SLD99 system 0. (A.3490028” ±0.000m 97.9499 -87.2933 -766. (B) To find a relationship between two coordinate systems three. different methods are used as follows.1735736” ±0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Old system refers Everest ellipsoid with Kandawala datum. the seven parameter Bursa wolf formula is used in following to ways.4. Some of the control points are used to compute transformation parameters.2 Table 2. Computed coordinates are compared with values given in the report to evaluate the SLD99 coordinate system. • WGS84 coordinates and Sri Lanka old system coordinates are used to compute the datum transformation parameters from WGS84 to Sri Lanka old datum.000m 0.0293 m ±0. Analytical Approach.000m -787.7765 m ± 5. Different methods are employed to achieve the objectives.000m 0.000000” 0. 9 .1957040” 1. • Bursa wolf formula is used to compute datum transformation parameters from old system to SLD99 system.000000” 0.

Conclusion According to the above study. it is clear that one of the reason is for availability of differences in coordinates due to application of different coordinates for central meridian and to latitude of origin in projection parameters. 10 . • By plotting coordinate differences of common points in a vector form. without considering heights.5. Some of the control points are used to compute polynomial parameters and other points are used as independent check points. This is done separately for every local area.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka • Different order (first. second and third) polynomials are used to transform old two dimensional coordinates to new system. Then transformation parameters are computed from one system to other. Other reason is low accuracy or bad adjustment of old coordinate system. 2. study the direction of error vectors and try to identify areas having approximately same direction of vectors in errors (clusters).

these may be such as WGS84 and ITRF global datums or any locally defined datums used by a country or region. Coordinate Transformation Consider the two datums. Cartesian coordinates: Three dimensional coordinates defined with respect to a set of axes with their origin at the centre of the spheroid used in the datum 3. Geodetic coordinates: Latitude and longitude defined with respect to an ellipsoid. more details and equations relevant to those theories are given in appendix. Within each row. Ellipsoidal heights: Heights defined above an ellipsoid which has been established as the datum for particular country or region. However.1. Orthometric heights: Heights defined above the irregular surface.2. or on a global basis.3. Projection coordinates: Curved surface of the earth is represented as the plane within this plane. Coordinate Systems on the Earth. 3. Datum Transformation 3. Two rows of the below figure represent two different datums (A and B). a simple set of XY or east and north axes is defined. 11 . Some important basic definitions are given below relating to coordinate systems. the geoid that closely approximates mean sea level. each vertically arranged box represents a different method of expressing coordinates.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 3. Introduction In this chapter it describes some basic definitions and basic theories necessary for some calculations available in the next chapters.

12 . H A 1 E. 4) Conversion of orthometric heights to ellipsoidal heights or vice versa requires knowledge about the geodetic undulation. The vertical datums used for orthometric heights are not actually related to the two dimensional datums. coordinate can be described as eastings and northings or X and Y coordinates. λ. λ. Y. 3) Conversion formulae from projection coordinate to geodetic coordinates or vice versa always depend on the type of projection. 6) Direct conversion from geodetic coordinates on one datum to geodetic coordinates on another datum is possible by using Molodensky’s formulae. Y. 2) Direct conversion from one map coordinates to another is possible for low level of accuracy provided that common points can be identified in both systems. H B 4 7 Φ. λ. H B Φ. Z A Figure 3. It requires only knowledge about the parameters of the ellipsoid in the datum used. This method gives comparatively low accuracy values relative to the seven or ten parameter transformations describes to next. For data conversion from one datum to another datum. one or more steps have to be applied as labelled in figure3.1 Complete procedure for transformations between different datums and projections. h A 4 Three dimensional Cartesian coordinates 5 X. Z A 6 3 φ. N. h A 5 X. (Separation between the geoid and considering ellipsoid.) 5) A straight forward method can be used for conversion from geodetic to Cartesian coordinates. N. H A 2 Geodetic coordinates Spheroidal heights Geodetic coordinates orthometric heights 3 φ.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Projection coordinates orthometric heights E. It gives the shift of origin from one another.1 and described in below. 1) Two dimensional datums. λ.

dY and dZ are the translation of the origin. Change in scale δ is introduced as ppm value. dY and dZ are seven unknown parameters. YS. XT. β. β. α. ZT and XS.5. ⎛ XT ⎜Y ⎜ ZT ⎝ T ⎞ ⎛ 1 γ − β ⎞ ⎛ X ⎞ ⎛ dX ⎞ ⎟ = (S )⎜ − γ + 1 α ⎟ × ⎜ Y S ⎟ + ⎜ dY ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ZS ⎟ ⎜ dZ ⎟ ⎜β −α ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ S ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Here. γ. 3. least square solutions can be obtained for the 7 unknown parameters using matrix operation.2: Computation procedure of transformation parameters 13 . These parameters are computed using common known points in both systems. Transformation of one geocentric coordinates to another geocentric coordinate system (step 7 in chapter 3. γ are rotation angles about the X. S is scale change from source to target datum.3). If the number of common points is more than three. Y and Z axes respectively and those are considered as very small. Seven Parameter Transformation (Bursa Wolf Formula) A coordinate transformation is a conversion from one system to another. This process involves at least a threedimensional shift. and possibly rotation and scale change. α. to describe the same space. dX. Then S = (1 + δ * 10-6) and above equation can be written as below. YT. Procedure Following procedure is used to compute the datum transformation parameters Figure 3. can be done with Bursa wolf seven parameters formula given below. ZS are coordinates of in target coordinate system and source coordinate system respectively. This will use in this task to transform coordinates from one datum to another.4.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 7) Actual datum transformation is represented by this step. ⎛ X T − X S ⎞ ⎛ δ γ − β ⎞ ⎛ X S ⎞ ⎛ dX ⎞ ⎜ Y − Y ⎟ = ⎜ − γ + δ α ⎟ × ⎜ Y ⎟ + ⎜ dY ⎟ S ⎜ ZT − ZS ⎟ ⎜ β − α δ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ Z S ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ dZ ⎟⎠ S ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ T δ. dX. 3.

In this task. Why Select MATLAB? MATLAB is a high-level technical computing language and interactive environment for algorithm development.2 is used to compute datum transformation parameters and it is given in Appendix C (Para_WGS84_To_SLD99. Introduction The main objective of this chapter is evaluation of the SLD99 coordinate system. 4. Thirty two common points are used.2. it is expected to compute datum transformation parameters from WGS84 to old coordinate system using Bursa Wolf seven parameters formula and those parameters are compared with corresponding parameters in the SLD99 report. orthometric heights are used for height values. Procedure of computation is very close as described in figure 3. No ellipsoidal heights are available for the Sri Lanka old datum. and numeric computation.3. 4.m). Other important thing is that it can easily compute least square solution for the parameters. Evaluation of SLD99 Coordinate System 4. it is faster than with traditional programming languages. Therefore. data analysis. and FORTRAN. As a programming language.2.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 4. The main objective of this calculation is evaluating the quality of transformation parameters given in SLD99 report. In order to evaluate SLD99 coordinate system. C++. Computation of Datum Transformation Parameters ( WGS 84 to Old System). such as C. 14 . Therefore first two steps in one of the branches are not necessary for in the computation work. Another attractive features of MATLAB are easy to debug and more user friend in mathematical calculations. data visualization. Secondly. The program written according to the steps shown in the figure 3.1. it is necessary to do more calculations. MATLAB soft ware is used for all calculations and coordinates are used in matrix form in order to obtain least square solution for the datum transformation parameters. Those calculations can easily be done in MATLAB with the help of matrix operation. WGS84 coordinates are available as geodetic coordinates in SLD99 report. SLD99 coordinates are computed by datum transformation parameters given in the report and compare with corresponding report values. to compute datum transformation parameters and parameters of various polynomial.

This is also not comparatively large value considering the other errors. Used program is given in Appendix C (WGS84_To_SLD99_Report.5.271 -0.163409 -1.070 -859.485284 1. Accepted 7 parameter set by the SLD99 report is given in table 2. Accepted 7 parameters are used to transform WGS84 geodetic coordinates of 32 common control points to SLD99 system.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 4. This is same as change in shift parameters.1.2. Objective of this computation is to evaluate the coordinate transformation process part in SLD99 report.1. 15 .000423 Computing of SLD99 Coordinates Using Parameters in SLD99 Report.1 in chapter 2.1.9E-05 -7. Program is designed according to the steps shown in figure 4.274 -0. Because of ppm value of the scale change is not close to zero.123 -92. Table 4.794405 Computed value 18.125 -92.003 9. Differences of dX. Parameter Shift dX (m) Shift dY (m) Shift dZ (m) Rotation about X-axis arc second Rotation about Y-axis arc second Rotation about z-axis arc second scale (ppm) 4.002 0.1: Datum Transformation parameters computed and corresponding report values. dY and dZ are very small.485207 1. According to difference of rotation angles.986825 13.4.002 0.163508 -1.072 -859.m) and the computed coordinates are given in table 4. Report value 18.2 with comparing SLD99 report values.986911 13.7E-05 -8. According to SLD99 report. it will produce maximum of 3 mm in each direction. Difference in ppm will give maximum of 10mm change in coordinates considering width (maximum 200 km) of Sri Lanka.6E-05 -0.794828 difference 0. it has not been used parameters given in table 4. Comparison of Datum Transformation Parameters Computed parameters and corresponding values in the report are shown in Table 4.

Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Figure 4.1: Coordinate transformation from WGS84 to SLD99 16 .

001 TO39 441500.848 0.049 -0.243 724.473 0.416 -0.973 -0.196 -0.000 408.876 0.001 532730.001 TO098 447548.16 424310.017 -0.519 419251.942 132.3103 35.56 447548.547 160.187 622603.359 -0.293 -0.903 -0.432 -0.001 30.41 430.911 -0.064 -0.294 510971.628 0. .001 732.536 0.69 1861.001 167.834 -0.001 0.001 197.479 -0. ∆E Northing Computed Diff.834 0.001 TO083 486755.001 TO089 539090.001 TO097 426058.156 0.994 527792.361 -0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Table 4.001 TO060 450146.824 -0.225 408.547 -0.001 308.411 -0.57 427264.001 701.001 224.407 0.439 -0.771 407953.56 1777.333 -0.002 402358.001 1777.997 -0.457 532730.913 -0.695 -0.521 -0.001 TO073 542853.22 456733.001 458073.902 701.574 0.297 0.001 420805. Therefore this calculation evaluate the SLD99 coordinate system 17 .001 TO056 427264.178 426080. ∆N computed Diff ∆h TO034 468187.41 416680.195 197.001 Conclusion Computed datum transformation parameters here for WGS84 to old coordinate system is similar to the corresponding values in the report.298 646092.42 420675.001 403225.259 564416.000 1032.001 TO082 506758.897 525982.27 1032.226 -0.000 536575.001 522.016 766.001 TO108 410504.457 0.75 472808.962 399273.001 603275.32 436960.000 112.771 600229.001 430.160 0.65 522.001 622603.648 -0.574 -0.953 -0.439 224.756 -0.001 TO061 456733.000 552633.001 TO092 471274.558 -0.000 35.554 -0.364 0.2:Differences of computed and SLD99 report coordinates of the common 32 points.664 -0.91 542853.001 TO049 415004.001 160.95 429238.157 536575.647 401.358 732.001 401.001 475581.973 570.939 462775. It implies that coordinate transformation procedure is almost correct in SLD99 report.88 1358.Diff.83 426058.91 443670.808 618988.001 TO058 466516.001 431999.001 646870.43 458791.274 -0.001 TO078 555044.024 -0.293 0.000 54.001 659.882 0.000 402841.537 458073.017 -0.834 403225.344 0.0633 30.617 0.993 0.694 659.94 450146.001 TO047 429238.001 TO074 503967.001 419251. Further.001 53.848 475581.770 0.001 646092.001 TO093 458791.001 102.001 Max .51 486755.709 431999.001 TO103 416116.755 260.02 Computed m 468187.474 453574.000 142.001 462775.001 TO080 515533.001 TO037 440581.932 -0.708 0.833 112.213 522689.001 564416.93 441500.136 0.000 766.180 -0.939 -0.618 467569.001 TO091 472808.001 280.807 0.943 -0.36 555044.001 510971. 4.57 410504.001 619904.001 TO057 436960.650 -0.177 0.001 600229.6.938 0.001 527792.436 474921.36 539090.931 552633.719 -0.085 -0.66 1513.724 -0.001 TO090 489543.001 TO053 424310.29 440581.001 1513.213 0.896 0.435 0.510 -0.492 102.2421 54.243 -0.55 415004.931 0.001 724.001 1861.33 487091.08 471880.823 308.001 688677.345 543742. computed coordinates of SLD99 and corresponding values in the report are very similar with maximum difference of 2 mm.770 0.001 260.001 157.02 429543.001 407953.187 0.000 453574. Point ID Easting m Diff.001 TO099 416680.559 -0.883 688677.001 474921.001 399273.876 -0.379 420805.479 280.46 515533.001 1358.377 0.220 -0.001 525982.001 522689.52 489543.181 157.136 402358.001 TO110 420675.048 574.001 467569.755 -0.002 Heightsm 0.619 603275.773 -0.065 -0.001 TO040 487091.77 506758.996 142.827 -0.877 619904.244 -0.001 TO038 471880.2919 53.001 426080.000 543742.723 167.564 402841.563 0.72 471274.182 -0.001 132.629 646870.001 618988.492 -0.001 574.961 0.06 416116.295 -0.001 TO100 443670.38 503967.001 TO096 429543.311 -0.258 0.378 0.323 -0.686 -0.462 -0.619 0.18 466516.518 0.000 570.

Twelve check points are also selected in the same way as before.1. twenty control points are selected in such away that those points to be spread all over the country.m) Secondly.558 0. coordinates of twenty control points are used to compute the parameters and other twelve points are used as the check points to evaluate the computed parameters.3.755267 .590872 Computed value (32 points) -17. Used all 32 points to compute transformation parameters from old system to SLD99 and then SLD99 coordinates are computed using computed datum parameters. Used program is given appendix C (Mercater_InverseSLD99. Procedure in MATLAB The procedure of computation of parameters from Sri Lanka old system to SLD99 is done same as in chapter 4.2.163 4. compare both set of coordinates computed for SLD99.486160 -13.180139 1. Finally. Then those coordinates are compared with corresponding SLD99 coordinates in the report. and coordinates are given in Table 3. In order to validation of computing parameters to all area of the country. Table 5.m).059 7.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 5. Used program and text file are given in Appendix C (Para_SLold_To_SLD99. SLD99 coordinates of the control points are converted to the geodetic coordinates using inverse formula in Mercater projection.175512 -12.4. First.1:Computed datum transformation parameters from old system to SLD99 system Parameter Shift dX (m) Shift dY (m) Shift dZ (m) Rotation about X-axis Rotation about Y-axis Rotation about Z-axis scale (ppm) 18 Computed value (20 points) -11.414196 2.095 0.772 92.3. Datum Transformation Method 5.359218 3. 5.818424 1. Computed Parameters from Old System to SLD99 Computed parameters are given in Table 3. 5.130 83. Introduction In this chapter datum transformation parameters are computed from Old coordinate system to SLD99 using Bursa Wolf formula and SLD99 coordinates of some check points are computed from the computed parameters.3.

