DETR Framework Project: Support for Government Policies on Sustainable Development

Addendum to BRE Methodology for Environmental Profiles of Construction Materials, Components and Buildings

Prepared by: Jane Anderson and Suzy Edwards Centre for Sustainable Construction July 2000

BRE Bucknalls Lane Garston Watford WD2 7JR Tel: 01923 64000 Fax: 01923 664010 Email: enquiries@bre.co.uk.

© Building Research Establishment Ltd 2000

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Executive Summary
This report is to be read in conjunction with the BRE Methodology for Environmental Profiles of Construction Materials, Components and Buildings report, BR 3701. The BRE “Methodology for Environmental Profiles of Construction Materials, Components and Buildings” (Howard, Edwards & Anderson, 1999) was published in June 1999. Since then BRE have continued their research into the Life Cycle Assessment of construction materials and other LCA methodologies, with the intention of improving the Environmental Profiles Methodology. Particular attention has been directed to the later stages of the life cycle of building materials, from the factory gate to the construction site, over the building life and including the end of life. The Environmental Profiles Methodology has been advanced in four main areas where it previously made use of simple assumptions or did not include data, and this addendum describes how the methodology can now be applied. The aim has been to ensure that the Methodology is representative of current UK activity and gives a fair representation for all construction materials. The areas are as follows: 1. Transport to Site: The Methodology has now been advanced to more closely reflect the actual transport impacts associated with the transport from Factory Gate to Site for particular products. 2. Construction Process: The Methodology will seek to incorporate wastage of construction materials on site when robust information is available. 3. Lifetime Impacts: The Methodology has been advanced to more accurately reflect the replacement within elements through the adoption of a revised formula that uses fractions for calculating replacement rates. The Methodology has been extended to include cleaning. Data sets for the maintenance, cleaning and replacement of building materials have been also been established. 4. Demolition and Disposal: The Methodology has been advanced to provide data on disposal streams of construction materials to be used in Environmental Profiles. As European methods and data relating to the impacts arising from waste disposal develop, BRE will seek to incorporate them into the Environmental Profiles Methodology.

The Environmental Profile Methodology will and must continue to adapt to accommodate new data and new science. Continued collaboration with UK material producers and users and with other research bodies overseas is an important part of that process
1

BR370 may be purchased, priced £40, from BRE on 01923 664307

1

CONTENTS
page Introduction Summary of Changes to Environmental Profiles Methodology 1. Transport From Factory Gate to Site 2. Construction Process 3. Lifetime Impacts 4. Demolition and Disposal Bibliography Appendices 3 4 6 11 12 15 18 19

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Introduction
The BRE “Methodology for Environmental Profiles of Construction Materials, Components and Buildings” (Howard, Edwards & Anderson, 1999) was published in June 1999. Since then research has continued into current practice in the UK construction industry and into work on LCA methodologies overseas, with the intention of making the Methodology more accurate with respect to the products it assesses and to remain up to date with best international practice. Particular focus has been placed on the later stages of the life cycle, which occur once the product has left the factory. A paper produced at the end of the original Environmental Profiles Project (Construction Materials and the Environment, A Survey of Life Cycle Information Data, ENP 98/7) identified four areas within the boundaries of the Environmental Profiles Methodology as subjects for continuing investigation. They were: 1. 2. 3. 4. Transportation: Construction Process: Replacement and Maintenance. Demolition and Disposal.

As with the original Environmental Profiles Methodology, BRE worked with representatives of the construction materials industry to obtain a consensus on development of these areas of the methodology. This addendum to the BRE Methodology describes in detail the changes to the Environmental Profiles Methodology. These changes are described relative to the existing Environmental Profiles methodology described by Howard, Edwards & Anderson (1999). During research, data was sought to represent current UK activity and continue the practice of the Environmental Profiles Methodology to fairly represent all construction materials. The progress of the work has been monitored by a steering group of 20 representatives from the construction materials sector. The full list of these representatives is provided in Appendix D. This addendum together with the main Methodology Report represents the state of play at July 2000.

