# TENSORS

TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 1 / 59
Summation Convention
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 2 / 59
Any lower-case alphabetic subscript that appears exactly twice in
any term of an expression is to be summed over all values that a
subscript in that position can take (unless stated). Examples are
a
i
.
i
stands for a
1
.
1
÷a
2
.
2
÷a
3
.
3
;
a
ij
b
jk
stands for a
i1
b
1k
÷a
i2
b
2k
÷a
i3
b
3k
;
a
ij
b
jk
c
k
stands for
P
3
jD1
P
3
kD1
a
ij
b
jk
c
k
;
@v
i
@x
i
stands for
@v
1
@x
1
÷
@v
2
@x
2
÷
@v
3
@x
3
;
@
2

@x
i
@x
i
stands for
@
2

@x
2
1
÷
@
2

@x
2
2
÷
@
2

@x
2
3
.
Summation Convention 2
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 3 / 59
Dummy Subscripts: subscripts that are summed over.
The others are called free subscripts.
When introducing a dummy subscript into an expression, care
should be taken NOT to use one that is already present.
E.g.: a
ij
b
jk
c
kl
cannot and must not be replaced by a
ij
b
jj
c
jl
or
a
il
b
lk
c
kl
, but could be replaced by a
im
b
mk
c
kl
or by a
im
b
mn
c
nl
.
Kronecker delta
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 4 / 59
Kronecker delta ı
ij
is deﬁned by
ı
ij
=