791 -0.533 TO037 -0.008 TO110 0.111 -0.648 0.218 -0.259 -0.429 TO103 0.637 TO080 1.5.062 1.341 -0.048 2.545 0.707 1.116 0.335 -0. ∆N Diff.238 0.874 -1.396 0.013 -2.720 0.910 0.143 0.734 0.212 -0. ∆E Diff. 19 .050 TO099 -0.689 0.706 -1.656 0.848 0.869 TO047 -0.747 0.486 -1.081 TO061 -0.223 -2.229 TO097 -0.889 1.374 -1.242 -0.122 -0.048 1.607 0.142 0.455 0.017 -0.581 TO096 -1.700 m for Northings).116 TO108 0.723 TO049 0.049 -0.024 -1.2:Computed SLD 99 coordinates from computed coordinates (check points are bolded) Point Diff.154 TO092 -1.333 -0.782 -2.211 T0034 -1.884 0.545 -0.118 TO091 -2.600 -0.193 0.183 1.725 TO039 -0.476 0.820 -0.028 -0. obtained highest value for residuals is smaller than to original maximum difference in coordinates (4.632 -1.515 0.285 -0.506 TO090 -1.340 TO040 -0.068 0. Because they are independent checks.375 0.125 0.158 TO057 0.773 -0.034 1.637 0.214 -0.379 -0.495 0.706 5.188 -0.076 -1.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 5. But actual situation is represented by differences of check points.163 -0.429 1.258 -0.007 0.898 -1. Conclusion According to results. Though.323 TO053 0.100 2. Comparison of Computed Coordinates Table 5.252 0.628 0.708 0.564 -0.762 0.194 TO082 0.049 0.589 TO093 -2.074 TO100 0.266 TO073 1.471 -0.607 TO074 0.613 1.4.166 TO058 0.567 0.077 0.743 TO089 0.542 2.926 0.396 1.183 -0.351 0.515m for Eastings and 3.495 0.405 1.167 1. ∆E Diff.415 TO060 0.056 TO056 0.388 2. these residual values implies that this transformation is not sufficient for achieve cadastre survey accuracy.320 -0.419 0.347 0. obtained residuals are large values in both type of points.390 0.958 -0.998 0.356 -0. ∆N ID (20 used) (32 used) (20 used) (32 points) -2.388 1.035 -1.132 TO078 2.054 TO083 -0.045 1.150 TO038 -1.820 TO098 -0.743 max 2.

Finally. Xn = a1Xo + a2Yo +a3 Yn = a4 Xo+ a5Yo +a6 20 . Coordinates of twenty control points are used to compute the polynomial parameters. above theory is used and all coordinates values are used in matrix form.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 6. coefficients of a polynomial can be computed as follows. people have only Northing and Easting as coordinates in old document in the field.1. Transformation Parameters Using First Order Polynomial 6. 6. Polynomial Method 6. It can represents in mathematically as follows.3. a1 …an unknown coefficients. Difference in false northing and false easting in both systems is 300. and P = (CI Y)-1(CIY) Where CI is the transpose matrix of matrix C. above difference is deducted from the SLD99 coordinate values to increase the precision of the parameters. comparing the residuals in each case most ftted polynomial is identified. P column matrix will be given the values of coefficients of the corresponding polynomial. when the coordinates values are substituted to the polynomials. Then Y = CX will be the matrix form of this equation.2. First. If the number of available equations are more than unknowns (coefficients). with ao. the least square solution of those coefficients are given by matrix P. Introduction Generally. In other wards direct two dimensional coordinate transformations is considered. Other twelve points are used as check points to evaluate the computed parameters in each case.3. In order to find least square solution for the coefficients of the polynomials. Therefore. Method of Solution in MATLAB According to algebra. second and third order polynomials are used to identify mathematically more correct relationship between old system and new system of coordinates. Therefore in this chapter no attention is drawn to consider the height values in coordinates.1.Here it is assumed that coordinates of one system is a linear relation ship of coordinates of other system. Then. 6. If the nth order polynomial Y is given as Y= a0Xn+a1Xn-1+ -----+an. Problem Calculation of transformation parameters between Sri Lanka old coordinate system and SLD99.000m.

6.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Xo – Eastings of old coordinate system Yo – Northings of old coordinate system Xn – Eastings of new coordinate system Yn – Northings of new coordinate system a1. X o= Xo-Xom.99998442 6. Computed Parameters and Coordinates Table 6. Y n= Yn-Ynm . Yn = m4 Xo+ m5Yo +m6------------------------------B Consider the centre of gravity of the control points. 6. a5 and a6 are unknown parameters.422 6. 6.5. Transformation Parameters Using First Order Polynomial (Centre of Gravity Method) 6. Xom – Centre of gravity of eastings in old system.00001886 0.270 Parameter a4 a5 a6 Approximated value -0.1: Computed parameters for the first order polynomial. . . Here it is assumed that coordinates of one system is a linear relation ship of coordinates of others system. Y o= Yo-Yom . Twenty common points out of 32 are used to compute unknown parameters and balance12 points are used as check points to check the accuracy of the computed parameters. X n= Xn-Xnm . Parameter a1 a2 a3 Approximated value 0.99999671 0.4. Xnm – Centre of gravity of eastings in new system Yom– Centre of gravity of northings in old system. Here. Used program and text files are given in Appendix C(Poly1_20. It can represent in mathematically as follows.6. a4. Xn = m1Xo + m2Yo +m3-----------------------------A. a3. a2. Methodology In order to compute unknown parameters least square method is used with matrix operation. Ynm – Centre of gravity of northings in new system 21 .00001461 -3. Problem Calculation of transformation parameters between Sri Lanka old coordinate system and SLD99.m ).1.

m4Xom+ Ynm – m5Yom---------------------------(2a) Equations (1) and (2) are same as previous case (chapter 4.3.3.730 Parameter m4 m5 m6 Approximated value -0.m2Yom------------- m4Xom .6. m2. 6. ( X n + Xnm) = m1( X o +Xom) +m2( Y o+Yom) +m3 . Transformation Parameters Using Second Order Polynomial 6. Methodology Procedure is same as described in chapter 4. Y n = m4 X o + m5 Y o +r. X o and Y o are computed by deducting relevant mean values of each coordinate. X n.99998442 300006.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka m1. m3 = q. m3. m6 = r.Xnm + m2Yom + m3).1.3).4.7.2: Computed parameters by the first order polynomial (centre of gravity method) Parameter m1 m2 m3 Approximated value 0. m4. m5 and m6 are unknown parameters.6.------(2) .Ynm + m5Yom + m6 = r (constant). Computed Parameters and Coordinates.m).99999671 0. ( Y n + Ynm) = m4( X o +Xom) +m5 ( Y o+Yom) +m6 X n = m1 X o + m2 Y o + (m1Xom .00001461 299996.Xnm + m2Yom + m3) = q (constant) Then. Finally. 22 . (m1Xom . Y n. Input In order to calculate unknown parameters. Therefore same method is used to compute parameters.00001886 0.m1Xom+ Xnm . 6. Here it is assumed that the relationship between two coordinates systems can be represent by second order polynomial in mathematically as follows.7.6. m3 and m6 are substituted in above equations A and B to compute Xn and Yn for check points. Used program and text files are given Appendix C (Poly1_Mean20. Twenty control points are used to compute the unknown parameters. (1a) X n = m1 X o + m2 Y o +q -------(1). 6.4. Problem Calculation of transformation parameters between Sri Lanka old coordinate system and SLD99. By substituting. Similarly.422 6.2. Table 6. Then equations 1a and 2a are used to find the values of m3 and m6.

473 6.2. b8. b4.3. b7. Here it is assumed that the relationship between two coordinates systems can be represent by third order polynomial in mathematically as follows. Other notations are same as in 4. c2.7. Problem Calculation of transformation parameters between Sri Lanka old coordinate system and SLD99. c18.8.3. c13.3. Computed Parameters and Coordinates 23 . b10.m).1 .00000000004827 0. c16. 6.2. Used program and text files are given in Appendix C (Poly3_20.99995310 0.7. b3.566 Parameter b7 b8 b9 b10 b11 b12 Approximated value 0. b2.00000000014212 -0.3.00000000016050 -0.3.1. 6. c7. c11.00007329 -5.1 6. b11 and b12 are parameters. b5.8. Used program and text files are given Appendix C (Poly2_20.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Xn = b1Xo2 + b2Yo2 +b3 XoYo+ b4Xo + b5Yo+ b6 Yn = b7Xo2 + b8Yo2 +b9 XoYo+ b10Xo + b11Yo+ b12 b1. b8.99996348 16.00000000010229 -0. Computed Parameters and Coordinates Parameter b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 Approximated value 0.8. c8. c9. b6. c10. b9.00011946 0. Transformation Parameters using Third Order polynomial 6. c8. c15. c4.m) 6.00000000027378 -0. c5.3. Methodology Procedure is same as described in chapter 4. c6.4. c19 and c20 are parameters. Other notations are same as in chapter 4. c3. c17. Methodology Procedure is same as described in chapter 4. c14.00000000006699 0. Xn = c1Xo3 + c2Yo3 +c3 Xo2Yo+ c4Xo Yo2 + c5 Xo2+ c6 Yo2+ c7 XoYo+ c8Xo+ c9Yo+c10 Xn = c11Xo3 + c12Yo3 +c13 Xo2Yo+ c14Xo Yo2 + c15 Xo2+ c16 Yo2+ c17 XoYo+ c18Xo+ c19Yo+c20 c1.8. c12.4.

If dX and dY are polynomials of Xom and Yom dX = p(Xom. Therefore those parameters are not significant in calculation. dX and dY are defined as dX = Xnew -300000_Xold. Yom) Then coordinates of new system (SLD99) will be given as Xnew = Xold +300000 +dX. dY = Ynew -300000_Yold. Yom). Problem Since Sri Lanka is close to 400 km in length.00000000000000 -0. old system coordinates are substituted to the polynomial after deducting 200.000m from each and dividing by 10-5. the third order polynomial calculations are dealing with maximum of (2*105)3m values in first three terms of the polynomial. Used program and text files are given in Appendix C (Poly3_20_modified.00005981 30.823 6.00000000000000 -0.00000000000000 -0.m).4.00000000010287 0.00000000231209 -0. Ynew = Yold +300000 +dY. As a result of this high values. In addition to that when the matrix operations are applied to the coefficient matrix in MATLAB the corresponding matrix will become close to singular one. As a solution for this.264 Parameter c11 c12 c13 c14 c15 c16 c17 c18 c19 c20 Approximated value 0.99942818 -0.00000000000000 -0. dY = q(Xom. Yom = (Yo-200000)1*10-5 Xom = (Xo-200000)1*10-5. Main objective of this preparation is to away from becoming to a singular matrix .00000000000001 -0. first three parameters of the third order polynomial will be very small values.1. 24 .00000000000000 0.00000000000000 0.9. Here.3: Computed parameters for the third order polynomial Parameter c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 c8 c9 c10 Approximated value -0. Transformation Parameters Using Third Order Polynomial (Modified Type) 6.9. Procedure is same as described in chapter 4.00000000000000 0.99991668 -10.00000000029272 0.3.when matrix operations are applied to the corresponding coefficient matrix and facilitate to take more accurate values for the polynomial parameters.00041721 0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Table 6.00000000288701 0. Because of this reason computed parameters may be inaccurate.00000000016220 0.00000000171523 0.

Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka

6.9.2.

Parameters and Computed Coordinates.

: Computed parameters for the third order polynomial (modified type)

Param
-eter
c1
c2
c3
c4
c5

6.10.

value
-2.725
0.249
-3.923
-1.237
-1.075

Param
-eter
c6
c7
c8
c9
c10

value
-2.007
-3.489
0.572
1.611
-0.171

Param
-eter
c11
c12
c13
c14
c15

value
5.049
-0.046
1.227
-1.078
3.875

Param
-eter
c16
c17
c18
c19
c20

value
-0.807
3.521
-1.821
-0.254
-0.115

Comparision of Coordinate differences with Polynomial Order

Now residuals obtained by different orders in polynomials are tabulated below in table 5.2
Though MATLAB software is given warnings about coefficient matrix as close to singular matrix,
when the matrix operations are done. The same result are produced, in Centre of gravity method and
normal method in first order polynomial. The same thing is occurred normal and modified type in third
order polynomial.
Therefore only three cases available to be considered. When the order of polynomial is increased

Table 6.4: Residuals of Northings and Eastings of points used to parameter computation
Residual in Northings
Residual in Eastings
Point ID
T0034
TO037
TO040
TO047

First
polynomial
-1.949
-0.127
-0.734
0.078

Second
polynomial
0.167
0.332
-0.138
-0.205

Third
polynomial
-0.037
0.093
0.219
-0.136

First
polynomial
-0.856
-0.325
0.618
-0.739

Second
polynomial
-0.474
0.666
-0.332
0.157

Third
polynomial
-0.036
0.072
0.244
-0.364

25

Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka

TO049
TO053
TO058
TO061
TO073
TO074
TO078
TO082
TO083
TO089
TO090
TO096
TO097
TO099
TO103
TO108

0.738
1.094
0.715
-0.324
0.455
0.543
1.221
0.584
-0.556
0.121
-2.071
-1.347
-0.500
0.391
0.965
0.703
2.071

Max abs Res.

