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BENNO LOEWY LIBRARY
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BENNO LOEWY
1854.1919

BEQUEATHED TO CORNELL UNIVERSITY

Cornell University Library

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is in

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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924022480267

THEORY AND

PRACTICE

MUSICAL COMPOSITION
BY

ADOLPH BERNHARD MARX,
DOCTOB OF MUSIC, MUSICAL DIBECIOB Or THE tTHITEBSITT OF BERLIN,
ETC.

TRANSLATED FEOM THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION,
AND EDITED BY

HEERMAlSr

S.

SAKONI.

FIFTH AMEEIOAN EDJTION,

WITH AN APPENDIX AND NOTES,
BY EMILIUS GIEAC,
OP THE

CONSERVATORY

OP PARIS.

NEW YOEK:
PUBLISHED BY MASON BROTHEES. 23 PARK ROW.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by

MASON & LAW,
In the Clerk's Offlce of the District Court for the Southern Distiict
of

New

York.

''

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854,

bf

MASON BROTHERS,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of

New

York,

PUBLISHERS' ADVERTISEMENT.

A. B.

Marx

holds such high rank in

Gennany

as a writer

upon

the subject of Musical Composition, that any recommendation of his

great

work

to those

who

are at all acquainted with the musical
is

lite-

rature of the land which

emphatically the

home

of music, would

be superfluous.

It is

without a rival as a treatise upon this subject,

thoroughly

scientific,

and yet adapted to popular comprehension.
language has been so

A

work of

this character in the English

much

sought after in vain, as to lead to the present translation, which embraces two books,
viz.
:

Book

I.

The Elements

of Musical Composition.
;

Book

II.

The Accompaniment of a given Melody and
People's Songs.

with especial

reference to Chorals

(Volkslied.)

The

translation has been

made from

the third improved
to

German

edition,

and great care has been taken

follow the original as

closely as possible, securing, at the

same time, the necessary adaptabeen pre-

tion to the

American student,

—and an Introduction has

pared by the Editor.

Ilxtraot

of a Letter recevoed from JiB.. A. B. Maex, ly the PiibUshers.
Berlin, June 23, 1852.

Gentlemen,

Your

polite

communication, and the copy of a translation of

my

work on Mubical Composition, have been received through

Messrs.T- Edwards,

thanks.

*****
Sandford,

&

Co., for

which accept

my

warmest

I find that your translator (as far as I

am

able to judge from

a somewhat imperfect acquaintance with the English language)
has done his work very ^jrac&aWy and successfully; and I beg

you to express
honored

to him, as also to the eminent
their approval,

men who have
and

my

work with

my

sincerest thanks,

also yourselves to accept the same, for the very elegant style of the
edition.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

The

true problem of a treatise on

Art may be thus expressed

TJiat it should transmute the most thorough

and comprehensive
of the pu-

knowledge of Art into
pil,

the consciousness

and

sensibilities

and immediately

incite

him

to artistic activity.

Neither abstract knowledge nor technioaHnstruotion can ever
secure
artistic culture,

or even prepare the
;

way

for

it

;

both are

opposed to the essence of Art
above

and

it is

the fault of the old

teachers, as I have elsewhere proved, that they have not risen
this unartistie

tendency, or been willing to depart from
artist,

it.

As

the achievement of the
is

bom' of

his

own

free, truth-perspirit,

vaded mind,
of man, so

not an abstract thougHt, but an embodied

united in as intimate and inseparable a unity as the soul and

body

must the

science of

Art continually
from which
it

strive after the

most

living

and impressive

truths,

should lead the
Both, however,

way

to bolder

and more joyous achievements.
and that ardent
in

should be accompanied with that certainty, reposing on the convictions of experience,

desire for

new

achieve-

ments and progress, which,

my

opinion, are the conditions

and

characteristics of a true artistic

life.

This principle, in connection with contemplation on the essence
of Art, matured

period of

by observation and artistic activity from an early youth, strengthened by a view of the historical deveart,

lopment of
telligent

and by the growing approbation of the most

in-

and continually enlarging experience, and second
treatises, is still

this principle, as

in

my

first

my

law.

That the

inter-

but life. unadvised and unquestioned by the mute Past and Present. of traries. not to treat with dis- . liberty. as a duty. while their words and books form artists or connois- own examples proved them composition . many lives to give support and a rallying-point. Often and long enough has the want of this reciprocal action of doctrine and felt. or to such as have certainly not with the presumption of not yet had opportunity for extensive experience. ani- melody and harmony though in reality united. or follow in the gloomy path of transmitted usage. fertile of results. in order to be not wholly without support. so that every isolated existence —always most whole limited in its immediate activity in relation to the . and not before and all where they are not needed. Not books. and work. or rather merely nominal separation of the Elements from their ac- companiments. formerly. —may not forever perish that every worker.6 change of theory and sence. immediate intuition most strongly cates . may not be forced either to begin his task anew. is the insuflSciency of all writing to supply the place of felt. however. unPrecisely here. there are if able composers who venture to neglect. it. practice. . however. edulife. on the other hand. where they are immediately applied. of law and still. was my principal aim in the present In this view. and the experience of teachers and pupils. to be wanting in the least skill for and. an intimation of my method of teaching . assumingly to impart what I have to others. author's preface. intelligence of and more copious treatment of the secular melodies. being able to say any thing new or important. notwithstanding the gap in the formal. I consider it an essential improvement to have placed the further development of passes and harmonic figuration after the for the freer choral. further improvements are to be tested by the the professor. This. and only when life is quickened and wrought on by can books perform their mightiest and most beneficent namely. of form and escalled conliving. I would gladly ofiFer to younger teachers. — —may become more as mated. life in our artistic science Even in our own times have made itself most painfully we been obliged to see teachto ers attempting with seurs. but. to unite the experience and intelligence of office.

) the instruction assumes peculiar and permanent character. The former The are easily recognized prejudice is by their deficiency not so the latter. the experience. and the capacity of the pedagogue. or other assistance. the spirit. Mozart and L. V. Of pure necessary verbal instruction only so much is at first premised as is to acquaint the scholar with the method of instruction. perceives While the scholar who to observe is familiar with what and what to miss in the form of the tune. necessity. Beethoven. From the first series its (the major diatonic scale.dain. must of necessity. Seldom as this many-sided fitness either its found or attained. and the soul of an artist. the dexterity. reflection will not fail to make us confess My the method of teaching. the more able and diligent scholars pared among the less gifted — —thus preit will almost of themselves grasp with- the next necessary. or even with two or more. may be safely inferred from should. — —should is be in but. The scholar is thus kept from the beginning in his future life. psychological. that an able or even a dis- tinguished composer. he should not be wanting the full vocation. to the old disheartening dissension between Art and Science. both in theory and practice. artistic activity. possess The teacher the cultivation. only too widely diffused. who his pen. him to the point of artistic effort. even to explain the science of their own skill in . that the one the greatness of the other. indeed. and experience has often proved. — in the atmosphere of active. himself an artist. (as in the cases of that artistic ability W. A. With single scholars. while yet the indispensableness of furis ther qualifications in a teacher so easily seen. his teacher. that pedagogic science long since offered to explain.) to teach are not so often or and the capacity so necessarily united. or next possible point. or sit at the often teacher's side. and without further pains. and direct of notes. either in his work or his meditations. or understand out diflaculty from the course of lectures. besides this. be also an able teacher . execution. and watch the movements of who . every pedagogic. has from first been directed in conformity with these views. The teacher also remains fresh and and fear' has no longer cause.

I do not hold it advisable that the scholar should wholly avoid errors. an error merely suppressed threatens a return. or instruct . instruction has been proved most agreeable and of The more the scholar can is anticipate the teacher. and have opportunity to conquer himself by his own might. —the my sooner he able of himself to discover an explanation or an ex- pedient-^to accelerate his progress opinion. He should be thoroughly tried and tested. corrected at leisure. them how to proceed with a work already begun how to explain.8 author's preface. pro- vided they have but one tenable position. or to avoid such and such a dubious point. In artistic where individuality and its subjective sensation and voli- tion give the last decision in the moment of artistic creation. . in The mistakes of the scholar. A vanquished error is a progress .-^-to teacher whom the must give advice. es- pecially in the greater tasks of the fugue and sonata forms. —the more successful. science. unexpectedly take the pen into their own hands. thus enabling may be taken up and him at once to perceive the discrepancy of his error with some part of his work. is the teacher's work. to improve. — for all these purposes this sysfertile tem of results.

Melodic Application. PART FIRST. .TABLE OF CONTENTS. ii. ib. Chapter I. 3. ulation. Invention of Monophonic Phrases. 3. III. The Tone-chain. : 63. Periods.—TONES AND NOTES. 15 PAKT FIRST. ELEMENTS OF MtTSICAL COMPOSITION. V.—COMPOSITION FOR TWO PARTS CDUOPHONIC COMPOSITION). The Cadmce. 73. 3. The Duophonic Composition. 66 Retrospection. 63 III.. derived from Natural Harmony. . VII. PART SECOND. ner of arriving at Application. 66 3. derived from the Monophonic. dence. 6. . Chapter Chapter I. iS.relations The Tone Species. 61. 67. . 64 Means. . VIII. 77. Sexes. II.36 41 44 46 BOOK FIRST. ih. . with its Species.. The Duophonic Composition. Chaptee Chaptee Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter I. I. 18 19 . Relation of . The Measuring of Tone. The Duophonic Composition.^ Formation of Passages. Chapter Discovery of New Formation of Phrases. Application. VI. . The first Formations 1.. The Half-Ca- Chapter III. Tone Reg54 The Major Scale. PAOa IHTRODUCTIOK . . 74 it. ManHarmonic . its Efficacy. 1. 79 . ation of the Tone-chain. ib. . 66. 78 4. 59. Analysis of the Scale. . .. Rhythmical form.. or Modes The Keys Keys . Chapter 3. ii. . 63 . II. Harmonic Designs.. MUSICAL NOTATION". 24 38 IV. The Design and . . 81. The Tone System The Note System Abbreviations and other accidental Characters in Music Elevation and Depression . .—COMPOSITION FOR SINGLE PARTS (MONOPHONIC COMPOSITION). II. 4.

162 1. Chapter Chapter I. SCALE. A. . 113. MAJOR . Chapter IV..] B. PART FOXJRTH. ib. New Designs and Passages. 158 . Modulation from one Key into another. . Retrospection. ished Septime Chord. . 119 Prelude. Harmonization of the Minor Scale. E. PART THIKD. Formation of the Minor Scale. 87 . H. The Four Voices*.10 Chapter IV.—INVERSION OF CHORDS. Chapter 163 . Major Melodies. I. Free introduction of the Donunant Chord. Designs of Nearest Connection. — PART SIXTH. 2. Combination of Major Triads. The Diminished . 136 . Nona-Chord. The Double Duophonic Composition. . 157 . 1. Succession (Consecutive Fifths). 161. Compositions of two and three parts. . Designs Of Remote Connection. The Connection of Chords. Other Chords in connection with the Dominant Chord. 2. Formation of Harmonic Passages or Sequences. . . Harmonic Designs. . Limitation to those means which were found in the Ascending Scale. Chapter I.~ D. Freer Harmonization of given Melodies. Chapter IV. E. . D. . The Nona-Chords. C. The Septime Chord. 105. 118. B. i5. . ifi. Chapter III. Freer use of the Melodies. 3. 94. .—MODULATION INTO FOREIGN KEYS. 151 continVfed. 3. 133 C. II. ib. PART SEVENTH. 84 . Development of a Single Chord. Extension of the Harmonic Designs by means of Rhythm. ib. . Nona-Chord (Chord of the Dimin- Ninth). Examination and Justification of the Harmony. 131. 4. 149. &c. 90 . 125 ib. 100. 134. 140. 118 F. B. Enumeration and Appellation of the Inversions. . Octave Succession (Consecutive Octaves). Combination of Inversions with Fundamental Chords. ib. I. 141. 129. PART FIFTH. 93.— HAHMONT OF THE MINOR SCALE. 120. The Diminished Triads. 155 . 122 A. 2. . ib. 89. . Avoiding faulty progressions. Chapter V. Minor 3. 143. 128 Covered . Harmonic Designs froiA adding the Dominant Chords 117. The Dominant Chord. 116 D. . ib. 99 A. 144 Retrospection Modulation. ib. . Octaves and Fifths. II. Quint or Fifth . Chapter H. 1. Preludes and Final ib. . and of Minor and Major Triads. TABLE OF COin^KTS. Faulty Pro-gressions. t&. Application. . The Descending Scale. Compo^ tiona of threo parts.—THE FREER USE OF THE CHORDS IN OUR POSSESSION. 152. The Dominant Chord preparing the end. Chapter . 147 . Discovery of the necessary Harmonies. Harmonic Besi^ns^ ib: . 127 Doubling of intervals in the Dominant Chord. The Dominant Chord. The Triad Chapter TIL The Accompaniment of given Melodies. Close and dispersed Harmony. The Combination of Minor Triads. 114 A. Figuring. Chapter HI. Cadences. ib. 115 1. 107 j A. 160. 132 Free use of the Inversions. 102 of the Dominant. Inversions of the Nona-Chord. E. Freer Treatment of the Dominant Chord. C.—HARMONY OF THE. Licenses of the Dominant Chord. . 1. Chapter II. 168 3. . Freer use of Triads B. 101. Chapter Chapter I. 109. 103 F. 154. New Chords. Employment of Inversions.

228. 6. The Superfluous Triad. iNTRODUCTIOIf. 190 3. 21Ij Passages of Chapter VIII. The Interrupted Cadence. . . Suspensions from above. 220 215. 171. . 199. Chapter Chapter tion. Chapter IX. Cmaftek Introduction of new means to the Harmonization of Melodies. The Polyphonic Composi- B. . Indigenous Passage. 238 Fifths niiti gated by Suspensions. ternal Characteristics. A. Pas2. Chapter It. 5. . 285 ib. Summary A. 297. ib. PASS. . 7. 173 ib. 196 B. The Chromatic . t£. 186 1. Phrases. B. . 390. 192 A. . 175 C. The Pedal-point. A. Chapter IV. 305. Chapter I. 236 A means of Connection. sages of Dominant Chords.TABLE OF CONTENTS. and Monophonic Compositions. ib. I. . Application of these means to Indigenous or Digressive Melodies. D. 207. General Order of Construction. Abrhpt Modulation. 189 Formation of new passages with the aid of Foreign Chords. BOOK SECOND. . 192. II. or Poly-choired Composition. . Variable modulations. PART FIRST. PART TENTH. 271. 346. General Conception of the Melody. 174 . 304 . PART NINTH. B. 376. I. 170 The Diminished Triad. 283. A. . Chromatic Passes and Assistant-tones. 244 Octaves covered by Suspensions. The Dominant Chord. 169. Second two-part Construction. 5. 11 The Dominant Triad.—THE Chapter Chapter B.—THE TREATMENT OF MORE OR LESS THAN" FOUR VOICES. .—THE ACCOMPANIMENT OF THE CHORAL. Chapter I. 263. External Characteristics. 366. A. 201 A. 313. Chapter III. 2. The II. 1. The Assistant-tone. tension of Modulation. . 334. Chapter VI. Chapter II. In Ascertainment of Digressive Melody. 177. . I'A. Chapter The results of Passes. Development of Harmony. Septime. . Pass. . Indigenous Passage of Nona-Chords. III. The Diminished . ib. the principal points of Modulation. ib. 381. Successions of Nona. . Order of Modulation for more extended Compositions. Anticipated Tones. Hetrospection. Duophonic. 4. Triphonic. 228 Suspensions of fundamental Tones. Discovery of all eligihle Chords. THE ACCOMPANIMENT OF GIVEN MELODIES. Chapter VII. The first perfect Construction of a two-part Composition. PART EIGHTH. 256. 249 Participant Tone. -DISPLACEMENT OF CHORDS. The Minor II. 260. 358 . The Double-choired. 303 C. Chord. 248. Septimo Chord. 191. Successions of derived Septime Chords. 245.^ 266. 360. B. tft. Confirmation of the Key and of Cadences. Chords. Further ex. Disposition of the Harmony. Suspensions from below. . More-than-tetraphonic Compositions. Diatonic Pass. . Chapter III. Triad. Chapter V. .

Keys. The Melodic Point. Figuration of a tion of the Upper Voice. The Harmonic Point of 1. 311 Difficulties. 334. 2. . The Cantus Firmus in the . Chapter III. ib. 381. foreign Tones. Tone-repeti310. 3. VIL The Lydian Key. 379 382 . 8ic. 373 2. View. Chapter II. ib. More and less less voiced treatment of the Choral. . 381. Number of accompanying Voices. 2. 370 . ii. ib. 1. . 346. i6. .. Plan of the Harmony. 3. The Phrygian Key. 3. A. B. Admissibility ot £. The Ecclesiastical Keys. . The Essential Tones of every Key.—CHORALS IN THK ECCLESIASTICAL KEYS. Transposition and Signature. 328 B. t&. Passing-Tone and Bye-Tone. Chapter III. The Mixolydian Key. 350. r.HAPTER I. . i&. 831 A. 375 1. 401. A. 327 1. . 1. 305. The fTriphonio 331. Chapter VI. Figuration of the Bass. 2. 322 B. Character of Keys. j . SdO ib. 341. Passing-tones. I . B. 3. . than four Voices. II. 363. 1. ib. Melodies. Trills. 330. IV. 373 Chapter V. Chapter ib. The Choral with . ib. . . The Cantus Firmus in the Tenor. 377. PART SECOND. Introduction of Passes and Help-tones into Figuration. Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter The Ionian Key. tion. ib. The Canlus Firmua in other Voices.12 TABLE OF CONTENTS. Chapter VI. a. Execution of the Harmonic Figuration. 1. Application to the Choral. The Melodic Point of View. Harmonic Figuration. Chapter VII. General Conception of the Melody. ib. Monophonic Designs. Higher treatment of the Choral. Consideration of Voice-region. Artistic aim of Choral treatment. . Modulation into other . B. Passages rediiced to Harmonic Figuration. . The Form of the Harmony. . Consistency of Execu3. FiguraB. 352. 390. 366.. . Chapter VIII. treatment. 344 D. 354. Bass. Character of the Toicei. Application. Fhrase-repetition. IIL PART THIRD. 34T. The Exercise of Harmonic Figuration in Passages and given Melodies. The Dorian Key. ib. The aiolian Key. . 371. 389 . I. Help Tones. 35S. 349. The Measure or the Quantity of the Harmony. A. Firm Connection. 358. Chapter V. Octave and Quint-Succession. . 2.1. Retarded Resolution. . 338. monic Point. F. The Cantus Firmua in the Alto. 392. 367 Discovery of its Designs. How to acquire facility in the Harmonization of the Choral. Passing or Transient Chords. VI. . Middle Voice. ib. 342 ib. 333 G. . Application of these means to Artistic Accompaniments. Turns. . 364 . The Choral with more than four Voices. . 314 tion. t&. . Technical A. . V. Chapter VII. 318 . Chapteu IV. Simple treatment of the Choral. 387 C. A. 384. The HarC. Chapter IV. 385 A. . The Figural Prelude. Accompaniment of given . 310 B. . APPBITDIX.—THE SECULAR NATIONAL SONG. j The Duophonic treatment. Duophonic and Polyphonic Designs.