3

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Summary of Changes to Environmental Profiles Methodology
The aim of the Environmental Profiles Methodology is to set out the principles to be followed in undertaking a Life Cycle Assessment study of a construction material. The methodology sets out the procedures and information required in order to undertake the study. It does not provide data accumulated from materials already studied, except in order to demonstrate the process. Data on materials are held on the Environmental Profiles Database. The July 2000 changes to the June 1999 Environmental Profiles Methodology are summarised below. Full details of these changes can be found in the relevant chapters that follow. Transport The data used to calculate transport impacts from the factory gate to construction site in Environmental Profiles is now assessed by means of a questionnaire. Where data is not supplied, the Methodology has been advanced as follows: • The distance of each journey is still taken from the ‘average haul’ from the DETR Transport Statistics (e.g. DETR 1996) for given vehicle type and commodity transported. • The number of journeys each material makes between leaving the factory gate and arriving on site is calculated using a factor based on data from previous survey responses. • The goods moved by each type of vehicle for a material’s commodity type are used to weight the average fuel consumption for a journey. • The size of the vehicle’s load of each product is a based on the typical load for a material’s commodity type (taken from DETR transport statistics). • A 30% chance of an empty return journey is presumed for materials deliveries unless other evidence is presented by BRE or the manufacturer. Construction Waste It has been recognised that the Methodology should be updated to allow for materials wastage during the construction process. Profiles for built elements will account for this waste by increasing the amount of material required to build each element by an appropriate percentage. Maintenance BRE Methodology now includes typical cleaning of building elements over their lifetimes. Replacement Material replacement rates will be calculated as fractions based on building life and material lifetimes. BRE’s replacement rates continue to reflect actual lifetimes in use.

Waste Streams A method to account for disposal streams of demolition waste is established for use in Environmental Profiles. New data in this area will be used for allocating disposal impacts to elements.

4

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Waste Disposal Following further investigation, there is no change to the BRE Methodology. However, BRE will continue to monitor international developments in LCA methods for waste disposal and incorporate more detailed techniques as these become available.

5

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

1. Transport From Factory Gate to Site
BRE’s previous Environmental Profiles approach calculated transportation impacts from the factory gate to site based on the following pieces of data sourced from DETR Transport Statistics (e.g. DETR 1996): • • • • • The loaded distance of each journey – taken from the ‘average haul’ from the DETR Transport Statistics for the modal vehicle type (by tonne kms) and commodity transported. A single journey from the factory gate to site. The mode of transport for each journey based on the modal vehicle type for each commodity from DETR Transport Statistics. The size of the vehicle’s load of each product. This is a function of the modal vehicle size and material density. An empty return journey, which doubles the vehicle kms needed to make each delivery.

BRE were aware that a single journey from factory gate to site was often inappropriate, because of the use of depots and merchants. A transport survey has therefore been developed to provide a more accurate indication of transport. A copy is in Appendix A. The transport survey was circulated amongst Steering Group members. Based on their response, the previous Methodology has been adapted to account for transport where the questionnaire has not been completed or where the data is not complete. Loaded Delivery Distance The limited data on journey distances from the BRE survey are similar to the distance data from UK statistics. The differences between the BRE and UK data are of limited statistical significance. Where the transport survey does not provide data on the typical delivery distance from Factory Gate to site, the Environmental Profiles methodology will continue to use the average haul from the UK Transport Statistics. Better data may be used to alter the average journey distance in future. Number of Journeys In the previous Environmental Profiles Methodology, the number of journeys between factory gate and construction site was assumed to be 1. All the responses to BRE’s transport survey have produced data on the number of journeys between the factory gate and construction site and gave an average number of journeys of 1.5. Where the transport survey does not provide data on the number of journeys, a figure of 1.5 journeys between the factory gate and the construction site will be used until better data for individual materials emerges. Transport Mode In the survey responses only one material recorded transport by anything other than road. Unless the transport questionnaire provides other information BRE will continue to presume that the mode of transport is by lorry. Previously all road transport was assumed to be by vehicle of the modal size (by tonne kms). These sizes were based on DETR transport statistics and relate to different commodities. This assumption will now be revised.

6

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

The types of vehicle used are now subdivided into eight categories, each with a different fuel consumption rate per km (it is fuel consumption that determines the majority of environmental impacts). From these eight types, the average fuel consumption figure has been calculated for each commodity (averaged over the tonne km in each vehicle type). Vehicle Load The vehicle load was previously calculated from the modal vehicle size for each commodity type. In line with the extra detail being incorporated within the Vehicle Mode, the Environmental Profiles Methodology dealing with Vehicle Load has also been improved. From the eight vehicle types, an average vehicle capacity figure has been calculated for each commodity type (averaged over the tonne km in each vehicle type). For each individual material, the vehicle load will be calculated based on the density and the capacity of the typical vehicle for its commodity type.
Table 1.4 Vehicle Mass Capacity for Transportation Calculations Vehicle Class (GLW) Rigid Lorry < 7.5t 7.5t – 14t 14t – 17t 17t – 25t > 25t Articulated Lorry < 30t 30t – 33t > 33t Typical Vehicle (GLW) 7t rigid lorry 14t rigid lorry 17t rigid lorry 25t rigid lorry 27t rigid lorry 25t articulated lorry 32t articulated lorry 38t articulated lorry Maximum net laden weight 4t 7.5t 9t 14t 16t 14 t 18 t 23 t