-0.157
0.139
0.302
-0.339
-0.519
0.162
0.101
0.505
-0.026
0.363
-0.832
-0.141
0.207
0.191
0.377
-0.488
0.832

0.198
0.349
0.073
-0.450
-0.099
0.043
0.000
0.035
0.040
0.077
-0.169
-0.006
0.133
-0.133
0.173
-0.404

-0.663
0.318
0.231
0.249
1.489
0.789
1.311
-0.159
-0.114
-2.717
-1.619
1.315
0.985
-0.161
0.259
-0.211
2.717

0.450

0.161
0.349
-0.131
0.251
0.027
-0.294
0.837
0.083
0.522
-0.907
-0.305
0.930
0.425
-0.961
-0.444
-0.561

0.084
0.337
-0.379
0.014
-0.316
-0.036
0.226
0.268
0.365
-0.081
-0.385
0.302
0.080
-0.613
0.018
0.201

0.961

0.613

Table 6.5: Residuals of Northings and Eastings in check points
Residual in Eastings
First
Second
polynomial polynomial

Point ID
TO038

-1.111

Third
polynomial

Residual in Northings
First
Second
polynomial
polynomial

-0.113

-0.086

0.263

0.053

TO039

0.096

0.064

-0.003

-0.564

0.008

TO056

0.998

0.105

0.25

0.028

-0.109

TO057

0.737

0.032

0.087

0.137

-0.078

TO060

0.452

-0.027

-0.084

-0.336

-0.444

TO080

0.885

0.515

-0.035

0.728

0.576

TO091

-2.189

-1.043

-0.401

-0.263

0.543

TO092

-1.58

-0.733

-0.316

-0.275

0.304

TO093

-2.261

-0.956

-0.213

0.399

0.928

TO098

-0.743

-0.033

0.306

0.644

0.657

TO100

0.329

0.303

0.374

-0.193

-0.439

TO110
Max abs Res.

0.908
2.261

-0.088
1.043

0.052
0.401

-0.069
0.728

-0.301
0.928

6.11.

Third
polynomial

0.366
-0.465
-0.154
-0.327
-0.773
0.788
0.023
-0.206
0.129
-0.047
-0.917
-0.089
0.917

Conclusion

According to the obtained results maximum (absolute) residuals are decreased in Easting as well as
Northings when the polynomial order is increased. Theoretically it must be occurred because higher
order polynomials are fitted in better way than the lower order.
But, if residuals are considered in check points they have no same behaviour met like in the first 20
points. Here residuals of Eastings are decreased with order of the polynomial and residuals of
Northings have no regular pattern in behaviour like previous case.

26

Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka

First four parameters obtained for third order polynomial are not significant up to 13th decimal place.
Reason for this may be those terms are considered third power of the coordinates. Then result for that
multiplication will be close to (2*105)3 , when considered the extent of Sri Lanka.
Fifth, sixth and seventh parameters of the third order polynomial and first three parameters of the
second order polynomial are also significant after the eighth decimal place. Reason for this also justify
by the same argument like in previous case.
Considering above facts, it conclude that logically and practically most convenient polynomial as the
first order polynomial. But if the facility is available for more accurate calculations second order poly
nomial can be used to obtain comparatively better results.

7.

Graphical Representation

7.1.

Introduction

In this chapter coordinate differences (Eastings and Northings) are plotted as error vectors. From this it
is expected to identify the errors are systematic or random in area vice. By considering the direction of
vectors points are divided to different areas. Then, parameters of the first order polynomial are
computed for each area separately.

7.2.

Analysis of Errors by Vector Plotting

Quiver function in MATLAB is used to plot the errors. Coordinate differences are plotted with respect
to SLD99 (new) coordinates. The relevant data is given in Table 2.1and the program is given in
Appendix C (Error_Vector_plot.m) ,Obtained results are shown in figure 4.1.
In order to understand easily, resultant error vectors are plotted comparatively very high scale than the
coordinates.
27

00001394 -1.465 Southern 1.2: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Northern area.495 Figure 7.00000284 4.00000237 -3. if it is considered area vice. Computed Parameters and Coordinates The programme used in chapter 4. Parameter a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 Northern 0. if polynomials are applied for each area separately. Western.2 considering the error vector direction Figure 7.00000393 0.010 0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka According to the graph. differences of coordinates of control points are clustered to the four separate areas.3 is used for computation of parameters and coordinates.99997832 -0.180 -0.99999753 -0. The corresponding computed coordinates and residuals are given in appendix B Table 7. Those errors appear to be systematic. Main four areas are defined as Eastern. Therefore it may be more logical.99997134 7. Computed parameters in each case considering first order polynomial are given in Used program and text files are given in appendix C(Poly1_Northern8.1: Computed parameters of polynomial in area vice.00000845 0.749 -0.044 Eastern 1. Point ID Easting m Computed ∆E m Northing m Computed 28 ∆N m .99996888 13.m). when the directions of error are considered.868 0.148 Western 0.00000460 0.00000398 0.99997928 6. Northern and Southern as shown in the figure 7.00004997 0.00005430 -10.00000999 0.99999254 0.3.1: Graphical representation of Coordinate differences 7.

21 9 m 468187.052 -0.989 -0.265 -0.362 1 1.288 0.905 29 .61 9 688678.18 7 619904.509 4 -0.17 TO080 515533.08 4 441500.55 3 456733.80 4 487091.88 3 646092.754 0.50 7 m -0.05 4 415004.29 510971.171 7 2 Max abs diff 0.969 489543.912 542853.088 0.3: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Southern area.004 -0.38 TO073 542853.077 4 2 467569.016 0.265 ∆N m 1.127 600229.360 -0.127 0.61 467569.14 402841.22 8 440580.603 0.59 9 456733.77 1 603275.233 6 1 458073.93 4 471880.046 -0.015 8 1 474921. Computed Point ID Easting m m ∆E m Northing m Computed m 486755.221 4 402841.33 2 429238.93 1 487091.60 TO078 555044.022 -0.29 8 646870.345 0.95 2 415004.235 9 431998.360 688677.371 Table 7. Computed Computed Point ID Easting m m ∆E m Northing m m 510971.867 ∆N m -0.56 TO089 539090.87 7 600229.70 TO083 486755.036 0.195 0.116 -0.13 5 429239.73 TO082 506758.52 1 -0.374 0.29 4 471880.212 0.01 6 440581.244 622603.017 603275.360 555044.471 2 399274.017 0.2: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Eastern area.461 515533.405 -0.255 618989.233 646091.99 399273.772 506758.687 539089.96 TO090 489543.233 Table 7.197 -0.53 458073.242 -0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka T0034 TO037 TO038 TO039 TO040 TO047 TO049 TO061 Max abs diff 468187.228 0.74 431999.80 8 622603.102 -0.927 0.371 646870.43 474921.055 619905.62 9 618988.943 -0.12 0 441500.

20 564416.259 1 552633.081 475581.702 -0.17 8 453574.489 427264.51 9 426080.813 -0.022 TO097 426058.268 7.974 -0.78 522689.34 543742.034 426079.118 -0.040 0.32 436960.13 532730.06 0 447548.57 427264.344 -0.4: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial for Western area Computed Computed Point ID Easting m m ∆E m Northing m m 424310.063 7 525982.766 0.165 7 536575.405 TO100 443670.826 TO098 447548.77 1 420805.183 410504.34 TO074 5 1 0.012 -0.380 0.210 3 522689.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka TO091 472808.41 420675.57 410504.709 0.705 0.56 7 471275.067 1.89 TO057 2 5 -0.041 4 527793.91 TO103 Max abs diff 416116.022 Table 7.565 0.097 0.268 9 564416.066 420805.17 0 416115.113 436960. 30 .034 Max abs diff 0.83 4 402358.205 403225.885 466516.13 6 419251.02 7 429542.126 1.064 472809. Differences between computed coordinates and SLD99 report values are very close.84 8 407953.260 0.93 450147.04 3 443671.221 407953.122 -0.89 552633.042 7 532730.162 -0.469 453575.858 0.40 536575. ∆N m 0.93 9 475581.21 TO108 3 3 -0.46 1 416680.4.596 0.37 527792.15 424309.37 9 403225.925 0.754 TO092 471274.718 TO093 458791.034 5 543742.044 0.362 -0.558 TO099 416680.99 TO110 5 4 0.93 TO053 8 9 0.38 525982.17 466516.211 419251.431 TO096 429543.218 402357.639 503967.45 TO058 9 7 0.174 0.442 0.25 TO060 8 6 -0.45 7 426058.99 7 -0.42 0 458792. One of the reason for this may be the availability of low number of points in each case relative the earlier cases.616 0.579 450146.15 TO056 2 7 0.870 462775.442 Conclusion Plotted errors indicates that coordinate differences can be considered as systematic errors available in area vice.47 4 462775.37 503967.485 0.331 420675.

31 .351m. Therefore this result is impossible to implement as a solution. But this residual implies that this accuracy will not sufficient for Cadastre surveys. control pints were selected in such way that those are scattered all over the country except far northern area. • The least square principal was used to compute parameters in all cases of this task. Computed coordinates and given coordinates in SLD99 report are similar up to to maximum of 2 mm. However . Conclusion and Recommendations 8. This result implies that SLD99 report are correct. Sri Lanka has no natural permanent boundaries match with these boundaries. Number of control points used were also higher value than the minimum necessary for computation of parameters.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Errors are more systematic when those are considered in area vice. Because.546m). The check points were also selected to cover the most of the area. this is smaller than original maximum difference (4. But the scale change was close to 13ppm. Because it must be close to zero for better transformation. This is the other reason to reduce difference. Difference of computed and given values are not significant. Therefore those parameters are able to use to transform Sri Lank old coordinates to SLD99. However. though this path is more effective to find the better polynomial for each area it is more difficult in practical implementation. This was the first objective of this task. • One of another main objective of this task was computing of datum transformation parameters between Sri Lanka old and SLD99 coordinate system. when it is considered the corresponding changes will have to be occurred in coordinates. • Computed 7 datum transformation parameters from WGS84 to SLD99 using Bursa wolf formula were almost same to the values given in the SLD99 report.Maximum residual obtained in coordinates was 2. Conclusion • In this study what ever the method is used to compute transformation parameters in each case.1. Therefore computed parameters should have the validity for all area except northern part of the country. It was successful in MATLAB programs. Those facts will result to up grade the validation of computed parameters. 8. These two results have been given quality of the SLD99 system. This is comparatively high value. It implies that coordinate transformation process is correct in SLD99 report. There is no principal is available to decide which polynomial is used for the boundary. In this method.

Recommendations One important fact is that the parameters derived will be applicable only in the area of known control points and extrapolation beyond this area is likely to cause problems. computed parameters for polynomials may not be given good results for those areas. It means transformation parameters obtained considering the error vector graph is more effective. 32 . The third order polynomial have produced the least values among the considered other polynomial types.1: Maximum residuals for control points according to the area. for the boundary points.2). Common points available to eastern are also few.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Other objective of this study to identify the better polynomial for direct transformation of two dimensional coordinates. When it is considered situation in Sri Lanka no common control points are available to both coordinate system in far northern area. it implies that residuals are decreasing when the polynomial order is increasing. if the facilities are available for the accurate calculations second order polynomial is also possible to use. Because of this reason it will not useful in practical situations.360 0. When the first order polynomial is applied separately for four areas. obtained residuals are comparatively smaller than those obtained to the same order polynomial for whole country (table 5. Therefore for normal usages for the field calculation more convenient polynomial type is first order one. No way method is avilabe to propose how to choose a polynomial from the both sides polynomials. Therefore.022 08 0.442 • 8. However first four coefficients or parameters of third polynomial are only significant after the 13 th decimal place. Therefore. • • • When obtained residuals are analysed. Even the First three parameters of the second order polynomial are also significant after the 8 th decimal place. No natural boundaries are present to fit with this method. Though this method is offered better result. This solution can not be implemented in practically. However.2. It is better to add more points from mentioned areas by observing old control points using GPS and recomputation of parameters of the polynomials are needed.233 0.268 0. When it is considered topography of my country. Area No of Maximum residual obtained points Easting m Nothings m Northern Eastern Southern Western 08 0.265 12 1. Table 8.371 04 0. implementation of this results faces practical difficulties when it is defined the area boundaries. It means that errors are more systematically distributed in area vice.221 1.

Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka 33 .

6.html 2007.08.C.gc.SLD99 coordinates and ortometric heights of common control points issued by Survey Department Sri Lanka.08.J.htm 2007.pdf_kniper s 2007.com/furuti/MapProj/Normal/CartIntro/cartIntro. map projection.08.html 2007. John P.11 http://www. John C.html 2007.pdf 2007. Second Edition. Davis.03 http://www. Lev M.08.htm.nrcan. Working Manual.gov.ncgia. Geological Survey professional Paper 1395.za/Surveys/Mapping/wgs84.savagexi.08.Ilifee. Help pages MATLAB R 2006A 2.progonos. Survey Department.08.ucsb. U.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Refferences Books 1. Bugayevskiy. Published in year 2000 5.nl/geometrics/Publications/KT20003CoordtransUK. Statistics and Data Analysis in GEOLOGY.12 34 .S.com/articles/2006/04/23/ 2007. 2007. Sri Lanka.08.ca/crs/geog165/mapproj. Websites and Accesed Dates http://www.html 2007.ca/site/english/learningresources/carto_corner/map_project ions. Snyder.08.fes.com/technical-pages/pdf/Li_G_Tut.03 http://kartoweb.gov.itc.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum. 4.gov/articles/mapping/a_projections. John P.11 http://www.pdf 2007.08.03 http://w3sli. Report on Sri Lanka datum 1999.html#mapproj 2007.08.03 http://atlas.au/ 2007.08.lct.edu/education/curricula/giscc/units/u013/u013_f.michigan.wcape.uwaterloo. Snyder.11 http://www.11 http://www.ga.11 http://www.03 http://cfis.03 http://www. Map Projection reference manual.colorado. 3.nationalatlas.gov/documents/DNR_Map_Proj_and_MI_Georef_Info_2088 9_7. datums and map projection.08.

λ is longitudes positive east and h is the ellipsoidal height. Figure appA 1: Catesian Coordinates X = (v + h) cos φ cos λ { Y = (v + h) cos φ sin λ . tan u = e2 Za . p − e 2 a cos 3 u ⎛X⎞ ⎟. v = a (1 − e 2 sin 2 φ ) . it needs knowledge about the parameters of the reference ellipsoid. e/ 2 = pb 1 − e2 35 . φ is latitude. X Z + e / 2 b sin 3 u tan φ = . Geodetic coordinates can be transformed to Cartesian coordinates by the set of formulae given bellow.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Appendices Appendix A Cartesian Coordinates Three dimensional earth centered coordinates system simply can represent as given in figure3. positive north. } Z = (1 − e 2 )v + h sin φ Where. Axis X is aligned with the Greenwich prime meridian. ⎝Y ⎠ λ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ Z + e / 2 b sin 3 u ⎞ ⎟⎟ φ = tan ⎜⎜ 2 3 ⎝ p − e a cos u ⎠ −1 Where. tan λ = Y . the Y axis forms a right handed system.3. The origin of the coordinate system is at centre of the ellipsoid and the z axis is parallel to the minor axis of the ellipsoid or to the polar axis of the earth. For this conversion. p = (X 2 + Y 2 ) . Following equations can be used for reverse computation.