1 if i = ¸ ,
0 otherwise.
The main use of ı
ij
is to replace one subscript by another in
certain expressions. For example,
a
ij
ı
jk
= a
ij
ı
kj
= a
ik
(1)
In matrix language, it can be written as AI=A, where A is the matrix
with elements a
ij
and I is the unit matrix.
Eg:
b
i
ı
ij
= b
j
a
ij
b
jk
ı
ki
= a
ij
b
ji
Change of basis
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 5 / 59
A vector x can be written as
x = .
1
e
1
÷.
2
e
2
÷.
3
e
3
= .
i
e
i
.
where .
1
, .
2
, .
3
are its components and e
1
, e
2
and e
3
are the set
of basis vectors. Introducing a new basis set e
0
1
, e
0
2
and e
0
3
, where
e
0
j
= S
ij
e
i
. (2)
and S
ij
is the i th component of the vector e
0
j
wrt the unprimed
basis, we rewrite x in terms of the new basis as
x = .
0
1
e
0
1
÷.
0
2
e
0
2
÷.
0
3
e
0
3
= .
0
i
e
0
i
Thus, the components .
0
i
and .
i
in the two bases are related by
.
0
i
= (S
1
)
ij
.
j
.
Change of basis 2
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 6 / 59
If the transformation is a rotation of the coordinate axes, the
transformation matrix S is orthogonal. Then,
.
0
i
= (S
T
)
ij
.
j
= S
ji
.
j
. (3)
For orthogonal transformation, the length of vector is kept fixed
Cartesian tensors
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 7 / 59
Deﬁne transformation matrix L as the inverse of matrix S. Thus,
from Eq. 3, the components of a position vector x, in the old and
new bases respectively, are related by
.
0
i
= 1
ij
.
j
. (4)
For orthogonal transformations, L is an orthogonal matrix so that
L
1
= L
T
. Therefore, the inverse transformation is given by
.
i
= 1
ji
.
0
j
. (5)
Since L is orthogonal, we have
1
ik
1
jk
= ı
ij
and 1
ki
1
kj
= ı
ij
(6)
Further, we have
1
ij
= e
0
i
e
j
.
Example 1
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 8 / 59
Example
Find the transformation matrix L corresponding to a rotation of the
coordinate axes through an angle 0 about the e
3
-axis (or .
3
-axis)
FIG. 1: Rotation of Cartesian axes by an angle 0 about the .
3
-axis. The
three angles marked 0 and the parallels (broken lines) to the primed axes
show how the ﬁrst two of Eqs. 7 are constructed.
Example 1 contd
TENSORS
yConvention
yConvention 2
yKronecker delta
yChange of basis
yChange of basis 2
yCartesian tensors
yExample 1
yExample 1 contd
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 9 / 59
Solution
From FIG. 1, we have
.
0
1
= .
1
cos 0 ÷.
2
sin 0
.
0
2
= ÷.
1
sin 0 ÷.
2
cos 0 (7)
.
0
3
= .
3
.
) 1 =
0
@
cos 0 sin 0 0
÷sin 0 cos 0 0
0 0 1
1
A
.
The inverse equations are
.
1
= .
0
1
cos 0 ÷ .
0
2
sin 0
.
2
= .
0
1
sin 0 ÷.
0
2
cos 0 (8)
.
3
= .
0
3
.
First- and zero-order Cartesian tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 10 / 59
First- and zero-order Cartesian tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 11 / 59
Vector or ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor satisﬁes the following
transformation law:
·
0
i
= 1
ij
·
j
. (9)
By deﬁnition, the position coordinates are themselves the
components of such a tensor. Moreover, since the transformation
(9) is orthogonal, the components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor
also obey the inverse relation
·
i
= 1
ji
·
0
j
. (10)
Example
Which of the following pairs of quantities (·
1
. ·
2
) are the
components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor in two dimensions?:
(i) (.
2
. ÷.
1
), (ii) (.
2
. .
1
), (iii) (.
2
1
. .
2
2
).
Example 2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 12 / 59
Solution
We denote cos 0 by c and sin 0 by s.
(i) Here ·
1
= .
2
and ·
2
= ÷.
1
(referred to the old axes) and
·
0
1
= .
0
2
and ·
0
2
= ÷.
0
1
(new coordinates). Then
·
0
1
= .
0
2
= ÷s.
1
÷c.
2
(11)
·
0
2
= ÷.
0
1
= ÷c.
1
÷ s.
2
.
From Eq. 9, we have
·
0
1
= 1
11
·
1
÷1
12
·
2
= c.
2
÷s(÷.
1
) (12)
·
0
2
= 1
21
·
1
÷1
22
·
2
= ÷s(.
2
) ÷c(÷.
1
).
The expressions in Eqs. 11 and 12 for ·
0
1
and ·
0
2
are respectively
the same whatever the values for 0 and thus the pair (.
2
. ÷.
1
) are
components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian tensor.
Example 2 contd
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 13 / 59
(ii) Here ·
1
= .
2
and ·
2
= .
1
. Following the same procedure,
·
0
1
= .
0
2
= ÷s.
1
÷c.
2
·
0
2
= .
0
1
= c.
1
÷s.
2
.
From Eq. 9, we must have
·
0
1
= c·
1
÷s·
2
= c.
2
÷s.
1
·
0
2
= (÷s)·
1
÷c·
2
= ÷s.
2
÷c.
1
.
These two set of expressions do not agree and thus the pair
(.
2
. .
1
) do not form the components of a ﬁrst-order Cartesian
tensor.
Example 2 contd
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 14 / 59
(iii) ·
1
= .
2
1
and ·
2
= .
2
2
. Considering only the ﬁrst component
·
0
1
, we have
·
0
1
= .
02
1
= c
2
.
2
1
÷2cs.
1
.
2
÷s
2
.
2
2
.
whilst (9) requires that
·
0
1
= c·
1
÷s·
2
= c.
2
1
÷s.
2
2
.
which is quite different.
Example 3
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 15 / 59
We now consider quantities that are unchanged by a rotation of
axes. They are called scalars (tensors of zero order). They contain
only one element.
Example
By considering the components of the vectors u and v with respect
to two Cartesian systems (related by a rotation), show that the
scalar product u v is invariant under rotation.
Solution
In the rotated (primed) system we have
u
0
i
·
0
i
= 1
ij
u
j
1
ik
·
k
= 1
ij
1
ik
u
j
·
k
= ı
jk
u
j
·
k
= u
j
·
j
.
where we have used the orthogonality relation (6). Thus, the scalar
product is invariant under rotations.
First-order tensor from scalar
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 16 / 59
A ﬁrst-order tensor can be obtained from a scalar.
E.g. The electric ﬁeld E = ÷Vç has components
1
i
= ÷

d.
i
. (13)
Under a rotation of the coordinate axes, we have
1
0
i
=
Â
÷

d.
i
Ã
0
= ÷

0
d.
0
i
= ÷
d.
j
d.
0
i

d.
j
= 1
ij
1
j
. (14)
where Eq. 5 has been used to evaluate d.
j
,d.
0
i
. Thus, E is a
(ﬁrst-order) tensor.
Example 4
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
y1
st
& 0
th
order CT
yExample 2
yExample 2 contd
yExample 2 contd
yExample 3
yScalar Tensor
yExample 4
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 17 / 59
Example
If ·
i
are the components of a ﬁrst-order tensor, show that
V v = d·
i
,d.
i
is a zero-order tensor.
Solution
In the rotated coordinate system V v is given by
Â