Source: DETR Transport Statistics 1996

Transport of freight by rail or container shipping are calculated using Environmental Profiles which show the impacts of transport for 1000 tonne kilometres. Because materials are containerised and transported in bulk by these methods, the same profile can apply to the transport of 1 tonne for 1000 kilometres, 1000 tonnes for 1 kilometre, or 50 tonnes for 20 kilometres etc. For these types of transport, no empty journeys are assumed, because the ship or locomotive is always assumed to pick up a new load at each port or depot.

7

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Table 1.5 Typical loads of Construction Materials of Different Materials by Vehicle Size <=7.5 tonnes Material Wood and cork Manufactures of metal Non ferrous metals Sand,gravel,clay & slag Other stone earths & minerals Cement & lime Glass, & ceramic products Plasters Other manufactured building materials 1.8 1.5 1.6 2.5 2.2 4.9 1.9 1.4 1.4 7.5-14 tonnes 2.7 2.5 3.9 3.7 3.8 4.1 2.3 n/a 2.4 Rigid 14-17 tonnes 5.3 4.7 4.4 8.8 8.0 5.9 4.3 1.7 5.2 17-25 tonnes 4.8 5.4 5.8 14.8 14.9 12.1 6.8 10.9 9.4 25+ tonnes 9.9 6.3 4.3 18.8 18.5 15.0 9.4 n/a 15.3 <= 30 tonnes 8.4 5.2 5.4 10.0 n/a n/a 6.4 n/a 6.1 Artic 30-33 tonnes 10.4 8.7 7.8 16.1 13.6 18.2 11.1 n/a 10.8 33+ tonnes 19.3 12.8 19.5 23.7 23.8 23.6 16.8 22.2 19.4

Source: DETR Transport Statistics 1996 Nature of Return Journey The 100% empty return journey as default from the Factory Gate to Site has now been revised to a 30% empty journey, with higher or lower defaults where evidence suggests this is necessary. Summary of Changes to Transport Methodology The data used to calculate transport impacts from the factory gate to construction site in Environmental Profiles (Appendix A) is now based on the data provided by the manufacturer in the Transport Questionnaire. Where this data is inadequate, assumptions will be used as follows: • • • The distance of each journey is will be taken from the ‘average haul’ from the DETR Transport Statistics (e.g. DETR 1996) for given vehicle type and commodity transported. The number of journeys each material makes between leaving the factory gate and arriving on site will be 1.5. The mode of transport for each journey will be based on the range of vehicles (taken from DETR transport statistics) used to transport each category of material. This will be used to assess the fuel consumption and the size of the vehicle’s load of each product. A 30% chance of an empty return journey is presumed unless other evidence is provided.

