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TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 1 / 59

Summation Convention

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 2 / 59

Any lower-case alphabetic subscript that appears exactly twice in

any term of an expression is to be summed over all values that a

subscript in that position can take (unless stated). Examples are

a

i

.

i

stands for a

1

.

1

÷a

2

.

2

÷a

3

.

3

;

a

ij

b

jk

stands for a

i1

b

1k

÷a

i2

b

2k

÷a

i3

b

3k

;

a

ij

b

jk

c

k

stands for

P

3

jD1

P

3

kD1

a

ij

b

jk

c

k

;

@v

i

@x

i

stands for

@v

1

@x

1

÷

@v

2

@x

2

÷

@v

3

@x

3

;

@

2

@x

i

@x

i

stands for

@

2

@x

2

1

÷

@

2

@x

2

2

÷

@

2

@x

2

3

.

Summation Convention 2

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 3 / 59

Dummy Subscripts: subscripts that are summed over.

The others are called free subscripts.

When introducing a dummy subscript into an expression, care

should be taken NOT to use one that is already present.

E.g.: a

ij

b

jk

c

kl

cannot and must not be replaced by a

ij

b

jj

c

jl

or

a

il

b

lk

c

kl

, but could be replaced by a

im

b

mk

c

kl

or by a

im

b

mn

c

nl

.

Kronecker delta

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 4 / 59

Kronecker delta ı

ij

is deﬁned by

ı

ij

=

1 if i = ¸ ,

0 otherwise.

The main use of ı

ij

is to replace one subscript by another in

certain expressions. For example,

a

ij

ı

jk

= a

ij

ı

kj

= a

ik

(1)

In matrix language, it can be written as AI=A, where A is the matrix

with elements a

ij

and I is the unit matrix.

Eg:

b

i

ı

ij

= b

j

a

ij

b

jk

ı

ki

= a

ij

b

ji

Change of basis

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 5 / 59

A vector x can be written as

x = .

1

e

1

÷.

2

e

2

÷.

3

e

3

= .

i

e

i

.

where .

1

, .

2

, .

3

are its components and e

1

, e

2

and e

3

are the set

of basis vectors. Introducing a new basis set e

0

1

, e

0

2

and e

0

3

, where

e

0

j

= S

ij

e

i

. (2)

and S

ij

is the i th component of the vector e

0

j

wrt the unprimed

basis, we rewrite x in terms of the new basis as

x = .

0

1

e

0

1

÷.

0

2

e

0

2

÷.

0

3

e

0

3

= .

0

i

e

0

i

Thus, the components .

0

i

and .

i

in the two bases are related by

.

0

i

= (S

1

)

ij

.

j

.

Change of basis 2

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 6 / 59

If the transformation is a rotation of the coordinate axes, the

transformation matrix S is orthogonal. Then,

.

0

i

= (S

T

)

ij

.

j

= S

ji

.

j

. (3)

For orthogonal transformation, the length of vector is kept fixed

Cartesian tensors

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 7 / 59

Deﬁne transformation matrix L as the inverse of matrix S. Thus,

from Eq. 3, the components of a position vector x, in the old and

new bases respectively, are related by

.

0

i

= 1

ij

.

j

. (4)

For orthogonal transformations, L is an orthogonal matrix so that

L

1

= L

T

. Therefore, the inverse transformation is given by

.

i

= 1

ji

.

0

j

. (5)

Since L is orthogonal, we have

1

ik

1

jk

= ı

ij

and 1

ki

1

kj

= ı

ij

(6)

Further, we have

1

ij

= e

0

i

e

j

.

Example 1

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 8 / 59

Example

Find the transformation matrix L corresponding to a rotation of the

coordinate axes through an angle 0 about the e

3

-axis (or .

3

-axis)

FIG. 1: Rotation of Cartesian axes by an angle 0 about the .

3

-axis. The

three angles marked 0 and the parallels (broken lines) to the primed axes

show how the ﬁrst two of Eqs. 7 are constructed.

Example 1 contd

TENSORS

yConvention

yConvention 2

yKronecker delta

yChange of basis

yChange of basis 2

yCartesian tensors

yExample 1

yExample 1 contd

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 9 / 59

Solution

From FIG. 1, we have

.

0

1

= .

1

cos 0 ÷.

2

sin 0

.

0

2

= ÷.

1

sin 0 ÷.

2

cos 0 (7)

.

0

3

= .

3

.

) 1 =

0

@

cos 0 sin 0 0

÷sin 0 cos 0 0

0 0 1

1

A

.

The inverse equations are

.