i
d.
i
Ã
0
=

0
i
d.
0
i
=
d.
j
d.
0
i
d
d.
j
(1
ik
·
k
) = 1
ij
1
ik

k
d.
j
.
since the elements 1
ij
are not functions of positions. Thus,

0
i
d.
0
i
= 1
ij
1
ik

k
d.
j
= ı
jk

k
d.
j
=

j
d.
j
.
Hence d·
i
,d.
i
is invariant under rotation of the axes, and is thus a
zero-order tensor.
Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 18 / 59
Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 19 / 59
Deﬁne a second-order Cartesian tensor T
ij
as follows:
T
0
ij
= 1
ik
1
jl
T
kl
(15)
and
T
ij
= 1
ki
1
lj
T
0
kl
(16)
Similarly, T
ij:::k
is a tensor if T
0
ij:::k
are given by
T
0
ij:::k
= 1
ip
1
jq
. . . 1
kr
T
pq:::r
(17)
and
T
ij:::k
= 1
pi
1
qj
. . . 1
rk
T
0
pq:::r
(18)
In three dimensions, an Nth-order Cartesian tensor has 3
N
components.
Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors 2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 20 / 59
Examples of second-order tensors:
(i) The outer product of two vectors. Let u
i
and ·
i
, i = 1. 2. 3 be
the components of two vectors u and v. Consider T
ij
deﬁned by
T
ij
= u
i
·
j
. (19)
The set T
ij
are called the components of the outer product of u
and v. Under rotations, we have
T
0
ij
= u
0
i
·
0
j
= 1
ik
u
k
1
jl
·
l
= 1
ik
1
jl
u
k
·
l
= 1
ik
1
jl
T
kl
. (20)
Thus, T is a second-order tensor.
Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors 3
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 21 / 59
The outer product of two vectors is often denoted as
T = u ˝v. (21)
Since u = u
i
e
i
and v = ·
i
e
i
, we may write the tensor T as
T = u
i
e
i
˝·
j
e
j
= u
i
·
j
e
i
˝e
j
= T
ij
e
i
˝e
j
. (22)
Since the quantities T
0
ij
are the components of the same tensor T ,
but referred to a different coordinate system, we may write
T = T
ij
e
i
˝e
j
= T
0
ij
e
0
i
˝e
0
j
.
Second- and higher-order Cartesian tensors 4
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 22 / 59
(ii) The gradient of a vector. Suppose ·
i
represents the
components of a vector. Now, consider its derivatives:
T
ij
=

i
d.
j
.
These nine quantities form the components of a second-order
tensor since
T
0
ij
=