8

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Calculating Transportation Impacts A Characterised and Normalised Profile for 1000 kms of typical transport modes has been added within the BRE Environmental Profiles database, together with guidance for their use, repeated below. An example Profile, for a 33 tonne articulated lorry is shown in Appendix C. This relates to a laden or unladen journey of 1000 kms. By taking account of the load of the vehicle, the Environmental Profile can be calculated for the per tonne transport impacts of any given material and distance using that vehicle type. To obtain the Environmental Profile for the transport of 1 tonne of material 1000 kms in a typically laden vehicle, it is necessary to divide the impacts from the vehicle’s journey by the mass of the typical load transported in that journey. For the majority of materials, the mass of the typical load is very close to the maximum net laden weight of the vehicle, even if this means that the volume of the lorry is not totally utilised. The exceptions to this are very lightweight materials such as insulation. However, transport of these materials can utilise specially adapted vehicles which increase the volume of load carried (e.g. an HGV towing a second trailer). The steps for calculating the Environmental Profile for the transport of a given mass of material (M) over a given distance (D), are as follows. An example, for an articulated lorry of over 33 tonnes is given later. 1. Select the Environmental Profile for a 1000 km journey for the mode of transport being considered, eg 33+ tonne articulated lorry. 2. Calculate the total distance for the chosen haul in kilometres by taking account of any empty return journey by multiplying D by a factor F. For example, the default assumption in the Methodology is that 30% of deliveries are followed by an empty return journey, so F=1.3. 3. Multiply the profile by FD/1000. (This is to allow for the original profile being for 1000 kms.) 4. Calculate the number of trips made by the lorry (T). This is equal to M/L, rounded up to the nearest integer, where L is the net load. L cannot be greater than the maximum net load for the vehicle, shown in the table 1.4 below. If the typical net load is not known, it can be taken from the DETR statistics shown in table 1.5. For lightweight materials (with a density less than about 225kg/m3), special conditions apply. 5 Multiply the profile by the number of trips, T. The Environmental Profile therefore equals the profile for the 1000 km journey, multiplied by FDT/1000, where T= M/L rounded up to the nearest integer. EXAMPLE Calculation for the transport of 100 tonnes of material, 80 km, by a fully laden Typical Large Truck (33+ tonne articulated lorry) carrying 23 tonnes of material, with a 30% chance of returning empty. Therefore M=100, D=80, L=23, F=1.3. 1. The Environmental Profile used gives the impacts I, produced by a 33+ tonne articulated vehicle, travelling 1000 lorry kms, laden or unladen. To account for empty return journeys; the lorry has a 30% probability of driving back empty from the delivery point to the start point to pick up a new load. Therefore F=1.3.

2.

9

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

3.

The Impacts I, are multiplied by the total journey distance (FD = 104) and divided by 1000. The number of trips T = M/L = 100/L. Because the lorry is fully laden, L = the net laden weight, in this case L = 23 tonnes. The net laden weight varies between different material types (see table 1.5). The number of trips = 100/23, rounded up to the nearest integer. 100/23 = 4.35 so T = 5. The result from 3. is multiplied by T = 5, as 5 trips will need to be made to transport 100 tonnes of material.

4.

5.

The impacts (I) for the transport of 100 tonnes of material, 80 km, by a fully laden Typical Large Truck (33+ tonne articulated lorry), therefore equals I*FD*T/1000 = I*104*5/1000 = 0.52 I. For example, in the Profile in Appendix D, the impact in the Climate Change category is 1300 kg of CO2 (100yr equivalent). This figure is multiplied by 0.52 and becomes 676 kg of CO2 (100yr equivalent). To obtain an Environmental Profile “per tonne” of material at the construction site, we need to divide the impacts of the whole journey to the site by the load M. This “per tonne” profile can then be used to compare or add the transport of a material to its “per tonne to the Factory Gate” Environmental Profile. Care must be taken to ensure that transport and other impact data for products are compared over the same functional units.

10

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

2. Construction Process
BRE’s Environmental Profiles Methodology previously assumed that the impacts of the construction process were small relative to the overall impacts of construction materials and were similar for most materials. They were thus omitted from consideration. Resources Used in Construction Various efforts are now being made measure the efficiency and productivity of the construction process. One such approach uses Calibre, a BRE tool which monitors labour performance on site, and has the ability to measure on-site resource consumption. To date, an insufficient number of sites have been monitored, to allow construction resources to be included in life cycle assessments for all construction products. There remain environmental impacts from construction sites which are significant to Environmental Profiles and which cannot be practically included in the Methodology at present (e.g. water pollution from construction sites). Environment Agency monitoring of construction sites is a potential future data source. Wastage Recent studies by the BRE’s Centre for Waste and Recycling using the new SmartWaste tool have affirmed the findings of earlier studies by CIRIA (1993) and Skoyles (1976) which showed that approximately 10% of materials brought to site were not used as specified. It is recognised that the materials in the Environmental Profiles database have a certain wastage rate (or percentage) associated with their use in the construction process. However, these studies have not been able to provide information that can been used robustly for all construction materials on a “level playing field”. BRE are engaging in further research in this area so that site wastage can be better accounted for in Environmental Profiles. This will be developed for existing building elements held within the database. For all new products, consultation with manufacturers and contractors will take place. Wastage rates are different for all materials and in different applications. For each material use, BRE will consult with materials producers and contractors to agree an appropriate figure for inclusion within elemental profiles. Profiles for built elements account for this waste by increasing the amount of material required to build each element by the appropriate percentage.