Br THE TRANSLATOB. .ELEMENTS OE MUSICAL NOTATION.

the Translator has thought it best to convey the necessary information in regu- lar didactic form . The indefiniteness of the English language. they will be possible.PREFACE TO THE ELEMENTARY PART. makes a task of extreme difficulty to write an Elementary Treatise. as much as possible. corresponding to a theoretical work of any that it foreign. work to prepare the student by an Elementary Treagive exact definitions of the chief object of which is to such terms as may occur in this or other works of the same it is author. It is this consideration of this tise. The German musicians have made Music is so thorough a study. in everything it concerning Music. absolutely impossible to do them justice in trans- lating their works with general terms. and the exact meaning of which absolutely ne- cessary for the student to know. and particularly German author. which at every step which has induced the Translator are subject to modifications and contradictions. made at least as brief as . and if comparisons and arguments cannot be absolutely avoided. In order to avoid the introduction of indefinite terms. or arguments upon them.

. then. Violins. string. We know. caused by a col- lision of bodies. &c. is a musi- Not every sound. Finally. We know that the afiected ear is the organ which air is most directly by Music. or other sufficient to affect the ear." is is the art of combining sounds agreeable to tbe the general definition given of the word. Thus. also. to the ear. that it the sounds produced upon vary in regard to pitch. nor is a combination of such sounds always our first Mu- It follows. Every vibration of means. we perceive on one and the same instrument. Trumpets. from such sounds as constitute Music. that Music is produced by the human voice. as well as by instruments of various kinds — Flutes.INTRODUCTION. or sounds agreeable to the ear. however agreeable cal sound sic. are the sounds produced on the shorter strings of a Harp more acute than those produced on a longer consider a sound in this respect. call it When we we must . " Music ear. for instance. we designate by the general name of SOUND. that task must be to distin- guish musical sounds. These instruments distinguish themselves from each other by the quality of their sounds.

therefore. we cause the gradual production of a series of tones or sounds of certain duration. according to some regulating law. in any fixed and continued. we say that such tone-succession is is unrhythmical. of a tone : it has a definite or inde finite duration. which formed according any . are higher than those of the Bassoon.e. and Horn. i. Violin. &c. time-mo- ments. are higher than the lowest tones of a girl's voice. We If say. therefore. . in general. This time. voices.16 TONE. Double-bass. . accorded to a tone or sound. therefore must a certain space of time. we say. many different tones. we call this regulation of time-succession." for since every voice and every instrument can pro- duce many tones. Every tone or sound to be produced. The tones of the longer or thicker strings are called low shorter or thinner strings are called high. Trumpet. for instance. definite or indefinite. those of the Thus of human we say that the tones of a man's voice.—^a longer or shorter space. or follow in no regular succes- sion . to A succession of toneS. We have. the tones have no certain duration. called its is DURATION. repeated. it can occur that the highest tones of a man's voice. are lower than those of a boy's or girl's voice the tones of the Flute. RHYTHM. must be produced fill within a certain time. Where such regulation either does not take place. or space of time. We say " in ge- neral .

Triphonic (for three voices) . and at the same time rhythmically regulated. &c. called a . * A mve concise definition of Melody will be given at a later porioc'. expressively. three. simulta. is (whether agreeably. — it then called Monophonic.* A piece of is Music can consist of a single tone-series. tone-suc- cession and rhythm. This relation is called .17 particular plan. four. or more. melody and harmony. corresponding relation. however. . neously progressing tone-series it is then called Duophonic Tetraphonic voices. HARMONY And of all these essentials : tones and sounds. is whether sung or produced upon some instrument. does MUSIC consist.) Or it can consist of two. four voices) or Polyphonic (for many Each series of tones. TOICE The simultaneously-meeting tones of different voices must stand to each other in some reasonable. (for one voice.) called a MELODY.) (for (for two voices) .. or not.

however. THE TONE SYSTEM. In Music. These tones constitute what is called the TONE SYSTEM. It would have occasioned much difficulty to fix a particular name for each of them .) already that there are is We know many tones .FIRST PAET. And all tones have one of these names. These degrees have been named C—D—E— F—G— A—B. . and this has been the cause of the classification of these tones under seven DEGREES. CHAPTEE Tone I. or one derived from them. not of. is a sound of certain height or depth. This tone-system contains above one hundred tones. the mass of the various tone-gradations absolutely innumerable. TONES AND NOTES. all these tone-gradations are made use A part merely of these tones are actually and fixedly employed. (pitch.

THE NOTE SYSTEM.CHAPTEE II. Where called these five lines are not sufiBcient. called NOTES. we make use of a series of characters. not being continuous. in order to designate . Here 2. the tones are indicated by open or filled circles. additional lines. ac- cording to their pitch and duration. For the designation of tones. ^=1=1=4 ^ 4 j 4 - w« have introduced the leger lines. have been fixed upon. It would be tedious for us to enter into the history of Mu- eical Notation. are easily distinguished from the lines of the stave. that after five lines many changes and modifications. LEGER LINES are introduced. on which. which. 1. We must content ourselves with communi- cating the facts. or ovals. or between which.

fc line inclosed and indicates that upon the the tonei g. first line placed this clef upon the it of the stave. At present the G-clef invariably placed upon the second line of the stave. by which we can be guided in the designation of the others. .20 those high or low tones. if we only knew what meaning to attach to any particular note. or Bass-clef. We words. counting from the left to the right. called CtEF s. or Treble-clef C-clef. there are three in use : Of such clefs The The The 1. or the fourth of a six-octave Piano-forte. G-clef. and the notes pre- ceded by it would accordingly be named thus : il s^s gab FGAB CDEFGAB CDEFG m . might now read and write all notes. which are above the highest or the lowest tones capable of being designated within the stave. —THE G-CLEF has this form. French composers of former times. thus it making imperative to consider the note upon as the representais tive of the tone g. For this purpose we have certain characters. (the lowest by its lower circle. /f g of the Oboe. and F-clef.) shall be represented. or some note corre- sponding a certain tone. In other we must to fix upon some point. which indicate the tone represented by them.

as Alto. but since the read- ing of such notes would be a very troublesome task. it is used A. and the names of the notes succeeding are fixed accordingly ' * A B DEFGAB CDEFGABC B. or dotted line : 8- which. indicates that the passage thus marked written- to be played or sung an octave higher than it is The sary. is Its most usual form this B . with the figure 8 before it.clef. Indicatiag the tone '(jj^) :. in the shape of a wave. another character has been invented. 3 V -iD z E ^ « ^ = CDEFGAB CDE ^^B . leger lines below the stave can be avoided. and the is S succeeding it. as Soprano-clef. and its use is a three- fold one. THE C-CLEF.21 By means many of additional leger-lines. we migtt designate additional tones upon this stave . if neces- by substituting another cM. 2- More of this. however. anon. and it the notes succeeding are called : . As such it is placed upon the third line of the stave. in which case it is placed upon the first line it of the stave.jmm.

22 C. has generally this ^f. as G or i^-clef. 3 It —T HE F-CLEF. and indicates the tone f$ . and thus gives to the notes succeeding it the following names . It is now placed exclusively upon the fourth line of the stave. or some other similar form. as Tenor-clef.. and it the notes succeeding are called : 6. ^ : ." 1^ A It is m B ^-f? m DEFGAB CDEFGAB -well as in the . that additional leger-lines can be employed in the C-clef. As sueli it IS placed apbn the fourth line of the stave.^wi-it^ hardly necessary to add.

would ^ =£ . 3: The above appear 6hus passage.23 8. if written in the Treble-clef.

cient. m fcti: . which.CHAPTEE m. . indicates that the higher octave is to be added to the notes thus marked intended. or aZZ'S^*. the lower octave ia the following passages. We ter is have already mentioned the character which trans- poses a tone-series to the octave above. The same charac- used for the transposition of a passage into a lower ocIn such case the wave-line is tave. -$ m this all'Sya. if placed below the notes. . For single notes the 8 will be suffi- A similar facilitation consists in employing the words alV-ott«va. placed below the notes figure to be transposed. :c :•: $ manner : all'Sva. might be expressed in m 13. Thus m 12. ABBBETEATIONS AOT) OTHER ACCrDEIITAL CHAEACTEES rw MUSIC. if placed above the notes.

or four timeSj it is written but once. &c. alia 6S {sista). there are certain characters intended to save the notation of a passage partly. In addition to the above.. If a passage is to be repeated two. or dots n X4.25 Other abbreviations. will need no further explanation. — —quater.^ . ter. like alia 3za (ter^£). Finally. the passages be repeated are often inclosed by curves. three. : are placed above to it. and the words his.

) have a " to repeat. the part to be altered is enclosed by a curve. In the repetition of such part. the end of which expe- riences an alteration in its repeat. stand here for 1st and 2d. c. are placed above it. time." If the repetition goes merely to a certain point. d.. capo. are placed at the point where the repetition is to take place. are used. the point is marked by the word Fine. s. If the repetition is to begin at a certain point in the dle of the piece. the passage marked 1^ is omitted. where the piece is to be ended. The words Da similar meaning.. (D. C.26 If a passage is to be repeated. The words prima and seconda volta. C. and the words 1= (prima volta). the words d. c. (dal segno. or B. or d. (end. aljine (from the commencement the end). c. the words D. should be placed volta.. where the words to guide him.) from the . and instead of the simple to D. and thus explain the mystery. i. the repeat. C.) and for the sake of clearness a pause : is placed above the end note . and the player has to pass on beyond 2S (seconda). that point is mid- marked thus and instead of sign. e.

.27 There are in use facilitation. still more characters of abbreviation and but these not being absolutely ne- we might say. vre shall give their meaning -ffhen they occur. cessary for our immediate purpose.

in order to obtain a basis sily arrive at the from which we can ea- wanting tones and characters. A diagram of these relations will aid us materially in achieving our object. we we do not know yet all the tones of our system. Our tones. c as the first tone its octave. that we shall adopt it at once as the lysis. com- Here. with the key-board of a Piano-forte. we arrive at the next tone is d. being. for possible intermediate tones are marked by a mere .CHAPTER IV. g and a. We have here accidentally mentioned series and on examination the from c to be found so satisfactory to the ear. Beginning from for instance. the only one of the is seven tone-series at present within our reach. ELEVATION Aim) DEPEESSION. The same a and b. thus far. are by no means equidistant from each c. is a diagram in which the dot./ and g. however. which pletely satisfactory. or black keys of the Piano-forte. in addition to normal tone-series for our anathe above. between the two. then. We have reference to the upper keys. and that consequently we cannot represent them by notes. will . relation exists between d and c. as far as we know them at present. When we find that compare our notes and tones. other. We have permitted this temporary incom- pleteness. there room for another tone. if succeeding each other in regular rotation.

further. as in the following diagram 1 16." We find. from the second to the third. distributed in such a manner. at present. must be larger. A SCALE Having once adopted the term " scale. that from the the second." and " half steps." we will call it . and two half steps. than those which do not admit of an intermediate tone. c d —e-f—g—a— 1 i 1 1 1 J h-c. we find that those admitting of an intermediate tone are larger." or " steps. and from the sixth to the seventh degree. we whole diagram a lad- der. We will distinguish these different species of steps by the terms " whole steps. from the fifth to the sixth. and from the third and from the seventh to the eighth degree. that this succession of tones . different steps. we have no other means of designating them C—d—ef—g—a—b c We repeat. is perfectly it satisfactory to the ear and since we ascend. from one c to the other.29 the simple reason that. ." that it is but natural we should call the intermediate tones DEGREES. . or to use a technical expression derived from the Latin (^scala. and the distances from tone to gree. or from degree to de- STEPS When we now compare the . again. first to that our scale contains five steps. as will call the were.) word for " Ladder. tone. are : half steps. are steps to the fourth. from the fourth to the fifth.

take . will And now we attempt to form a scale from any other tone. as they follow from g g—a. must be a regular succession. and comparing them with our last diagram (No. we soon discover that the steps from the sixth to the seventh. which the student may again consider merely accidental the reason. We will remember that a succession of tones. however. are different from our diagram. thus : when we take the degrees. that the tone before the representative of which . for which no name. . or thus. but the/ is not what we want. This character is called a " sharp. 6.17. 16). will soon become apparent to him. whereof. we place it this new tone upon and in order to distinguish from the we place this mark # before it. d. being absolutely indisit . and from the seventh to the eighth degree. in order to be a scale. Yet the / degree is necessary to make And now we we could find our scale complete. The/ degree original/". The regular succession is attended to to g. i but on striking these notes on the Piano. The e and g are correct. We g-. c. There is the very tone we need between the/ and pensable." and conveys it the idea. return to those intermediate tones. g-. in which the steps and half steps are distributed according to the above diagram. was merely accidental./. e.30 We stated In a former paragraph that ottr taking c as the basis of a scale. g .

new one more sharp will be all that is requisite to make the scale of D correspond with that of G. has been it made more acute. that of pitch. differing from the scale of It is C in but one point. while we begin at a different point.31 is placed. and in taking again the fifth tone of our scale. The student will perceive that one tone only required an alteration. probably to meet him at some point where sion. he cannot pleting his scale. that we are warranted by it. in attempting the formation of a scale fifth upon f. always re- suming his task from the fifth tone of the last scale. time now to give the reasons for taking the tone g to experiment upon. i. the tone below c. adding sharp to sharp. beginning with^ . e. d. would present the following appearance 18. he will soon discover tones which are not in our original scale. scale of The G. fail in com- We have succeeded so well in constructing a scale upfifth on g. that in the course of his la- We have simply bors. we can explain his doubts. if he pursues the plan we indicated. at least.. but in following the above directions. elevated sharpened. or remove his indecito add. i It is now a correct scale in every particular. as were. the tone above c. Thus the stu- dent may pursue his course. G was the fifth tone of our ori- ginal scale. with this amendment. Let us again write our degrees in regular succession.

that the tone before the representative of which is placed has been lowered. we have course to the intermediate tone below tinguish it it. &c. tone to construct our scales upon." and conveys it the idea. it was the seventh tone which required being replaced it is by another. G. and in order to dis- from the original h.&c. as it were. we find that while in the scale of G.32 19. Cit. With pearance it the scale of F would present the following ap- : m The elevated tones have them. below fifth. depressed—^aWewed. now the fourth tone which demands a modification. Taking fifth would give us the scales of C.E. that we must preserve the regular sue cession of the degrees.Fi. Gk . This character is called a " flat.B. as h flat. g sharp. 20. as/ sharp.E\>. the name "flat" affixed to &c.^.Di.F.Jl\>.Bi>. The depressed tones have a flat. 16. rf. we place a b before it. Taking fifth above fifth would give us the scales of C. and b being too high. We re- bear again in mind.D. *= the word g " sharp" afiSxed to them. ^ J J r f-r^ with our dia- Comparing the steps of this tone-succession gram No.

fHfiilSI'. and enough to in remember that we issued from the same point two differ- ent directions. yet need not trouble us. scales should be alike in sound.l. and are called the signature of a scale or key.) or until another signature occurs. and what tones have been thus modi- fied. This signature is valid until shall it is recalled by certain characters. During the course of a piece of music. ai.i In order to avoid the unnecessary accumulation of characters in the notation of a piece of music. (of which we speak directly.33 That some of these different in appearance. . iFLaTi §FILOTini3 . and that our impulse has carried us over ground previously gone over from the other point. or at the beginning of each stave. are merely placed at the beginning of the piece. Enough that we know when to use the one or the other. the sharps or flats incident to the scale or key in which a composition has been written. flats its we have then to remember how many sharps or key requires. il FfaT.

called * The word measure signifies a musical division marked by perpendicular " bars. or until the end of the measure ia which the accidental occurs. e. Double sharps (X) and double {hh. the latter depresses the same ratio. and holds good imtil it is recalled — i. There are also instances in is which the incident elevation or depression of a tone not sufficient to reach the desired flats. either temporarily or permanently. Here lines. ." More of thi» in the chapter on Rhythm. without is changing the signature. arise These occur in almost every piece of mu- and is when the composer leaves the key in •which the piece written.'. and sharps. can occur in the course of a composition. point of pitch. If the intermediate tones of which we have spoken.34 The fact of there being in existence incidental flats and sharps." and has form H It is placed before the note to be neutralized. they can also occur in a scale. leads us to suppose that there are also accidental flats sic. The character used for neutralizing a sharp or flat is called this a " natural.) have been introduced in such cases. and holds it good to the end of the measure* in which occurs. tural (tlfc^) in We need hardly naention that a double na- is required to neutralize the efiect of either. or when a tone of a foreign scale introduced without afiecting the regular key. until the modified tone ia re- placed by the original one. The former elevates it the tone an additional half step. the sharp or flat is In such case always placed before the tone.