F = foot of perpendicular from P to the central meridian. measured perpendicular to the earth's surface.B 1 shows the necessary points and lines to understand the equations used in transverse Mercater projection.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Equation in Transverse Marketer Projection. Converting atitudes and Longitudes to XY Coordinates. . λ0 = central meridian k0 = scale along λ0 Figure app. (Forward equation) ⎧ (1 − T + C ) A 3 (5 − 18T + T 2 + 72C − 58e / 2 ) A 5 ⎫ x = koN ⎨ A + + ⎬ 6 120 ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ A2 A4 A6 ⎫ + (5 − T + 9C + 4C 2 ) + (61 − 58T + T 2 + 600C − 330e / 2 ) ]⎬ y = ko⎨M − Mo + N tan φ[ 2 24 720 ⎭ ⎩ k = ko[1 + (1 + C ) A2 A4 A6 + (5 − 4T + 42C + 13C 2 − 28e / 2 ) + (61 − 148T + 16T 2 ) ] 2 24 720 Where. .B 2 Transverse Mercater projection This is the radius of curvature of the earth perpendicular to the meridian plane.µ = 3 1 a2 1 − e2 (1 − e 2 sin 2 φ ) 2 M e 3e 4 5e 6 a(1 − − − ) 4 64 256 2 . LP = parallel of latitude of P ZP = meridian of P OL = k0S = meridional arc from equator LF = ordinate of curvature OF = N = grid northing FP = E = grid distance from central meridian C = convergence of meridians φ = latitude of point λ =longitude of point. It is also the distance from the point in question to the polar axis. e= 36 a (1 − e 2 ) a2 − b2 e2 /2 = R e = . Figure app.

λ and Φ in radians. 37 .v = a (1 − e sin φ ) 2 2 . Q2 = R1 2 24 2 2 Q 4 = (61 − 90T 1 + 298C 1 + 45T 1 − 3C 1 − 252e R= a(1 − e 2 ) (1 − e sin φ ) 2 2 .M = Mo + 1 − (1 − e ) 2 e1 = 1 + (1 − e 2 ) y ko φ1 = µ + J 1 sin(2µ ) + J 2 sin(4µ ) + J 3 sin(6 µ ) + J 4 sin(8µ ) Where. J 3 = ( + ⋅⋅) .D = / 2 ) D6 720 x . A = (λ − λo ) cos φ . C1 = e / 2 cos 2 φ N1k o Both system projected coordinates are converted to geographic coordinates of respective datums.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka N= a (1 − e sin φ ) 2 M = a[(1 − 2 11 2 . e 2 3e 4 5e 6 3e 2 3e 4 45e 6 15e 4 45e 6 35e 6 − − − ⋅⋅)φ − ( + + + ⋅⋅) sin 2φ + ( + + ⋅⋅) sin 4φ − ( + ⋅⋅) sin 6φ ] 4 64 256 8 32 1024 256 1024 3072 L = Lo + ( Q5 − Q6 + Q7 ) cos φ1 Where. Where Q1 = N 1 tan φ1 D2 D4 2 Q3 = (5 + 3T1 + 10C1 − 4C1 − 9e / 2 ) Q. J 2 = ( 1 − + ⋅⋅) . C = e / 2 cos 2 φ . J 4 = ( + ⋅⋅) 2 32 16 32 96 512 φ = φ1 − Q1 (Q2 − Q3 + Q4 ). Q7 = (5 − 2C1 + 28T1 − 3C1 + 8e / 2 + 24T1 ) 6 120 Converting Latitude and Longitude to XY coordinates (Inverse equation) . 3 2 4 3 4 1097ee 3e 27e1 21e 55e1 151e1 J1 = ( 1 − ⋅ ⋅⋅) . Q5 = D Q6 = (1 + 2T1 + C1 ) 5 D3 2 2 D .

139 555044.226 532730.66 9 542854.610 600229.594 532730.33 2 555044.68 9 429543.267 510971.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Appendix B (Computed Coordinates and Residuals) Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial Table apB.241 539089.094 419251.471 402841.519 622602.830 522689.20 1 487091.368 603275.46 9 539090.457 542854.307 467568.163 TO097 426059.087 475581.36 0 506758.206 402357.535 TO089 539090.213 TO078 555043.613 552633.434 600229.226 622602.774 522689.01 1 503967.02 8 426058.874 429239.267 399274.187 431999.943 619905.019 TO058 466515.589 475582.639 543742.834 419250.454 458073.066 487091.588 532730.965 468186.53 8 416115.556 543742.28 5 489543.558 TO073 542853.326 426058.610 543741.214 TO103 416115.439 453574.569 622603.616 619904.421 440580.805 510971.815 415004. 1: Coordinates of SLD99 by First order polynomial Point ID 1st order Easting m 2st order Easting m T0034 468188.064 424310.05 3 440581.065 486755.823 431999.821 402357.635 453575.80 9 466516.347 402356.89 1 410504.269 431999.431 TO074 503966.014 416680.605 510969.591 489544.849 TO037 440581.35 5 424309.292 475581.012 .781 467569.632 646092.836 603275.870 410505.352 TO096 429544.710 TO053 424309.687 552633.739 688678.645 399275.424 522689.369 429543.381 467568.720 619905.73 7 486755.435 453575.962 TO040 487092.267 TO083 486756.619 TO099 416680.470 TO047 429238.370 603275.08 8 415004.392 458073.259 TO082 506758.188 506758.832 503967.357 688677.344 402844.099 416115.877 TO061 456733.10 6 456733.061 38 3rdt order Easting m 468187.623 646091.582 552633.919 646092.464 466515.696 458073.281 402842.534 419251.241 600230.543 456733.11 3 429239.157 TO049 415003.687 TO108 410503.69 3 416680.97 7 1st order Northing m 2st order Easting m 3rd order Northing m 688678.999 TO090 489545.581 399274.

654 458793.58 443670.073 552633.020 TO039 441500.760 450146.69 458791.30 447548.017 TO057 436960. 3: Coordinates of SLD99 by Second order polynomial (32 Points) Easting computed Differenc Northing computed Point ID m Easting m e m m Northing m Differenc em T0034 468187.946 6 474920.032 474920.26 6 525982.311 525983.029 TO058 466516.36 TO110 7 420675.57 515533.94 472809.591 2 426079.457 532730.164 -0.601 0.179 466515.465 TO056 427264.877 619904.553 415004.29 471275.298 646091.03 TO092 8 471275.07 5 403224.609 0.157 536575.500 -0.926 -0.273 536575.064 TO040 487091.063 2st order Northing m 646870.897 525982.168 622603.290 5 525982.534 443670.372 427263.867 4 618989.771 600229.32 TO056 4 427264.174 -0.808 618988.80 0 536575.97 5 564416.085 0.322 TO053 424310.503 3 527793.748 420805.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Table apB.305 0.697 TO038 471880.387 4 403225.58 436960.034 471276.332 487091.965 2 564416. 2: Coordinates of check points by First order polynomial 2st order 3rdt order 1st order 1st order Easting m Easting m Easting m Northing m Point ID 471881.310 532730.084 471880.883 688678.466 0.136 39 .744 0.37 8 527793.347 TO047 429238.187 622603.48 450147.625 0.53 TO100 1 443670.224 564417.572 427264.924 0.366 441500.868 0.132 420674.17 TO038 5 471880.585 403225.797 5 407954.57 6 618988.370 646092.93 TO039 5 441500.595 515532.263 618989.322 436960.016 468186.83 441500.435 447549.52 1 462776.869 0.721 0.451 4 420805.083 Coordinates of SLD99 by Second order polynomial(32 Points) Table apB.593 -0.793 -0.080 646870.64 TO093 2 458792.50 420675.063 618988.580 To037 440581.607 6 462776.055 536575.57 427264.25 TO098 1 447548.240 600229.449 0.252 TO049 415004.225 462776.534 -0.648 407953.129 436959.15 TO091 3 472809.197 0 646870.70 3 474920.90 6 426079.86 0 407953.017 525982.23 TO057 5 436960.19 471880.02 TO060 6 450146.952 429239.177 -0.856 527793.29 5 3rd order Northing m 646870.225 619904.22 8 420805.158 424310.629 646870.705 426080.463 -0.931 441500.49 TO080 6 515532.517 0.708 472810.295 688677.467 2 536575.294 440580.931 552633.

401 419251.136 TO090 489543.408 0.618 467568.425 0.985 TO100 443670.892 0.558 447548.473 .941 0.589 522689.939 462776.083 456733.052 TO093 458791.294 688678.492 0.444 0.260 0.797 552633.593 564416.692 TO097 426058.338 0.082 467569.822 0.464 -0.306 0.637 TO091 472808.294 TO078 555044.162 -0.241 453574.166 -0.339 466516.158 427264.952 415004.046 -0.495 TO082 506758.017 0.983 -0.931 487091.292 0.877 600229.064 440581.169 450147.202 426080.658 -0.100 0.157 525982.410 TO108 410504.218 0.108 -0.722 0.145 -0.459 -0.711 407953.629 618988.994 527793.154 0.048 0.360 555044.537 458073.322 466516.854 TO080 515533.170 -0.345 543742.700 -1.298 646870.771 407953.063 415004.352 536575.520 489543.767 Differenc em -0.070 -0.208 0.648 -0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka TO060 450146.188 -0.375 503967.413 510971.294 510971.531 474921.418 TO110 420675.615 403225.026 0.136 Coordinates of SLD99 by Third order polynomial (modified-32 Points) Table apB.406 436960.619 603275.703 603275.564 -0.045 564416.186 471880.022 429542.599 -0.525 TO103 416116.619 510971.509 486755. 4: Coordinates of SLD99 by Third order polynomial (modified-32 Points) computed Northing computed Differenc Point ID Easting m Em em Northing m m T0034 To037 TO038 TO039 TO040 TO047 TO049 TO053 TO056 TO057 TO058 TO060 TO061 TO073 40 468187.294 471880.136 402357.149 -0.452 420805.683 542853.465 -0.194 Max abs diff 0.626 TO096 429543.436 474920.219 542853.771 552633.709 431999.114 622603.912 542854.473 399273.053 -0.076 TO074 503967.373 475581.826 426058.038 619905.431 458792.259 564416.527 0.301 TO089 539090.834 403225.127 0.016 440581.137 441500.938 456733.003 525982.936 487091.005 0.379 420805.567 -0.178 426079.579 0.305 0.164 0.305 -0.962 399274.912 468187.457 564416.415 420675.037 429239.564 402842.244 TO092 471274.897 532730.259 603275.187 619904.572 436960.204 431999.978 -0.603 458073.130 402358.993 -0.295 424309.399 TO061 456733.519 419251.258 -0.866 427264.152 527792.087 543742.219 456733.345 603275.206 -0.883 646092.356 0.691 0.553 424310.442 -0.064 416115.540 402841.631 -0.461 515532.179 450146.278 618989.736 510971.258 0.295 -0.808 622603.910 443670.930 0.281 TO073 542853.351 -0.050 TO083 486755.182 600229.010 646092.327 0.931 536575.639 -0.772 506758.848 475582.827 532730.084 441500.573 410505.136 -0.754 472809.010 -0.718 471275.066 688677.938 450146.405 416680.418 462775.288 0.464 -0.198 646870.456 TO099 416680.111 0.169 0.444 0.259 TO098 447548.362 539089.474 453575.213 522689.764 0.587 -0.736 1.332 429238.

345 467569.txt'.057 0.618 474921.194 -0.700 447548.375 555044.771 420805.461 506758.281 0.092 -0.073 -0.178 453574.495 475581.022 426058.440 407953.360 515533.081 -0.962 407953.105 0.649 Appendix C (List Programs & Text Files) Para_WGS84_To_SLD99. NPoints=32.262 0.464 -0.Bursa wolf 7 Parameters are computed.096 -0. Yo.431 429543.513 472809.016 0. % 32 control points with WGS 84 latitudes.536 429542.224 0.936 458073.709 402841.675 420805. [PN.262 0.126 0.123 462776.509 539090.463 403225.029 543742.718 458791.417 539090.912 419251.084 0.050 527792. are used. e=0.223 489543.444 0.301 -0.136 419251.060 0.041 471274.064 410504.629 416115.994 543742.362 489543.092 0.459 426079.519 426080.939 475581.139 0.556 0.m %Program to compute transformation parameters from WGS84 to Sri Lanka old %system.729/3600))*pi/180.198 -0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka TO074 TO078 TO080 TO082 TO083 TO089 TO090 TO091 TO092 TO093 TO096 TO097 TO098 TO099 TO100 TO103 TO108 TO110 503967. a=6377276.287 -0.622 443670.910 416116.478 0.772 486755.213 527792.'%s %f %f %f').08147298125167.573 420675. e1=(1-realsqrt(1-e^2))/(1+realsqrt(1-e^2)).649 -0.500 0.436 458073.217 0.474 462775.047 0.459 -0.060 0.347 -0.520 472808.124 0.256 -0.754 471274.572 402357. Northings and Everest ellipsoidal % heights.032 420675.558 416680.762 399274. longitudes. Hv]=textread('SL_old_32.965 426058.974 458791.870 0. and ellipsoidal heights % 32 control point with SLD old Easting.415 Max abs diff 503967.007 -0.163 0.564 399273.537 431999.848 522689.362 402841.379 403225.. Po=(7+(1.405 443670.358 0. % Projection Parameters given in SLD99 report for SL old system Lo=(80+(46/60)+(18.283 555044.834 402358. clc clear format long % Projected coordinates of SL old given in reportSLD99 are converted to latitudes and longitudes values by % using inverse equations of the Transverse Mercater projection.991 410505.345. 41 .060 0.984 453575.16/3600))*pi/180.607 467569.260 474920.477 506758.826 447548.788 522689.490 431999.257 416680. Xo.712 486755.441 515533.