Summary of Changes to Construction Waste Methodology It has been recognised that the Methodology should be updated to allow for materials wastage during the construction process. Profiles for built elements will accommodate this waste by an increased amount of the materials required to build each element, by the appropriate percentage.

11

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

3. Lifetime Impacts
Environmental burdens arise from the maintenance and replacement of a building element through its lifetime. These two types of ongoing burdens are included in Profiles for 60yr building elements using new data. Maintenance: The BRE Methodology has previously only included ‘maintenance’ as repainting and re-varnishing of wooden surfaces. The Methodology will include all materials used for maintenance and cleaning of building elements over their 60 year life i.e. electricity, waste and detergents. Cleaning rates per annum and their associated resource consumption, and maintenance rates are shown in appendix B. Where Environmental Profiles for new materials are considered, typical data on the maintenance and cleaning required for the material or product will be assessed in consultation with the manufacturer or trade association. Although the resources used in cleaning are small, they are multiplied by a large factor when a building’s lifetime and internal surface area are fully accounted for. Initial studies indicate that cleaning accounts for at least 1.5% of a building’s total environmental impact over a 60 year lifetime. Were labour transport to be included, it is clear that the impact of cleaning would be much higher and the way the data is presented here would allow a transport factor to be included, should this be available at a later date. Summary of Changes to Maintenance Methodology BRE Methodology now includes typical cleaning of building elements over their lifetimes.

Replacement Lifetimes: Calculation Method The BRE Methodology use the ‘fractions’ method of calculating replacement rates for building elements. This will avoid step changes to results in models where the lifetime of the building can alter, such as ENVEST. Replacement factors will be calculated using the following formula: For first half of the element’s lifetime = Subsequently = building lifetime element lifetime 1 +

0.5

Fractions are used to reflect the ‘typical’ level of replacement. For example, if the building lifetime is 60 yrs and a element lifetime is 25 yrs, then the replacement factor is 2.9 (60/25 + 0.5 = 2.9). This reflects the probable number replacements for that element over the buildings life: there is a 90% chance that it will be replaced twice (replacement factor = 3) and a 10% chance it will be replaced once (replacement factor = 2). Replacement Rates When a replacement interval for a building element is less than the lifetime of the building, replacement will take place a certain number of times. Although elements

12

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

may be durable for many years (to when replacement must take place), BRE Methodology models actual lifetime, as replacement will be dictated by taste and building use. Elements that are fundamental to the building structure will have a lifetime that is equal to the building’s life. Other elements will have their replacement rates calculated from constituent material lifetimes, which may vary in different elemental contexts. BRE’s current material lifetimes are shown in appendix B. These lifetimes are used in 60 year building element Profiles. They are also a guide to the rates that may be used with Environmental Profiles for installed elements by individuals calculating lifetime elemental Profiles. Where Environmental Profiles for new materials are considered, typical data on the replacement intervals will be assessed by BRE in consultation with the manufacturer or trade association.

Summary of Changes to Replacement Methodology Material replacement rates will be calculated as fractions based on building life and material lifetimes. BRE’s replacement rates continue to reflect actual lifetimes in use.

13

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

4. Demolition and Disposal
Demolition Activity: The assumption that the resources consumed in the demolition process are small relative to the overall environmental burdens of construction, is still held. The issue could be appropriate for a detailed investigation of different demolition processes or heavy forms of construction, but is not so significant for a general-application LCA methodology such as Environmental Profiles.

Destinations of Demolition Waste: The Environmental Profiles Methodology currently models: • The percentage of material going to landfill, incineration and recycling. These are taken as the waste disposal stream fates for each material within 60 year life element Profiles. • The fate of Carbon sequestered within materials up to 100 years before manufacture, over the 60 year building life or during the first 100yrs in landfill. Therefore carbon which exchanges with the atmosphere as Carbon Dioxide or Methane is accounted for within Climate Change impacts for 60 year life Profiles.