In contradistinction to it the original scale is called the Diatonic Scale. . however. will be given in the " Theory of Music. More cf this hereafter. are called Enharmomc. ct and d b . called a Chromatic Scale. with all its intermediate tones. &c. ^^^^^^^^p^^m is the scale of C. and the descending scale with flats. like 6 and . Tones which c l" differ in name but not in sound. cI and/.35 22." A is which the intermediate tones are introduced. A better scale.. We have written the ascending scale with sharps. in order to avoid the introduction of naturals. in reason for it.

or Tertia. The fifth. The seventh. The second " Third. for instance. The sixth. " Seventh.instances it is necessary to go even further. " Fourth. THE MEASUEING OP TONE-EELATIOKS. is a combination of tones. or Sexta. . or First. — — — — — — And in some .CHAPTBE Since Music V. or Quinta. or Secunda. by merely stating that one tone higher than another. we next above it the second. We can designate is it superficially. " Second. this desire it. The fourth. " Sixth. " Fifth. Frequently the Latin numerals are used for this purpose and since they will occur even in our work. it is necessary to know the relations of these tones to each other. or Qunrta. ^ or a is higher than the d of the same octave. The third. op Septima. &c. we will give both the Latin and English names. Beginning from any one which we call the call the first degree. or Prima. Thus we have . There are then The first degree. But since under and above each tone there are statement is many lower and higher ones. third. by no means as exact as we should Counting the degrees would be already much more exact.

or Decima tertia. Thus the second . therefore. " Thirteenth. for know that each of our degrees embraces j/?De different tones. " Ninth. and consequently are We require. in a Yet. " Twelfth. that there is at once that Octave.37 The eighth The ninth The tenth degree. of those five is now in reality intended ? If we deg'i . it . at a later period^ we shall discover a difference. between these degrees. and fourth degree. the HALF-STEP. Which mand. therefore. We say. degree. sometimes. third. degree. we But even this designation is not sufficiently exact. We are now enabled to give an exact statement of the tone-relations of any possible interval. are first. or Undecima. and for it we take the smallest measures of our tone-system. or Decima quarta. or Octava. by merely counting the steps and half-steps therein contained.. for instance. degree from C. When we now spective pitch. or Octave. second. This relation is INTERVAL. The eleventh The twelfth The thirteenth The fourteenth degree. They all stand upon the all fifths. may be g. a more exact tone-measure. Tenth. " Fourteenth. &c. Nintli. We perceive nothing but the higher octave. " Tenth. compare two tones in regard to their re- we place them called in a relation to each other. degree. " Eleventh. or Duodecima. and the STEP. a second. degree. Nona. &c.ov fifth or ^X. or degree. G and C and D form together the interval of D the interval of a fifth. or Decima. the fifth of C. or ^1" or g^^.

c — — e contains two steps. or four half-steps. or Superfluous. interval is a half-step larger than the When we once know. for each tone in interval. But would be too troublesome always to give the exact measure of an interval in so many steps and half-steps. it will be easy to make them minor. tion of the And major intervals is ouK SCALE itself. how of large the major in- tervals are. or c c d and b (i b — d" . Each diminished minor interval. . third c c — cS and c4 — d d. or in other words. it forms with the fundamental tone a major Consequently . Each minor interval arises from the diminution of a maa half-step smaller than the jor one. or interval is a half-step smaller than the two half-steps smaller than the same ma- jor interval. or superfluous intervals. rf it and — it e. measure of the Each interval can be Major. for instance. therefore. it is same major interval.38 c d. cS cI — d. or Diminished. or Minor. Each superfluous major interval. contains two half-steps. have been distinguished four classes of which in themselves at once express the exact relation. The d and d dit — e. and for this reason there intervals. diminthe best representa- ished.

interval. * We must bear in mind that these intervals are merely major. as The . fifth. b. 2 4 and 1 half-step. vation) as are requisite. and 2 half-steps. third. c—f c g c c c « a major fourth. i. it will be easy to Having once obtained a major make of it a minor. sixth. If. 3 steps. by add- ing or subtracting as many half-steps (by depression or elefor instance. " a major third. g into a minor one. or superfluous one. we must subtract a change the intervals c g to g^ . 6 steps. fourth. C—g^ is a minor The minor from c are therefore d e b. fifth. ninth. . a major ninth. 5 steps. and 1 half-step.. &c. a " a major sixth.* When we remember now The major second that — — — — — — — — — — — — — — contains 1 step. seventh. b. and 2 half-steps. c — " —d " an octave. fifth. octave. steps. seventh. we wish to change the major fifth c half-step. e. c—f c—g c—a c b — — — — — — — — — — (c) . and 1 half-step. steps. 5 stops. f—b no* a major fourth. b. and 1 half-step. related to the fundamental tone of the scale selves form various intervals is thus d—f and e—g are other degrees amongst themnot major thirds . sixth. b " c a major seTenth. — — — — — — — 2 steps. it will be easy to measure the other intervals.39 c c d e is a major second. third fourth. " a major fifth. diminished. c i. the minor second. b.

the superfluous fifth c g S is enharmonic with the minor sixth a t . . " . In order to b i make of the ma- — 6 S a minor seventh. the minor third with the superfluous second c c is enharmonic di . pressed an additional half-step venth. must be depressed a half-step. c e ^ Thus. In the last chapter we made mention of enharmonic tones we find now intervals. have different names. diminished. are called Enharmonic Intervals. and which.40 In order to change c g into a superfluous fifth. &c. which though of equal height in re- gard to the tones constituting them. and must become 6 In order to make of the minor seventh ct — h a diminished seventh. b must be de. the g must be elevated a jor seventh c I half-step. or superfluous interval. for instance. therefore. c It — b ^ is a diminished se- In this manner it is very easy to represent any mi- nor.

since sensations. Music has at its upon which. without the risk of his losing himself in the infinity of manifold forms. five But each degree can be represented in different manners. form the basis' of every composition. . within which the composition should exclusively or principally move. called They are Tone Species. the system of modern Music has selected two as the only essential ones. all But of these possibilities. command seven de- We have seen that grees. OE MODES. however. since every But work of art has certain it limits of design and tendency. and are either major or minor. possible that all these tones and relations can occur in one composition. and thus there are innumerable pos- sibilities of combination. or Modes. it expresses a certain round of ideas and is natural that the tones and tone-relations . This circumstance facilitates the task of intr^ucing the student into the empire of tone-formations. The seven degrees.CHAPTER THE TONE VI. SEXES. SPECIES. can be constructed a great numIt is ber of tones and tone-relations. should be limited in the same manner that for each composi- tion there should be a certain circle of tones and relations. so lately mentioned.

THE MAJOR MODE has exclusively major intervals. Like other super- fluous intervals. THE MINOR MODE contains also major intervals. which are mmor. and they are to each other from each other by the relation of the degrees degree iorms -with and by the size of the interval which each the first tone. Since it will we know how to be easy for us to change a major mode into a minor. c d —e—f—g—a— — e t c. the third and We 6 have but to depress sixth to change C-major. into C-minor. for instance. a step of a superfluous second. and belong to the major mode. Thus we find that the c 1 minor scale has the following steps ^ d— —f—g— a — b — e I" c. with the exception of the Third and Sixth. c d — i —f—g— fit b —— b c. change major intervals into minor.42 distinguished In both are the seven degrees. -S^ ^^^^ . 1" 1 i n i The most conspicuous step in this scale. .aa. this progression in the course of the scale. is the one from a all •> to 6. Consequently all the scales we formed in the fourth chapter are major scales. afiects us disagreeably.

not in the following 23. V. P ±> >!. !fe w n and it is •where the superfluous second has been avoided. but a firm basis for our compositions. not our object to obtain a mild tone-succession.43 This. however. . is not the case in every tone-succession : for instance.

Bb. The signatures of the minor keys follow a is Their signature not as the scale demands but each minor key has the signature of that major key lies which a minor third above it. as one would expect. We can major now form as many minor we hare also learned In the same chapter what signature to give to each scale or key. scales or keys. y. are PARALLEL KEYS. G. C. Two keys.^-minor is npt. and how they can be formed. lies a .CHAPTEE Vn. The parallel-tone of a minor key. Here D. Eb. nor does that of D-minor consist of a and h l" . In the fourth chapter we have been taught the number of the major scales or keys. Or PARALLEL TONES. THE KEYS./2-minor has the signature of C-major. and D-minor has the signature of 2^-major. are the signatures of the most usual minor keys. as we have seen. it. different law.) which have the called same signature. (a major and a minor key. ct a sharp before g. but . The signature of .

vice versa. But until we arrive at that we will remember that generally THE LAST TONE and if it of a picCe. will be a sure indicator of the key. and. in connection with the signature. sig- — 1. it serves us as the token of the key in which the composition has been written. But what of those degrees signature is in the minor keys for which the t not suitable 1 The or i" belonging to them is placed before the respective notes as often as they occur. the signature consisted of two sharps. thus making these elevations or depressions almost accidental. and the lowest tone of the last chord were p.45 minor third above a major key lies it. ends with a chord. also that in or- such signature can belong to two different keys der to ascertain exactly in what key a piece is and written. . If. for instance. to its harmony. what degrees are to be depressed or elevated 2. we would know at once that the piece the parallel tone of D-major. can now more fully understand the object of the It tells us . is composed in B-minor. the parallel-tone of it. we must turn point. a minor third below We nature. But we know . THE LOWEST TONE of that chord.

the major keys were connected . c. When degree. d j J5J-major gi. we less find that each deviates from the other to a greater or Thus C-major and G-major . however. RELATION OP KEYS. in the form of the Quint-circle the minor keys. c'i . tion we have already seen several manners of connec- between different keys . are. we find that the two scales tones from each other has_/lt. and with their own major keys. therefore. conse- DEGREES OF RELATIONSHIP. deviate but in one tonej/and/S Comparing. in four C-major has _/". three kinds of relationship. There . g. di Two be keys which have several tones in common are said to RELATED. we compare the different keys with each other.CHAPTER Vni. with the parallel major keys. There are. We have just now seen that this relationship can take place in a greater or less degree. Finally. the scale of C-major differ with U-major. according to the tones which the two have in quently. different number of common. .

Relatives of the second degree are those which differ in two tones./2-minor. indicates the relationship with its The keys lying close together in the Quint-circle. are relatives of the first degree. and stand in the f. : When we spread the Quint-circle before us thus b 6 6 4 3 Q^^Dh—A\. Thus X>-major on one side.47 1. C-minor and E b -major.2-minor. of relationship between the keys. perceive a new kind We have found that each major key stands in relationship of the its first degree — 1. stand in the second degree of relationship to C-major.—F—C—G—D-~A—E-'B—F!i we find that each 310133466 » key has its two nearest relations as neigh- bors to the right and to the left. with its neighboring major keys . for they differ from each other in but one tone. 2.) hibits to us The following diagram ex- . But now the major keys G and F stand again in the first degree of relationship with their Paral lei tones. Thus C-major and . C-major with G-major. and . Here the Quint-Sircle degrees. When we we combine this kind of relationship with the other. Relationship of Parallel Keys. — ^for instance.rst degree of relationship to each other. The parallel keys are related to each other in the first degree.. Consequently we can con sider these minor tones as relatives of the second degree to the first major key (C-major. deviate from each other in but one tone. JP-major. E-minor and D-minor. and B !> -major on the other. 2. Relation of Major Keys. with Parallel key.—E\>—B\.

long to the major scale as well as to the minor and this communism of tones is so influential. jK-minor. this But a singular coincidence draws together. and amongst themselves. fifth tone.) that we can consider the two modes of the same tone as relatives of the first degree. as relatives of the degree. Relationship of Minor Keys with their Major Keys. as relatives of the first degree.>3-minor.43 0-major. as relatives of the second degree. We know grees from already that each minor key deviates in two de- its major key.) of each The Tonic. and these three moments be. Ji'-major. » first A-miaoi. Dominant. Thus we consider to : £-minor and D-minor as relatives of the first degree .) and the Sub-dominant.) bond of union closer the Dominant. G-major. Consequently we should consider them as relatives of the second degree. though their scales deviate in two and three points D—e—f—g—a—bh—4—d—e—f a—h c d a g —e—f—gl —a— — —d h c — e e—fi—g a~-b—c—di—e When we combine these relationships with those found . (as we shall see at a later period. (the tone. in Third and Sixth. and Sub-dominant to each other. but this Tvould these degrees of relationship much far- be but an unnecessary waste of time and paper. (the fourth scale are its principal moments. 3. (the first tone. And finally we consider those minor tones which stand in the relation of Tonic. We might pursue ther. l)-ininor.

. E-nunor. we can form a similar diagram of relationships of first and second degree. iJ-minor. It Gr-inajor. F-major.49 under 2. ^-minoi. remains now for the student to form similar diagrams «f other major and minor keys. C-major.

.

FIRST BOOK. ELEMENTS OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION. .

.

which succeed each other. might inappropriately be called a tone-chain (n) . when one sound should succeed the sound is and how long each will. Composition for Single Farts. THE FIRST FORMATIONS. tion of one and the same tone. directions can They can progress from low to high. and or by irregular degrees C as in B. which both ascend and The repetidescend. as in a. We distinguish therefore ascending (a). 1. from high to low. b. for to continue. CHAPTER I. and which are intended for one or more instruments . but that sue is regulated hy certain laws (Rhythm). A Musical composition consists of one or more successions of tones (tone-chains) which progress simultaneously. Beginning with the most simple —the —we have already to make a cession distinction. which indicate other. too.First Part. all But regardless of rhythmical laws. These tones can succeed each other in various manners. and descending (b). or these two be mixed. for one or more voices single tone-chain or for instruments and voices together. we the present. {Monophonic Composition). analyze the mere tonical contents of a tone-chain. WITH "i ITS SPECIES. Por a tone-chain does not contain merely sounds. and those. can succeed each other by regular degrees. tone-chains. A B ^^ -•—#- . and finally the tones c. and which we will designate as vague (c). THE TONE-CHAIN.

this is -gs: =i=«= closes. in general. rests upon the i Tonic. elevation. or its octave. The vast resources which music has tone-chains. and upon the Tonic. while. But since even this scale has its different species. and from which we can derive them. We will them the select the diatonic scald. and nervous. from its Tonic to its octave. for instance. original we will select from and most satisfactory one The Major Scale. on the contrary. at its command make it absolutely necessary that. The reasons The major for this choice will in a future chapter become ap- parent of themselves. belong to one of the two principal species. distinctly.54 It is easily perceived that ascending tone-chains produce the de- effect of exaltation. tension. But more of that anon. We require foundation upon which we can construct our forma tions. scending ones produce the effect of relaxation. unsteady. and the more so -when it we compare to other tone-chains .as our first foundation. while the skipping irregular add that the motion of " step by step' motion i» restless. Tone Eegulation. Vague tone-chains awalce neither the one nor the other sensation but with a certain indecision remain between the two either. or return to repose. in our attempts to produce or invent we should observe a certain order and limit. with . again moves thence through the remaining degrees {d to b). -»^J^ i We have now only to is ^=='^iir'ir7Z i 3c: more quiet and even. satisfactorily. knd have a share of Yet with all their deviation in detail they can. Al] perfectly agreeable to our feelings. scale. in ordei way amidst the enormous mass of tone-formations. to find our s.

each half containing two steps and one half-step. and. Here we have discovered at is formed. In order then to construct a major Scale on any particular tone. When we that it examine the scale in its smgle progressions it we find contains Steps and half-steps. w - . 1 step. and that . we first write the seven degrees to b. as the heginning and end of latter originates from the Tonic and returns to it. whichever is wanted. consists of two halves. In constructing the scale oid\> major. Tonic and Scale. or not ending with m the scale. by means of flats or sharps. 1 st«p. last an antithesis which runs through the whole science of musi& Repose and Motion. 1 step. and that all major the above c major 1 step. we refer him to the above measurement of th« scale for assistance.0. ABGDEFGA A : . -J step. according to the above diagi-am. dto e a whole step both in accordance with our model eiof. 1 step. is merely a half-step when consequently /has to be changed into/|. . therefore. every tone of our tone-system we can construct a major they all progress like scales have like proportions . ir^r or with imperfect tone-chains (not beginning. and measure each 6 to c step. however. by means of . for instance. In constructing the scale on a. exactly alike in steps i. -J step. B one E F half G one A one B half C* * We suppose that every student of composition is familiar with tin major scales but in case of the student's not being able to represent to himself such a scale at once. G one .55 i the Tonic). it ought to be a whole one for the same reason. m - We recognize The the Tonic. moment of repose. In juxtar-position to the Tonic the — — Analysis of the Scale. and justify it afterwards. and consequently will have to be enlarged by changing c into cj| c^io d is now a half-step. thus: we would first write the degrees Dh E F G A B G Dh to the other and then regulate the distances from one degree sharps or flats. the scale the moment of motion. agrees with the diagram ought to be a whole step. we have but to write the seven degrees from it to the octave. e. g into g^. . We know that on scale. a whole step.

^Rhtthmioal Formation of the Tone-Chain. c. both find in c their centre and juno G Even A £ O _^ C in this formation of the scale B we JS F Tonic the chief find the point from which the other tones advance. because one tone like the other passes by. can . This accent makes every beginning of a measure perceptible. we must divide this chain to make Admitting the division by two as the conception. and after we have tacitly admitted that one tone another should resound.56 The one of these other leads to tional point. Our feeling urges us to distinguish and to regulate . Simple Measure. the Tonic. exists only in our imagination. and by these . happen particularly. at equal This resounding. we would begin perhaps in « ry this r^ manner f\ A and thus arrive at the simplest regulation of time. the confusing would it The longer we would more fatiguing and it be to us. continue this chain of equi-long sounds. but to make it reality we distinguish every first note of a measure (marked '^) by a stronger accentuation. 2. the scale in crotchets (quarter-notes) i? But this form does not satisfy us. in a and unequal intervals of time most infinitely varied manner. This regulation. the the Tonic . each tone of equal value. easier of easiest. and imagine a regular for instance. without distinction. most simple. or on paper . to which they return. and around which they move. tone-chains originates in c. ionical contents only of the We have until now considered the tone-chain and scale. however. at present. and the latter We will theresuc- fore begin again with the cession.

it because. as it were." may —and afterwards try to supply what is In this instance we know. We . and a melody is and simplest creation of art. in short. because the end- note has no weight. or not clear and comprehen- we should always retain necessary — of it whatever it we have found good or ^let it be found wherever wanting. change of strong and weak intonation rhythmical . Our and tone-chain appears now well regulated in regard to time. its principle which should accompany us through sible. in fact this beginning was owing to ending thus. that the eight notes of our scale have measure.57 means we have introduced into our scale a variety to -which de- cided and absolute necessity has led us. And here is the time to all remember a our labors. Already in our first attempt we found it necessary to begin Rhythmical Tone-Chain first and end with the Tonic as the most important pleteness and perfection tone. and its com- and But now we have learned also to distiuguish rhythmically important and unimportant tones. this regulation has been made perceptible by the alternate . our scale in this manner The beginning has lost its emphasis. and the melody is lost. We experience an unsatisfactory feeling in the above melody. that it is our object to place the be- ginning and ending of our melody on an accented part of the also know. " Whenever a formation appears to us imperfect in parts. we will find it desirable that they should have rhythmical chief notes for the beginning and for the end. alike satisfactory. it has been made it has received the Rhythm. If our melodies shall now be round and perfect. We will therefore re-form n 3. and the satisfactory end remunerate us But perhaps we prefer not being tied to this particular form of beginning it may be possible to have a beginning and ending . but the succeeding notes for it. A the is called a Melody. though beginning on a principal part ends on an unim- portant one . rhythmically as well as tonically.

It is rhythmically well regulated. 1. and well closed off. our object: for. part it Finally. the end-note. A variety of rhythm and this variety proves quarter-notes. it is 3. if the last tone has to fall on an accented either in the shape of a half-note. down would give us a figure something like the fol- lowing: and we see at once clearly what has to be done. P s -&- . iw We have now arrived all s at a formation which ccarresponds with our demands. we have inadvertently represented all our tone-chains as Nothing prevents us now from attempting a descending 6. has the longest duration. A means of promoting eighth-notes. the other two have to become eighth notes. and to make the end-note more characteristic. 2. and eighth-notes distinct — . and thus satisfactory. — itself at the 5. same time we have obtained But at the three species of notes half-notes. 4. beginning and ending on the Tonic. In regard to accentuation of beginning and end-note. The first of these can do so in the form of a quarter note. or a quarter- must be note. In regard to tone-succession. succeeded This noted by a quarter-rest. serve to accelerate movement towards it. the aim of the whole. and the immediately before it. same titne-. Thus one: far ascending. m It is The three wanting notes have to enter the vacant measure. We have now a gradation of rhythm the as well as of melody.58 to appear in four measures — at least we know at present of no other form.

the direction in the tone succession of each is exactly opposite . Such formation. distinction first . ceive also that this formation is composed of two halves (a and b) which. phrase are called passages. But both formations have a very one-sided is all character. the other is exclusively relaxation. Retrospection. by the aid of which a mere tone-chain became a melody. and them in tones. a whole consisting of two subordinate wholes. combination of the two in a larger whole can in every respect satisfy us. marks this point by a rhythmical pause. and then returns in We perthe same steady manner to the repose of the first tone. thesis and Formations which lack the satisfactory ending of a period or 8. between repose and motion in the scale. issuing from rhythm to the Tonic of a higher octave. We 1. the one forming the reversed counterpart of the other. each by itself perfect. antithesis. and simplest rhythmical order. elevation . They were The The The The tone-chain. first foundation of all tone succession —the scale. is called a Period.59 It exhibits a steady and satisfactory return to repose —the beginThe one Only the ning of all our tone movements. rises in pitch and m m ^ m mm formation which. consisting of two perfect phrases. realized have now conceived the first ideas of composition. combine to make the perfect whole. We have now arrived at a tone the Tonic. But though each of these parts or phrases resembles the other in rhythmical formation and tone-contents. with its different directions and progresdiatonic sions.