0
i
d.
0
j
=
d(1
ik
·
k
)
d.
l
d.
l
d.
0
j
= 1
ik

k
d.
l
1
jl
= 1
ik
1
jl
T
kl
.
In coordinate-free language, the tensor T may be written as
T = Vv.
For Cartesian tensor, a differentiation will give another tensor.
Example 5
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 23 / 59
Example
Show that the T
ij
given by
T = ŒT
ij
| =
Â
.
2
2
÷.
1
.
2
÷.
1
.
2
.
2
1
Ã
. (23)
are the components of a second-order tensor.
Solution
Consider a rotation about the e
3
-axis. Using Eq. 7, we have
T
0
11
= .
02
2
= s
2
.
2
1
÷ 2sc.
1
.
2
÷c
2
.
2
2
.
T
0
12
= ÷.
0
1
.
0
2
= sc.
2
1
÷(s
2
÷ c
2
).
1
.
2
÷ sc.
2
2
.
T
0
21
= ÷.
0
1
.
0
2
= sc.
2
1
÷(s
2
÷ c
2
).
1
.
2
÷ sc.
2
2
.
T
0
22
= .
02
1
= c
2
.
2
1
÷2sc.
1
.
2
÷s
2
.
2
2
.
Example 5 contd
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 24 / 59
Evaluating the right-hand side of Eq. 15, we have
T
0
11
= cc.
2
2
÷cs(÷.
1
.
2
)
÷sc(÷.
1
.
2
) ÷ss.
2
1
.
T
0
12
= c(÷s).
2
2
÷cc(÷.
1
.
2
) ÷s(÷s)(÷.
1
.
2
)
÷sc.
2
1
.
T
0
21
= (÷s)c.
2
2
÷(÷s)s(÷.
1
.
2
) ÷cc(÷.
1
.
2
)
÷cs.
2
1
.
T
0
22
= (÷s)(÷s).
2
2
÷(÷s)c(÷.
1
.
2
)
÷c(÷s)(÷.
1
.
2
) ÷cc.
2
1
.
Thus, T
ij
are the components of a second-order tensor.
Algebra of Tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 25 / 59
If V
ij:::k
and W
ij:::k
are tensors of the same order, then their sum
and difference, S
ij:::k
and D
ij:::k
respectively, are given by
S
ij:::k
= V
ij:::k
÷W
ij:::k
D
ij:::k
= V
ij:::k
÷ W
ij:::k
.
S
ij:::k
and D
ij:::k
are also tensors.
If T
ij:::k
is a tensor, interchanging the order of (a pair of) indices,
e.g. T
ji:::k
, also produces a tensor.
If T
ij:::k
= T
ji:::k
, then T
ij:::k
is said to be symmetric with respect
to its ﬁrst two indices.
If T
ij:::k
= ÷T
ji:::k
, then T
ij:::k
is antisymmetric.
The outer product of an Nth-order tensor with an Mth-order tensor
will produce an (M ÷N)th-order tensor.
Algebra of Tensors 2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 26 / 59
An arbitrary tensor can always be written as the sum of a
symmetric tensor S
ij:::k
and an antisymmetric tensor ·
ij:::k
:
T
ij:::k
=
1
2
(T
ij:::k
÷T
ji:::k
) ÷
1
2
(T
ij:::k
÷ T
ji:::k
)
= S
ij:::k
÷·
ij:::k
.
Example 6
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
yHigher-order CT
yHigher-order CT 2
yHigher-order CT 3
yHigher-order CT 4
yExample 5
yExample 5 contd
yAlgebra
yAlgebra 2
yExample 6
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 27 / 59
Example
Show that the process of contraction of a tensor produces another tensor,
but with an order reduced by 2.
Solution
Let T
ij:::l:::m:::k
be the components of an Nth-order tensor, then
T
0
ij:::l:::m:::k
= 1
ip
1
jq
. . . 1
lr
. . . 1
ms
. . . 1
kn
„ ƒ‚ …
N factors
T
pq:::r:::s:::n
If we make two subscripts l and m equal, we have
T
0
ij:::l:::l:::k
= 1
ip
1
jq
. . . 1
lr
. . . 1
ls
. . . 1
kn
T
pq:::r:::s:::n
= 1
ip
1
jq
. . . ı
rs
. . . 1
kn
T
pq:::r:::s:::n
= 1
ip
1
jq
. . . 1
kn
„ ƒ‚ …
.N2/ factors
T
pq:::r:::r:::n
Thus T
ij:::l:::l:::k
is a tensor of order (N ÷ 2).
Quotient Law
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
yQuotient Law
yQuotient Law 2
yQuotient Law 3
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 28 / 59
Quotient Law
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
yQuotient Law
yQuotient Law 2
yQuotient Law 3
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 29 / 59
The law states that if B and C are tensors and also that
·
pq:::k:::m
T
ij:::k:::n
= C
pq:::mij:::n
(24)
holds in all rotated coordinate frames where A, B, and C are of
Mth, Nth and (M ÷N ÷ 2)th order, then ·
pq:::k:::m
is also a
tensor.
Quotient Law 2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
yQuotient Law
yQuotient Law 2
yQuotient Law 3
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 30 / 59
Proof: (for the case M = N = 2)
Given
·
pk
T
ik
= C
pi
(25)
where T
ik
and C
pi
are arbitrary second-order tensors. Under a
rotation of coordinates, we have
·
0
pk
T
0
ik
= C
0
pi
= 1
pq
1
ij
C
qj
= 1
pq
1
ij
·
ql
T
jl
= 1
pq
1
ij
·
ql
1
mj
1
nl
T
0
mn
= 1
pq
1
nl
·
ql
T
0
i n
(since 1
ij
1
mj
= ı
im
)
As k and n are dummy subscripts, we may write