Methodology The Environmental Profiles Methodology aims to consider each construction material in turn, and trace the fate for that material within the waste disposal stream. The same material used in different elements may have different disposal streams – for example timber used in floorboards may have a different disposal stream to timber used in window frames, similarly brickwork may have a different disposal stream when lime mortar has been used. A completed disposal stream will give the total mass of the material arising each year as demolition waste, and account for 100% of this material between different disposal fates, e.g. registered landfill, recycling, reuse, incineration with energy recovery, burning on site etc. Unregistered landfill is defined as filling where virgin aggregate would not have been purchased if demolition waste were not used. Details of typical transport for each fate will also be included. The environmental impacts for each fate within the disposal stream will then be modelled. The impacts for recycling or re-use will be allocated to the recycled or reused materials. The Methodology models: • The percentage of each material going to each waste stream fate. The impacts arising from those fates are not yet modelled. • The fate of Carbon sequestered within materials, which will continue to be modelled as above. Transport of Waste Currently the environmental issue “Waste Disposal”, measured in tonnes of waste arising, is taken as a proxy to cover all the impacts of waste disposal, including transport of demolition waste. Where material is reused or recycled, then the

15

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

impacts of transport from the demolition site to the point of reuse are included within the Environmental Profile of the recycled/reused product. Data on typical transport of demolition waste to landfill or incineration are not yet known for any specific materials. This is an area where further research will be necessary before the Methodology can be modified. Work in the Centre for Waste and Recycling at BRE is continuing in this field. Current Application of the Methodology to Specific Materials Disposal Streams Data A recent BRE survey “Reclamation and Recycling of Building Materials: Industry Position Report” (Hobbs and Kay, 2000, BRE Information Paper 7/00) has provided the best data to date on the destination of demolition waste in the UK. However, further data should emerge from a survey commissioned by the Environment Agency in May 2000.

Summary of Changes to Waste Streams Methodology A method to account for disposal streams of demolition waste is now established for use in Environmental Profiles. New data in this area will be used for allocating disposal impacts to functional units. Where Environmental Profiles for new materials are considered, waste disposal streams for the material or product will be assessed in consultation with the manufacturer or trade association.

Burdens From the Disposal of Demolition Waste: BRE conducted an international survey of current practice on landfill & incineration within LCA. The survey was made of members of the SETAC working group on LCA and Building materials. The survey was sent by e-mail in September 1999, with 20 respondents, from Europe, Australia and America. From this survey, it is clear that the current BRE Methodology is typical of other leading LCA methodologies in its approach to waste. It has been concluded from the survey and other research undertaken into potential sources of data that it is not yet possible to incorporate material specific impacts from whole disposal into LCA methodology and achieve “level playing field” results. The exception to this rule is for organic products. The Methodology considers the breakdown and combustion impacts of timber in order to complete the “carbon cycle” perspective which is begun at the point of planting a seedling and accounting for timber sequestration in the growth phase. Timber cannot be assumed to be CO2 neutral according to the assumption above because not all timber is burnt at the end of its life. The Methodology therefore traces the exact fate of timber including timber going to landfill where it can decay creating methane. There is also evidence that waste construction timber is burnt at construction sites. All impacts from open air burning of timber will be included in Environmental Profiles and allocated to the timber product.

16

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Conclusion The BRE Methodology will remain as described within the original BRE Methodology document. This means that impacts from waste at disposal sites and during the life cycle (from manufacturing and construction) are considered in terms of the mass arising and being sent to disposal. At the present time there is no further, reliable, data available which is appropriate to use to quantify the impacts of either general or product specific waste in landfills and incinerators. Until further work has been achieved, the mass of waste arising will be used as a proxy for the impacts of products in landfill. The exception to this is timber, whereby methane and carbon dioxide emissions will continue to be included in life cycle impact calculations in order to give a complete analysis of the carbon cycle.

Summary of Changes to Waste Disposal Methodology There is no change to the BRE Methodology. However, BRE will continue to monitor international developments in LCA methods for waste disposal and look to include developments which reflect current practice and do not disrupt the “level playing field”.

17

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

BIBLIOGRAPHY
CIRIA Special Publication 94 (1993) Environmental Issues in Construction. CIRIA DETR (1996) ‘Transport of Goods by Road in Great Britain’, The Stationery Office DETR (1997) Continuing Survey of Road Goods Transport. Hobbs & Kay (2000) BRE Information Paper 7/00. CRC, London Howard N., Edwards S. & Anderson J. (1999) BRE Methodology for Environmental Profiles of construction materials, components and buildings. CRC, London. Neilsen et.al. (1998) ‘Product Specific Emissions form Municipal Waste Landfills’ International Journal of LCA. vol 3: (3) 158-168 & (4) 225-236. Ecomed, Germany. th Royal Commission for Environment (1993) 17 Report. HMSO, London. Skoyles E. (1976) Materials Wastage – A Misuse of Resources. BRE CP 67/76. DOE. Wainwright W.H. & Wood A.B. (1981) ‘Practical Builders Estimating, Fourth Edition.’ Hutchinson & Co Ltd. London.