1

= .

0

1

cos 0 ÷ .

0

2

sin 0

.

2

= .

0

1

sin 0 ÷.

0

2

cos 0 (8)

.

3

= .

0

3

.

First- and zero-order Cartesian tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 10 / 59

First- and zero-order Cartesian tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 11 / 59

Vector or ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor satisﬁes the following

transformation law:

·

0

i

= 1

ij

·

j

. (9)

By deﬁnition, the position coordinates are themselves the

components of such a tensor. Moreover, since the transformation

(9) is orthogonal, the components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor

also obey the inverse relation

·

i

= 1

ji

·

0

j

. (10)

Example

Which of the following pairs of quantities (·

1

. ·

2

) are the

components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor in two dimensions?:

(i) (.

2

. ÷.

1

), (ii) (.

2

. .

1

), (iii) (.

2

1

. .

2

2

).

Example 2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 12 / 59

Solution

We denote cos 0 by c and sin 0 by s.

(i) Here ·

1

= .

2

and ·

2

= ÷.

1

(referred to the old axes) and

·

0

1

= .

0

2

and ·

0

2

= ÷.

0

1

(new coordinates). Then

·

0

1

= .

0

2

= ÷s.

1

÷c.

2

(11)

·

0

2

= ÷.

0

1

= ÷c.

1

÷ s.

2

.

From Eq. 9, we have

·

0

1

= 1

11

·

1

÷1

12

·

2

= c.

2

÷s(÷.

1

) (12)

·

0

2

= 1

21

·

1

÷1

22

·

2

= ÷s(.

2

) ÷c(÷.

1

).

The expressions in Eqs. 11 and 12 for ·

0

1

and ·

0

2

are respectively

the same whatever the values for 0 and thus the pair (.

2

. ÷.

1

) are

components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor.

Example 2 contd

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 13 / 59

(ii) Here ·

1

= .

2

and ·

2

= .

1

. Following the same procedure,

·

0

1

= .

0

2

= ÷s.

1

÷c.

2

·

0

2

= .

0

1

= c.

1

÷s.

2

.

From Eq. 9, we must have

·

0

1

= c·

1

÷s·

2

= c.

2

÷s.

1

·

0

2

= (÷s)·

1

÷c·

2

= ÷s.

2

÷c.

1

.

These two set of expressions do not agree and thus the pair

(.

2

. .

1

) do not form the components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian

tensor.

Example 2 contd

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 14 / 59

(iii) ·

1

= .

2

1

and ·

2

= .

2

2

. Considering only the ﬁrst component

·

0

1

, we have

·

0

1

= .

02

1

= c

2

.

2

1

÷2cs.

1

.

2

÷s

2

.

2

2

.

whilst (9) requires that

·

0

1

= c·

1

÷s·

2

= c.

2

1

÷s.

2

2

.

which is quite different.

Example 3

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 15 / 59

We now consider quantities that are unchanged by a rotation of

axes. They are called scalars (tensors of zero order). They contain

only one element.

Example

By considering the components of the vectors u and v with respect

to two Cartesian systems (related by a rotation), show that the

scalar product u v is invariant under rotation.

Solution

In the rotated (primed) system we have

u

0

i

·

0

i

= 1

ij

u

j

1

ik

·

k

= 1

ij

1

ik

u

j

·

k

= ı

jk

u

j

·

k

= u

j

·

j

.

where we have used the orthogonality relation (6). Thus, the scalar

product is invariant under rotations.

First-order tensor from scalar

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 16 / 59

A ﬁrst-order tensor can be obtained from a scalar.

E.g. The electric ﬁeld E = ÷Vç has components

1

i

= ÷

dç

d.

i

. (13)

Under a rotation of the coordinate axes, we have

1

0

i

=

Â

÷

dç

d.

i

Ã

0

= ÷

dç

0

d.

0

i

= ÷

d.

j

d.

0

i

dç

d.

j

= 1

ij

1

j

. (14)

where Eq. 5 has been used to evaluate d.

j

,d.

0

i

. Thus, E is a

(ﬁrst-order) tensor.

Example 4

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

y1

st

& 0

th

order CT

yExample 2

yExample 2 contd

yExample 2 contd

yExample 3

yScalar Tensor

yExample 4

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 17 / 59

Example

If ·

i

are the components of a ﬁrst-order tensor, show that

V v = d·

i

,d.

i

is a zero-order tensor.

Solution

In the rotated coordinate system V v is given by

Â

d·

i

d.

i

Ã

0

=

d·

0

i

d.

0

i

=

d.

j

d.