This brought ns to a variety of rhythmical motion.60 5. The invented phrase (thesis) demanded a counterpart (antithesis). And thus we have arrived at the three fundamental formations of all musical constructions Phrase —Period—^Passage— and have recognized the characteristics of their construction. mensural to acquire a rhythmical division. 9. The melody strove marked point of beginning and ending and became a phrase. 8. and the two together formed a Period. . 7. A formation of a new nature —the passage — ^was indi- cated. The fixed and manifold valuation of sounds. 6. and accent.

61 CHAPTER II. signs. INTENTION OF MONOPHONIO PHRASES. g Every composition consists of such de- Such forms which contain the germ and the impulse of longer Each junction of two or more notes and it is for can serve as a design. ». a tone- chain of quarter-notes. 1. is of these designs scale has given The invention The simple us and every new formation adds to that itself number. We constructed of in different parts . more groups. "•^w phrases are called designs. Thus we can distinguish various tone-groups . us to consider how we are to nurse these germs. THE DESIGN AND ITS EFFICACr. ^ we can select If still we are willing to resign a satisfactory ending. passages. for instance. and periods. continually at new phrases. how to apply them. six. 5). in the first measures a series of quarter-notes the latter quarter and eighth-notes. and how to multiply them. which lead to the final note. 10. Every design can be applied by . 'i w A group ending more satisfactorily is in the latter measures. to our first satisfactory phrase (No. in order to arrive already sufficiently prepared. In order to arrive at new progressions we wiU see it return now .

fi2 1. 13. ^^^a same degrees. or contracting the design .^^^^^ 7. We signs. By repetition in notes of longer or shorter duration (aug mentation and diminution). or more to a phrase iw We need not mention 1^ that these different manners of applica^ tion can change with each other. DiminiBhcd.. a smaller for a larger interval. f 6. By repetition in opposite direction. Original design. or vice versa. 2. or vice versa. By repetition in a higher or lower range. or combine to a greater whole. By combining one design with another. p^ i 5 Augmented. 4. '%- By expanding by changing -&- ^ ". By repetition on the 12. e. unaccented part of a measure) 5. into arsis (accented part of a measure). can already see is. i 3. P^3 i. ^j-jS By changing of i^esis (weak. and leave . how inexhaustible the field of musical formation We it need therefore only show a few of these deto the industry of the student to invent others.

we will begin this time with the most subordinate of our formations the passages. this exercise consists in the of winning from every formation a new and in the student's proper progression — ^not confusedly. passage. gives us the following •#-l<U- ffi The same design reversed would give us the following 16.63 But to return again to our actual task. 1^ design. 15 and 18 would form an and consequently a new passage. 19. 11. because themselves. Each repetition of a design produces a Thus the repetition of the third design. i^g^s^ new ending and beginning. i make No. We say most subordinUte. could do so by beginning with the unaccented part of the 17. $ our object to (thesis). they do not even end within 2. a3 i en- A combination of designs tirely new No. according . FOKMATION OF PASSAGES. in No. Availing ourselves again of the we would be led to the following 18. 15 e still g more light Were it we measure and flighty. u The advantage of m now aspect or feature The facility further practice of these forms and designs remains for the student.

because of most conspicuous. We will these form- and thus we have to distinguish in a period which No. a b c JJ -m- • b. design. only in the smaller ones the third design in No. 22 would give us 23. E it s new to consider. \ ^FOKMATION OF PHRASES. also. But it might appear as well in any it is we begin with the other measure. 20. and while the beginning of us. 11. In No. not only the thesis and antithesis a and c. and d. too. then. and not seizing the 3. 5 it appeared the third measure. ations Sections. This would leave us only one tone to ^ a W^ fill the third measure. and inclination — ^but retaining the good and necessary. new without absolute necessity. to this phrase would appear very ani- mated. But while their rhythmical formation is satisfactory. for either call they do not begin or do not end in the tonic.64 to his humor. . Here. 6. the latter part would be the more dragging. their tonical formation is not. different species of 22. notes This leads new formation in which the would be more equally distributed. This phrase gives us something mical formation has divided into The rhyth- two different parts which are alike different from the phrases and from the halves of a period thesis and antithesis. ^ but the sections a. We might now attempt to repeat the most animated part B 21.

The dragging of the above might for a long one. 27. and since we have gone back one note. ^P^g^ here. deviations from the general direction have appeared. This can take place at any other point as well. be corrected by the substitution of a short note —p 29. in No. A 26. we have already measures with- out arriving at the Tonic. and repeat the principal design: 24. a ^^ it. ^S^^^^g^^ We need not defend the slight variation in A strict the sixth measure. 27. i D -#- 5 filled four But here. in the other in thus starting we have descended below from and returning to the Tonic. phrases this . 21. perhaps in manner: 28.65 Let us now return to No. we might as well go back two or three. at a. adherence to the design would have led us beyond the proposed number of measures. S ^ ^ -s>- rhe same reversed would give us 25 ^- ^^ we have and In the one ascended above the Tonic. We find it necessary to enlarge our we take four more measures and continue. -^ 1- .

30 teaches us to give to the antimore animated. and both parts were perfectly corresponding with each other. Thus we might form No. but require merely being balanced . The need no longer be of the same length. 4. — and to accustom the mind to order and symmetry. two sections of two measures each are succeeded by a third one which has four measures and deviates in its form by being more animated. It will : 3 —the thesis be advisable to observe at first. at- :zz t 3± to show how unten- common law is : that each phrase or period ought to two or more measures. . PERIODS. We shall give more instances for with the same right with which we have introduced the figure 3 here. We have now arrived different parts at a greater liberty of foi-mation. we shall introduce other deviations from the in future primitive proportions. This is but No. ^ 32. 23 into a period by enlarging it thus . we might tempt slow phrases of three equal sections or divisions. 31. Since we have now abandoned the division by 2. We have introdu6ed this merely in order able the consist of ^ . before attempting other. We have formed our first period the simplest formation thesis a of thesis and antithesis. in these important parts and antithesis equality in the number of measures.and this would lead us to end the above phrase perhaps like this ^i^^ss^^ 30. different formation. only that the tone-chains were conducted into opposite directions. more free formations.

that in the former ones every note was longer than the following. a 2-4 measure. The forms were the Design.67 CHAPTER DISCOVERY OF III. fe^a^^^ . Ep=lEj it £ Time. To give it thrice the length would lead us from Triple time to Common time. 11. and contents. 33. the Phrase. or together. to X- 35. It consists of three notes —one quarter note and case twx) eighth notes. in Triple time. NEW MEANS. the Section. first note was as long as the two fallowHere it is of twice the length. and in that we would be led to a new design which would give us the following phrase. and by 34. the Period—^with thesis and antithesis. together with their characteristics. ^m^first s :?2= ^- ing together. the Passage." this and with " the Triple The difference between first and former designs is. or In our design the from 4. The this same proportions can be represented means we obtain a new formation. We have now discovered all the fundamental forms of musical construction. But the three notes might also have equal value. We will now again return to analyze its the third design of No.

we first note contains. We perceive in the prolongation of the No. note or contracted two measures should have obtained period? of In the latter case we ABA BAB what was once a chief part. 36 and Na 7 may ap- reveals to us what in fiiture wjll be very important. accented notes in No. 7. little as A B E closing with built. have at least been chief notes. Even the end note of a small phrase should 36. as in No. 1. a strengthening of the accent in one and the same design. therefore. two . but otherwise regularly But. one into a fall 2 a one. it upon a former marked. obtained the same result in firs^ ^ time. i^ 3^^^ will Sk means of expression which vocal composition. become that particularly important dot- in It is clear by means of ties and ted notes many more 38. 33 — 35. and have remained so in No. if we had doubled the length of the twice two measures. 36. 37. unhesitatingly change and a a a if phrase into one. and have here a. marked cent notes. 36. than those marked but more than all the remaining a a 4-4 A We can. or is equal to.8 We might have into one. consequently could be reduced into two quarter-notes . pear. and analyze the design. in We perceivfe that No. it the difference between No. gradations can be obtained. 36 not merely originated No. quarters. 7. by en largement of the time species. same rhythm of Those less ac- The notes here marked with a have beea chief notes or b. chief part. but has also the same tonical content and the notes. will still be sufficiently 2.e. When we now perceive that the ^m m -& return to No. 34.

first time. no room for an intermediate tone between b and in quarter-notes Perhaps the continual motion might appear . quarter-note into «-pg^#j.' ^^m^^^^H taken a\ intead of a ? ~^- Why have we in all the former measures the interval from the third to the fourth note was only a half-step. 40. of course. frequent repetition of one and the for a neighboring same we can easily ex- one . 41. ± ¥-- the b in the third measure. because there c. and we have perceived at the same time that with the aid of such a one we can ascend more flowingly than with the whole step. and Here. m :J_/-# P -a^*-al- Qm 1^ Because zpi or the lower one. and serve to animate a phrase when we are limited to few tones. We can now introduce the neighboring tone much sooner. either the higher one. of rhythmical nature.E^ Here we arrive at a class of =p=f= new designs which consist of the repetition of one note.69 i^i 39. still later : ^S i We have to jepeat is m^ m. and because this smaller interval of a half-step leads more flowingly upward. 3.^^. further. Such designs are. If But we return to No. have we introduced a foreign tone. it we are not pleased with the tone. change 42. for the introduce the assistant-note 44. il ^ir^-^ two SiiEt still m^ and reduce eacih or we might continue the division eightb-notes. 43.

but nevertheless of some consequence. may will appear in comparison with the works of our great masters. the thesis (c. i. into thesis 3. d. b. '^m^'^^^m^^ we were inclined to If make it this interruption still more con- spicuous. g. and antithesis (a. h.70 monotonous and trifling to us. we might change into 2: time. 46. And thus a period might be divided. into 1. Such links might have been obtained much sooner by the prolonging of notes. In the tion. two sections (a. second assistant note We can avoid it by leaving out the 45. e. f. We will call them Links.) each section into two links. it be still advisable for the . They are not as important as the sections. b). ^^ =K- ^^^^m at a two last phrases we arrive The tone-chain is divided by new conspicuous forma rests into small tone-groups. and Small as the results of Part I.) 2.

and the inexhaustible source of us. in consequence of impatience. — ^^^^^ and yet these few notes have given will claim the rise to a composition which admiration of centuries to come. proceeds to harmonic formations for A-ix. It is pensable acquirement of composing without the aid of any instruhere where the student can learn to represent to by force of imagination only. the losing sight of his object. 46 immediately after No. which grows almost entirely from a design of four notes. We warn the pupil. The ad- vantages to be derived from them are many. never to rest until he has formed a . the deserting of the analogous proceeding. should probably have obtained a good phraSe ness of the . We finally i^^^^^ advise the pupil not to confine his exercises to the to attempt key of c major. 31 or No. them in every major key . faults. and the other. and if he has once seized a design. so strenuously recommended. had produced No. one is however. To show we need but in refer to the first Allegro of Beethoven's Symphony C minor. tone-formations of more or less completeness. or under the impression of .71 student not to disdain or neglect these first attempts. also to facilitate the indis- But these simple formations serve ment. First of logical all. that the pupil. analogous and legitimate formations would have been lost to The second fault exhibits itself generally in the fact. but Period or Phrase. four notes which do not even distinctly indicate any particular key. himself. it is impossible. He will learn to limit himself. we we but the conscious- how and wherefore. having exhausted the instance scale. to guard against two The If 5. At a later point. and to derive from any given results. the student -will acquire that systematic and ana^ is mode of proceeding which so absolutely necessary to the mastering of any subject. subject the most manifold developments and how important such faculties are to the composer.

5 treated in this manner would give us the follow ing: 49. is duophonic. the duophonic composition. not alone because. offers too little scale. —particularly appropriate for massive in different tone-regions. they are a mere tone-thread without volume. Composition for Two Parts. No. therefore. m We ^m divided the last half-note into eighths and quarter-notes. first but because the Tonic. The more we extend our monophonic baseless tone-chains. they But two such voices are mentally equal to one only . as the and last note. for. thougL both have the same rhythm and tone-succession. CHAPTEE I. (Duophonic Composition). effects. DEKITED FEOM THE MONOPHONIC. 49 would give us the following phrase 50. this proceeding can form the basis of many monophonic : phrases. THE DUOPHONIC COMPOSITION. Yet one. it employs The consequence of this is a It is not to be denied that this phrase broader tone-volume two voices larger. weight against the more richly developed Let us attempt. the more must they appear . It lies nearest to add a similar tone-chain in a higher or lowei octave. ^P^ in different tone-regions. . however interest- ing their contents. We can transfer the tone-chain of two voices to a single Thus No.72 Second Part.

Without entering further details or gradual development we will any give a few as models. we open again a new and into in- exhaustible source of formations. and give rise to many new such phrases would partake of such vagueness of special practising. and do not require any Finally. same manner.73 because the transition from the sixteenth notes to quarter notes would have heen too abrupt and violent. But character that they could only be used in extraordinary cases. combine the former designs with the octave-designs call the we might present ones). but will not benefit us . Three or four tone-chains in in the different regions might be treated designs. tral Such apparent polyphony will be particularly useful in orchescomposition and in the accompaniment of vocal music. e. we might attempt to gain a species of pseudo-dTiophomc composition by means of embellishing or circumscribing the one. When we now melody (as : apply our first proceeding to this new basis for i. 52 ^ J P^^^^fc ^ much at present.. or the other. and leave it to the student to practice others.

The latter tells us that the following sounds belong together 54. The ear acknowledges in this combination the most perfect conWe will call such tone-mass " Harmony. We require for this different voices. say. and after that none will answer but the octave c. Following the sounds which acoustics designate as the next succeeding. HowEVKE much signs. The Tonic is the basis.• first judge of a tone which agrees with anc. 1. we can only add g. of the whole mass. again. WWhat we by the have here accidentally discovered is fully confirmed science of acoustics." or " Harmonic cord. DERIVED FROM NATURAL HARMONY." and its lowest tone we wUl call the fundamental tone. in which each voice has another basis showing-us what sounds of two a different fundamental melody. we meet with a sound not exactly belonging to oui . THE DUOPHONIC COMPOSITION. a real Duophony. ac- tually belong together. answers our purpose. But the following. cannot be obtained from them. for instance. Let our ear be the other . we develope from these octave de- our actual object. with the tonic It is certainly not d. mass. MANNER OF ARRIVINO AT or little IT. fandamental tone. according to the nature of the tone-world. The above combination is therefore our first harmonic mass. e. To these.74 CHAPTER II.

howevThe two latter. the same which our ear has These notes are placed very reg- —*aoh one a third from the others. c.75 scale . The Tonic is the fundamental note. /. and of which they are related to it. BE 3= -&- i w^ 1111 ^ t3H 1 A m 1 2 2 1. already chosen for us. we shall speak of it in future —and immediately aftei. which is not alone inferior in number of sounds con- formed less regularly. J^ 56. but is also damental note of this ing to this fundamental tone the highest tone. That only the five last tones are in the regular succession c. "we find : When we now consider our present tone-group 111 57. Of these. of the scale . unite very well with one it tone at least of it g —and form with a second harmonic mass. 55. 3. the latter consists only of the notes c. 56) of the scale which move around the Tonic. a and b and the higher are wanting . Five other notes (marked 2) form the second harmonic mass. er. 2. n tone which we have discovered in our first mass.it. and in the course it of our investigations will be proved in another way. E ^ I Our ear tells us that these belong together. a part of the scale makes its appearance. e. That nine notes (those marked 1) belong to the first harmonic mass. e. Addstituting it. ularly and g . P . The funmass is the thrice-repeated g . we know already that . and g belong to the first mass do not agree with its fundamental tone. but passing all repetitions. d and f. exiled as they are from the first mass. for the six preceding notes have neither the form nor connection of the scale. we discov- er the boundary -tones (p.

the fifth This tone. For these two form a fifth exactly like one in the first mass (c g). It is less prominent when the two others only. . 57). is existing it remains as the fifth of the to mass /proceeds into the nearest tone of the first mass. the second mass goes to that of the first (the tonic) . at least for the fact that it is the basis of the second mass. And this first. and in which the interval of the seventh (^ —/) is not contained. which latter we shall therefore call " tonical mass. quite distant from the first The same/ as we have harmonic combination which nature has given us (No." or " tonical harmony. whence it originated. if for nothing future time. because the former was the origin of the latter. The why of calling this tone the Dominant will be shown at some For the present it deserves that name. and was the beginning and end of the scale. of the nature of the mass. but by the whole first mass. The fundamental note of is done in the most simple manner. if an ocOpposed to this tonical latter returns to the tave of the dominant nical . are used. -^-^i=t^ mT r rt r first first becomes most prominent when the tone /is in existence. Here we find the Tonic again in the same capacity . and. goes to c. d. g. as it were.• 76 We have long designated the fundamental tone of the first mass by the word Tonic. 58. the " Dominant." in other words. consequently. or Tonic Formerly we placed Tonic and Scale m juxtaposition." which mass we find. the second mass. We will now distinguish the fundamental tone of the second mass by the word Dominant. and is the junctional point of the is two masses. and This inclination of the second mass towards the the can partake. else. now. and form seen. but this time it is supported not only by octaves. e. is also a momentary point of repose. the Tifth of the note of every scale. and d can do nothing better than to follow this direction.

or the harmonic masses. . Having achieved thus much. our present tone-group. It is not merely the still imperfect scale. Harmonic Application. and we find that repetition of tone or design and the development of Rhythm will be necessary to produce variety of invention froir such insufficient means. in vague directions . \ We can apply 1. In No. 59 m It is ^ rplain that the first ^= mass. with their repetitions.n 2. and upon the two together the composition of duophonic phrases. and the lower as subordinate voice. g. APPLICATION. is its regular con- struction and its number of much more productive and appropriate for a melodic foundation. the harmony. we can base Melodic Application. either ascending or descending. duophonic phrases. or accompani* Our covered first tine foundation for melody was the MajorScale . than the second mass. for new tone-ohains. c. here we have dissecond foundation. Melodically.* 2. on account of tones.f. i.. nothing remains but to apply them in the formation of we must consider the upper voice as the principal. which can serve as a basis for our melody. Ml ^^ is But the limitedness of our tone-group always in our way. the first mass : 60. but we can also use the succession of all tones belonging to one and the same mass. in reality the But melody of either mass consists of only three tones. Harmonically in the two masses. e. 59 these masses have been used in their regular order. In this for the proper estimation of our means. rf. This leads us to attempt them for instance. e.