18

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Appendix A BRE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TRANSPORT DATA COLLECTION “BEYOND THE FACTORY GATE” Background
The Building Research Establishment (BRE) is keen to obtain better information on the environmental impacts arising from activities and processes “beyond the factory gate”. As part of the “Beyond the Factory Gate” Framework project supported by DETR and your industry, this questionnaire has been provided for the collection of data on transport routes and modes from the manufacturer of construction materials to the construction site This data will be used to estimate the typical transport impacts associated with the transport of different construction materials from factory to site. This questionnaire requests the raw data that will allow these calculations to be made. BRE has analysed data provided by DETR from their “Continuing Survey of Road Transport” and proposes to use the data on mean transport distance (loaded and empty journey), load and fuel consumption of vehicle for different commodity types provided by this analysis as the basis for this study. Data on vehicle type, loading and distance travelled is therefore only requested where it is easily available. It is not intended that this survey should take hours to complete! BRE will compare any actual transport data provided with the data analysis of the DETR statistics. QUESTIONNAIRE
1. SOURCE

Please give information about the source of the data for this questionnaire, eg factory details, trade organisation etc. Company/Organisation: ………………………………………………………………………………… Address: ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… Telephone and Fax: ………………………………………………………………………………… Contact: ………………………………………………………………………………… 2. PRODUCTS

Please give details of the product(s) covered by this questionnaire. If it is more convenient, please complete a separate questionnaire for each product. Product 1………………………………………………………………………………… Product 2…………………………………………………………………………………

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Product 3………………………………………………………………………………… Product 4…………………………………………………………………………………

3.

QUALITY OF DATA

Age Please indicate below the start and end months and the year(s) in which the data in this questionnaire was collected.

Start month and year………………………………………………………………………………… End month and year…………………………………………………………………………………

4.

TRANSPORT PROCESS DIAGRAM

Below is a process diagram for an imaginary Product X showing some of the possible transport scenarios expected to arise relating to the transport of construction materials to site. Figure 1

TRANSPORT PROCESS DIAGRAM FOR PRODUCT X
10%

FACTORY

RAIL
75 miles

Further Manufacturing Process

All Transport by Road unless otherwise stated

10% 40% 50%

Local Depot

BOAT
30 miles 10% Distribution Centre 30% 30% 10%

10%

Site

Builders Merchant

In the box overleaf, please insert a Transport Process Diagram similar to that shown in Figure 1 to illustrate the transport routes for Products where you are able to provide data. Hand drawn diagrams are expected. If several products are covered, you may find it easier to draw separate diagrams for each product using the further boxes provided. When creating the diagram, please consider the points listed below in Section 5.

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

PRODUCT: ……………………………

5.

TRANSPORT

Product: Please give details of the product or products which take these routes. Routes: Please show the various routes used to transport the product from factory to site: eg direct to site; factory to distribution centre to site; factory to builders merchant to site; direct to site (builders merchant controlled) etc. If part of the factory production is exported, this should be shown with just one arrow pointing to EXPORT and showing the amount exported. Proportion following route: Please give the amount of the product(s) following each stage of the route, eg 25%, _ or 1nil,nilnilnil tonnes (total output must also be given if amounts are used). If using percentages or proportions, please ensure that these always relate to the total production of the product. Mode of Transport: Building materials are commonly transported by road, rail and water. Please indicate the mode of transport for each stage of the journey from factory to site. If details can be easily obtained, please list average load, distance and type of vehicle.

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

PRODUCT : ……………………………

PRODUCT : ……………………………

Please Return to: Rebecca White, Centre for Sustainable Construction, BRE, Garston, Watford, WD2
7JR

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Appendix B Lifetime impacts for Typical Building Elements
Cleaning Schedule Activity 1 action frequency p.a.