0

i

d

d.

j

(1

ik

·

k

) = 1

ij

1

ik

d·

k

d.

j

.

since the elements 1

ij

are not functions of positions. Thus,

d·

0

i

d.

0

i

= 1

ij

1

ik

d·

k

d.

j

= ı

jk

d·

k

d.

j

=

d·

j

d.

j

.

Hence d·

i

,d.

i

is invariant under rotation of the axes, and is thus a

zero-order tensor.

Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 18 / 59

Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 19 / 59

Deﬁne a second-order Cartesian tensor T

ij

as follows:

T

0

ij

= 1

ik

1

jl

T

kl

(15)

and

T

ij

= 1

ki

1

lj

T

0

kl

(16)

Similarly, T

ij:::k

is a tensor if T

0

ij:::k

are given by

T

0

ij:::k

= 1

ip

1

jq

. . . 1

kr

T

pq:::r

(17)

and

T

ij:::k

= 1

pi

1

qj

. . . 1

rk

T

0

pq:::r

(18)

In three dimensions, an Nth-order Cartesian tensor has 3

N

components.

Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors 2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 20 / 59

Examples of second-order tensors:

(i) The outer product of two vectors. Let u

i

and ·

i

, i = 1. 2. 3 be

the components of two vectors u and v. Consider T

ij

deﬁned by

T

ij

= u

i

·

j

. (19)

The set T

ij

are called the components of the outer product of u

and v. Under rotations, we have

T

0

ij

= u

0

i

·

0

j

= 1

ik

u

k

1

jl

·

l

= 1

ik

1

jl

u

k

·

l

= 1

ik

1

jl

T

kl

. (20)

Thus, T is a second-order tensor.

Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors 3

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 21 / 59

The outer product of two vectors is often denoted as

T = u ˝v. (21)

Since u = u

i

e

i

and v = ·

i

e

i

, we may write the tensor T as

T = u

i

e

i

˝·

j

e

j

= u

i

·

j

e

i

˝e

j

= T

ij

e

i

˝e

j

. (22)

Since the quantities T

0

ij

are the components of the same tensor T ,

but referred to a different coordinate system, we may write

T = T

ij

e

i

˝e

j

= T

0

ij

e

0

i

˝e

0

j

.

Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors 4

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 22 / 59

(ii) The gradient of a vector. Suppose ·

i

represents the

components of a vector. Now, consider its derivatives:

T

ij

=

d·

i

d.

j

.

These nine quantities form the components of a second-order

tensor since

T

0

ij

=

d·

0

i

d.

0

j

=

d(1

ik

·

k

)

d.

l

d.

l

d.

0

j

= 1

ik

d·

k

d.

l

1

jl

= 1

ik

1

jl

T

kl

.

In coordinate-free language, the tensor T may be written as

T = Vv.

For Cartesian tensor, a differentiation will give another tensor.

Example 5

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 23 / 59

Example

Show that the T

ij

given by

T = ŒT

ij

| =

Â

.

2

2

÷.

1

.

2

÷.

1

.

2

.

2

1

Ã

. (23)

are the components of a second-order tensor.

Solution

Consider a rotation about the e

3

-axis. Using Eq. 7, we have

T

0

11

= .

02

2

= s

2

.

2

1

÷ 2sc.

1

.

2

÷c

2

.

2

2

.

T

0

12

= ÷.

0

1

.

0

2

= sc.

2

1

÷(s

2

÷ c

2

).

1

.

2

÷ sc.

2

2

.

T

0

21

= ÷.

0

1

.

0

2

= sc.

2

1

÷(s

2

÷ c

2

).

1

.

2

÷ sc.

2

2

.

T

0

22

= .

02

1

= c

2

.

2

1

÷2sc.

1

.

2

÷s

2

.

2

2

.

Example 5 contd

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 24 / 59

Evaluating the right-hand side of Eq. 15, we have

T

0

11

= cc.

2

2

÷cs(÷.

1

.

2

)

÷sc(÷.

1

.

2

) ÷ss.

2

1

.

T

0

12

= c(÷s).

2

2

÷cc(÷.

1

.

2

) ÷s(÷s)(÷.

1

.

2

)

÷sc.

2

1

.

T

0

21

= (÷s)c.

2

2

÷(÷s)s(÷.

1

.

2

) ÷cc(÷.

1

.

2

)

÷cs.

2

1

.

T

0

22

= (÷s)(÷s).

2

2

÷(÷s)c(÷.

1

.

2

)

÷c(÷s)(÷.

1

.

2

) ÷cc.

2

1

.