0
pk
÷ 1
pq
1
kl
·
ql
)T
0
ik
= 0. (26)
Quotient Law 3
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
yQuotient Law
yQuotient Law 2
yQuotient Law 3
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 31 / 59
Since T
0
ik
is an arbitrary tensor, we must have
·
0
pk
= 1
pq
1
kl
·
ql
.
so that ·
pk
is a second-order tensor.
—————————————
The law can be used to test whether a given set of quantities is a
tensor. For example, the outer product .
i
.
j
is a second-order
tensor. Contracting this with the T
ij
given in Eq. 23, we have
T
ij
.
i
.
j
= .
2
2
.
2
1
÷ .
1
.
2
.
1
.
2
÷ .
1
.
2
.
2
.
1
÷.
2
1
.
2
2
= 0.
Thus by the quotient law, T
ij
must be a tensor.
Tensors ı

and c
i¸k
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk

ij
and
ijk
yExample 7

ij
and
ijk
2

ij
and
ijk
3
yExample 8
yExample 8 contd
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 32 / 59
Tensors ı

and c
i¸k
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk

ij
and
ijk
yExample 7

ij
and
ijk
2

ij
and
ijk
3
yExample 8
yExample 8 contd
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 33 / 59
The Levi-Civita symbol c
ijk
is deﬁned as
c
ijk
=
8
<
:
÷1 i , ¸ , k: even permutation of 1, 2, 3
÷1 i , ¸ , k: odd permutation of 1, 2, 3
0 otherwise.
Note that c
ijk
is totally antisymmetric. ı
ij
is a second-order tensor
because
ı
0
kl
= 1
ki
1
lj
ı
ij
= 1
ki
1
li
= ı
kl
.
Levi-Civita symbol can be used to write an expression for the
determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix A:
[·[c
lmn
= ·
li
·
mj
·
nk
c
ijk
. (27)
Using Eq. 27, it can be shown that c
ijk
is a third-order tensor since
c
lmn
= [1[1
li
1
mj
1
nk
c
ijk
= c
0
lmn
.
Example 7
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk

ij
and
ijk
yExample 7

ij
and
ijk
2

ij
and
ijk
3
yExample 8
yExample 8 contd
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 34 / 59
Example
Write the following as contracted Cartesian tensors: (i) a b; (ii) V
2
ç; (iii)
V × v; (iv) V(V v); (v) V × (V × v); (vi) (a × b) c.
Solution
(a × b)
i
= c
ijk
a
j
b
k
.
a b = a
i
b
i
.
V
2
ç =
d
2
ç
d.
i
d.
i
.
(V × v)
i
= c
ijk

k
d.
j
.
V(V v)
i
=
d
d.
i
Â

j
d.
j
Ã
.
V × (V × v)
i
= c
ijk
d
d.
j
Â
c
klm

m
d.
l
Ã
= c
ijk
c
klm
d
2
·
m
d.
j
d.
l
.
(a × b) c = c
i kl
c
i
a
k
b
l
.
Tensors ı

and c
i¸k
2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk

ij
and
ijk
yExample 7

ij
and
ijk
2

ij
and
ijk
3
yExample 8
yExample 8 contd
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 35 / 59
An important relation between the c- and ı- tensors is expressed
by the identity
c
ijk
c
klm
= ı
il
ı
jm
÷ ı
im
ı
jl
(28)
Establishing the identity:
Consider the various possibilities that arise. The RHS of Eq. 28
has the values
÷1 if i = 1 and ¸ = m = i , (29)
÷1 i = m and ¸ = l = i , (30)
0 otherwise. (31)
In each product on the LHS k has the same value in both factors
and for a non-zero contribution none of i , l, ¸ , m can have the
same value as k. Thus, the only non-zero possibilities are i = 1
and ¸ = m or vice versa, but not all four subscripts equal.
Tensors ı

and c
i¸k
3
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk

ij
and
ijk
yExample 7

ij
and
ijk
2

ij
and
ijk
3
yExample 8
yExample 8 contd
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 36 / 59
This reproduces Eq. 31 for the LHS of Eq. 28 and also the
conditions Eqs. 29 and 30. The values in Eq. 29 and 30 are also
reproduced in the LHS of Eq. 28 since
if i = l and ¸ = m, c
ijk
= c
lmk
= c
klm
and, whether c
ijk
is
÷1 or ÷1, the product of the two factors is ÷1; and
if i = m and ¸ = l, c
ijk
= c
mlk
= ÷c
klm
, and thus the
product c
ijk
c
klm
(no summation) has the value ÷1.
Example 8
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk

ij
and
ijk
yExample 7

ij
and
ijk
2

ij
and
ijk
3
yExample 8
yExample 8 contd
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 37 / 59
Example
Obtain an alternative expression for V × (V × v).
Solution
We have
ŒV × (V × v)|
i
= c
ijk
c
klm
d
2
·
m
d.
j
d.
l
= (ı
il
ı
jm
÷ ı
im
ı
jl
)
d
2
·
m
d.
j
d.
l
=
d
d.
i
Â

j
d.
j
Ã
÷
d
2
·
i
d.
j
d.
j
= ŒV(V v)|
i
÷ V
2
·
i
.
where in the second line we have used the identity (28)
Example 8 contd
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk

ij
and
ijk
yExample 7

ij
and
ijk
2

ij
and
ijk
3
yExample 8
yExample 8 contd
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 38 / 59
In general, we have
c
ijk
c
pqr
=
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ı
ip
ı
iq
ı
ir
ı
jp
ı
jq
ı
jr
ı
kp
ı
kq
ı
kr
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
. (32)
For example, we have, from Eq. 32,
c
ijk
c
ilm
= ı
jl
ı
km
÷ ı
jm
ı
kl
(33)
Contracting Eq. 33 by setting ¸ = l, we obtain
c
ijk
c
ijm
= 3ı
km
÷ ı
km
= 2ı
km
since ı
kk
= 3. By contracting once more, setting k = m, we
further ﬁnd that
c
ijk
c
ijk
= 6. (34)
Isotropic Tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors 2
yIsotropic Tensors 3
yExample 9
yExample 9 contd
yExample 9 contd
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 39 / 59
Isotropic Tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors 2
yIsotropic Tensors 3
yExample 9
yExample 9 contd
yExample 9 contd
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 40 / 59
All components of ı
ij
and c
ijk
tensors have values that are the
same whatever the rotation of axes is made, i.e. the component
values are independent of the transformation 1
ij
.
For example, ı
11
has the value 1 in all coordinate frames. These
tensors are called isotropic (or invariant) tensors.
We will now show that, to within a scalar multiple, ı
ij
is the only
second-order isotropic tensors.
Isotropic Tensors 2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors 2
yIsotropic Tensors 3
yExample 9
yExample 9 contd
yExample 9 contd
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 41 / 59
Let us begin with isotropic second-order tensors. Suppose T
ij
is
an isotropic tensor. Then, for any rotation of the axes we have
T
ij
= T
0
ij
= 1
ik
1
jl
T
kl
. (35)
First consider the rotation of the axes about the (1,1,1) direction,
which takes O.
1
, O.
2
, O.
3
into O.
0
2
, O.
0
3
, O.
0
1
, respectively.
For this rotation, 1
13
= 1, 1
21
= 1, 1
32
= 1 and all other
1
ij
= 0. This requires that T
11
= T
0
11
= T
33
. Similarly,
T
12
= T
0
12
= T
31
. Continuing in this way, we ﬁnd
(a) T
11
= T
22
= T
33
.
(b) T
12
= T
23
= T
31
.
(c) T
21
= T
32
= T
13
.
Isotropic Tensors 3
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors 2
yIsotropic Tensors 3
yExample 9
yExample 9 contd
yExample 9 contd
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 42 / 59
Next consider the rotation of the axes (from their original position)
3
-axis. In this case 1
12
= ÷1, 1
21
= 1,
1
33
= 1 and all other 1
ij
= 0. Thus, from Eq. 35, we have
T
13
= (÷1) × 1 × T
23
.
T
23
= 1 × 1 × T
13
.
Hence, T
13
= T
23
= 0 and therefore, by parts (b) and (c) above,
each element T
ij
= 0 except for T
11
, T
22
and T
33
, which are all
the same. This shows that T
ij
= zı
ij
.
Example 9
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors 2
yIsotropic Tensors 3
yExample 9
yExample 9 contd
yExample 9 contd
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 43 / 59
Example
Show that zc
ijk
is the only isotropic third-order Cartesian tensor.
Solution
The general line of attack is as above and so only a minimum of
explanation will be given
T
ijk
= T
0
ijk
= 1
il
1
jm
1
kn
T
lmn
.
Rotate about the (1,1,1) direction: this is equivalent to making
subscript permutations 1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1. We ﬁnd
(a) T
111
= T
222
= T
333
,
(b) T
112
= T
223
= T
331
,
Example 9 contd
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors 2
yIsotropic Tensors 3
yExample 9
yExample 9 contd
yExample 9 contd
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 44 / 59
(c) T
123
= T
231
= T
312
(and a set involving odd permutations
of 1, 2, 3).
Rotate by ¬,2 about the O.
3
-axis: 1
12
= ÷1, 1
21
= 1, 1
33
= 1,
other 1
ij
= 0.
(d) T
111
= (÷1) × (÷1) × (÷1) × T
222
= ÷T
222
,
(e) T
112
= (÷1) × (÷1) × 1 × T
221
,
(f) T
221