1)))^2)^1.1)^2-3*C1(i.1))). ng(i.1))+J4(i.1)^4)/24).0. LD=(LI+(LM/60)+(LS/3600)).1)=((D(i. J1(i. PS.1)=ag/(realsqrt(1-ng(i))).1)*tan(P1(i. LS.1)*sin(2*mu(i. J2(i. ed=realsqrt((e^2)/(1-e^2)).1)=(vg(i)*(1-(eg^2))+HI(i))*sind(PD(i)).1).1)+28*T1(i.1)-Q6(i.1))+J3(i. T1(i. HI]=textread('wgsLP.1)^6)/720). Q1(i.1)^2-9*e1^2)*((D(i. Q7(i.1)3*C1(i.1).1)^2)*(D(i.1)=(3*e1/2-27*(e1^3)/32).1)=(1097*(e1^4)/512).1)). Q6(i. LM.1)/(N1(i.1)*sin(6 *mu(i.1)+Q7(i.1)))^2).081819190842622.1)))^2. vg(i.1)+Q4(i.1))/cos(P1(i. % Computing of Geocentric coordinates with respect to global Ellipsoid % (WGS84) ag=6378137. [PW.1)=(tan(P1(i.1)+C1(i. Q2(i. D(i. P(i.1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cosd(PD(i))*cosd(LD(i)).5. PD=(PW+(PM/60)+(PS/3600)).Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka X=Xo-200000. Q5(i. for i=1:NPoints. eg=0. M(i.3142.1)*sin(8*mu(i.9999238418. PM.1)=(21*(e1^2)/16-55*(e1^4)/32).1)-Q3(i. bg=6356752.1)=P1(i.1)*sin(4*mu(i.1)=Lo+((Q5(i.1)^5)/120.1))+J2(i.txt'.1)+10*C1(i.1)=(5+3*T1(i.1)-Q1(i.1)^2252*ed^2)*((D(i. ZI(i.1)=(eg*sind(PD(i)))^2.'%f %f %f %f %f %f %f').1))*(D(i.1)-4*C1(i. L(i. end 42 . LI.1)=a*(1-e^2)/(1-(e^2)*(sin(P1(i.1)=(5-2*C1(i. mu(i. YI(i.1)=X(i. N1(i.1)=Mo+Y(i.1)+J1(i. J3(i.1)))^2.1)=M(i. ko=0.1)))/R1(i.1)*ko).1)+45*T1(i. J4(i.1)+298*C1(i.1)=mu(i. C1(i. R1(i.1)). end Pv=P*180/pi. for i=1:NPoints. Lv=L*180/pi.1)=(151*(e1^3)/96). Mo=a*((1-(e^2)/4-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)*Po(3*(e^2)/8+3*(e^4)/32+45*(e^6)/1024)*sin(2*Po)+(15*(e^4)/256+45*(e^6)/1024) *sin(4*Po)-(35*(e^6)/3072)*sin(6*Po)).1)=D(i.1)=(ed^2)*(cos(P1(i.1)=a/realsqrt(1-(e^2)*(sin(P1(i.1)=(1+2*T1(i.1)*(Q2(i.1)=(N1(i.1)^2+8*ed^2+24*T1(i.1)^2)/2).1)/(a*(1-(e^2/4)-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)).1)/ko. Y=Yo-200000.1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cosd(PD(i))*sind(LD(i)). Q4(i. P1(i. XI(i. Q3(i.1)^3)/6.1)=(61+90*T1(i.

4)=YI(i). C(i*3. C(i*3-1.807 136960.1)=Xv(i)-XI(i).1).964 141499.345. Zv(i. for i=1:NPoints y(i*3-2. C(i*3-2.053 127263. S=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y). C(i*3-2. Rx=((180/pi)*3600)*S(2) Ry=((180/pi)*3600)*S(3) Rz=((180/pi)*3600)*S(4) Dx=S(5) Dy=S(6) Dz=S(7) Sf=1000000*S(1) SL_old_32.083 308.124 303276.441 232730.589 318990.544 346094.858 252633.172 197.701 319906.935 571. for i=1:NPoints C(i*3-2.413.388 156732.47 766.35 1512.57 264417. y(i*3-1. C(i*3-1.244 346872.792 225982.392 574.2)=-YI(i).912 402.1)=(Nv+Hv(i))*cosd(Pv(i))*sind(Lv(i)).111 140580.1)=Zv(i)-ZI(i). C(i*3-1. ev=realsqrt(((av^2)-(bv^2))/(av^2)).899 242854.2)=ZI(i).148 261.615 300230.098 521. C(i*3.098 171879. C(i*3-2. bv=6356075.254 1031.525 160. end % Computing of Bursa Wolf 7 parametrs using least square Principle.1)=Yv(i)-YI(i).588 322604.777 167569. for i=1:NPoints Nv=av/(realsqrt(1-(ev*sind(Pv(i)))^2)).7).115 102.24 129237.911 187091.005 166515.234 281. C(i*3.683 43 .1)=ZI(i).7)=1.776 143. end C=zeros(NPoints*3.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka av=6377276.471 236574.1)=YI(i).801 388681.txt T0034 TO037 TO038 TO039 TO040 TO047 TO049 TO053 TO056 TO057 TO058 TO060 TO061 TO073 TO074 TO078 168187.628 210971.4)=-XI(i).249 243742. end y=zeros(NPoints*3.5)=1. C(i*3-1.883 150146.078 124309.3)=XI(i).213 255044.569 1860.305 133.445 203967. C(i*3.1)=(Nv*(1-(ev^2))+Hv(i))*sind(Pv(i)).1)=XI(i). Yv(i. Xv(i.3)=-ZI(i).1)=(Nv+Hv(i))*cosd(Pv(i))*cosd(Lv(i)). y(i*3.6)=1.897 115003.

081819190842622.058 14. %Coordinate Transformation From WGS84 To SLD99 system.94 6.777 'wgsLP.795 10.79356 18.283 54.52238 23. [PI.716 51.806 162774.872 107952.73851 562.472 53.73729 17.37419 17.20190 26.977 129546.552 120804.10931 04.50911 636.005 45. eg=0.06765 1418.362 112.269 147551.465 1775.344 103223.045 51. PD=(PI+(PM/60)+(PS/3600)).62075 06.384 53.38 724.39127 23. Seconds format in %a text file clc clear %Reading the text file format long NPoints = 32.93503 09.991 659.37219 211.589 19.64070 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 80 81 80 80 80 81 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 79 80 29 14 31 14 39 07 00 05 06 12 28 19 22 09 48 16 54 50 39 07 40 31 30 24 08 06 17 01 15 00 57 03 4.367 158795.PS.16561 -43.215 116681.847 174921.022 239092.92492 26.829 48.425 143671.879 54.251 120674.'%f %f %f %f %f %f %f').40196 31.65 36.LM.815 23.63082 183.001 206759.57 126061.57809 49.39951 5.730 34.84617 626.27206 34.155 408.0.51703 43.146 701.m %Program to compute SLD99 values from accepted parameters of SLD99 report.969 99274.02779 04.32896 59.41570 50.876 52.860 17.81031 -62.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka TO080 TO082 TO083 TO089 TO090 TO091 TO092 TO093 TO096 TO097 TO098 TO099 TO100 TO103 TO108 TO110 215534.LI.35763 604. 44 .65648 474.66339 45.LS.452 167.06560 59.09502 310.79490 -44.28 221.035 172813.83 186758.012 36.605 13.59747 37.240 16.627 53.635 131998. %Entered Latitudes and Longitutes value in degrees.94385 05. LD=(LI+(LM/60)+(LS/3600)).35601 63.HI]=textread('wgsLP.34830 1681.242 31.95958 425.997 05.txt'.813 157.50375 55.858 153572.55672 14.912 19.844 10.08093 45.07772 163.649 18.186 110504.46053 51.88237 35.93572 -66.555 227792.135 WGS84_To_SLD99_ReportPara. Minutes.txt' 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 42 19 19 4 6 05 54 28 19 14 17 34 56 05 23 42 46 37 23 07 05 10 17 07 07 16 19 34 39 46 12 15 24.796 189548.347 126077.138 3.104 50.539 42.74082 670. bg=6356752.72064 935.955 175580.95515 333. for i=1:NPoints. % Computing of Geocentric coordinates with respect to global Ellipsoid % (WGS84) ag=6378137.206 732.092 222688.615 102354.946 116116.03548 59.12756 04.075 158073.205 171278.979 102843.27890 34.47172 48.436 119248.561 13.82289 1765.69069 12.400 40.3142.379 34.37583 127.535 05.85172 07.008 13.176 1358.63 430.44798 1262.03267 19.80212 99.49015 46.42180 70.PM.883 58.83857 02.33166 305.88052 478.

1)=YI(i).3)=XI(i).4)=-XI(i). n(i.1)=ag/(realsqrt(1-ng(i))). Z(i.7)=1. C(i*3-2.1))*sec(P(i.1)=ZI(i).345. for i=1:NPoints. L(i. H(i.1)=(e*sin(P(i)))^2. C(i*3-1. end %Calculation of Latitudes. for i=1:NPoints C(i*3-2. yI=C*S.1)-(e^2)*a*((cos(u))^3))). YI(i.95 -87.1)=atan(Y(i)/X(i)). C(i*3.1)=((h(i.1)=a/(realsqrt(1-n(i))). C(i*3.2)=ZI(i).000000039338 0. C(i*3-1.5)=1.2)=-YI(i).7).1)+YI(i).473016*pi/3600/180 0. Longitude and heights values respect to Everest %Ellipsoid.1)=yI(i*3-1.1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cosd(PD(i))*sind(LD(i)). ZI(i.1)=(vg(i)*(1-(eg^2))+HI(i))*sind(PD(i)). vg(i.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka ng(i. h(i. er=(e^2)/(1-e^2). XI(i.1)=XI(i). C(i*3-2. C(i*3-1. end % matrix C is prepared using WGS84 geocentric coordinates C=zeros(NPoints*3. %Computing of Geocentric coordinates respect to Everest Ellipsoid.1)=realsqrt(X(i)^2+Y(i)^2). Pe(i. C(i*3-2. u=atan(Z(i)*a/(Pe(i.7131].4)=YI(i).2933 -766.1)=realsqrt(X(i)^2+Y(i)^2).1)+ZI(i).3)=-ZI(i).413. C(i*3.1)=yI(i*3-2. P(i. for i=1:NPoints X(i. C(i*3-1.1))-v(i)).1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cosd(PD(i))*cosd(LD(i)).1)=(eg*sind(PD(i)))^2.1)=atan((Z(i)+er*b*((sin(u))^3))/(Pe(i. Y(i. end 45 .695068*pi/3600/180 3. e=realsqrt(((a^2)-(b^2))/(a^2)). b=6356075.1)*b)). C(i*3. a=6377276. v(i.1)=yI(i*3.195704*pi/3600/180 1.1)+XI(i).6)=1. end %Use the 7 transformation parameters as the column matrix S=[0.

SLD99_To_LL.txt'.1)=ko*(M(i. [PN.1)-Lo)*cos(P22(i.1)=(tan(P22(i.Coordinates of 32 cmmon points given in SLD99 repot are used clear clc format long.1)-58*(ed^2))*(A(i.1)+(1-T(i.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka %Direct Formula Transverse Mercater Projection a=6377276.1)+9*C(i. L22]=textread('Computed99_20.1)^2))*(A(i.1)^3)/6+(518*T(i.1)^2+72*C(i.1)+16*(T(i.1))).9999238418.1)^2+600*C(i.'%s %f %f').345. Po=(7+(1. k(i. e1=(1-realsqrt(1-e^2))/(1+realsqrt(1-e^2)). N(i.1))^2)).1)+C(i.1)-Mo+N(i.1))+(15*(e^4)/256+45*(e^6) /1024)*sin(4*P22(i. A(i.345.txt'.1)(3*(e^2)/8+3*(e^4)/32+45*(e^6)/1024)*sin(2*P22(i.1671/3600))*pi/180.1)^5)/120).1)^6)/720). e1=(1-(1-e^2)^(1/2))/(1+(1-e^2)^(1/2)). ko=0.1))^2). NPoints=32. 46 . for i=1:NPoints.1)^4)/24+(6158*T(i.08147298125167.m %Program to compute latitudes and longitudes correspod to SLD 99 Projected %coordinates.1)).1))^2))).1)+T(i. end.1)^6)/720)).1)^2)/2+(5T(i.1)+42*C(i. Lo=(80+(46/60)+(18.1)^4)/24+(61-148*T(i.1)+T(i.1)*(tan(P22(i. T(i. a=6377276. e=0. %[P22. x(i. Lo=(80+(46/60)+(18. '%f %f'). C(i.1)-330*(ed^2))*(A(i.1))*(A(i.1))-(35*(e^6)/3072)*sin(6*P22(i. y(i.1)=(ed^2)*((cos(P22(i. Po=(7+(1. Xn. P22=P.1)=a*((1-(e^2)/4-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)*P22(i.1)=ko*N(i. % projection parameters are given in the SLD99 report for the SLD99 system % are used in inverse equations of the Transverse Mercater projection.08147298125167.1)*(A(i. e=0.1)+4*(C(i.6975/3600))*pi/180. ed=realsqrt((e^2)/(1-e^2)).1671/3600))*pi/180.1)+13*C(i.1)))*((A(i.6975/3600))*pi/180. Ye=y+500000. Yn]=textread('SLD99_Coord32. Mo=a*((1-(e^2)/4-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)*Po(3*(e^2)/8+3*(e^4)/32+45*(e^6)/1024)*sin(2*Po)+(15*(e^4)/256+45*(e^6)/1024) *sin(4*Po)-(35*(e^6)/3072)*sin(6*Po)).1)^2)/2+(5-4*T(i.1)=(L22(i.1)^228*(ed^2))*(A(i.1)^2))*(A(i.1)=ko*(1+(1+C(i. %L and P are in radians M(i. L22=L.1))*(A(i.1)=a/realsqrt(1-(e^2)*((sin(P22(i. %computing of SLD99 projected coordinates Xe=x+500000.