Thus, T

ij

are the components of a second-order tensor.

Algebra of Tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 25 / 59

If V

ij:::k

and W

ij:::k

are tensors of the same order, then their sum

and difference, S

ij:::k

and D

ij:::k

respectively, are given by

S

ij:::k

= V

ij:::k

÷W

ij:::k

D

ij:::k

= V

ij:::k

÷ W

ij:::k

.

S

ij:::k

and D

ij:::k

are also tensors.

If T

ij:::k

is a tensor, interchanging the order of (a pair of) indices,

e.g. T

ji:::k

, also produces a tensor.

If T

ij:::k

= T

ji:::k

, then T

ij:::k

is said to be symmetric with respect

to its ﬁrst two indices.

If T

ij:::k

= ÷T

ji:::k

, then T

ij:::k

is antisymmetric.

The outer product of an Nth-order tensor with an Mth-order tensor

will produce an (M ÷N)th-order tensor.

Algebra of Tensors 2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 26 / 59

An arbitrary tensor can always be written as the sum of a

symmetric tensor S

ij:::k

and an antisymmetric tensor ·

ij:::k

:

T

ij:::k

=

1

2

(T

ij:::k

÷T

ji:::k

) ÷

1

2

(T

ij:::k

÷ T

ji:::k

)

= S

ij:::k

÷·

ij:::k

.

Example 6

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

yHigher-order CT

yHigher-order CT 2

yHigher-order CT 3

yHigher-order CT 4

yExample 5

yExample 5 contd

yAlgebra

yAlgebra 2

yExample 6

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 27 / 59

Example

Show that the process of contraction of a tensor produces another tensor,

but with an order reduced by 2.

Solution

Let T

ij:::l:::m:::k

be the components of an Nth-order tensor, then

T

0

ij:::l:::m:::k

= 1

ip

1

jq

. . . 1

lr

. . . 1

ms

. . . 1

kn

„ ƒ‚ …

N factors

T

pq:::r:::s:::n

If we make two subscripts l and m equal, we have

T

0

ij:::l:::l:::k

= 1

ip

1

jq

. . . 1

lr

. . . 1

ls

. . . 1

kn

T

pq:::r:::s:::n

= 1

ip

1

jq

. . . ı

rs

. . . 1

kn

T

pq:::r:::s:::n

= 1

ip

1

jq

. . . 1

kn

„ ƒ‚ …

.N2/ factors

T

pq:::r:::r:::n

Thus T

ij:::l:::l:::k

is a tensor of order (N ÷ 2).

Quotient Law

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

yQuotient Law

yQuotient Law 2

yQuotient Law 3

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 28 / 59

Quotient Law

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

yQuotient Law

yQuotient Law 2

yQuotient Law 3

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 29 / 59

The law states that if B and C are tensors and also that

·

pq:::k:::m

T

ij:::k:::n

= C

pq:::mij:::n

(24)

holds in all rotated coordinate frames where A, B, and C are of

Mth, Nth and (M ÷N ÷ 2)th order, then ·

pq:::k:::m

is also a

tensor.

Quotient Law 2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

yQuotient Law

yQuotient Law 2

yQuotient Law 3

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 30 / 59

Proof: (for the case M = N = 2)

Given

·

pk

T

ik

= C

pi

(25)

where T

ik

and C

pi

are arbitrary second-order tensors. Under a

rotation of coordinates, we have

·

0

pk

T

0

ik

= C

0

pi

= 1

pq

1

ij

C

qj

= 1

pq

1

ij

·

ql

T

jl

= 1

pq

1

ij

·

ql

1

mj

1

nl

T

0

mn

= 1

pq

1

nl

·

ql

T

0

i n

(since 1

ij

1

mj

= ı

im

)

As k and n are dummy subscripts, we may write

(·

0

pk

÷ 1

pq

1

kl

·

ql

)T

0

ik

= 0. (26)

Quotient Law 3

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

yQuotient Law

yQuotient Law 2

yQuotient Law 3

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 31 / 59

Since T

0

ik

is an arbitrary tensor, we must have

·

0

pk

= 1

pq

1

kl

·

ql

.

so that ·

pk

is a second-order tensor.

—————————————

The law can be used to test whether a given set of quantities is a

tensor. For example, the outer product .

i

.

j

is a second-order

tensor. Contracting this with the T

ij

given in Eq. 23, we have

T

ij

.

i

.

j

= .

2

2

.

2

1

÷ .

1

.

2

.

1

.

2

÷ .

1

.

2

.

2

.

1

÷.

2

1

.

2

2

= 0.