the right to tions whenever necessary. and after this they belong exclusively to the first mass at —though the y end might belong also to the of second mass. Why have we commenced our accompaniment only with the eighth tone ? Because then only it we could safely decide upon it.. M: 61. ^ Below is make the fundamental form of f?* i-j- ei In the r first ~i^ eight accompaniments we see the alternate change at the of first and second mass. for we always choose the nearest accompaniment . and the repetition in the second of would have caused an unnecessary stoppage . But will since in either mass we excep- have a choice of several notes. Duophony. which agrees with the e. by a second. because in connection with c designate the first mass much more distinctly than the g. remains stationary. under any circumstances. the nearest tone. instead Firstly.78 ment . and because we have made cases. tone-chain i. more prominent.). belongs to the same mass. to retain that it our principle. agreeably to their nature. always in doubtful which is undoubted. therefore our present object to accompany each tone of our first. however. 57. distinctly We recognize now more what we can ofTert w i'h (uir . The repetition does take place in the very next moment. the higher sounds are. for. but then it happens at places where the first mass. and are melodically It is much better connected (No. and where it can be done without injuring that change of masses which we had in view. lower tone. 3. (from a to the end) to regulate whatever was uncertain. and from this certainty was easy afterwards. HARMONIC DESIGNS. which belongs to both masses. Why e ? A have we not taken y. reserving. voice secondly. because it g had but e just been used.

placed the second mass exactly as ... THE CADENCE. ^ r rb. thus will the second mass move now The into the first (c). discovered is mass without its third tone We serve as a temporary point of repose. therefore. third tone only is thereby inadmissible. or from the mixture of the two. Simultaneously with the former that the second we have. ^ --^ T lead unless we resign the harmony and both voices into the in juxtaposition to Tonic. from the alternate use. -rrr 4. 62. and rhythmical designs. harmonic designs. mass. 5. —the Tonic —but no we . Until now we have viz. that the first We have discovered already place of the Tonic. the first . as at We have. Moment and of Repose. which we from the first mass exclusively. only known two classesi of designs and formations. because (d) it would prevent the resolving of the upper voice into the Tonic. however. further. THE HALF CADENCE. and most appropriately in the position of 63. longer limited to the single point of repose appropriate to therefore. tonical viz. voice. are.79 present material. mass has taken the The Tonic is the upper first is most effective in the We shall effect our cadences. or the principal tone of this mass. from the second mass exclusively. We can add can produce (a) (b) (c) now a third class. in order to accomplish the same object. in order to end there. with the a. we formerly placed Tonic and Scale in juxscale taposition effect and as formerly the moved into the Tonic to an ending (cadence).

first will be appropriately Full Cadence. or simply " Cadence." and call it designated by Whole . This latter we will ap- 64. ^ ir a Half-cadence. while the g cadence. however imperfect. ply in the ending of the thesis.80 have a second one.

the but the char- melody is vague. The vacant space can be filled out according to the general laws of Tone-succession. r-i This attempt acter of the is an improveriient upon. and the rhythm itter. ject to III. and Phraseology which we have learned. and with the student. m if=x^y-x^x=^f-r r Therefore but that would be insupportable monotony. fill the thesis with the notes with which it began. First of all. E^ S r-r 1 ^ first . let 65. E d —-& -f- ^ -=F The beginning with the first mass lies probably nearest. The antithesis (b) makes its cadence from the second mass into the first. perhaps in this manner we will retain for the present the first mass. is very monotonous. THE DUOPHONIC COMPOSmOlf. at last. And here begins again the practice. The thesis (a) makes its cadence from the firsj into the second mass. Progression. Harmony. It is our ob- form tone-chains of the most perfect form in the at present known to us — form of a Period. us regulate our two masses into a Period.- we can resume our actual work. We intend to animate the and the melody ought to have . but not the -same notes 67. it the industry of We might 66.81 CHAPTER Now.

In order. ^ .82 a more decided direction. we should probably form the following 68. as we have been taught in our first formations of Phrases and Periods. : ^ --. then. to produce again the melodic gradations of thesis and antithesis.

The same cadence appears end of the phrase . Thus No. at the . 68 led to the last phrase. Were we in possession of the tone the melody of the seventh measure would probably be. is We perceive. merely touches the second mass. c.83 No. which. how the design of the third measure repeated in the (at least rhythmically). but this time it is perfect. also fifth. The further development and practice is left to the student. that the thesis first falls into two sections. ^^Sfy^i^^gfef We perceive here. will lead him to an animated and effective arrangement of the whole. b. might lead to the following Andante. the second measure. and is repeated in. b. that with our present poverty of tones. and thus melodically and rhythmically forms an imperfect cadence. 68. because the end note does not fall upon a rhythmical chief-part. of which the (a) belongs entirely to the first mass. : 71. again. d. but he will perceive more and more distinctly. a careful employment of rhythm and a clear distribution of it.

and.. (fee. 30). it ought to have the most perfect form with thesis and antithesis. &o. If the first part is intended to be an independent whole.. tetraphonie. we speak of compositions of one.. a single Period. Songs. to the simplest TWO-PART FORM. and how much more satisfactory a whole it forms. the consider how our previous forma- by means of mass on a rhythmical chief-part. five. or form in general. duophonic. is But nevertheless. &a. therefore. It ends. it leads us to form from thesis separated from the antithesis. and by the fact that each strives to be considered as a different whole. and endeavor to ccnfine the word "part" exclusively to Ehythm and form. We draw the attention of the student to a diatinction which we have here. and the lack of which. &c. each ought to have. two. as we find it in many Marches. in other theoretical works. to designate compositions for one. two. We have formerly already found of measures (No. This leads us. &c. we speak of compositions /or one. phrases of a greater number Let us employ them for the two-part Each part strives to be an independent whole . or more parts. then. merely by the even more distant separation. are distinguished from. in PAETS.84 CHAPTEE COMPOSITIONS OF IV. form. therefore. dence. two. which parts for the present. These are the regular dimensions. triphonic. three. but —the form of the Period. therefore. entering the second Thesis and Antithesis. four.* When we now tions. or more parts. a Jf'irst and Second part. at least the length of a Period — eight measures. the part merely part of a larger whole. As we advance further we shall employ the words monophonio. has been the source of ranch confusion. TWO AM) THREE distinctly." If using it in relation to number of voices. cannot have a perfect ca- must let us expect the second part. of composition. but we know already that they can be larger or smaller. parts. Dances. We refer to the use of the word " part. pentaphonie. * made _ . If using it in relation to Rhythm.

the same ending would appear twice in succession consequently. because the part has already had so distinct an organization.85 as formerly the thesis. but in order to make it less important. cadence of the Part would lose only be marked This is its strength. ^^m^^^ now become a perfectly-closed phrase. (c) which leads to the actual cadence. which can now be succeeded by the full cadence. without deducting from the strength of either. the full first. only that the latter makes a and perfect cadence from the second mass into the so If we in- tend to give to this second part also a perfect thesis. either advisable to represent this cadence imperfectly^ position to a former chief-tone (a) or — by trans- by placing the Tonic into the lower voice (b) or by an insignificant touching of the second mass 72. If the first part has second part has the same right. -9-^ . the half. : The plan of a two-part piece wonld therefore be like this 73. and the formation of thesis can therefore first the whole part would be monotonous. Were we now to end the thesis of the first part in the same manner. it is a full cadence. we can do by means of a half-oadence. The by a step from the second into the mass. with a half-oadence. But first this perfect thesis is not absolutely necessary.

we have not observed length of the two parts. «. and e. by giving it an Appendix (Coda). It is so numerous a tone-repetition comprehensible. repeating the last section. or. whole phrase falls into melody. from g up to c. e. &c. antithesis. form of a periodically-constructed as antithesis. &c. a and B. e. The following little phrase in which. no misproportion is experienced in the unequal length of the antithesis. become? then our objeot to multiply our tonical meaus. and so regular. tone-figuration. In that case the thesis and a would have double the But its two halves with their subdivisions are so well separated.. this and g. we would have f. and have of a gentle relaxation — —may sowp made use as example. made use of tone-repetition. f. which has chiefly the variety of the bearable. manner we might prolong the of equal sections. In like by either composing it the original melodical direction of the thesis. that exactly in consequence of this. only a decided and distinct grouping which can make We see that the sections of three times four measures. and e. c and d. The following It fl: mj3 m phrase ^_p=^fl iW Only ?^ may serve as example of a first part of three times four measures. i Judging phrase according to the acknowledged fundamental first part. by the bye. Ehythm makes seen that the such extension possible and first It is easily eight measures contain in reality nothing but the steps of the and g.were. to consider the ending of d as the end of the thesis. .. aS it by means of rhythmical tone-repetitions.

its ought/ to close in the eighth measure at b. Tonic. or by vari- ation or abridgment of rhythmical quantity the latter has been simplicity made tions. m m pii^S^S^ thesis closes at ^m^^^^mw-. by Tonic. it is advisable to make . The whole this. Instead of the voices rest. or secthesis. The oomprehensibility and of the whole has permitted us to deviate from the strict propor- We have also introduced a kind of " leader" to the Coda. — the junctiou of the two or more repetitions might also be possible. Eepose. Eepose. a figured re-formation of the repetitions would also have been admissible. To favor such Codas. but it can also be employed at the end of a This requires neither example nor instruction. Scale. parts. Retrospection. without giving the end-note proper and with the ninth measure begins a repetition of the whole antithesis. Progress. use of in the above. Motion. is not alone admissible at the ond part. premising the good proportions of all end of the antithesis. . The final link. merely.87 75. proceed immediately. S finally. the preceding cadence imperfect. might have been repeated 76. The a in the fourth measure. End. however. Such Coda. — either by means of tone-position. At the very beginning of monophonic composition all we have rep: resented the fundamental form of tone-formations Beginning.

Scale. Scale. Half-cadence. t. Topic 8va. Thegis. are settled . 4 measures. If we represent its external construction of two parts of twice eight measures. Full Cadence. with periodical formation of each part into thesis and antithesis : First Part. with the half-cadence part. together with the thesis of the second part. Antithesis. It is the beginning of the whole tone-development therefore the place where the design .88 ideas. Tonic. : might thus be represented Repose. 4 measures. the moment which we have called Repose. 8 measures. because thesis and antithesis led from the Tonic through the scale. 8 measures. Motion. Tonic Mass. Motion. Motion. Repose. Tonic. Repose. back to the Tonic . Motion. Tonic Scale. 4 measures. Second Part. Full Cadence. or its designs. each and only the ascendother. and ends regularly in the same mass. Motion. Motion. of the Period. was sufficient in itself. The fiindamental forms Eepose. tie 'vrith these But when we now examine our former (monophonic) but a feeble connected thesis and antithesis. Tonic. Periods. Motion. Antithesis. r harmonic Period Motion. form the Motion. that the first thesis belongs chiefly to the tonic mass. Reposei \ Repose. Our monophonic phrases corresponded perfectly The form of the Period oheyed the same laws. 4 measures. we find. ing or descending direction marked the one or the With cadences the aid of the two harmonic masses and the two different we have perfected the periodic form. Repose. which again corresponds with the same conceptions and fundamental features Tonic Mass. of the first The first antithesis. Motion. Repose. in the Repose. we see that For generally. Half Cadence. pai-t. Tonic. In the antithesis of the second the first . This more perfect periodical construction led us to the twopart form. Thesis.

the thesis this and antithesis of the second the end should be unsatisfactory. First Part. there are in reality three principal moments in existence. If after it as it "Were. . The shows last view we have taken of the two parts in one mass. three Repose. that in spite part by means of a cadence. Compositions of Three Parts. we can prolong by codas. Eepose. and thus strengthen the tonic mass. We might therefore easily divide the two parts into Motion. follow We have permitted still ourselves even to solder. w& need not part. but since the foil ca of itself decisive enough. of the separation of the first us. is .89 mass ought now again to be predominant dence of this part this rule strictly.

a larger and broader in paraUel directions. therefore. our pres-' re- ent system will no longer be suflBcient. a different tone-region. which latter had to he repeated once already in . in order to double our voices without confusioii. with our natural notes as means. whether we could not obtain an intrinsic means ? As soon as we add new notes. THE DOUBLE DTJOPHONIC COMPOSmOir.90 CHAPTEK V. For the present we have nothing but the increase of the mimber cf voices. we h^ve gained nothing absolntely . ^^^ . we will give to each of them • Here. the double duophonic composition seems to be much more convenient than the trlphonic. We can conclude this from codas. and in certainly more extended forms there woidd is be too much But the question increase of onr . then. and only two essentially different cadences. are our present means i 77. if our voice-couples move This certainly makes our whole tone-mass less susceptible of light motion. for a later chapter. Since the two voices which we have used until now But agree so well with each other. without falling into undue repe and losing sight of perspicuity. We experienced this stni repetition. e What volume of r ^m J. imperfection in the three part form.d. tone. a composition of merely two parts when with oflener. it 1 f^ new do we gain by First of all. We tition cannot. Such acquisition mains. still the fact that we have only two masses. and besides this. extend the due phonic composition any further.

opposite directions. We will call ment of the such tones. the two voicecouples might combine together in arbitrary intervals. 61) of the duoIn sincfle instances. 78.91 for the two couples move attempt in equal intervals and direction . which continue throughout the moveother voices. m ^8 u tmm frf ^? Contrary/ Motion. P ei=F we have i s - i ——— 1=r m * ^ Since further discovered that the fundamental note of first. "Wherever the masses change regularly. phonio composition. but this leads us to 1. erally This and the former application of the double duophonio manner are the most natural.^' - We will call this kind of motion. different intervals of the volce-oouples. two voices might sustain this mutual tone in various manners. we can bodily realize this intellectual unity by leading our upper . " Sustaining tones" for they give to the whole tone-movement a material and bodily connection. But since all our tones and masses originate in the Tonic. because they are based upon the gen- most natural form of accompaniment (No. 79. 2. our voice-couples can unhesitatingly move in opposite directions. while the others might move in the second mass belongs to the the two masses at pleasure. however.

79). ri &|-^-^ \J m mu > 'Hi> ^^ . The arbitrarily-composed masses (No. which either strengthens the rhythm of other voices. and whole material before It us. also. and the more But firm or heavier character. and by the rhythm. 77). we have our mass. remaining stationary where the stationary. 3. which until now could only ob- by the direction of tone-succession." fundamental tone. or moving where the other remains Ld 8v'a . The doubled voices (No. I L=rrLd . even our former means of gradation find a new sphere in the ascending of our voice-couples. " the 81.92 voices through the two masses and their different intervals. 83. than by mere rhythmical accent. In new juxtaposition we find. When we 1. or enters into a juxtaposition to it . 4. 80 and 81) the double duo- — phonic and the single duophonic compost. and. while the lower voices sustain the mutual Tonic. The sustaining^iotes (Nos. other moves. the means of more characteristically representing the more animated or light. add to these new formations 2. 78). . These sustaining-tones can be animated by rhy thmization of various kinds. The contrary motion (No. gives us a it new juxtaposition of greater and lesser with tain this a third class of gradation.

they give sufficient material for the exercise of the fun- damental forms of all musical construction. as in No. out of which we gained the just-mentioned juxtaposition. 83. all free forma- But we advise the student to keep up the practice of the duophonic. it can only arise from With tion. No. and ac- cording to a consistent plan. but can get along with a single voice-couple. . The former requires that we do it not arbitrarily cause the be- ginning and ceasing of a voice-couple. as struction. We have now is twice two voices. in order to have always Harmony. but rather follow the idea of the whole. for a time at least. ought invariably to take place at a rhythmical section. They only require a Formerly we had only two voices at our command. as in The consistency permits no general the contents of every phrase. which we never separated. in order to preserve the susceptibility of his mind to melody and rhythm.93 Tliese are the nearest formations of the double duophonio composition . which will have their turn in future. the following Part begins a series of analyzations and exercises which will exclude. therefore. or double duophonic composition. few directions in regard to Application. we have seen indicated in our rhythmical con- The change. rule . 82. But it advisable that we employ our means in a clear order. or at least with a rhythmical link.

one above the other. because it serves as basis for the whole construction. even. (c. e. voice-parts and the possibility of combining simultaneously two or four but they were insuificient for the complete scale. scale in the polyphonous We resume at once. which called are placed in thirds. first object is now to find harmonies for the complete Here we are directed at once to the first hannonic mass. therefore. : The next step is obvious We must learn to use the complete combination of the harmonic masses. Afterwards we gained the harmonic massoped. but we could only move in it monophonically. importance and regularity of which we have This regularity consists in the position of its three tones g). of admitting foreign tones. and begin with the Tetraphonic composition. DISCOVERY OF THE NECESSAET HARMONIES. The Harmony of ike Major Scale. At first we had the complete diatonic scale. . es. with the license. Therefore the proportions of ." or more tones to a Harmony is The lowest tone in such chord (c) is called " Fundamental tone. OnR scale. CHAPTER I. The combination of three a " Chord." It is the most important tone of the chord. the polyphonous composition. However diversified our tone-world has been thus far devei we can clearly see the insuificiency of everything discov ered.94 Third Part. the already seen.

formation. Tlie very fu-st first the itself in No. it. Doubling of the Chord-tones. We have already means always voluntarily resigned seen that the tones of a chord appear In No. which originally appears but once. it. for instance.tones shall are at liberty to double either. because it is the it most important tone of the appeared originally twice. We we chord. and have but three tones in the Which of these three. Both proceedings are called ''Doubling" of the chord- At the . then the Fifth. 54 in the following manner fundamental note. r easily drowns the other Transposition of the Chord Tones. because doubled. The Third. 54). and after that only came the Third. 79 we have even require. we shall tone first. for the But these transpositions . notes. and But. and again the Fifth. and shall now be doubled 1 We make use of this license. then the Octave. shall require this doubling of chord notes immediately • for intend to write tetraphonic.. double the fundamental chord. ir intervals. chord do not always appear in their original position. if no other reason prevent us. is called the " Fifth" «. No. the least appropriate to be We have based this rule upon imitation Our ear confirms this as the of our natural most beautiful and reg- ular concord. 84. or (as can easily be imagined) by different voices on the same place.95 tlie The next note Already in other tones of the chord are regulated and designated by (e) is called the " Third" and the next one i. same time we see that every note of the chord can be applied more than once either in different octaves (as in No. then again the mass showed : Octave. 54). is Nature itself has used oftenest (No. which in doubling. of the fundamental tone. by no in their regular position. and the Third as the most piercing and perspicuous interval of the chord. it After this we shall double the Fifth.. 79 we have perceived that the tones of a.

96 present. But since we can easiest we can place all our other tones at pleasure. beit cause always the basis of the chord. will now place our tones as near as possible to the upper voice. or Fifth are placed occasionally in the upper voice. and by recognize and designate the chord. the Octave. r r r '- -F — . no particular consideration. unless particular reasons lead us to a different formation shall but the fundamental tone always retain it is its original position as the lowest tone. Third. We . 85.

.97 -f .