= 1 × 1 × (÷1) × T
112
,
(g) T
123
= (÷1) × 1 × 1 × T
213
.
Relations (a) and (d) show that the elements with all subscripts the
same are zero. Relations (e), (f) and (b) show that all elements
with repeated subscripts are zero. Relations (g) and (c) show that
T
123
= T
231
= T
312
= ÷T
213
= ÷T
321
= ÷T
132
.
Example 9 contd
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors
yIsotropic Tensors 2
yIsotropic Tensors 3
yExample 9
yExample 9 contd
yExample 9 contd
Pseudotensors
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 45 / 59
In total, T
ijk
differs from c
ijk
by at most a scalar factor, but since
c
ijk
(and hence zc
ijk
) has already been explicitly shown to be an
isotropic tensor, T
ijk
must be the most general third-order isotropic
Cartesian tensor.
Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
yPseudotensors
yPseudotensors 2
yPseudotensors 3
yExample 10
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 46 / 59
Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
yPseudotensors
yPseudotensors 2
yPseudotensors 3
yExample 10
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 47 / 59
A rotation transformation in which the determinant of an associated
orthogonal matrix L is [1[ = 1 is called a proper rotation.
Transformations in which [1[ = ÷1 are called improper
transformations.
This kind of transformation can always be considered as an
inversion of the coordinate axes through the origin represented by
the equation
.
0
i
= ÷.
i
(36)
combined with proper rotation.
The transformation may alternatively be looked upon as one that
changes an initially right-handed coordinate system into a
left-handed one.
Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors 2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
yPseudotensors
yPseudotensors 2
yPseudotensors 3
yExample 10
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 48 / 59
An object that transforms as ·
0
i
= 1
ij
·
j
under proper rotations
and as ·
0
i
= ÷1
ij
·
j
under improper rotations is called a
pseudovector (or pseudotensor). It is important to realize that a
pseudovector is not a geometrical object (or a real physical arrow
in space).
FIG. 2: The behaviour of a vector v and a pseudovector p under a
reﬂection through the origin of the coordinate system .
1
,.
2
, .
3
giving the
new system .
0
1
,.
0
2
, .
0
3
.
Improper Rotations and Pseudotensors 3
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
yPseudotensors
yPseudotensors 2
yPseudotensors 3
yExample 10
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 49 / 59
In general, the components of Cartesian pseudotensors of
arbitrary order transform as
T
0
ij:::k
= [L[1
il
1
jm
. . . 1
kn
T
lm:::n
. (37)
where [L[ is the determinant of the transformation matrix.
For example, we have
c
0
ijk
= [L[1
il
1
jm
1
kn
c
lmn
.
Thus, c
ijk
is a third-order Cartesian pseudotensor.
Example 10
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
yPseudotensors
yPseudotensors 2
yPseudotensors 3
yExample 10
Applications
Paul Lim Tensors – 50 / 59
Example
If b
j
and c
k
are the components of vectors, show that the
quantities a
i
= c
ijk
b
j
c
k
form the components of a pseudovector.
Solution
a
0
i
= c
0
ijk
b
0
j
c
0
k
= [L[1
il
1
jm
1
kn
c
lmn
1
jp
b
p
1
kq
c
q
= [L[1
il
c
lmn
ı
mp
ı
nq
b
p
c
q
= [L[1
il
c
lmn
b
m
c
n
= [L[1
il
a
l
.
Thus a
i
is a pseudovector.
Physical applications of tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 51 / 59
Moment of Inertia
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 52 / 59
Consider a collection of rigidly connected point particles of which
the ˛th, with mass m
.˛/
, is typical, and is positioned at r
.˛/
with
respect to an origin O. Suppose that the rigid assembly is rotating
about an axis through O with angular velocity !.
The angular momentum J about O of the assembly is given by
J =
X
˛