Thus by the quotient law, T

ij

must be a tensor.

Tensors ı

i¸

and c

i¸k

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

yı

ij

and

ijk

yExample 7

yı

ij

and

ijk

2

yı

ij

and

ijk

3

yExample 8

yExample 8 contd

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 32 / 59

Tensors ı

i¸

and c

i¸k

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

yı

ij

and

ijk

yExample 7

yı

ij

and

ijk

2

yı

ij

and

ijk

3

yExample 8

yExample 8 contd

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 33 / 59

The Levi-Civita symbol c

ijk

is deﬁned as

c

ijk

=

8

<

:

÷1 i , ¸ , k: even permutation of 1, 2, 3

÷1 i , ¸ , k: odd permutation of 1, 2, 3

0 otherwise.

Note that c

ijk

is totally antisymmetric. ı

ij

is a second-order tensor

because

ı

0

kl

= 1

ki

1

lj

ı

ij

= 1

ki

1

li

= ı

kl

.

Levi-Civita symbol can be used to write an expression for the

determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix A:

[·[c

lmn

= ·

li

·

mj

·

nk

c

ijk

. (27)

Using Eq. 27, it can be shown that c

ijk

is a third-order tensor since

c

lmn

= [1[1

li

1

mj

1

nk

c

ijk

= c

0

lmn

.

Example 7

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

yı

ij

and

ijk

yExample 7

yı

ij

and

ijk

2

yı

ij

and

ijk

3

yExample 8

yExample 8 contd

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 34 / 59

Example

Write the following as contracted Cartesian tensors: (i) a b; (ii) V

2

ç; (iii)

V × v; (iv) V(V v); (v) V × (V × v); (vi) (a × b) c.

Solution

(a × b)

i

= c

ijk

a

j

b

k

.

a b = a

i

b

i

.

V

2

ç =

d

2

ç

d.

i

d.

i

.

(V × v)

i

= c

ijk

d·

k

d.

j

.

V(V v)

i

=

d

d.

i

Â

d·

j

d.

j

Ã

.

V × (V × v)

i

= c

ijk

d

d.

j

Â

c

klm

d·

m

d.

l

Ã

= c

ijk

c

klm

d

2

·

m

d.

j

d.

l

.

(a × b) c = c

i kl

c

i

a

k

b

l

.

Tensors ı

i¸

and c

i¸k

2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

yı

ij

and

ijk

yExample 7

yı

ij

and

ijk

2

yı

ij

and

ijk

3

yExample 8

yExample 8 contd

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 35 / 59

An important relation between the c- and ı- tensors is expressed

by the identity

c

ijk

c

klm

= ı

il

ı

jm

÷ ı

im

ı

jl

(28)

Establishing the identity:

Consider the various possibilities that arise. The RHS of Eq. 28

has the values

÷1 if i = 1 and ¸ = m = i , (29)

÷1 i = m and ¸ = l = i , (30)

0 otherwise. (31)

In each product on the LHS k has the same value in both factors

and for a non-zero contribution none of i , l, ¸ , m can have the

same value as k. Thus, the only non-zero possibilities are i = 1

and ¸ = m or vice versa, but not all four subscripts equal.

Tensors ı

i¸

and c

i¸k

3

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

yı

ij

and

ijk

yExample 7

yı

ij

and

ijk

2

yı

ij

and

ijk

3

yExample 8

yExample 8 contd

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 36 / 59

This reproduces Eq. 31 for the LHS of Eq. 28 and also the

conditions Eqs. 29 and 30. The values in Eq. 29 and 30 are also

reproduced in the LHS of Eq. 28 since

if i = l and ¸ = m, c

ijk

= c

lmk

= c

klm

and, whether c

ijk

is

÷1 or ÷1, the product of the two factors is ÷1; and

if i = m and ¸ = l, c

ijk

= c

mlk

= ÷c

klm

, and thus the

product c

ijk

c

klm

(no summation) has the value ÷1.

Example 8

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

yı

ij

and

ijk

yExample 7

yı

ij

and

ijk

2

yı

ij

and

ijk

3

yExample 8

yExample 8 contd

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 37 / 59

Example

Obtain an alternative expression for V × (V × v).