E. and g-b-d on the Tonic of i''and G major. f. above and below the Tonic . Tonic chords of the two nearest related major which we have borrowed from these. consequently they are nearest related. f. M. <?. 0. i^|. therefore. * Nearest stance: d-mate in but one tone from each 1^ Cf. Bb. Ah. a. e. related or related in the first degree. These keys in the first stand to the one in which we actually are (C major) degree of relationship*. e. from the Introduction. major and Cf major for in. b. differ from each other merely in the / and/{(.g. be of the greatest importance. are stioh major keys as other. Gb. chords of the nearest related major scales within This double point of view which we have taken of our second and third chords 1. are distinguished merely by one b. We must compre- hend it clearly.a. the nearIn the quint-circle. bh. g. d. and the fifth in each is a perfect fifth. and that all major scales have like proportions. d. b. c. and retain it. a. Tlte chords on /and ff are therefore per- fectly like the one on But we know already. A. jor. b. two keys de-viate from each other. as . longing to the scale) 2. e. thus has each major scale also. that we can buUd a major scale upon every tone of our whole system. upon the Tonic of every major scale must be exactly We C ma- can therefore find our chords /a-c. c.98 and its fifth. c. O. or as borrowed from those keys. g. though they are also domesticated. as harmonies constructed from domestic tones (tones bescales.chords as reminiscences of i^ and major. and of the tonic chords of the two nearest related- major scales scales. in future. in We G can consider these two. that the and thus we come to the conviction scale consists of the tonic chord harmony of the major of the same. and which remind us of them will. the less are they related. B. Consequently the chords alike. B. f. Ih. c.. c. P. : Therefore as every major scale has its nearest related major fifth on the nearest . major and jP major d. e. «. the more est-related keys are at each side of any particular one. Of course. f. . . g. as it were. a. The third in each is a major third. besides its own tonic chords. d. the tonic it. /j).

consider the first (c. We will now look at it from another point of view." placed highest. and the fourth (c. Foi- merly we had directed our attention merely upon the chords which existed in it.). We began with the we all scale which as first tone-chain or " voice. We return now to our last harmonic formation.99 CHAPTER II. Soprano) or first voice. and then a third tone under When we now b. then a it. all the second {g. &c.).). c. Each tone of this scale has first one. 89. all &c. d. The Four Voices. . g. we will repeat No. EXAMINATION AND JUSTTFICATION OF THE HARMONY. we find a phrase of Four simultaneously-sounding These four voices are called Treble ( voices. Tenor Bass In order to recognize distinctly the different voices and their progression. g. &c. A. all the third (e. as separate tone- chains. c. Alto or second voice. or fourth voice. 89 in score. &c. ^r.). No. or third voice. second. e.

the thi-ee important notes. fourth. fifth. and third chords connected by the mutual mutual c. and around which they move. is The connection of the second. Before we return to our subject (connection of chords) we must . —the g. tween the sixth and seventh chords only this connection wanting. it is .ust have connection and Is this A not superficial unity exists already in the fact.100 The highest and lowest voice (Treble and Bass) ' outer voices" the other intermediate voices (Alto are called and Tenor) are called " inner voices. and fourth chords best -9 90. But they are no longer the single notes of rived. C. as the became a melodic whole. and sixth chords by the Beis seventh and eighth again by the mutual g. perceptible In the following : third. The Connection of Chords. distinct tie exists in the connecting notes wliich each of our chords has in common with its neighbors. for But this is we know that our second and third chords are scales. a' scale . and again we find our Tonic c as the centre which connects these chords. merely borrowed from other A more that g. that all the notes of these harmonies exist in one and the same scale. r Again. they are the is harmonies from which our whole harmonic development de- Harmonic Designs. 9—'=—f. Tlaus we have seen and thus are here our om" two harmonic masses were connected by a mutual tone. of page' '55 meet our eyes. not sufficient that by itself should be well together they ought to form a harmonic whole. the case in No. 89 1 They m. second. first.'''' B. each chord But formed scale unitij. sufficient. —the third.

though each related no connection with each other. Examining the enth degree. as we have seen it in our it a first attempts at duophonic composition (No. the first goes b ent path . the third from to g. D. Neither is mere doubling or strengthening. which latter c. Firstly : each of our four voices takes throughout an independ in the -beginning. Faulty Progressions. 91. tire from one position of a chord to another eacli combination of two chords which stand to other in the relation of tonic and dominant harmonies. from e c to <^ and e . no connection with each This cannot well be otherwise. have two chords have been borrowed from keys which. nm cliords of the rTfT^ r we know that these The Dominant and the Subdominant (/) have other. the progression B. 1. the is second from g to repeated . the alto is neither . for to the principal key. and back to the sixth to the seventh degree. claims to be a separate voice. Ht The alto says nothing different from the bass. for it is right in the midst of the other parts. In this very ambiguity lies the fiiult . There are two : A. the fourth goes from c to g. bass and alto Only from proceed from / to g.101 take into consideration the harmonic designs which we have dis- covered thus far. and. C. deficient progression from the sixth to the sev- we find still more undesirable proportions. like them. and c . 49) . m 92. OCTAVE-SUCCESSION".

we will come when we learn the present make the right But how can we obviate the consecutive octaves in No. We therefore retain the /of the first chord in the second chord. as. proceeds from not be. Hke the bass. g-d-f. /to g . ff-b-d. ^^ Tlae alto progresses no longer in octaves with the bass. The fault. 92 ? The bass was indispensable we had for a and b no other har: inonies than the chords of/ and ff. lies in the alto. 92. in the fol- lowing : W: 93. are called they give to the phrase an ambiguof its absolutely avoid to ous appearance. and these two chords have now a mutual connecting-note. sound hollow from the tone-web. because the alto. (7f= 94.102 a separate voice nor a mere doubling. though the time will use of them. / . and rob full variety of voices. BE r false oT consecutive octaves . For them. then. for instance. is this must might We now remember that the chord in reality nothing else than our former second mass. r r it Progressions like those of alto and bass in No.

solutely go But is if it can neither ascend nor remain.r . f^^^g but for the present because it is will adopt the within bounds of our present knowledge. We have plete now avoided and gained. therefore. The Dominant Chord. In future for the present we shall find these successions sometimes admissible we will avoid them. consists in the progression of bass The bass goes from y to g. time-space of the chord between h and w 95. while the tenor goes from c to tliis In the octaves we . In the above case the fault and tenor. . is particularly obnoxions wlieii it is unhidden by other as. at other ways of obviating the above a and b . which enter after the other notes of a chord. the com- The former we have gained by contrary motion. with alto or treble left out. besides. the latter has given us opportunity to give to one voice two notes of the same chord. it is clear that the c cannot remain. and thus to obtain greater animation. d. down into the nearest note of the next But the note d now wantmg ! let us distribute.103 proportion voices . the d. 94. consisting o?fov. m 96. ^ one illustrated in No.'''' There are many as. avoided fault by letting the first note of the tenor it remain here. for instance. in No. -JSZ ei -^A the fifths. s we :^-. difficulty. " harmonic bye-notes. E. for forms no part of the succeedit must abharmony (J). This has involuntarily led us to a new chord. for instance. will call such notes. ing harmony. We harmony. 95.

its fifth is goes most naturally to the Tonic. It exists on the Dominant of each key. mass. would be c-e-g-b\t. 97. . This chord reminds us of the second mass. 1." because the added seventh distinguishes them from the triads. Its destination is . " Triads. to resolve into.-F.104 notes . c-e-ff . this chord the one which most distinctly indicates at once the in the a key. It is the Tonic and the around-it-moving the completion of that which was merely indicated in former formations Q. and all its notes follow this current. f. it would be it. — B. — B. b. e. d. The fdurth note is the seventh of the funda- mental tone. " The chords of four notes will he called chords of the Seventh. though the tonic third quite as near. 3." of which we have at present three Triad of the Tonic. O. its third fundamental note goes to the Tonic. In the Thus the chord key of i''it g-h-d-f. its leads to the Tonic its and enters upon the note of the tonic harmony in way . will be of special importance. C. d. and with scale. The dominant chord of each key is no other key Consequently.— F. the Its . b. " viz. ff. F. Subdominant. key of G marks key of C. "Septime chords. consisting of three Botes. G. d-f'^-a-c. 2. g-i-d f-a-c. We -will call our former chords. " " Dominant. less important. we will call it the '^Dominant Chord:' This Dominant Chord requires a more particular explanation. and to distinor guish it from others.. But we prefer the^ former. and exists in at no other place. first I). a. because we do not . The one we have just now discovered upon the Dommant. seventh leads towards the Tonic.

the connective-tone to introduce we have not been able because each of our voices had to follow a certain prescribed direction. they have in No. for the present. 99 no mubut tual tone. 98 9a W: ^ This proceeding of the dominant chord is called its " resolution. this is only because the last chord was incomi^g) exists.105 like to double the B. . We will submit. third. With this we have at last accomplished the faultless zing of the scale. as there were now no connection between the two last chords. fifth. and will soon be justified or avoided. that the last chord remains incomplete . harmoni- — 99. g-b-d-f and c-e. to this imperfection it is not disagreeable. No. But it. " it resolves into" such chord or harmony. 98 a is therefore better than No. further. if It seems. lacks the . It is a natural consequence of the regular resolution of the domit inant chord. plete.'" and of any chord that absolutely draws after it another harmony we say.

involuntarily consider the dominant triad as dominant it is chord. though not heard. wiU at present abstain from using it. in a chorus downwards for in- from -" Israel in Egypt :" 101. degree the effects of the seventh. and a hundred others. feel in a. its We have the same sensation when the tonic triad third as the highest note goes into the Subdominant triad An exception will illustrate this rule still better. piercing expression. ii ":22r" ^ 1=5 ^- T 1 We with (c). But they are the trations of the masters . Mendelssohn Bartholdy. and. it This is by no means the only instance of great masters deviating from any given rules. Mozart. down for the guidance of is The master knows well when a deviation . often leads the third of the dominant triad stance. Beethoven. . which makes perceptible that he departs from the natural way. ^ ^S ^aiiii ^^^ rr" ff- -4-W^ -U4- and thus obtains a strange. Thus can we see numerous above in the works of Haydn.106 100. the students. we. without calling this deviation wrong. admis- sible or inadmissible and his taste and intelligence are the only illus- judges whom he has to consult. Handel . tnie to our principle. Music as an art would be fettered indeed if her devotees were confined to the rules laid the student.

We have seen in Nos. five The second note of degrees below . the progressions of our chords. the scale {d ) has its it fundamental notes thus we mark by 5. sixth the triad give the tonic triad . for the present.107 CHAPTEE III. mark by f. 89 and 99. melody we give viz. to the first. and to the fourth and But when the sixth note is succeeded by we shall avoid the threatening faults by the introduction of the dominant chord. we shall indicate below the fundamental note of the chord is to be found.^ tj IS2Z -a- ^ - We by 3. 3 are regularly repeated. Limitation to those means which were found in Scale. THE ACCOMPANIMENT OF GIVEN MELODIES. it We will. that the Tonic has for a fundamental note the lower octave. that chord which third. fifths. and fifth To each note of the we have found for it in No. will have to be very simple and contain the notes of but one major scale. to the second dominant dominant. see that the figures 8. 5. with the exception of the sixth and seventh degrees. 89. In order to facilitate the finding of the chords. . Ac- cording to this proceeding the scale of G major would be marked 102. and mark it therefore by figures far 8. which are both marked It is the same point where we have discovered the iji differ ent misproportions for the present. the Ascending Our melodies. A. by how above the melody. and the strengthening of the con- .. in order to remember the avoiding of consecutive octaves and nection. tones of the scale we shall always and seventh that of the of the subthe seventh.

and then the middle voices. We have . As example we give the following : This melody 5 3+3 83 5 83 55 zai -&—e>- 3 + 3 8 ^ has fii-st 33 remembered been provided with figures. -e- .108 After this we find and place the fundamental notes. also the dangers by placing a f where we are likely to encounter them. Then we write the fundamental tones 104.

' We we fmd will now attempt accompaniment for the de- scending scale. where. follow.109 appears to us as a Period. again. bass and middle voices." and have gained first two forms of the Half-cadence. with thesis and antithesis. We hare always ended our thesis with a half-cadence. and in accordance with 83 + 35 83 58 "25" fcgzr 106. m^ fifths. The one inant triad consists of the step . or a step from the into the second mass. In order to avoid consecutive fifths and octaves. from the tonic triad into the dominant triad. We it place our figures above the upper voice. B. c-e-g and h would have to go to c instead of a. The Descending to find an Scale.. all wanting. from the tonic triad into the dom- the other of the step of the subdominant triad into the dominant triad. other means. 8 3 + 3 5 iE 107. the tone /of the melody does not permit the tonic triad. c-e-g. and where we meet as heretofore with consec- utive octaves and It is clear that the dommant chord can aid us no longer. e. i. were to change g-h-d into a dominant chord. But here. -s- -&?-!!- -& 31 Everything nection is right with the exception of that dangerous step from con- the seventh to the sixth degree (h is — a). zz^ BE . " the triad of the subdominant. in the same manner as the ascending one. It is not even applicable without falling into new faults. We have therefore seized the next important chord. For if we would have to We must find we will attempt contrary motion in the middle voices.

Trusting to chance a triad. that the faults come into existence.no The alto would have to ascend to a and meet -with the treble. . and tenor and bass would make consecutive octaves from the third to the fourth chord (page 101). we construct The bass upon new fundamental tone 8 108. because the bass follows the downward direction of the middle voice. and the tenor would have to take/ But this would render the chord incomplete. A second It is attempt can therefore only be made with the bass it- self. must this therefore ascend to a. . The Major and Minor Triad.

e. distinctive i. 3±: ~:t±l we have altered our figures. upon C. in C major. their ones. 1 -f . OF -di Ileie. dominant chord incomplete. on ^and A. but lost the close connection of the chords. and perfect the new ones and A) consist of fundamental tone. already see one of the reasons which permitted us to leave the triad after the fifth. with- third suffices to indicate that the chord is a major the which is no mark. We E can harmonize the scale in every direction. O. third and sixth degrees of the scale — 3. and F. . however. 8 Here 8 is another example 8 111. 1. We will call the former major triads. the latter minor triads. considering the otherwise excellent connection of the chords and the good progressions of the voices. With this our actual mission is fulfilled. 8 3+3 5 3^. Major triads upon the Tonic. avoided the wrong pro- gressions. : that contents (the intervals of which they consist) are by no means {JE alike. minor third and perfect fifth.3 8 5 3 5 3 5 3+3 5 3+3 8 I m -»-«..Ill no. and Subdomi. may be we find easily Comparing our new chords With the old though they are also triads. viz. consequently. The former fifth triads consisted . of fundamental tone. upon the chord. Dominant. nant—in C 2. borne. too. and. can — in C majof We out triad now The fifth.. This loss. major third. can be most easily dispensed with. major. We have now three species of chords. Minor triads. upon the Dominant The Dominant upon G. every melody which contains no foreign notes.

and applied in No. at least until in a future chapter we shall its be forced to preser'fe the dis- tinction between " tone" and representative " note.tone.112 The treatment of the second and seventh measures which is the same In we have learned in No. we wish them to be considered as synonymes . since the d of the dominant chord melody ascends." . 105. we always use the same proceeding. we can let it pass. fourth to the fifth measure have is no con- but since the connection of the chords otherwise well-established. i^i In the course of our last remarks we have frequently used the vTord "note" for ''tone. 110. the sixth measure we have made use of the proceeding in No. Whenever the melody as- by degrees. &^^te-f^^=^ i 112. In the second measure to ascend." Since there can be no possibility of confiision. The chords from the nectino. we permit the Why 1 Because. we should dif- have been forced to cends make will consecutive octaves (a) or to use a ferent progression of the voices (b). 95.

Let us now see how we can apply them Animated present. better than to write exclusively in tet- raphonic chords. we know nothing. ox two voices (a or b) but it would be drowned under the tone-mass of four voices.us Fourth Part. (in masses) and this does not agree with an intellectually-animated inovement. at compositions (Nos. A phrase like the following Allegro ^to^ii f=? do very well for one. . The freer use of the chords at present in our possession. The addition of a dominant chord would even make it worse (b). would here be out of place. independently. phrases. 5 to 74). for the Until now we have used our chords merely accompani- ment of given melodies. to quiet and simple harmo- which develope themselves but slowly. We have to be limited. nies therefore. like those of the monophonio and duophonic For. witld their bass walkwill ing along in wide steps (a). Allegro.

first. •. as we have already done at No. DESIGlfS. . and fourth chords are merely repetitions of the The second. ted. i -eis We see. and consequently have but two left for the most important The fifth is omitintervals of the chord: the third and seventh. we have employed two voices for the fundamental tone and its octave. This leads us to the the leading of a chord through all its positions.114 CHAPTEE HAEMOmO I. unless we give to one voice two notes in succession. But we can soon perceive that the moment of proper progression has merely not yet arrived. (No. 95.in diiferent positions among fifth others the major triad of «. for we have admitted that the dominant chord must resolve into the tonic triad. mth either octave. also. -e&to every triad. Development of a single chord. We have already seen chords. that the last repetition imperfect . A. 105) . in the upper voice. thirdi. or first design. and only the last repetition ought to resolve according to rule. -©<=117. 115. m also. ^_-^&- m "S" "cr -z3- At a first glance the design of the last chord seems to be faulty. third. to the Tlie same proceeding can be applied dominant chord 116.

though these three triads belong to one key. same key. &c. 1. on the Tonic. Subdominant. keys. between the versa : triads of the Dominant and the Subdominant. or -%-- vice -(9- 121. between the \A triads of the Tonic and the Dominant U 119. consequently the triads of C and G. ""221 -&&. Designs of More Distant Connection. -e- 3E C-! ^ "Cr U _G ::s&: !2_ ^ 120. -&-&- -22"23" « betweeen the triads of the Tonic and the Subdominant ^ 2. this Premising we find. consequently the triads of G and F lack also this nearest connection.jSI . are in possession of three major Triads. stand in the same degree of relation. and we have borrowed the subdominant triad from the key of the Thus.115 A 118. -<^- m B. therefore. Dom- and Subdominant. — The We inant. These chords stand in the same relation to each other as the C major and G major. J'' The keys of G major and major do not stand in nearest relation. "Og"" EiE -&- &c. and C and F. All these are contained in one and the triad alone indicates to us this key. -^ Combination of Major Triads. and major and i'' major are near- est related'.. Designs of Nearest Connection all which we can represent in the different positions of the chords. they indicate three different keys. hut the tonic We have borrowed the dominant triad of the key of the Dominant.

G major and minor. G . the sixth. major and A minor.116 C. we have used but two.' one upon other upon the third degree of the scale. 1. for the perfect fifth is wanting. C : have grees now . i** major and D minor. . the. of which. now the question what independent use till we can make of these chords. and fifth deupon the second. and a . scale. we must first examine their relation to each other. fourth. or such as are connected by the relation of the keys they represent. Designs of nearest connection. — The combination of Minor Triads. As the three major . We have found two minor triads. Q major and the the first fifth . three major triads and three minor triads major upon d : df-a. therefore. tliird. e. each of the remaining chords only related with three others by means mutual notes. Thus we upon the first. are nearest related. and third.' and sixth degrees of the scale. represented the three major keys. however. It is clear that all the notes belong to one and the same key. which on examination will be found to be three major keys. and an- When we examine the we find that .triads. we can construct a minor triad upon the second degree also for instance. in .' i*" major and I) E minor. neither major nor It is Upon the seventh degree we can construct minor triad. parallel keys* of the above to its parallel Each minor key. and of Minor and Major Triads. and these only from necessity.fi" minor. others not. and that some have mutual notes among them. thus the three minor triads represent three minor keys. We have. stands in the first degree of relation key (they differ only in one note) consequently. In order to arrive at the solution of this question. now. and the fourth and second degrees belong together. "and thus the triads of and sixth. triad of The of G is thus related with those is oif g. again. for instance. * Parallel keys are those major and minor keys having the same signatures C major and A minor.