1)*sin(2*mu(i.1)+10*C1(i.1)=(N1(i. J3(i. PR.1)/(N1(i.1)-Q1(i. J1(i.1)))^2)^1. ko=0. Q3(i. bg=6356075.1)+28*T1(i.1)=a*(1-e^2)/(1-(e^2)*(sin(P1(i.1)))^2).1)*(Q2(i. Y=Yn-500000. M(i.1)+C1(i.1)+45*T1(i.1)=(21*(e1^2)/16-55*(e1^4)/32).1). Q5(i.1). Q7(i.1)))/R1(i.5.1))+J2(i.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka X=Xn-500000.1)^4)/24).1)*tan(P1(i. C1(i.1)*ko).1)=(tan(P1(i.1)*sin(8*mu(i. for i=1:NPoints.1)^2)/2). Q1(i. eg=realsqrt(((ag^2)-(bg^2))/(ag^2)).1)=mu(i. T1(i. P(i.1)))^2.1)=(1+2*T1(i. L(i.1)=M(i.1)^2252*ed^2)*((D(i.1)^2-9*e1^2)*((D(i.1)=((D(i. LR. Q2(i. Mo=a*((1-(e^2)/4-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)*Po(3*(e^2)/8+3*(e^4)/32+45*(e^6)/1024)*sin(2*Po)+(15*(e^4)/256+45*(e^6)/1024) *sin(4*Po)-(35*(e^6)/3072)*sin(6*Po)).1)))^2.1)=(151*(e1^3)/96).1)3*C1(i.1)=(5+3*T1(i.1)/(a*(1-(e^2/4)-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)).345. [PI.1)=(1097*(e1^4)/512). ed=realsqrt((e^2)/(1-e^2)).m %program to compute Transformation parameters from SL old to SLD99 %Coordinates of 20 control points are used clc clear format long % Computed Latitudes and longitudes values from earlier programes are used % with orthometric heights of the points NPoints = 20.1)/ko. R1(i.1)+J1(i. 47 . N1(i.1)^2)*(D(i.1))+J4(i. P1(i.1))*(D(i.txt'. Q4(i.1)+298*C1(i.1)+Q4(i.1)*sin(4*mu(i.1)=Mo+Y(i. J2(i. % Computing of Geocentric coordinates with respect to SL old datum ag=6377276.1)^2+8*ed^2+24*T1(i.1)-Q6(i. D(i.1)-4*C1(i. HI]=textread('SL_old_LL20_heights. Q6(i.1)-Q3(i.9999238418.1))). Ldd=L*180/pi.1)*sin(6 *mu(i.413.1)=(61+90*T1(i.1)^5)/120.1)=Lo+((Q5(i.1)=(ed^2)*(cos(P1(i. end Pdd=P*180/pi.1)=a/realsqrt(1-(e^2)*(sin(P1(i.1)^3)/6.1)=X(i.1)^6)/720).1)+Q7(i. mu(i.1)=D(i.1)).1)^2-3*C1(i. Para_SLold_To_SLD99_20points.1)=(5-2*C1(i. J4(i.1)=(3*e1/2-27*(e1^3)/32).1))/cos(P1(i.1))+J3(i.'%s %f %f %f').1)).1)=P1(i.

4)=YI(i).2)=ZI(i). C(i*3. for i=1:NPoints y(i*3-2.3)=-ZI(i). PRR.1)=YI(i). end C=zeros(NPoints*3. C(i*3. Zv(i.7).1)=(Nv+Hv(i))*cos(PRR(i))*sin(LRR(i)). end [PII. Rx=((180/pi)*3600)*S(2) Ry=((180/pi)*3600)*S(3) Rz=((180/pi)*3600)*S(4) Dx=S(5) Dy=S(6) Dz=S(7) 48 . end % Bursa wolf 7 parameters are computed using least suare principal. for i=1:NPoints C(i*3-2. Hv]=textread('SLD99_LLcomputed20.3)=XI(i). C(i*3-1.1)=XI(i).1)=ZI(i). C(i*3-2. ZI(i.1)=(Nv+Hv(i))*cos(PRR(i))*cos(LRR(i)).Y. XI(i.'%s %f %f %f'). C(i*3-1. LRR. ev=realsqrt(((av^2)-(bv^2))/(av^2)).1)=(vg(i)*(1-(eg^2))+HI(i))*sin(PR(i)). Xv(i.1)=Xv(i)-XI(i). C(i*3-1.1). end y=zeros(NPoints*3.1)=Zv(i)-ZI(i).345.1)=(eg*sin(PR(i)))^2.1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cos(PR(i))*cos(LR(i)). bv=6356075. for i=1:NPoints Nv=av/(realsqrt(1-(ev*sin(PRR(i)))^2)). YI(i.7)=1. vg(i. C(i*3.txt'.413.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka for i=1:NPoints.6)=1. Yv(i. C(i*3-2. y(i*3-1.Z) coordinates av=6377276. ng(i.1)=(Nv*(1-(ev^2))+Hv(i))*sin(PRR(i)). C(i*3-1.2)=-YI(i). C(i*3. C(i*3-2. y(i*3.4)=-XI(i). lon and ellipsoidal heights to Geocentric(X. %Conversion of(Everest) Lat.1)=ag/(realsqrt(1-ng(i))).1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cos(PR(i))*sin(LR(i)).5)=1. S=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y).1)=Yv(i)-YI(i).

141098624 1.416504159 TO074 0. LR.525 160.118316667 1.148 261.410799307 TO083 0.1813 112.273 570.106843175 1.m %Program to compute SLd99 coordinates from computed 7 parameters %Coordinate Transformation from SL old To SLD99 system .397761943 TO058 0.418423335 TO082 0.9419 102.138479385 1.416504209 TO074 0.12575007 1.398068278 TO099 0.398621264 TO097 0.8334 54.txt T0034 0.114843348 1.408083321 TO096 0.117058023 1.39658057 TO103 0.141532594 1.41035968 TO078 0.404438806 TO061 0.141532985 1.404438888 TO061 0.146 112.392 574.106843707 1.400316018 TO040 0.396276787 TO053 0.472 53.098 571.63 221.114843237 1.106281917 1.400315794 TO040 0.407642836 TO089 0.txt'.683 732.13798914 1.118316543 1.776 143.145233889 1.912 766.10676231 1. [PI.9726 1513.125750119 1.569 1860.452 'SLD99_LLcomputed20.137989464 1.12734575 1.398067927 TO099 0.111447513 1.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Sf=1000000*S(1) 'SL_old_LL20_heights.176 1358.8753 30.0482 732.402882115 TO073 0.10628212 1.123910188 1.115 102.4028822 TO073 0. HI]=textread('SLold_LL_com20_check12.12734592 1.2421 SLold_To_SLD99_Com20_check12.129085627 1.151959735 1.115563519 1.9963 1032.398525057 TO049 0.398620738 TO097 0.404685689 TO037 0.0164 260.10676188 1.396276518 TO053 0.'%s %f %f %f').4917 766.111447551 1.407687657 TO047 0.41079944 TO083 0.35 1512.172 1031.41035962 TO078 0.129085848 1.141098197 1.397761733 TO058 0.123910333 1.396486144 TO108 0.395587192 133.991 157.145234349 1.11705792 1.3578 1358.138479073 1.115563351 1.0633 224.4385 35.3103 53.407687706 TO047 0.872 36.41589732 TO090 0.879 54.109428052 1.6857 574.130479879 1.396580697 TO103 0.5467 142.7551 160.396486129 TO108 0.242 31.408083999 TO096 0.2919 157. 49 . PR.41589767 TO090 0. clc clear %Reading the text file format long NPoints = 32.395587277 132.407642474 TO089 0.151960466 1.404685709 TO037 0.109427705 1.130479799 1.4184233 TO082 0.398525259 TO049 0.6631 1861.txt' T0034 0.

C(i*3-1.345. 50 . Pe(i.1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cos(PR(i))*sin(LR(i)).1)=ag/(realsqrt(1-ng(i))). XI(i. C(i*3. eg=realsqrt(((ag^2)-(bg^2))/(ag^2)).1)-(e^2)*a*((cos(u))^3))).345.5)=1. vg(i. for i=1:NPoints C(i*3-2. Z(i.1)=XI(i). a=6377276. for i=1:NPoints.1)+ZI(i). yI=C*S.4)=-XI(i). v(i. u=atan(Z(i)*a/(Pe(i.1)=yI(i*3-1.00000200807989 0.3)=XI(i).Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka % Computing of Geocentric coordinates with respect to old Sri Lanka datum.00001366410386 0. C(i*3. bg=6356075.6)=1.4)=YI(i). end % matrix C is prepared using WGS84 geocentric coordinates C=zeros(NPoints*3. e=realsqrt(((a^2)-(b^2))/(a^2)).7)=1.2)=-YI(i). for i=1:NPoints X(i. n(i.00001259087238 0.1)+XI(i).413. C(i*3-2. C(i*3-1.1)+YI(i). b=6356075. L(i.7). Y(i. C(i*3. %Computing of Geocentric coordinates respect to Everest Ellipsoid.1)=(vg(i)+HI(i))*cos(PR(i))*cos(LR(i)).1)=(eg*sin(PR(i)))^2.00000569904513 -11.1)*b)).1)=yI(i*3-2.413.3)=-ZI(i). C(i*3-1.09547691177431]. YI(i. ag=6377276.1)=(e*sin(P(i)))^2. C(i*3.13019760200177 83.1)=yI(i*3.1)=atan((Z(i)+er*b*((sin(u))^3))/(Pe(i. C(i*3-2. er=(e^2)/(1-e^2).1)=YI(i). end %Calculation of Latitude Longitude values respect to Everest Ellipsoid and %Ellipsoidal heights for i=1:NPoints. ZI(i.1)=atan(Y(i)/X(i)).1)=ZI(i).1)=realsqrt(X(i)^2+Y(i)^2). ng(i.05851246067198 7.1)=a/(realsqrt(1-n(i))). C(i*3-1.1)=(vg(i)*(1-(eg^2))+HI(i))*sin(PR(i)). end %Use computed 7 transformation parameters as the column matrix S=[-0.2)=ZI(i). P(i. C(i*3-2.

1)^3)/6+(518*T(i.1)^2))*(A(i.1)^4)/24+(6158*T(i.1)=ko*(M(i.1)^228*(ed^2))*(A(i.407642836 133. N(i.1)^2)/2+(5T(i.1)+T(i.1)+13*C(i. T(i.txt' T0034 0.1)=(tan(P(i.569 1860. ko=0.1)-330*(ed^2))*(A(i.1)=a/realsqrt(1-(e^2)*((sin(P(i.129085848 1.1)*(tan(P(i. C(i.397761733 TO058 0.41035962 TO078 0.141532985 1.141098624 1.1)+16*(T(i.1)+4*(C(i.1)^2))*(A(i.1)+(1-T(i.1)+C(i.1)=ko*N(i.130479879 1.1)^2+600*C(i.145234349 1.404438806 TO061 0.115 102.407687657 TO047 0. 'SLold_LL_com20_check12. end.1)). Lo=(80+(46/60)+(18.35 1512. x(i.1))^2))). A(i.137989464 1.1)^4)/24+(61-148*T(i.1)=(ed^2)*((cos(P(i.1)^2+72*C(i.1))*(A(i.111447551 1.1)+42*C(i.1))^2)).1671/3600))*pi/180.1)*(A(i. %Use the false nothing and false Easting of the projection to help the %comparison Xp=x+500000.1)=realsqrt(X(i)^2+Y(i)^2).1)^6)/720)). y(i. Yp=y+500000.392 574.1))^2).418423335 TO082 0.400315794 TO040 0.776 143.1)^5)/120). %L and P are in radians M(i.912 766.1)^6)/720).1)-58*(ed^2))*(A(i.683 732.404685689 TO037 0.402882115 TO073 0.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka h(i.1))).396276518 TO053 0.1)+9*C(i.1)+T(i.151960466 1. k(i.1)-Mo+N(i.176 1358.1))-(35*(e^6)/3072)*sin(6*P(i.1))*(A(i.098 571.6975/3600))*pi/180. Po=(7+(1. Mo=a*((1-(e^2)/4-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)*Po(3*(e^2)/8+3*(e^4)/32+45*(e^6)/1024)*sin(2*Po)+(15*(e^4)/256+45*(e^6)/1024) *sin(4*Po)-(35*(e^6)/3072)*sin(6*Po)).1)))*((A(i.148 261. end %Direct Formula Transverse Mercater Projection %Use projection parameters given for SLD99 system in the SLD99 report.242 51 .1)=a*((1-(e^2)/4-3*(e^4)/64-5*(e^6)/256)*P(i.115563519 1.123910333 1.1))*sec(P(i.398525057 TO049 0.12734592 1. for i=1:NPoints.1)(3*(e^2)/8+3*(e^4)/32+45*(e^6)/1024)*sin(2*P(i.525 160. ed=realsqrt((e^2)/(1-e^2)).1)=(L(i.138479385 1.1))+(15*(e^4)/256+45*(e^6)/1 024)*sin(4*P(i.117058023 1.1)=((h(i. H(i.41079944 TO083 0.172 1031.1)=ko*(1+(1+C(i.9999238418.416504209 TO074 0.1)^2)/2+(5-4*T(i.1)-Lo)*cos(P(i.1))-v(i)).

65 659.3)=1.083 308.126276319 0. Xo.118222518 0.1)=Yn(i). C(i*2-1.6)=1.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka TO089 TO090 TO096 TO097 TO099 TO103 TO108 TO038 TO039 TO056 TO057 TO060 TO080 TO091 TO092 TO093 TO098 TO100 TO110 0.362 167.398621264 1. Northing and New Easting.114843237 0.63 221.10676188 0. %Xn = a1Xo + b1Yo +c1 %Yn = d1Xo+ e1Yo +f1 %a1.40520118 1.813 701.109427705 0.396486129 1.47 197.126558351 1. clc clear NPoints=20. Xn.234 281. Yo.395587192 1.777 Poly1_20.145362156 0.398232771 1.399767791 1.400839444 1.4)=Xo(i).405275875 1.2)=Yo(i).400467231 1.'%s %f %f %f %f'). Other 12 points %used as check points. y(i*2-1. for i=1:NPoints %Populating y matrix(new system coordinates).109679625 0.452 402.472 53.38 724. M=C*P.132345015 0.991 157. for i=1:NPoints %Populating coefficients matrix(old system coordinates) C(i*2-1.401845888 1.125750119 0.155 408.b1.5)=Yo(i). C(i*2.1)=Xo(i).1).146 112.107651129 0. C(i*2.6).401457298 1. C(i*2.140956835 0.398068278 1.396580697 1.d1.872 36. C(i*2-1.%computing coefficients of the polynomial using least square method.206 430.110509383 0.txt'.405444257 1. end P=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y). y(i*2. Yn]=textread('con20. 52 . Northing [PI.12794605 0.408083999 1.254 521. %Used 20 points of 32 points to compute the parameters.c1.879 54.412185331 1.10628212 0.11630108 0.118316543 0.935 1775.1)=Xn(i).41589767 1. C=zeros(NPoints*2.m %Program to compute parameters of the first order polynomial.397193325 31. %computing new coordinates of the used control points using computed parameters.403233932 1. end y=zeros(NPoints*2.106843707 0.106903407 0.e1 and f1 are parameters. format long %Reading coordinates of 20 control points of 32 points %Old easting.