Solution

We have

ŒV × (V × v)|

i

= c

ijk

c

klm

d

2

·

m

d.

j

d.

l

= (ı

il

ı

jm

÷ ı

im

ı

jl

)

d

2

·

m

d.

j

d.

l

=

d

d.

i

Â

d·

j

d.

j

Ã

÷

d

2

·

i

d.

j

d.

j

= ŒV(V v)|

i

÷ V

2

·

i

.

where in the second line we have used the identity (28)

Example 8 contd

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

yı

ij

and

ijk

yExample 7

yı

ij

and

ijk

2

yı

ij

and

ijk

3

yExample 8

yExample 8 contd

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 38 / 59

In general, we have

c

ijk

c

pqr

=

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ı

ip

ı

iq

ı

ir

ı

jp

ı

jq

ı

jr

ı

kp

ı

kq

ı

kr

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

. (32)

For example, we have, from Eq. 32,

c

ijk

c

ilm

= ı

jl

ı

km

÷ ı

jm

ı

kl

(33)

Contracting Eq. 33 by setting ¸ = l, we obtain

c

ijk

c

ijm

= 3ı

km

÷ ı

km

= 2ı

km

since ı

kk

= 3. By contracting once more, setting k = m, we

further ﬁnd that

c

ijk

c

ijk

= 6. (34)

Isotropic Tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors 2

yIsotropic Tensors 3

yExample 9

yExample 9 contd

yExample 9 contd

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 39 / 59

Isotropic Tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors 2

yIsotropic Tensors 3

yExample 9

yExample 9 contd

yExample 9 contd

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 40 / 59

All components of ı

ij

and c

ijk

tensors have values that are the

same whatever the rotation of axes is made, i.e. the component

values are independent of the transformation 1

ij

.

For example, ı

11

has the value 1 in all coordinate frames. These

tensors are called isotropic (or invariant) tensors.

We will now show that, to within a scalar multiple, ı

ij

is the only

second-order isotropic tensors.

Isotropic Tensors 2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors 2

yIsotropic Tensors 3

yExample 9

yExample 9 contd

yExample 9 contd

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 41 / 59

Let us begin with isotropic second-order tensors. Suppose T

ij

is

an isotropic tensor. Then, for any rotation of the axes we have

T

ij

= T

0

ij

= 1

ik

1

jl

T

kl

. (35)

First consider the rotation of the axes about the (1,1,1) direction,

which takes O.

1

, O.

2

, O.

3

into O.

0

2

, O.

0

3

, O.

0

1

, respectively.

For this rotation, 1

13

= 1, 1

21

= 1, 1

32

= 1 and all other

1

ij

= 0. This requires that T

11

= T

0

11

= T

33

. Similarly,

T

12

= T

0

12

= T

31

. Continuing in this way, we ﬁnd

(a) T

11

= T

22

= T

33

.

(b) T

12

= T

23

= T

31

.

(c) T

21

= T

32

= T

13

.

Isotropic Tensors 3

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors 2

yIsotropic Tensors 3

yExample 9

yExample 9 contd

yExample 9 contd

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 42 / 59

Next consider the rotation of the axes (from their original position)

by ¬,2 about the O.

3

-axis. In this case 1

12

= ÷1, 1

21

= 1,

1

33

= 1 and all other 1

ij

= 0. Thus, from Eq. 35, we have

T

13

= (÷1) × 1 × T

23

.

T

23

= 1 × 1 × T

13

.

Hence, T

13

= T

23

= 0 and therefore, by parts (b) and (c) above,

each element T

ij

= 0 except for T

11

, T

22

and T

33

, which are all

the same. This shows that T

ij

= zı

ij

.

Example 9

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors 2

yIsotropic Tensors 3

yExample 9

yExample 9 contd

yExample 9 contd

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 43 / 59

Example

Show that zc

ijk

is the only isotropic third-order Cartesian tensor.

Solution

The general line of attack is as above and so only a minimum of

explanation will be given

T

ijk

= T

0

ijk

= 1

il

1

jm

1

kn

T

lmn

.

Rotate about the (1,1,1) direction: this is equivalent to making

subscript permutations 1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1. We ﬁnd

(a) T

111

= T

222

= T

333

,

(b) T

112

= T

223

= T

331

,

Example 9 contd

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors 2

yIsotropic Tensors 3

yExample 9

yExample 9 contd

yExample 9 contd

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 44 / 59

(c) T

123

= T

231

= T

312

(and a set involving odd permutations

of 1, 2, 3).

Rotate by ¬,2 about the O.

3

-axis: 1

12

= ÷1, 1

21

= 1, 1

33

= 1,

other 1

ij

= 0.

(d) T

111

= (÷1) × (÷1) × (÷1) × T

222

= ÷T

222

,

(e) T

112

= (÷1) × (÷1) × 1 × T

221

,

(f) T

221

= 1 × 1 × (÷1) × T

112

,

(g) T

123

= (÷1) × 1 × 1 × T

213

.