125 ^S»- m iy iszz: rO- 3F^ :22z In A the last chord appears with In B the third is above.^ 33^ isgr- D. m 'Spnow we have As — -&- iS. Such cadences are imperfect. its fifth in the upper voict'. though having mutual notes. Till Harmonic Designs from the adding of the dominant chord. —&— 123. triad. we know its already.117 s122. therefore. dependently. The Dominant chord preparing chord. 124. to use it in- such it in a very important relation the end. m keys. serves as the most decisive cadence. -d3. Designs without mutual notes. We will meets us attempt. or such which. -s- 2. Designs of more distant connection. is the best decisive and according to nature resolves into the tonic it In connection. used the dominant chord only in order to avoid faulty progressions. do not represent nearest-related . 1. now. Let us observe now how in its four po- sitions it resolves into the tonic triad. as The dominant sign of a key. they are only perfect when the final chord has the Tonic in the upper . with the latter.

-&128. as harmonic design . a perfect cadence. Other Chords in connection with the Dominant chord. a. If it is in the upper voice. thus making this chord the animating agent of all our har- monies. Thus a or single triad could. m s- -Sr =i: -<3£2- E. again. or every pair of connected chords. into the case we have again an imperfect. it can either ascend into the third of voice. be carried out. Extension of the Harmonic Designs by means of Rhythm. all the remaining triads (with the exception of the one on the sixth degree) stand in close connection to the dominant chord. In the first perfect cadence. than in d fifth . can serve us tlie Every according to above. be by means of rhythmical repetition made a design. fore the tonic triad as in (c). by means of rhythm. Finally. or it can descend. Tlie next is the tonic triad (b). while the can either ascend or descend. by the use of its difierent positions. relation of the The nearest triad dominant chord is the dominant 127. therewhenever in the dominant chord the octave or third are in the upper voice. in the second. when the third of the dominant chord (as in e) is in the upper voice. on account of its intrinsic connec- tion with the dominant chord.118 In the above cases we could not well do differently. we shall have an imperfect cadence. and consequently every harmonic design can. 2. . as in (d). for the third must ascend into the octave. Srlz (a) -0- =i= which by adding the seventh becomes a dominant chord. chord. After this. aud a stronger and a more satisfactory one octave of the same. we obtain. (a).

119 gives us a and fourth. third The design of No. 126 gives us another. as in one phrase . -•. or more connected chords .-&.-» «- j -#I -#I -# . 132. if we wanted to employ all the chords in or they might be employed as here 131. Every succession of chords which does not end of a period or a phrase.G- fl t f=F Y'n n imm or alternating chords might be led through their different positions. The Formation of Harmonic Passages or Sequences. Such formations are to be no further instructions. -Bz m t±^MrS: ^ We connect mg of the dominant chord and the tonic triad with their positions. „ 133. in various rhythmical forms. as they might better be called here. 130. is effected so easily that they require Far more important F.119 The same could be done with two for instance. No. manner Thus the following part of a harmonized scale. 119. . No. -m- might already be called one. -&--»-». consist A. is called in the a harmonic Sequence.

P 135. and effect the end related chords. . dominant. different positions. s i iiii ^^m rr f-T f m j- r Such designs and sequences receive a special' destination. 136. in this manner 134. they serve as introduction to a key. and write the bass. when Prelude. &c. or a connection of tonic and dominant harmonies in their . or the performance of a composition. perhaps. can be limited to the simple tonic harmony. and subdominant harmonies. perhaps in the following manner also student. perhaps intended asprepara tion for a singer to begin on the right note.120 the tonic and dominant harmonies. fea^ a Y ^m by means of near- or in this as far as it is convenient (the * marks the point where we' are forced to leave the design). These introductions.. The formation of such sequences is absolutely necessary to the who should practice them in all positions and in all keys. More complete would be the combination of tonic.

-3- 137.121 ' o g~ -s.-^ -&~ "ST or the addition of minor. 138. triads T+t <^ for instance. .

we now could take for b the triad of either g ot or for a the triads of eithei to choose oui /or a (108 and chords. fiilh. . octave. But it is our object In order to secure safety -we will divide our material. for instance. ascertain first of every tone of the scale whether it can be third. or sev- now we have had a choice of harmony for but two de- In descending the scale. to seek the fundamental tone five it degrees below consequently isf. Fifth . Thus we can take to uied by c-e-g. said that the third. a-c-e. be 2. Until grees. 110). the chord would be 3. We have formerly it. be would make the chord and the chord would be g-b-d. tone. we have now . or seventh of any chord can be laid in the upper voice. Freer use of the Triads. Let us now reverse and say that Each tone of a melody can be enth of a chord. A. This would make it a. or first octave of any of our triads. in that case we have to seek the fundamental Octave in that case the tone three degrees below. three different chords. m ^ C. THE FREER HARMONIZATION OF GIVEN MELODIES. 140. d. C major. Third. The second 1. fundamental tone would be c. which 2. We The 1. and the chord /a-c. which was formerly always accompa ^ d-f-a. fifth.122 CHAPTER II. octave. can Octave . tone. either thirdj' fifth. and Fifth . C. can . e . and the chord would be c-e-g.

BE: Each tone has received note. ^S three chords as accompaniment.123 We camiot consider b. scale. at new design. this phrase. A continued examination gives us the entire tones of the with their respective harmonies at present known to us. We see at a B and c six triads whose fimdamental tones form a design like the following CI '^V 1 . W-. nor b as fundamental b-d-f. 141. this has for all our chords have major while a minor fifth. because this D only could not be used as third. it as Third. the fundamental tone and the chord tMs would give us But until now we fifths. nor /as fifth. Accidentally. we. would have given us the chord which.do not know. gives us a four. have had no such chord. for the present. because i-d-f.

These (as in a) cause repetitions of chords. and make the accompaniment monotonous.1?4 By quiet. n . Below we give some melodies on which practiced. whUe the new mode (b) gives variety to it. this the movement of our voices will be surer and more The advantage of this new mode of treatment tible in those melodies in is most percep- which many tone-repetitions occur. this new mode can be 144.

Finally. with the introduction of the new and chords. deserve the instance. B. W- --^z.^ ^^ ^S= ^^^^-^ . or perhaps | that every thesis has to like 149. M: or with -&- 150. r further : r end with a half-cadence. and in No. will attended to in a as well as in After the harmonization it be well to ascertain whether. whole should be played through. most consideration. the dominant . he must take particular care that these novelties do not destroy the forms of phrases or periods. remains to be said. C3 g b. faulty after this. the progressions have not found their way into it.125 sign consistently through. for instance. is -&&-^ -J These rules must still be respected. in C major. But little Like every triad. with 148. The free introduction of the Dominant Chord. '- In this respect we know " that every phrase and every period has to end with a perfect full cadence . for ^N^ -f- m g 147. 143 we find them thus completed. -j—j- e.

through/. 152. in the of the first measure as third.^ Let us another haiTQonization of No. with which it is At c it is introduced to d. We know that the dominant chord must resolve into the tonic . only -where these conditions can be Thus following phrase. because the for- . The latter is not of much importance. ^ 151. but have preferred to give them the nearest interval of the next chord. and lacks the fifth. 111. The melody ascends from d to e. At d we see the advantage of our new principle. or the g of the third measure as octave of the dominant chord. Thus the succeeding triad has two thirds which are very perspicuous. We could have avoided this if it had not been our object to introduce the dominant chord as often as possible. at a have little or no connection . We can therefore introduce fulfilled. they have only been selected in order to have the dominant chord succeed The two are related through d and/. r BE now attempt . at e we see related succeed the triad of the subdominant. and against the double third we have at present no help. The three chords the triad of it d. it or the /of the second measure as seventh. and the seventh of the dominant chord descends to e. triad . We have not placed the middle voi- ces in closest proximity to the upper voice.126 chord can be used for every note contained in it but care naust be taken not to cause faulty progressions by it. that the third ascends one step. to consider the h would be wrong. and that the seventh it deall scends one step.

m would have led. though by it we should have lost the fifth of the dominant chord. see it descend two degrees 155. and another voice takes the tone into which the seventh ought to resolve).-d. Thus much of the dominant chord. and particularly for our cadences. 154. we have gained by Here we it a complete The third ascends one degree. invariably lost the fifth. 153. cho.127 mer proceeding would have caused an inconvenient progression of the voices (a). is to g. We will make it a rule to effect our full cadence by it./. which final . Still M-eer treatment of the Dominant Chord.. we can permit some according to rule. upon the seventh descending one (particularly we will now occasionally permit ourselves when the seventh is in one of the middle voices. that the tonic triad after Now. m m r e Here the seventh. insisted Formerly we have step. when we have to use it more it. but the tenor has the . ought to have succeeded the seventh in the alto hidden. frequently. slight. is alreadv but the tone c. and this deviation. to let the seventh ascend. imperceptible deviations from our rules. B^ Mski r r r 'I " r more convenient would have been the progression of b. Until now we have always treated the dominant chord strictly The consequence was. into which the third . goes however.

and the expect in the alto is which we given to another octave. and we gain. and the fifth . now.128 taken by the treble. the third and seventh cannot be doubled without falling into faulty progressions. but. 158. intervals have a regular progression the third ascends a degree. by this slight deviation. . DOUBLING OF INTERVALS IN THE DOMINANT CHORD. E ^^ I 4= when r lies 1 T r r T r not so admissible the tone This deviation. but in another octave also. If. the completeness of the second chord. For we know that both . i 157. intervals of the dominant chord most proper for doubling the fundamental tone. 156. The are. both will have to resolve in octaves (or unison). because the voices are too far apart. two voices take the third or seventh. the seventh des- cends a degree. 1. 4 r Here the seventh viation e is in a middle voice ascends also. unless we proceed against the nature of the chord and have it thus . is into which an interval of the dominant chord properly resolves not alone in another voice. But the de- not hidden. however. 2.

129 n .

sixths. . P This very -&- ^ ^- ^ -00--^ fact. unnatural progressing of one or more when a voice instead of the nearest interval takes a more one of the next chord. ia the E making ~s> -f- t- sy r^ nr- it absolutely impossible to write a harmonic phrase with- out such progressions. for iastance.^ and sevenths. for natural harmonies and the necessary cadences. But with the same right they might. leads us to the solution of the whole question. and which of these cases were allowed or for- bidden for some of these successions occur in the most simple and indispensable progressions of harmony . voices distant interval Under such circumstances every becomes conspicuous. which can also become very conspicuous . : to puzzle the student with the ques'-' or any. or when they are caused by unmelodious. instance.130 Here was material enough tion if all. Such progressions are only conspicuous and disagreeable when they occur between unconnected chords. ces. under similar cireimistanhave forbidden the use of thirds.

harmonies to give to In order to obviate this awkwardness same voices privilege to the bass which .131 Fifth Part. We . the fundamental tone of which has been transposed the chord. Our bass always seemed the least flowing and most unmanageable. Such chord. 143 we have deviated from this rule by giving to a voice that interval of the next chord which was nearest to it. and has assisted us already in developing our melodic element of the upper voices. because we had nothing but the fundamental notes of our it. we will now extend the we have given to the upper while we will take third. to an- other voice. we give the fundamental note. is and the proceeding called inversion. This proceeding does. or seventh of a chord in the bass. Until now we have principally thought of the discovery and connection of chords. is called an inverted chord. fifth. influence the character of It is a mere exchange of one or more intervals of one and the same chord. In juxtaposition to the inverted chords we will call the uninverted ones ''fundamental chords. The Inversion of Chords. not of course. or rather its octave." . placed the middle voices as near as possible to the upper voice in but already No. while we have paid hut little attention to the melodious progression of every single voice. to another voice.

but next to inversions of the chord. nal third in the bass. as we called the chord of the third The second inversion is and fourth. . This one remains the fundamental tone. not fundamental tone for jundamental tone we only called that one which in the original construction (by thirds). 1. or Secunda chord. is it in importance is the seventh. and sixth. was the lowest. 1. it be above. because the most imthe third and fundamental note. as call it. in which the seventh itself is in the bass. 3. Terz-quart chord. or Quart-sext chord. f See Appendix B. The second inversion of a triad is called the shall chord of the fourth and sixth. or Quint-sext chord. ENUMEEATION AHD APPELLATION OF THE INVERSIONS. has received this name. 2. whether low. we count the intervals from the latter. another tone of the But it becomes only hwest tone. that they have ceived particular names. with the origi- called chord of the fifth it. called the chord of the sixth. and call it the chord of the second. as (besides the fundamental tone) there are tones in the chord consequently every triad has two. The third inversion. or Sext chord as inversion of a triad we shall call it for brevity's sake. ^^W=W -^ E^ It it.132 CHAPTER I. form portant notes of now we the interval of a sixth. be- There are as many inversions . P^TlT Thus the first F reis These inverted chords are so important. . 2. chord has to hecome the lowest. * See Appendix A. sequently the position of these two tones gives the name Thus the shall call first inversion. In the dominant chord the fundamental tone is again the most Conto the important tone. and every septime chord three inversions. When a fundamental tone leaves its place. or in the middle.

does the fundamental tone main instead of going to the Tonic." it. the same rules n=f' g re ? There but one thing which might appear strange to us. Why. from proper and firm foundation. and the others are all called terz- quart chords. are not influenced by any change of The two first chords of the follow- ing are both called sext-chords.133 The names thus obtained position in the upper voices. 162. J163. ""W no new difficulty. When we by them their analyze the effects of these inversions. that its third ascends one step. of the other voices permits we can still go from the fundamental tone of the dominant chord to the Tonic. Thus when we still said of the dominant chord. though of great advantage. in the above. and its progression the Tonic is prevented by the surro\mding voices. If the position Besides this otherwise represented. the chords are taken from their original position. for instance. m ^ r we find that dis- though this proceeding is always most proper when done in the lowest voice. f-^-T—f=7 For all This addition to our chords. and that its fifth descends or ascends one step hold good in the different inversions. and that they lose their natural clearness and security in the same degree as we increase the . gives us inverted chords follow the same rules which govern the original and fundamental chords. ^ is 3 Jr »=* ¥ r rr consider it r M . according Because to the original rule we is as octave of the fundamental tone.

We are in the already accustomed first to remember the bass and then to add the middle voices the bass aids us to find our way harmonic mass. therefiguring. Though they all must resolve into the Tonic. For the present the few following remarks will be sufficient. we must take a precautionary measure which becomes particularly necessary on account of the inverted chords. giving we have chosen. and instead of that importance which many theorists attach to it. As long at as we placed it every chord there where our first attempts harmony made necessary. and This new proceeding use of this figuring in order to contrast the most essential points possible to express in it would suffice to a degree. tone. NECESSITY OF A DIFFERENT FIGURING. this so-called Over or under the bass we place. are fit to prepare the end. It is clear we have the inver- that the figures which sufficient. or when we have particular reasons for it. for But we have not merely the choice of every tone of the melody. nor secunda chord. nor terz-quart chord. called figuring. but it is imwhat we express in notes. For the same reason neither quint-sext chord. we could hardly speak of a choice diiferent triads of chords. we For this it it will only introduce it as we want . Before we return to our practice. and in addition to this sions. is But ia the foreign to the Therefore the sext and quart-sext chords are not chords. The composer in his sketches often makes of his work. fit to be final The latter particularly brings the tonic triad in so strange a position. . the strength of the step from fundamental tone to fundamental tone in the bass is wanting some even forbid the Tonic in the upper and lower voices. we formerly placed above diflferent the melody are no longer We require now a kind of signs which remind us what chords is what chords we have to carry out in notes. but we can also introduce the dom- inant chord arbitrarily. of which we shall learn some in future. that we wiU only employ it when we are led to it by the drift of the bass.134 tance of the lowest note from the fundamental same degree they partake of a mobility which original chords. fore. it.

We will make use memoranda. Triads generally have no figuring. no simpler chords in existence. of what we are going to do. or all' ottavij. as all their it of these figurings. |. requires as it is too important to be forgotten. For the present. Every other chord with tJie we will mark it by a°. even without them. Septime chord marked by " 7. e- the Sext chord the Quart-sext chord the Quint-sext chord the Terz-quart chord the Second-chord 3. |. figurings. bass shall go on we will niark it with t. it is When all voices proceed in unison. therefore. {(asto solo). The dominant chord. and consider them as were. is indicated by figures which correspond Therefore is its principal intervals. if before the end. however. alone. or in octaves. " " " by by by by \ ^ ^ or or *. we intend a passage to be unaccompanied. because there are If.135 1. marked alV is in- unisom. if a single tone in the bass tended to be unaccompanied 2. we will merely write down the bass and voices afterwards. . and add the other . as we are not yet able to represent to ourselves a whole series of chords with different voices. or " by ^ no figuring. if the s.

^ Y^ 5 ^T „ 3 "* 3 4 Y J 6 and with every other triad and septime chord. A. As we formerly passed through the positions of a chord. 1. ^ !^ . I22I 166. but we have been led to it by the bass which passes through all the intervals of a chord. for instance a triad. 165. Formerly we dared not attempt a succession of triads in on account of the consecutive fifths and octaves which would make their appearance. and to employ them for new designs and passages and at the same time gives us means for the accompaniment of the scale. The same proceeding can take place with the dominant chord. 6 4 6 6 The quart-sext chord is here introduced.136 CHAPTER II. its we caonow combine a chord with inversions . New Designs and Passages. 2. 167. <^ 164. THE FREE USE OF THE UTTEESIONB. s: :sr: but the more mobile sext chord permits us to sions make such succes. parallel direction.

that of No. W j=^ rrT f it but a longer continuation of gives a very unsatisfactory result. but the flowing diatonic movement of a all the voices serves as new and quite satisfactory connecting link. easily found. $ is iM^E^y J J T r T f f is It is apparent that the manner of No. but the zigzag the lightest. it is true. Thus the following J 171. The quart-sext chord can also be employed in a small suc- cession. have any connecting- its neighbor . If The figuring of the above is we dislike the constant repetition of the same figures. Such successions can be made tetraphonic. . 170. 168 movement of the middle voice in No. $ -I s f ^' or by a middle voice alternately doubling the third and fimdar mental tone of the chords. i i :^ m -f-^-^^-^-r-^^ See Appendix A. 4. The strong drift of the voices gives us no time to perceive the lack of internal connection. 169. 169 makes it heavier and only appropriate for slow movements. 3. like. we can mark them by figuring dashes placed under or over the bass. 167 also flowing. either by adding the octave of the lower voice.137 None of tones with these sext chords. 168.