Cx1=round((Cx)*1000). end L=(Cb*P). of check points = 12.244 322604. Northing [pI. Northing and New Easting.1)=L(i*2-1)+300000. of the computed new coordinates end %rounding up the residuals to last millimeter. Rx(i.294 187091.3)=1.1)=M(i*2-1)+300000.1)=Xn(i)-M(i*2-1). Rx1=round((Rx)*1000). Cy1=round((Cy)*1000).%computing coordinates of the new system using computed parameters.txt' T0034 TO037 TO040 TO047 168187.1)=L(i*2)+300000.1)-xn(i. %Old easting.5)=yo(i).4)=xo(i). BPoints=12. %Populating coefficient matrix with the check points (old system) coordinates. report value ) to last 'con20. yo. Cx2=Cx1/1000.897 388681. Ry(i. Ry1=round((Ry)*1000). Ry2=Ry1/1000.240 129237.016 140581.1). Rx2=Rx1/1000.2)=yo(i). Cb=zeros(BPoints*2. for i=1:BPoints Ec(i. end %rounding up the differences( computed value millimeter.6).%difference in Northing between issued and computed values in new system.187 319904.111 140580.615 168187. Cy(i. Nc(i. Dy(i. Cb(i*2-1.1)-yn(i. Dx(i.%difference in Easting between issued and computed values in new system.'%s %f %f %f %f').883 346092.1)=yo(i.1)=xn(i)-L(i*2-1).332 129238.%difference in Easting between new and old. Cy2=Cy1/1000.098 187091.298 322603. Er(i.1)=Yn(i)-M(i*2).Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka for i=1:NPoints % computing the residuals of points. Cb(i*2-1. Cb(i*2.%difference in Northing between new and old. %Reading coordinates of the 12 check points.701 319906.1). % no.877 53 . Nr(i.1)=yn(i)-L(i*2). yn]=textread('restcon_12. Cb(i*2.6)=1.952 388677. Cx(i. Cb(i*2. xn.1)=xo(i). for i=1:BPoints Cb(i*2-1.544 346094.1)=xo(i. xo.1)=M(i*2)+300000.txt'.

939 227792.m3.084 141500.362 189543.754 171274.092 222688.520 129543.213 255044.553 124310. Yo.m2.064 110504.847 Poly1_Mean20.436 119248.977 147551.022 126058.m4.899 242854.205 171278.txt'.457 303275.994 'restcon_12.858 252633.615 126077.570 126061.388 215534.375 255044. 54 .552 120804.718 158791.441 264417.807 136960.txt' TO038 TO039 TO056 TO057 TO060 TO080 TO091 TO092 TO093 TO098 TO100 TO110 171879. Other 12 points %used as check points.178 162775.955 227792.035 129546.186 110504.806 175580.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka TO049 TO053 TO058 TO061 TO073 TO074 TO078 TO082 TO083 TO089 TO090 TO096 TO097 TO099 TO103 TO108 115003.618 158073.979 102843.570 303276.635 131998.461 172808.219 242853.251 300230.053 166515.772 186755.465 171880.249 243742.m %Duduct the mean of the coordinate from each value.792 225982.826 116680.005 150146.883 156732.912 203967.573 300229.215 143671.946 120674.471 232730.280 102354.347 153572.796 189548.001 172813.709 102841.834 126080.269 116681.629 318988. Yom=mean(Yo). %Program to compute parameters of the first order polynomial.305 158073. Xom=mean(Xo).213 346872.344 103223. format long %Reading coordinates of 20 control points of 32 points %Old easting. Ynm=mean(Yn).589 318990.379 103225.415 346870.555 115004.425 116116.445 203967.431 147548.962 102358. clc clear NPoints=20.509 239090.858 162774.910 120675. Xn.537 131999. Northing [PI.179 156733.771 120805.931 232730.m5 and m6 are parameters.436 107953. Northing and New Easting.158 166516.078 124309.259 174921.808 236575.022 239092.075 107952.'%s %f %f %f %f'). Xnm=mean(Xn).405 116116.848 222689.588 236574. Yn]=textread('Coord_20.136 119251. %Duducting the mean of the coordinate from each value. Xo.564 99273. % %Xn = m1Xo + m2Yo +m3 %Yn = m4Xo+ m5Yo +m6 %m1.777 167569.157 225982.572 136960.931 127264.938 215533.911 127263.294 243742.519 153574.628 210971.558 143670.830 186758.771 252633. %Used 20 points of 32 points to compute the parameters.474 175581.124 174921.619 210971.360 206758.897 264416.964 141499.322 150146.345 167569.801 206759.367 158795.969 99274.

end P=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y). xnc(i.1)=Xn(i)-(L(i*2-1)+Xnm).%computing coefficients of the polynomial using least square method. C(i*2.1)+m3. end %rounding up the residuals to last millimeter.1)=xn(i)-xnc(i).2)=Yo(i)-Yom.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka C=zeros(NPoints*2.1)=Yn(i)-Ynm. y(i*2.1)=yn(i)-ync(i). Cy1=round((Cy)*1000). end %rounding up the differences( computed value . %computing of original parameters for original polynomial shown below. Rx(i.6)=1.3)=1.'%s %f %f %f %f'). Ry(i.1)=xn(i)-xo(i)-300000. Nc(i.1)=L(i*2)+Ynm.%difference in Northing between issued and computed values in new system.%difference in Easting between new and old.report value ) to last millimeter.%computing new coordinates of the used control points using computed parameters. %Populating y matrix(new system coordinates). for i=1:NPoints% computing the residuals of the computed new coordinates of points. Cx1=round((Cx)*1000). Cy(i. C(i*2-1. C(i*2-1.1)=yn(i)-yo(i)-300000.1)=Xn(i)-Xnm.4)=Xo(i)-Xom.%difference in Easting between issued and computed values in new system. %Yn = a4Xo+ a5Yo +a6. Rx2=Rx1/1000. L=C*P. m3=P(3)+Xnm-P(1)*Xom-P(2)*Yom.1)=Yn(i)-(L(i*2)+Ynm). Ry1=round((Ry)*1000).txt'.1)=L(i*2-1)+Xnm.1)=P(4)*xo(i)+P(5)*yo(i.1)=P(1)*xo(i)+P(2)*yo(i.1)+m6.6). xo. yn]=textread('Coord_12. for i=1:BPoints %computing coordinates of the new system using computed parameters.5)=Yo(i)-Yom. ync(i. for i=1:NPoints y(i*2-1. Ry2=Ry1/1000. end y=zeros(NPoints*2.1). yo. [pI. Cx(i. BPoints=12. Rx1=round((Rx)*1000).1)=Xo(i)-Xom. %Populating coefficients matrix(old system coordinates) for i=1:NPoints C(i*2-1. C(i*2. xn. dE(i. 55 .%difference in Northing between new and old. C(i*2. Ec(i. dN(i. %Xn = a1Xo + a2Yo +a3. m6=P(6)+Ynm-P(4)*Xom-P(5)*Yom.

269 116681. 'Coord_20.962 402358.964 141499.332 429238.375 555044.240 129237.977 147551. b3.064 410504.572 436960.555 468187.552 120804.186 110504.718 458791.362 489543.589 318990.259 474921.431 447548.897 115003.294 543742. d3.075 107952.808 536575.899 242854.826 416680.092 222688.a3. e2 . d2.537 431999.570 126061.474 475581.931 532730.379 403225.619 510971.938 515533.709 402841.078 124309.157 525982.436 119248.994 'Coord_12. b2.465 471880.969 99274.124 174921.111 140580.806 175580.777 167569.098 187091.553 424310.436 407953.179 456733.858 252633.946 120674.022 426058.564 399273.178 462775.807 136960.754 471274.461 472808.618 458073.830 186758. c3.344 103223.558 443670.187 619904.952 415004. c2.635 131998.897 564416.834 426080.298 622603. f2 f3 and f3 are parameters %Used 20 points of 32 points to compute the parameters.244 322604.877 600229.345 467569.445 203967. Cy2=Cy1/1000.441 264417. 56 .931 427264.701 319906.215 143671.457 603275.796 189548.883 646092.m %Program to compute parameters of the second %Xn = a2Xo^2 + b2Yo^2 +c2 XoYo+ d2Xo + e2Yo+ %Yn = a3Xo^2 + b3Yo^2 +c3 XoYo+ d3Xo + e3Yo+ %a2.771 552633.415 646870.219 542853.388 215534.053 166515.955 227792.136 419251.158 466516.520 429543.213 346872.588 236574.405 416116.213 255044.772 486755. f2 .084 441500.544 346094.792 225982.001 172813.939 527792.205 171278.615 126077.573 688677.005 150146.471 232730.570 303276.519 453574.251 388681.847 Poly2_20.979 102843.347 153572. e3 order polynomial.801 206759.848 522689.367 158795.629 618988.txt' TO038 TO039 TO056 TO057 TO060 TO080 TO091 TO092 TO093 TO098 TO100 TO110 171879.615 300230.910 420675.360 506758.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Cx2=Cx1/1000.771 420805.425 116116.022 239092.911 127263.858 162774.294 487091. Other 12 points %used as check points.035 129546.883 156732.912 503967.509 539090.280 102354.txt' T0034 TO037 TO040 TO047 TO049 TO053 TO058 TO061 TO073 TO074 TO078 TO082 TO083 TO089 TO090 TO096 TO097 TO099 TO103 TO108 168187.249 243742.322 450146.305 158073.628 210971.016 440581.

57 . %Populating coefficients matrix(old system coordinates) for i=1:NPoints C(i*2-1. Cb(i*2-1. Cb=zeros(BPoints*2. C(i*2.txt'.1)=xo(i)^2.5)=Yo(i). C(i*2-1. Cb(i*2-1.10)=Xo(i).1). C(i*2-1.1)=Xn(i). Er(i.11)=Yo(i).txt'. yo. C(i*2. of check points = 12. C=zeros(NPoints*2. Yo. Rx1=round((Rx)*1000). Northing and New Easting. C(i*2-1.1)=M(i*2)+300000. for i=1:BPoints Cb(i*2-1. end y=zeros(NPoints*2. C(i*2-1.2)=yo(i)^2.6)=1.1)=Yn(i)-M(i*2).9)=Xo(i)*Yo(i). %Old easting. C(i*2. Ry1=round((Ry)*1000). Ry2=Ry1/1000. C(i*2.'%s %f %f %f %f'). xo. Yn]=textread('con20. Rx(i.1)=Xn(i)-M(i*2-1).12). Xo. C(i*2-1.1)=Xo(i)^2. C(i*2. Xn.%computing coefficients of the polynomial using least square method. for i=1:NPoints% computing the residuals of the computed new coordinates of points. Northing [PI.3)=xo(i)*yo(i). y(i*2-1. M=C*P. BPoints=12. C(i*2. for i=1:NPoints%Populating y matrix(new system coordinates).12). xn. end P=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y).4)=xo(i). %Reading coordinates of the 12 check points.2)=Yo(i)^2. Rx2=Rx1/1000. Northing and New Easting. end %rounding up the residuals to last millimeter.%computing new coordinates of the used control points using computed parameters.7)=Xo(i)^2. yn]=textread('restcon_12. %Populating coefficient matrix with the check points (old system) coordinates.12)=1.8)=Yo(i)^2.1)=M(i*2-1)+300000.1)=Yn(i). y(i*2. Cb(i*2-1. format long %Reading coordinates of 20 control points of 32 points %Old easting. Northing [pI.4)=Xo(i).Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka clc clear NPoints=20. % no.3)=Xo(i)*Yo(i). Ry(i.'%s %f %f %f %f'). Nr(i.

%difference in Easting between new and old.12)=1. clc clear NPoints=20.1)=L(i*2)+300000.%computing coordinates of the new system using computed parameters. for i=1:BPoints Ec(i. Nc(i. Cx1=round((Cx)*1000). Cx(i.c12. 58 .Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Cb(i*2-1. C(i*2-1.5)=Xo(i)^2. report value ) to last Poly3_20.c2.'%s %f %f %f %f').%difference in Northing between new and old.c10.6)=1.c18.c8. Cb(i*2. Cb(i*2.5)=yo(i).10)=xo(i).c19 and c20 % are parameters %Used 20 points of 32 points to compute the parameters.1)=Xo(i)^3.20).11)=yo(i).1)=L(i*2-1)+300000. Northing [PI. Cy2=Cy1/1000. Xn. dN=yo-yn. C(i*2-1. Northing and New Easting.7)=Xo(i)*Yo(i). Cx2=Cx1/1000. Cb(i*2.c6. Xo.txt'. C(i*2-1. Cy(i. dE=xo-xn.4)=Xo(i)*(Yo(i)^2).2)=Yo(i)^3.6)=Yo(i)^2.1)=yn(i)-L(i*2). Yo.c9. C(i*2-1.1)=xn(i)-L(i*2-1). Cy1=round((Cy)*1000). C(i*2-1. C(i*2-1. Cb(i*2-1.8)=Xo(i).3)=(Xo(i)^2)*Yo(i). Cb(i*2.c13.9)=xo(i)*yo(i).c4. Yn]=textread('con20.c16.8)=yo(i)^2.m %Program to compute parameters of the third order polynomial.7)=xo(i)^2. end %rounding up the differences( computed value millimeter. format long %Reading coordinates of 20 control points of 32 points %Old easting.c5. Other 12 points %used as check points. C=zeros(NPoints*2. C(i*2-1.c14.c15. Cb(i*2.c7. Cb(i*2. %Xn = c1Xo^3 + c2Yo^3+c3Xo^2Yo+c4XoYo^2+c5Xo^2+c6Yo^2+c7XoYo+c8Xo+c9Yo+c10 % %Yn = c11Xo^3 + c12Yo^3+c13Xo^2Yo+c14XoYo^2+c15Xo^2+c16Yo^2+c17XoYo+c18Xo+c19Yo+c20 %c1.c17.c3. %Populating coefficients matrix(old system coordinates) for i=1:NPoints C(i*2-1.c11.%difference in Easting between issued and computed values in new system. end L=(Cb*P).%difference in Northing between issued and computed values in new system.