Relations (a) and (d) show that the elements with all subscripts the

same are zero. Relations (e), (f) and (b) show that all elements

with repeated subscripts are zero. Relations (g) and (c) show that

T

123

= T

231

= T

312

= ÷T

213

= ÷T

321

= ÷T

132

.

Example 9 contd

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors

yIsotropic Tensors 2

yIsotropic Tensors 3

yExample 9

yExample 9 contd

yExample 9 contd

Pseudotensors

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 45 / 59

In total, T

ijk

differs from c

ijk

by at most a scalar factor, but since

c

ijk

(and hence zc

ijk

) has already been explicitly shown to be an

isotropic tensor, T

ijk

must be the most general third-order isotropic

Cartesian tensor.

Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

yPseudotensors

yPseudotensors 2

yPseudotensors 3

yExample 10

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 46 / 59

Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

yPseudotensors

yPseudotensors 2

yPseudotensors 3

yExample 10

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 47 / 59

A rotation transformation in which the determinant of an associated

orthogonal matrix L is [1[ = 1 is called a proper rotation.

Transformations in which [1[ = ÷1 are called improper

transformations.

This kind of transformation can always be considered as an

inversion of the coordinate axes through the origin represented by

the equation

.

0

i

= ÷.

i

(36)

combined with proper rotation.

The transformation may alternatively be looked upon as one that

changes an initially right-handed coordinate system into a

left-handed one.

Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors 2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

yPseudotensors

yPseudotensors 2

yPseudotensors 3

yExample 10

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 48 / 59

An object that transforms as ·

0

i

= 1

ij

·

j

under proper rotations

and as ·

0

i

= ÷1

ij

·

j

under improper rotations is called a

pseudovector (or pseudotensor). It is important to realize that a

pseudovector is not a geometrical object (or a real physical arrow

in space).

FIG. 2: The behaviour of a vector v and a pseudovector p under a

reﬂection through the origin of the coordinate system .

1

,.

2

, .

3

giving the

new system .

0

1

,.

0

2

, .

0

3

.

Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors 3

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

yPseudotensors

yPseudotensors 2

yPseudotensors 3

yExample 10

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 49 / 59

In general, the components of Cartesian pseudotensors of

arbitrary order transform as

T

0

ij:::k

= [L[1

il

1

jm

. . . 1

kn

T

lm:::n

. (37)

where [L[ is the determinant of the transformation matrix.

For example, we have

c

0

ijk

= [L[1

il

1

jm

1

kn

c

lmn

.

Thus, c

ijk

is a third-order Cartesian pseudotensor.

Example 10

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

yPseudotensors

yPseudotensors 2

yPseudotensors 3

yExample 10

Applications

Paul Lim Tensors – 50 / 59

Example

If b

j

and c

k

are the components of vectors, show that the

quantities a

i

= c

ijk

b

j

c

k

form the components of a pseudovector.

Solution

a

0

i

= c

0

ijk

b

0

j

c

0

k

= [L[1

il

1

jm

1

kn

c

lmn

1

jp

b

p

1

kq

c

q

= [L[1

il

c

lmn

ı

mp

ı

nq

b

p

c

q

= [L[1

il

c

lmn

b

m

c

n

= [L[1

il

a

l

.

Thus a

i

is a pseudovector.

Physical applications of tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 51 / 59

Moment of Inertia

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 52 / 59

Consider a collection of rigidly connected point particles of which

the ˛th, with mass m

.˛/

, is typical, and is positioned at r

.˛/

with

respect to an origin O. Suppose that the rigid assembly is rotating

about an axis through O with angular velocity !.

The angular momentum J about O of the assembly is given by

J =

X

˛

r

.˛/

× p

.˛/

Á

.

But p

.˛/

= m

.˛/

´ r

.˛/

and ´ r

.˛/

= o × r

.˛/

so that

Physical applications of tensors 2

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 53 / 59

J

i

=

X

˛

m

.˛/

c

ijk

.

.˛/

j

.

.˛/

k

=

X

˛

m

.˛/

c

ijk

.

.˛/

j

c

klm

o

l

.

.˛/

m

=

X

˛

m

.˛/

(ı

il

ı

jm

÷ ı

im

ı

jl

).

.˛/

j

.

.˛/

m

o

l

=

X

˛

m

.˛/

Ä

r

.˛/

Á

2

ı

il

÷ .

.˛/

i

.

.˛/

l

o

l

÷ 1

il

o

l

. (38)

where 1

il

is a symmetric second-order Cartesian tensor and is

called the inertia tensor at O of the assembly.