r
.˛/
× p
.˛/
Á
.
But p
.˛/
= m
.˛/
´ r
.˛/
and ´ r
.˛/
= o × r
.˛/
so that
Physical applications of tensors 2
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 53 / 59
J
i
=
X
˛
m
.˛/
c
ijk
.
.˛/
j
.
.˛/
k
=
X
˛
m
.˛/
c
ijk
.
.˛/
j
c
klm
o
l
.
.˛/
m
=
X
˛
m
.˛/

il
ı
jm
÷ ı
im
ı
jl
).
.˛/
j
.
.˛/
m
o
l
=
X
˛
m
.˛/
Ä

r
.˛/
Á
2
ı
il
÷ .
.˛/
i
.
.˛/
l

o
l
÷ 1
il
o
l
. (38)
where 1
il
is a symmetric second-order Cartesian tensor and is
called the inertia tensor at O of the assembly.
.
Physical applications of tensors 3
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 54 / 59
For a continuous rigid body, m
.˛/
must be replaced by j(r)d.d,d:
so that
1
ij
=
0
@
R
(,
2
÷:
2
)j dV ÷
R
.,j dV ÷
R
.:j dV
÷
R
.,j dV
R
(:
2
÷.
2
)j dV ÷
R
,:j dV
÷
R
.:j dV ÷
R
,:j dV
R
(.
2
÷,
2
)j dV
1
A
.
Example 11
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 55 / 59
Example
Show that the kinetic energy of the rotating system is given by
T =
1
2
1
jl
o
j
o
l
.
Solution
T =
1
2
X
˛
m
.˛/
( ´ r
.˛/
´ r
.˛/
)
=
1
2
X
˛
m
.˛/
c
ijk
o
j
.
.˛/
k
c
i lm
o
l
.
.˛/
m
=
1
2
X
˛
m
.˛/

jl
ı
km
÷ ı
jm
ı
kl
).
.˛/
k
.
.˛/
m
o
j
o
l
=
1
2
X
˛
m
.˛/
Ä
ı
jl

r
.˛/
Á
2
÷ .
.˛/
j
.
.˛/
l

o
j
o
l
=
1
2
1
jl
o
j
o
l
.
Note that, since J
j
D I
jl
!
l
, we may write T D
1
2
J
j
!
j
.
Example 12
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 56 / 59
Example
The electrical conductivity o in a crystal is measured by an
observer to have the components
Œo
ij
| =
0
@
1
_
2 0
_
2 3 1
0 1 1
1
A
. (39)
Show that there is one direction in the crystal along which no
current can ﬂow. Does the current ﬂow equally easily in the two
perpendicular directions?
Solution
Since Œo
ij
| is a symmetric matrix, it possess three mutually
perpendicular eigenvectors (or principal axes), with respect to
which the conductivity tensor is diagonal, with diagonal entries z
1
,
z
2
, z
3
.
Example 12 contd
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 57 / 59
The eigenvalues are given by
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
1 ÷ z
_
2 0
_
2 3 ÷ z 1
0 1 1 ÷ z
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
= 0.
from which we obtain
(1 ÷ z)Œ(3 ÷ z)(1 ÷ z) ÷ 1| ÷ 2(1 ÷ z) = 0.
This gives z = 0. 1. 4 so that with respect to the principal axes,
Œo
0
ij
| =
0
@
4 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
1
A
.
Since ¸
0
i
= o
0
ij
1
0
j
, there is no current ﬂow along one of the principal axes
and along the two J directions, the current ﬂows are not equal.
Integral theorems for tensors
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 58 / 59
The divergence theorem states that for, any vector ﬁeld a,
Z
V
V a dV =
I
S
a ´ ndS. (40)
where S is the surface enclosing the volume V and ´ n is the
outward-pointing unit normal to S at each point.
It can be rewritten as
Z
V
da
k
d.
k
dV =
I
S
a
k
´ n
k
dS. (41)
Eq. 41 can be extended so that the form of the divergence theorem
for general tensors is
Z
V
dT
ij:::k:::m
d.
k
dV =
I
S
T
ij:::k:::m
´ n
k
dS.
Example 13
TENSORS
1
st
& 0
th
order CT
Higher-order CT
Quotient Law
ı
ij
and
ijk
Isotropic Tensors
Pseudotensors
Applications
yInertia
yApplications 2
yApplications 3
yExample 11
yExample 12
yExample 12 contd
yIntegral theorems
yExample 13
Paul Lim Tensors – 59 / 59
Example
A vector ﬁeld a satisﬁes V a = 0 inside some volume V and
a ´ n = 0 on the boundary surface S. By considering the
divergence theorem applied to T
ij
= .
i
a
j
, show that
R
V
a dV = 0.
Solution
Applying the divergence theorem to T
ij
= .
i
a
j
, we ﬁnd
Z
V
dT
ij
d.
j
dV =
Z
V
d(.
i
a
j
)
d.
j
dV =
I
S
.
i
a
j
´ n
j
dS = 0.
since a
j
´ n
j
= 0. By expanding the volume integral, we get
Z
V
d(.
i
a
j
)
d.
j
dV =
Z
V
d.
i
d.
j
a
j
dV ÷
Z
V
.
i
da
j
d.
j
dV
=
Z
V
ı
ij
a
j
dV =
Z
V
a
i
dV = 0.