end %rounding up the residuals to last millimeter.13)=(Xo(i)^2)*Yo(i).12)=yo(i)^3. C(i*2.10)=1.1)=M(i*2-1)+300000. Cb(i*2. Ry(i.%computing new coordinates of the used control points using computed parameters. C(i*2.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka C(i*2-1.%computing coefficients of the polynomial using least square method. Cb(i*2-1. %Populating coefficient matrix with the check points (old system) coordinates.1). %Populating y matrix(new system coordinates).12)=Yo(i)^3. of check points = 12.13)=(xo(i)^2)*yo(i).1)=Xn(i).18)=Xo(i).14)=xo(i)*(yo(i)^2). Ry2=Ry1/1000. end y=zeros(NPoints*2.10)=1.1)=Yn(i). C(i*2-1. Cb(i*2-1.1)=xo(i)^3.'%s %f %f %f %f').15)=xo(i)^2. Cb(i*2-1. Cb(i*2. C(i*2. C(i*2. Northing [pI. for i=1:NPoints% computing the residuals of the computed new coordinates of points. Ry1=round((Ry)*1000).9)=Yo(i). for i=1:NPoints y(i*2-1.14)=Xo(i)*(Yo(i)^2).20).4)=xo(i)*(yo(i)^2). y(i*2.3)=(xo(i)^2)*yo(i). Northing and New Easting.20)=1. C(i*2.16)=yo(i)^2. Cb(i*2. M=C*P. xo.1)=Xn(i)-M(i*2-1). Rx(i. C(i*2. BPoints=12. for i=1:BPoints Cb(i*2-1.11)=xo(i)^3. C(i*2. Cb(i*2-1. Cb(i*2. %Reading coordinates of the 12 check points.8)=xo(i). C(i*2. yo.19)=Yo(i). % no. Cb(i*2-1.16)=Yo(i)^2.9)=yo(i).1)=M(i*2)+300000. end P=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y). Cb(i*2. xn. %Old easting.17)=Xo(i)*Yo(i). Er(i. Rx1=round((Rx)*1000).6)=yo(i)^2. yn]=textread('restcon_12.7)=xo(i)*yo(i). C(i*2. C(i*2. Cb(i*2-1. Cb(i*2-1.15)=Xo(i)^2. 59 .1)=Yn(i)-M(i*2). Cb(i*2-1.11)=Xo(i)^3. Nr(i. Cb=zeros(BPoints*2. Rx2=Rx1/1000.5)=xo(i)^2.2)=yo(i)^3. Cb(i*2-1.txt'. Cb(i*2.

txt'.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Cb(i*2.%difference in Northing between new and old. 60 . Cy(i.2)=Yom(i)^3.c11. Yo. Northing [PI.17)=xo(i)*yo(i).c13.c12.c5. Cx1=round((Cx)*1000). Poly3_20_modified.c2.3)=(Xom(i)^2)*Yom(i). C(i*2-1. format long %Reading coordinates of 20 control points of 32 points %Old easting.c8. Nc(i. DYn=(Yn-Yo-300000). Xn. Northing and New Easting. clc clear NPoints=20.%difference in Easting between new and old. Cx(i. DXn=(Xn-Xo-300000). %Xn = c1Xo^3 + c2Yo^3+c3Xo^2Yo+c4XoYo^2+c5Xo^2+c6Yo^2+c7XoYo+c8Xo+c9Yo+c10 % %Yn = c11Xo^3 + c12Yo^3+c13Xo^2Yo+c14XoYo^2+c15Xo^2+c16Yo^2+c17XoYo+c18Xo+c19Yo+c20 %c1.1)=L(i*2)+300000. Cy1=round((Cy)*1000). C=zeros(NPoints*2.m %Program to compute parameters of the third order polynomial(modfied Type). end %rounding up the differences( computed value %millimeter.c3. for i=1:BPoints Ec(i. Other 12 points %used as check points. Cy2=Cy1/1000.'%s %f %f %f %f').20).%difference in Easting between issued and computed values in new system.19)=yo(i).c15.c18.c4. %Populating coefficients matrix(old system coordinates) for i=1:NPoints C(i*2-1.c7. C(i*2-1.20)=1. Cb(i*2.c9.c6.1)=Xom(i)^3. Xom=(Xo-200000)/100000.c14. Yom=(Yo-200000)/100000.%computing coordinates of the new system using computed parameters.c10.c17. Cb(i*2.1)=yn(i)-L(i*2).1)=L(i*2-1)+300000.c16. Yn]=textread('Coord_20.1)=xn(i)-L(i*2-1). Cx2=Cx1/1000. report value ) to last dE=xo-xn.c19 and c20 % are parameters %Used 20 points of 32 points to compute the parameters. Xo. Cb(i*2. end L=(Cb*P).%difference in Northing between issued and computed values in new system.18)=xo(i). dN=yo-yn.

Er(i.1)=xom(i)^3.5)=xom(i)^2. %Populating coefficient matrix with the check points (old system) coordinates. Cb(i*2-1. C(i*2. %Populating y matrix(new system coordinates). end y=zeros(NPoints*2. Cb=zeros(BPoints*2. C(i*2-1. for i=1:BPoints Cb(i*2-1.7)=Xom(i)*Yom(i).1)=DM(i*2-1)+Xo(i)+300000.1). C(i*2.1)=Yn(i)-300000-Yo(i). C(i*2-1.19)=Yom(i). C(i*2. C(i*2.17)=Xom(i)*Yom(i). xom=(xo-200000)/100000. Cb(i*2-1. C(i*2-1. Northing and New Easting.9)=Yom(i). end %rounding up the residuals to last millimeter.2)=yom(i)^3.6)=Yom(i)^2.15)=Xom(i)^2. xn. C(i*2.14)=Xom(i)*(Yom(i)^2).1)=DM(i*2)+Yo(i)+300000.4)=xom(i)*(yom(i)^2). for i=1:NPoints y(i*2-1. Rx1=round((Rx)*1000). yo.12)=Yom(i)^3. Cb(i*2-1. Cb(i*2-1.10)=1. Rx(i.3)=(xom(i)^2)*yom(i). %Old easting. Ry(i. C(i*2-1. C(i*2-1. C(i*2. BPoints=12.5)=Xom(i)^2.4)=Xom(i)*(Yom(i)^2). C(i*2.16)=Yom(i)^2. end P=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y).18)=Xom(i). %Reading coordinates of the 12 check points. y(i*2. xo. of check points = 12. C(i*2-1. Rx2=Rx1/1000. C(i*2. C(i*2.11)=Xom(i)^3.20)=1. Northing [pI.txt'. yom=(yo-200000)/100000.%computing coefficients of the polynomial using least square method. Ry2=Ry1/1000. Nr(i.1)=Xn(i)-300000-Xo(i).Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka C(i*2-1. Ry1=round((Ry)*1000). DM=C*P.%computing new coordinates of the used control points using computed parameters. 61 .20).1)=Xn(i)-(DM(i*2-1)+Xo(i)+300000).8)=Xom(i). % no. C(i*2. yn]=textread('Coord_12.13)=(Xom(i)^2)*Yom(i).'%s %f %f %f %f').1)=Yn(i)-(DM(i*2)+Yo(i)+300000). for i=1:NPoints% computing the residuals of the computed new coordinates of points.

%difference in Northing between new and old.912. y=[688677.619. Cy2=Cy1/1000.3. end dm=(Cb*P).420675.0.657.055. Cb(i*2.450146.429238.178.939.%computing coordinates of the new system using computed parameters.931.826.0.600229 .539090.475.520.771.345.416116.296.573.419251. Cb(i*2. 402841.10)=1.467569.457.458073. Cb(i*2.162.962.513.%difference in Northing between issued and computed values in new system. Cb(i*2.02.084.441500.771.179.12)=yom(i)^3. Nc(i. Cb(i*2-1.415004 .360.515.6)=yom(i)^2.064.994].754.-2.536575. Cx1=round((Cx)*1000).1.486755.474.12.51 9. Error_Vector_plot. report value ) to last dE=xn-xo-300000. Cx(i.426058.564416.-1.1)=yn(i)-(dm(i*2)+yo(i)+300000).552633.533.0.-4.15)=xom(i)^2.0. 62 .429543.427264.7)=xom(i)*yom(i).022.095.11)=xom(i)^3.420805.471880.629.436.407953.1. Cb(i*2.462775.952.20)=1.646092.13)=(xom(i)^2)*yom(i).187. Cy1=round((Cy)*1000).506758.424310.564.136.-1.834.294.17)=xom(i)*yom(i).016.0.157.19)=yom(i).158.931.474921. Cx2=Cx1/1000.399273.0. Cb(i*2-1.093.527792.48 9543.443670.294.1.426080.322.555044.-2.1)=dm(i*2)+yo(i)+300000.410504. dN=yn-yo-300000.503967. %differences of coordinates are used as error vector component of the corresponding points and to plot the resultant vector clc clear x=[468187.541.440581.553.443.18)=xom(i).402358.-1.14)=xom(i)*(yom(i)^2).219. Cb(i*2. Cb(i*2-1.558.487091.5109 71.106.m %Program to plot the Differences of SL old and SLD99 coordinates. u=[0.9)=yom(i).0.16)=yom(i)^2.379.649.1.0.-0.848.471274. 416680. Cb(i*2-1.546.431.415].321.-4.532730.362.375.058.458791.572. Cb(i*2.709.466516.718.622603.537.441.447548.1.1)=dm(i*2-1)+xo(i)+300000.618.938.619904.-2.123.332.461.259.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Cb(i*2-1.453574.-0.196.883.456733.515533.%difference in Easting between issued and computed values in new system.02.877.897.-3.618988.405.45.434.646870.910.403225.603275. Cy(i.8)=xom(i).472808. Cb(i*2.475581.035.0.32.548.436960.772.543742.568].0. Cb(i*2.317. Cb(i*2.525982.55. end %rounding up the differences( computed value millimeter.1)=xn(i)-(dm(i*2-1)+xo(i)+300000).431999.522689.-0.-2.-4.808.%difference in Easting between new and old.213. for i=1:BPoints Ec(i.5428 53.298.509.0.766.

0. Northing and New Easting. Nr(i.2.36.0. %computing new coordinates of the used control points using computed parameters.659.865.0.u. %Populating coefficients matrix(old system coordinates) for i=1:NPoints C(i*2-1.m %Consider the control points in Northern area.008.756. end of the computed new coordinates for i=1:NPoints% computing the residuals of points.0.0. %Old easting.1)=L(i*2)+300000.-1.5)=Yo(i).319.946. end y=zeros(NPoints*2. Yn]=textread('Poly1_8Northern. C(i*2.0.1)=Xo(i).7. %Program to compute parameters of the first order polynomial.a2.0.1)=Xn(i)-L(i*2-1).78. Ry(i. clc clear NPoints=8.514.218.y. C(i*2.1)=Yn(i)-L(i*2).3.v). Xo.1)=Xn(i)-Xo(i).529].661.405.46.312.365.-2.2.6).3)=1.0.113.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka v=[-3.4)=Xo(i).45.32.0.432. Rx(i.a5 and a6 are parameters.0.73.1)=Yn(i)-Yo(i). y(i*2. %Yn = a4Xo+ a5Yo +a6. Poly1_Northern8_final.961. C(i*2-1.-0.a3.1)=Yn(i). Northing [PI. quiver(x. dE(i.1.-0.1.-1.034.0.-1.txt'. L=(C*P).1)=Xn(i).3.-1.6)=1. format long %Reading coordinates of 8 control points.22. for i=1:NPoints y(i*2-1.1.-1. Xn. Yo. %a1.-1. %Populating y matrix(new system coordinates). dN(i.984.a4.%computing coefficients of the polynomial using least square method.088.-1.738.1)=L(i*2-1)+300000.'%s %f %f %f %f').0.2)=Yo(i).172. C=zeros(NPoints*2. C(i*2-1. for i=1:NPoints% computing the residuals of points. Er(i.098. C(i*2. end P=(inv(C'*C))*(C'*y). %Used 10 points to compute the parameters.1.456. of the computed new coordinates 63 .1). %Xn = a1Xo + a2Yo +a3.668.-0.

405 143670.064 131999.977 129546.1)=L(i*2)+300000.955 175580.994 Poly1_8western.912 255044.830 210971.801 215534.332 129238.952 115004.848 252633.1)=Yn(i)-L(i*2).035 172813.520 172808.Finding out Transformation Parameters and Evaluation of new Coordinate System in Sri Lanka Er(i.075 158073.911 187091.938 203967.379 103225.179 150146.158 127264.701 319906.436 119248.092 186755. Rx(i.474 162775.946 116116.111 140580.219 388677.084 141500.445 255044.txt TO073 TO078 TO080 TO082 242854.txt' T0034 TO037 TO038 TO039 TO040 TO047 TO049 TO061 168187.205 171278.553 156733.471 236574.136 119251.962 107953.347 126077.635 242853.969 99274.txt TO053 TO056 TO057 TO058 TO060 TO074 TO108 TO110 64 124309. dN(i.098 171879.1)=Xn(i)-L(i*2-1).939 175581.053 127263.570 264417.629 318988.294 171880.441 232730.628 168187.465 124310.157 225982.305 174921.178 153574.362 189543.537 TO083 TO089 TO090 TO091 TO092 TO093 TO096 TO097 TO098 TO099 TO100 TO103 186758.022 126058.615 300230.807 136960.269 147551.796 189548.772 210971.858 303276.322 166516.979 102843.847 .016 140581.1)=Xn(i)-Xo(i).931 236575.618 174921. end 'Poly1_8Northern.375 110504.806 162774.509 239090.877 300229.570 126061.834 102358.572 136960.425 143671.249 167569.771 303275.808 322603.005 166515.558 116680.022 239092.244 346872.826 147548.1)=L(i*2-1)+300000.754 171274.436 158073.589 318990.187 319904.415 252633.431 129543.344 103223.544 346094.367 158795.883 346092.883 150146.931 187091. Nr(i.910 116116.771 120805.718 158791.573 120675.555 227792.461 206758.213 227792.777 222688.345 222689.186 131998.213 110504.298 346870.457 264416.078 156732.964 141499.1)=Yn(i)-Yo(i).001 206759.709 102841.259 243742.294 167569.388 203967.519 126080.792 225982.280 107952.858 153572. Ry(i.215 116681.251 120674.124 243742.588 322604.619 Poly1_4eastern.897 232730.360 215533.240 129237.899 388681.564 99273.897 115003.552 120804. dE(i.615 102354.