.

Physical applications of tensors 3

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 54 / 59

For a continuous rigid body, m

.˛/

must be replaced by j(r)d.d,d:

so that

1

ij

=

0

@

R

(,

2

÷:

2

)j dV ÷

R

.,j dV ÷

R

.:j dV

÷

R

.,j dV

R

(:

2

÷.

2

)j dV ÷

R

,:j dV

÷

R

.:j dV ÷

R

,:j dV

R

(.

2

÷,

2

)j dV

1

A

.

Example 11

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 55 / 59

Example

Show that the kinetic energy of the rotating system is given by

T =

1

2

1

jl

o

j

o

l

.

Solution

T =

1

2

X

˛

m

.˛/

( ´ r

.˛/

´ r

.˛/

)

=

1

2

X

˛

m

.˛/

c

ijk

o

j

.

.˛/

k

c

i lm

o

l

.

.˛/

m

=

1

2

X

˛

m

.˛/

(ı

jl

ı

km

÷ ı

jm

ı

kl

).

.˛/

k

.

.˛/

m

o

j

o

l

=

1

2

X

˛

m

.˛/

Ä

ı

jl

r

.˛/

Á

2

÷ .

.˛/

j

.

.˛/

l

o

j

o

l

=

1

2

1

jl

o

j

o

l

.

Note that, since J

j

D I

jl

!

l

, we may write T D

1

2

J

j

!

j

.

Example 12

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 56 / 59

Example

The electrical conductivity o in a crystal is measured by an

observer to have the components

Œo

ij

| =

0

@

1

_

2 0

_

2 3 1

0 1 1

1

A

. (39)

Show that there is one direction in the crystal along which no

current can ﬂow. Does the current ﬂow equally easily in the two

perpendicular directions?

Solution

Since Œo

ij

| is a symmetric matrix, it possess three mutually

perpendicular eigenvectors (or principal axes), with respect to

which the conductivity tensor is diagonal, with diagonal entries z

1

,

z

2

, z

3

.

Example 12 contd

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 57 / 59

The eigenvalues are given by

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

1 ÷ z

_

2 0

_

2 3 ÷ z 1

0 1 1 ÷ z

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

ˇ

= 0.

from which we obtain

(1 ÷ z)Œ(3 ÷ z)(1 ÷ z) ÷ 1| ÷ 2(1 ÷ z) = 0.

This gives z = 0. 1. 4 so that with respect to the principal axes,

Œo

0

ij

| =

0

@

4 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

1

A

.

Since ¸

0

i

= o

0

ij

1

0

j

, there is no current ﬂow along one of the principal axes

and along the two J directions, the current ﬂows are not equal.

Integral theorems for tensors

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 58 / 59

The divergence theorem states that for, any vector ﬁeld a,

Z

V

V a dV =

I

S

a ´ ndS. (40)

where S is the surface enclosing the volume V and ´ n is the

outward-pointing unit normal to S at each point.

It can be rewritten as

Z

V

da

k

d.

k

dV =

I

S

a

k

´ n

k

dS. (41)

Eq. 41 can be extended so that the form of the divergence theorem

for general tensors is

Z

V

dT

ij:::k:::m

d.

k

dV =

I

S

T

ij:::k:::m

´ n

k

dS.

Example 13

TENSORS

1

st

& 0

th

order CT

Higher-order CT

Quotient Law

ı

ij

and

ijk

Isotropic Tensors

Pseudotensors

Applications

yInertia

yApplications 2

yApplications 3

yExample 11

yExample 12

yExample 12 contd

yIntegral theorems

yExample 13

Paul Lim Tensors – 59 / 59

Example

A vector ﬁeld a satisﬁes V a = 0 inside some volume V and

a ´ n = 0 on the boundary surface S. By considering the

divergence theorem applied to T

ij

= .

i

a

j

, show that

R

V

a dV = 0.

Solution

Applying the divergence theorem to T

ij

= .

i

a

j

, we ﬁnd

Z

V

dT

ij

d.

j

dV =

Z

V

d(.

i

a

j

)

d.

j

dV =

I

S

.

i

a

j

´ n

j

dS = 0.

since a

j

´ n

j

= 0. By expanding the volume integral, we get

Z

V

d(.

i

a

j

)

d.

j

dV =

Z

V

d.

i

d.

j

a

j

dV ÷

Z

V

.

i

da

j

d.

j

dV

=

Z

V

ı

ij

a

j

dV =

Z

V

a

i

dV = 0.

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