Item outer surfaces

action

Activity 2 frequency p.a.

outer glass wash 12 other outer skin windows wooden frame wash 4 steel frame wash 4 alu frame wash 4 inner glass wash 12 Floor finish screed floor sweep 50 stone tile floor sweep 50 wood tile floor sweep 50 buff 50 plastic tile floor mop 100 patch 5 cork tile floor sweep 50 buff 50 vinyl floor finish mop 100 vinyl tile floor mop 100 patch 5 linoleum tile floor sweep 50 mop 50 linoleum floor finish sweep 50 mop 50 rubber tile floor sweep 50 mop 50 wool carpet vacumn 100 nylon carpet vacumn 100 block flooring sweep 50 polish 10 chipboard floor sweep 50 polished softwood floor sweep 50 polish 10 polished hardwood floor sweep 50 polish 10 internal wall surfaces plasterboard steel sheet chipboard inner glass Wash 50 plaster + painted wall plasterboard wall finish wood wall finish faced wall board finish wooden board wall finish plastered wall painted wall tiled wall wash 25 Ceiling surface painted ceiling plastered ceiling ceiling board metal tiled ceiling wash 12 Sources: Maintenance Cycles and Life Expectancies of Building Components and Materials, NBA Construction Consultants. HAPM Manual. BMI Occupancy Cost Planning Guide. BRE Green Guide to Specification.

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

activity wash sweep mop vacumn buff polish

resource use per m2 (excluding labour input) water (kg) electricity (kWh) detergent (kg) 0.5 0 0.003 0 0 0 0.5 0 0.003 0 0.125 0 0 0.125 0 0 0.125 0

Source: Life Cycle Assessment Study on Resilient Floorcoverings. Fraunhofer Institute

Appendix C Environmental Profile for 1000km of transport by a 33 tonne articulated lorry

Approved Environmental Profile
Characterised and Normalised Data for: 1000 km by typical large truck
Start Date End Date Source of Data Geography Representativeness LCA Methodology Allocation Date of Data Entry Boundary Comments 1 January 1997 31 December 1997 DETR UK Transportation Typical Articulated Lorry BRE 100% to product by value 1 December 1999 Cradle to Grave For truck journey of 1000km, tonne km dependent on load. Return journey excluded Unit
kg CO2 eq. (100yr) kg SO2 eq. kg CFC11 eq. kg tox. kg ethene eq. kg tox. m3 tox. kg PO4 eq. toe tonnes litres tonnes tonne.km

Issue Characterised Data Climate Change 1300 Acid Deposition 12 Ozone Depletion 0 Pollution to Air: Human Toxicity 14 Pollution to Air: Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential 1.8 Pollution to Water: Human Toxicity 0 Pollution to Water: Ecotoxicity 0 Pollution to Water: Eutrophication 2 Fossil Fuel Depletion 0.4 Minerals Extraction 0 Water Extraction 0 Waste Disposal 0 Transport Pollution & Congestion: Freight 1000

Issue

Normalised Data
0.1 0.21 0 0.15 0.055 0 0

UK CItizen's Impacts
12300 kg CO2 eq. (100yr) 58.9 kg SO2 eq. 0.286 kg CFC11 eq. 90.7 kg tox. 32.2 kg ethene eq. 0.0117 kg tox. 178000 m3 tox.

Climate Change Acid Deposition Ozone Depletion Pollution to Air: Human Toxicity Pollution to Air: Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential Pollution to Water: Human Toxicity Pollution to Water: Ecotoxicity

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Pollution to Water: Eutrophication Fossil Fuel Depletion Minerals Extraction Water Extraction Waste Disposal Transport Pollution & Congestion: Freight

0.25 0.097 0 0 0 0.24

8.01 kg PO4 eq. 4.09 toe 5.04 tonnes 418000 litres 7.19 tonnes 4140 tonne.km

sPrimary Energy
(C) Crown and Building Research Establishment 1999

17

GJ

Environmental Profiling is an independent environmental information scheme run by BRE. The Profile is based on data provided by manufacturers for the period stated. BRE has no responsibility for the environmental performance of the product. Profiles may only be distributed in their entirety and in accordance with the terms and conditions of any contract.

BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, Beyond the Factory Gate

Appendix D

Construction Materials Industry Members of the Project Steering Committee

Charles Houghton: EURISOL Dennis Higgins: CSMA John Bowdidge: EURISOL David Duke-Evans: Wood Panel Industries Federation Les Richardson: Clay Products Association Michael Samsom: Steel Construction Institute Lindon Sear: Quality Ash Association Paul Jervis: British Plastics Federation. Katherine Gaylarde: Timber Trade Federation Joanne Deeley: British Precast Concrete Federation Tori Oldridge: The Clay Roof Tile Council Frank Brookes: British Wood Preserving and Damp-Proofing Association Richard Smith: Brick Development Association Ian Winroth: Gypsum Products Development Association Les Parrott: British Cement Association. Martin Southcott: Reinforced Concrete Council. Allan Wilen: National Council of Building