Therefore the chords of the Tonic. d= =s J- r ^ T r r ^ Still the formation of new harmonic passa- ges. Combination ef Inversions with fundamental chords. and Subdominant or Parallels are most easUy combined in their inversions . Each chord . as long as they do not cause faulty progressions. Dominant. chords enter most conveniently into combinatsions. produced from our present means. 172. m much ^ i flowing than the 3 zz O gj In fact. combinations easier than in the fimdamental position thus the following chord-successions -3 173. the more convenient position of the tones makes some . for instance. 167 we first saw an ascending and iescendiag passage sext chord reminds us of its flindamental : of sext chords. this prompts us to mix the two . be they now fundamental chords or inversions. In No. B. In the above we have used the inversions independently. i m more important after is -f-r-r same in their steps. Y are much more fundamental posi- tion. where the bass has to take such wide 174.138 tells us that to each tone of the lower voice we are to take a sext chord. The combination of inversions and fundamental chords gives us a much more extensive source of designs. what we have said of them will be comparatively Only as examples we give a few passages. We need not mention that evert/ But the nearest-related inverston can be combined with every fundamental chord. which easy.

C. or thus ^=i: ** 3: See Appendix . which. ~ ~z5' The addition of a third chord gives us positions. I &ism^^ m &o. all together with the thorough practice of every design through we leave to the industry of the pupil. 173. i i -(9- W^t^^ g r. =s 178. J I I &e. JffiC. descend in similar manner. r I d:^ ^^ff ?z: s ss r I p zz r W=F^ 22: &^ =P2: The anticipating of the sext chord would give us a second passage.139 wu 175. ' No. might be carried out thus <feo. ^^^ S :=\- r ?= ?^ We can 177. I 179. still more variety. 176. ^*iP ^ F=^gE 180. for instance.

but more vigorous preparation. though the vigorous and decided. the lowest tone of which is at offering us a same time the fundamental tone of the dominant chord. We will prepare full our is cadences. thus much more flowing connection. Leading the first chord through its inversions.140 These inversions give us additional means C. consisting of tonic triad. as long as the fundamental triad gives us an awkward. the quart-sext chord serves as a more flowing progression in the bass. "7 9l 1 .^ We have also perfect decision of key and cadence. i Efe^ T is Now that we have a better control of the bass. and tonic triad. We have already seen one of the simplest preludes. ms ^=^ 6 it- 6 7 i we the arrive at the quart-sext chord. with the quart-sext chord. therefore. 183. 182. employed the subdominant chord for the more For it. 181. for the foimation of Preludes and Final Cadences. it is progression of the same nevertheless awkward. though it not absolutely necessary. 184. dominant chord. W. too.

-& -. but simply by means of inversion. 186. and minor fifth. we lead. seventh degrees : E. chord and quart-sext chord. and having the appearance of a triad. Like every other triad. contains less than the minor triad. Avoiding Faulty Progressions. 185. minor third. our consideration. The inversions furnish us also with . it has its sext . Here something new displease us. the c of the tenor to the d of the next chord. offers itself to The xeaping progression of the tenor in No. new means of avoiding fault. This triad (we have often met it without knowing what use to make of it) distinguishes itself from the former . therefore. i^^ -r r ^ This brings us to a chord^the dominant chord without its fun- damental tone. E3= -&- ^ ^ 221 3 T *= 4 SgE -&-&- Hf=Fp 2 6 J. w. the Diminished Triad. might in some cases Trusting to chance. it consists of Fundamental It tone. b. Diminished Triad.ztssz 3 4 Here we have avoided the faults attendant upon the sixth and not by alteration of the middle voices. IZC 185. A new chord. therefore. faulty- progressions for they permit that the bass avoid a without fording us to substitute a new chord. reduced to three tones.141 D. and the is called. nor by the addition of a new harmony.

In order to avoid consecutive octaves we must de- viate from the original law. movement of our for instance. sionally we see the seventh doubled. its third only (the former can ascend or de- viations But in Nos.* jSl 188. we have permitted defrom these rules. i b. rr-frf^ * See Appendix D.142 187 m new chord b (the is But. at a. -OZ -s= and c. Its Consequently. It is not to be denied that this diminished chord lacks the . / (the former septime). 189. 153 and 153. and we may therefore admit them in -&isz: the diminished triad. and permit one of the original sev- enths to ascend. its fundamental tone former third of the dominant chord) ascends one degree to c . done best at b it is at a. full- ness and firmness of the dominant chord to but we are often fbrced employ it where the dominant chord would only disturb the voices . fifth) descends one degree to scend. its fifth. in reality. . Here. and at c it disagreeable on account of its being in the upper voice. dominant chord. This is . where this deviation occurs in a middle voice is more perceptible. this nothing else than an imperfect tones follow the same laws. which occa- may be necessary in order to obtain a flowing progression of the voices. already. e .

or fear of crowding severe successions. Nearest to these fundamental chords are will use when we remain longer in the harmony of the fundamental chord. every chord for In this third seize we cannot introduce any chord in a And we must consider as faulty the entrance of which we have no reasons. manner of harmonization therefore. unless its inversions serve to avoid faults (No. faulty manner.. We chords. too. or which does not aj/' pear in proper connection. Another treatment of No. &c. will therefore generally think first of the fundamental its inversions. we will not pass over the former without sufficient reason. As a matter of course. or unless the current of the bass. or the object of writing flowingly (No. or of the middle voices (No. 186).143 CHAPTER III. 185). The method of practice for this third species of harmonization the same as that for the second. Moving from one harmony into the other These we We will again seize the fundamental chord of this latter. is induce us to employ the inversions. we must what 'lies nearest to us. 189). 147 may sei-ve as example : . and thence arrive at the more disbut tant . EMPLOYMENT OF THE INVEESIONS IN THE HARMONIZATION OF GIVEN MELODIES.

We know already where the chse and where the dispersed harmony has the advantage. at least. other. If we begin. have gener- ally received a better connection. latter. and corresponds with our sensation. We shall. _£2_ £?~ 193. and that they neither disturb nor change the inner characterof such intervals. also.144 CHAPTER IV. . left their It and for this purpose have often place next to the upper voice. also. or dispersed harmony. the other voices. Ths inversions have given us the possibility of giving to the bass a more flowing melody . more play. istics Thus the chords at a are as admissible as those at b. . therefore. It is evident. at a ? We have drawn the tones of the chords apart. now remains with us voluntarily to resign this close connec- tion of the voices throughout whole phrases. m BE m occasionally is it in - We have What now we have done This is employed them. is This form of representation called the dispersed position. with the we must do continue it. that in this form the voices have and can move more independently. they are extended They seem no longer pressed closely upon each and have thus become softer and more transparent. so only after having ascertained fit whether we can or whether there is a place to in- troduce the chse harmony. CLOSE AKD DISPERSED HARMONY. never employ it where it leads us into unnecessary difficulties. externally true. We know already that the inversion of the different intervals of a chord are permitted.

-9194. in own harmony. all we place some or the intervals in the higher regions. they will lose their distinctness. --^ r— . the If harmony will lack fnllness. has given us a model which we may safely follow. in- of these positions are suitable. we place them all in the lower its regions. however. an almost inexhaust- ible field of different positions of our intervals lies open for us.145 The moment we But not If all desert the close position. we disturb the material connection of the chord. Nature. If we spread the tervals too far.

as in the second chord of the penultimate measure. and of treatment should be practiced immediate preceding of the higher octave. 179 thus: "197. and 4. with arbitrarily-chosen chords. we perceive at b the transparency of the voices and the evenness of distances. and 2. w zzL or thus See Appendix C. is treated at a in the first manner. but in dispersed harmony. and the' Above all. that horizontal dashes in the. According to the second manner of harmonization. . harmony in harmonic Each passage for instance. he should pi'actice the dispersed passages. t 26 3 6- 7 p But ing first we must observe. .jjijj. The above. and on melodies of his by the stuown inven- According to the Jirsf manner of harmonization. figur- signify continuation of the same harmony . new manner all the former phrases. At b we have treated it in the third manner. where thty stand instead of the repetition of |. with employment of the inversions. 3. in close harmony.j. the can be represented in more than one position one of No. Finally. Only is at the close of the thesis of the antithesis the bass voices. According to the third manner. of which we have had several already. rather more distant from the othei But this happens only on unconnected parts. for comparison's sake. In dispersed harmony. 1.i.146 Wwm 6 6 ijj-ij a iij. This d(^t on tion.

This serves already as justification but since we have arrived at harmony. We have learned to combine these chords in various manners. We must attach one more observation to all our former results. bo- cause our tetraphonous formations were not sufficiently free to permit us the equal consideration of period.147 ^EB 198. and periods. this we : close the harmonic development of our major It has given us the major. inversions. 1. At first ^Y0 accepted as . custom has given is it to us. whether dically. Harmony. I F¥=FfF=PFf With scale. all the requirements of a Rhythm. such as Melody. The de- velopment of the harmony in accompaniments. Tere- and Secunda chords. we will now call MODULATION. Construction. But instead of this we have learned how to find for one given melody three accompanying voices. Quint-sext. and Voice-progression.^E^EidE= RETROSPBCTION. &- :si A: zU s- :iii ~A J- 4 -J Pff ^±f. We have to consider whether it is well formed for har- monic treatment. We have obtained the justification of the major it scale. passages. Sext chord and Quart-sext chord. and diminished. it contains the material for satisfactory can close harmonically as well as melo- We can now answer these questions in the affirmative. phrases. r :^ l9- BE ^. minor. its The dominant chord with quart. passages. Thi'ee . the question well formed gains additional importit whether our major scale ance. with their in: Triads versions 2. whether modulation. and to form with them phrases. or periods. We had to resign the invention of periodical compositions.

and should be played with precision and equality of strength. close this chapter without drawing the atten- But we must not tion of the student to the fact that it is absolutely necessary for to play over all his compositions and exercises. that such a one must be melodically and harmonically as well. are sufficient means tained. particularly. . him When thus practising. In dispersed harmony. and means for half cadences and imperfect cadences. it will require some practice to do full justice to the different voices. three minor. the maremind us of the nearest-related keys. for the forma- tion of phrases and periods. together with all the inversions arising therefrom. These voices are all alike important. We can fit now confirm the conception of a hey. to harmonize the scale. and all the melodies therein con- The dominant chord gives us a sufficient jor and minor chords we have perfect cadence.148 major. the student should watch the effect of every chord. and the results of this attention will be a better command of means than can be acquired in any other way. one diminished triad and the dominant chord.

Dominant. tonic chord was a major triad. the minor have minor upon the same points. A minor. CHAPTER THE FOEMATIOlir OF I. d. in A minor. f. c. c c fC d e a a b fg was contained the complete major scale. . e. THE MINOR RH AT. But already in the We ought therefore to scale ought to admit that as the major scale had matriads jor triads upon the Tonic.-R. major scale we found some minor triads. into For this proceeding only we have sufficient reason for the rest . This would give us the scale A.a. These chords.g -h d-f-a. b. Upon and the dominant and subdominant we found also major triads. But in that case the minor scale would lose that most important of all chords.149 8ixth Part. would be A - c - e e . g. . for instance in e-g}^-b. Its We have justified the major scale harmonically. the dominant chord . in the tones of these three triads C-e-g g - b~d. The Harmony of the Minor 1 Scale. for the latter is based upon a major triad. Consequently we must change the minor triad of the dominant into a major chord e-g-b. and Subdominant.

by raising the sixth. Harshness.150 above analogous formation. We shall therefore. d. it is from /to g'jf. If the harshness' of the superflu- ous second does not agree with our melodies. There. however. the minor scale would differ in but one chord and tone from the major scale. subject. that he may have a clear understanding of the whole —G.d. d.g. harmonic treatment requires In this manner. it is that on account of its harshness too. two different minor scales. pendixes —The student here advised again to read over carefully the ApA and B.c.f. true. it is in regard to it so. but place another tone between (/ e — g!^. or we take the g!^ an octave lower. and which appears in every way unsystematic..g. Were we to subdominaat also into a major one {d-f-a into d-f^-a). must have a corresponding representative is in sounds.f. we mil retain the cliange the triad of the A.g'^. a. it contains a conspicuous progression.c. It has therefore been concluded to write the ascending minor scale. or by lowering the seventh degree.a.f^. But for the present we shall win from it several important shqjl find discoveries. as seventh from/ Later we means to introduce in major or minor foreign chords and tones. and the descending one. must therefore be our minor scale.e. and even in future we cannot so easily be convinced. b. Note.f. a —g^ —as— we need not use it /. It wiUthen depend upon us to avoid this obnoxious progression.b. . inadmissible. are in reality c. b. 6.). &c. A. Its character.gla. take the above systematical one as foundation. witKout further explanation. or a minor scale in which two degrees are contained doubly A. but at the same time also clear that by substi- tuting/I for/ the distinction of tone-sexes is almost completelydestroyed. e.

We might cha. is Here zation. -k m for the succeeding tone of the but in order to make room melody. follow our figures above the melody. again the beginning of our _first manner of harmoni- But the succession of the sixth and seventh degrees becomes . too. m -|S>. HAEMONIZATION OF THE MINOR SCALE. the thread of the melody.- ?= 221 ^ faults between the sixth and seventh degrees as formerly. manner at first Wk have now to find harmonies for our new scale in the same We will as we. formerly found them for the major scale. to retain as their chords. attempt^ chordj many tones as possible of the first or perhaps the whole chord for the succeeding degree 202. (as before in. . and thus avoid consecutive octaves and fifths. We . more difficult in the descending scale for in addition to all mer difficulties we have now the harshness of progression in scale itself for- the No. at but in that case the harmony has no connection. melody breaks. 108) the second chord.151 CHAPTEB II. m that.nge -h 201. and a point where the harsh progression of the were. and avoid the 85 3 8 5 3+3 8 :si: 200. as it We by ought rather to double the connection of these two degrees therefore.

in a lower octave. by the filling of which we Here too. which distinguishes it from all former chords./ before us.. Ninth also descends one degree. We can ima- gine the nona chord. Here we e-9l-b—f. and Fifth may either ascend or descend. therefore. oifive tones e-g^h-d. we will fill the vacuum with the intermediate third d.153 we will place the two upper tones have a new harmony before us. Seventh descends one degree.. the character and progression of which ninth.. therefore. therefore... Ninth-chord.. The fifth tone. which we place at once into the succession of chords scale. or Nona chord. P BE object is s= -&- 221 Our main to now achieved. which accom. and have thus a new chord gained the dominant chord. only that we have introduced into a tetraphonic phrase a chord of five tones. #g= . The The The The The Fundamental tone proceeds to the Tonic Third ascends one degree. which even exhibits the normal construction. it is • the ninth from the fundamental tone. highest interval of the chord (the seventh) and consequently follows the progression of that interval. as a dominant chord with added This additional interval first is nothing but an addition to the In the nona chord.?: 203... This leads us a further consideration of the new chord. and gives to the name Chord of the Ninth. with the exception Our second harmonic mass has of the vacuum between h and/ already exhibited to us such a vacuum. already known to us. Apart from this ninth we have is a dominant chord.pany the descending minor . In the following .

fifths. and we can practice it in the following. as we have formerly done.153 204. seventh ^ ? Which fifth. and in the melodies given below. we place it above the ninth. The harmonization of the minor scale is thus completed.) consecutive It (Compare a and now remains for us to reduce the nonachord to four voices. ^ BE :22= -£2I -©- =lte the progressions can be seen the fifth more distinctly . third. only that in having descend. is because a pentaphonio (five-voiced) harmony inadmissible in satisfac- a tetraphonic phrase. m J^ r now best be omitted tone. tone here can Undoubtedly the are too significant. 6 5 8 8 3 8 3+9 5 3 8 3 5 3+3 8 . 205. in order to avoid b. Fundamental — all and the ninth is decidedly the most characteristic tone. and it might not at all times be tory to give two tones to one voice.

of the chord is so conspicuous a formation that It consists. it would be g-h-d-f-a . THE NONACHORD. which in the latter is minor. otherwise it would create consecutive fifths. is constructed exactly as the minor jiona chord. constructed from the tones of the major scale..154 CHAPTEE III. and thus we have obtained a nonachord in major. CONTINUED. Q mi- nor. If we now add another third to our dominant chord in C major. it would be g-h-i-f-a\. if helow the ninth. the reason of . En passant. If above the ninth. It is only distinguished from the nonachord in minor by the ninth. this rule falls to the groimd (b) and if can consequently eithei ascend or descend. and the other the minor nonachord. m ^ -£2- -0- ^- ZS2Z -&- The Fundamental tone goes to the Tonic The Third ascends The Seventh descends The Ninth descends and The Fifth. from most important interval. we would we have In dominant chord with an additional third. while in the former it is major. But since the major nonachord. must ascend (a). it follows the same rules. We will therefore call the one the major nonachord. 207. Our new gladly win seen. for instance. we chord is must state that in thoroughbass its figuring this marked 9. . as it for our major scale also.

m S -go- :si^gg—^^ many -g-- In particular positions only are these inversions of the nona- chord possible. We need hardly mention that the intervals of this chord follow the same laws as those of the original nonachord. because by and by it will become important and since the diminished triad is contained therein. therefore new chorfs of four new Septime In the chords. m . the * See Appendix E. and fundamental tone. ninth. But the tone-riches of the chord stand here in our way. which latter in an inversion steps right between the two former. e. ^ much ^" hesitation. -©£2208. as the issue from the nonachord. and thus gain two tones. them Even the collision omission of the gives us here no relief For the takes place between seventh. we will call it Diminished Septime chord. and no sooner do falls we attempt an inversion. . its This leads us to another manner of relieving the chord of tone-burthen. We "23- shall therefore only use for and require no particular names fifth them.. i. same manner we gained formerly the diminished triad from the dominant chord. its at positions we have seen already in the above. It oversteps the boundary of the octave. and even then only under 209.* Examining the usefulness of the nonachord. we enquire once for its inversions . We omit the fundamental tone. m troubles and carefully. 210. Below are the two new septime chords. The latter only deserves a new name.155 Inversions of the Nonaohord. than the whole construction into confusion.

mind of the student. . We have only given names to variation Any little from these can be sufficiently designated in the figuring. ask now. What intervals.156 fundamental tone h (former third) ascends. 311. because the only one which can either ascend or descend. we . the seventh (former ninth) descends. This served only to confuse the. we represent them in our figuring it will be all-sufficient. and the third (former fifth) can either ascend or descend. We know that the ninth and seventh are the and if most important intervals of these chords. diificulty. the fifth (former sev- enth) descends. 4 212. -ei tfe A "^ -G>- i& te 1 m3 r Former ' Y have prided themselves no theorists little on their tal- ent of inventing names for every insignificant new formation. the most important chords. These new septime chords can be inverted without and without requiring further rules. without in the least facilitating his labors. -e- &. can be omitted or doubled? is According to former rules the third the one which can best be it is omitted or doubled the latter.

E T r «. We cies triads. 215. not because the nonait chord remains. and in combina- new harmonic designs. are now in possession of three species of triads. and two species of nonaohords. 160 the third h went to d. All the two of the septime chords and one of the nonaohords are applicable in major as well as in minor. the seventh. _^ went to g.157 CHAPTEE IV. because the same chord remained. Then again atof. -©- /goes to a instead of because tfie chord remains and becomes a nonachord. rules according to We also know the which they are applied. except the combinations of positions and inversions of one and the same chord. However brief we can make our instructions by reference to . m We :i= -&- '^ These chords give us the best harmonic connection possible. and ftob. also discover here a new manner of avoid- ing the resolution of those intervals which are bound to a certain In No. but because goes back into the dominant chord whence it issued. be easily found. Each new chord gives tion with others. and these tones were represented by other voices. Here progression. by itself. THE FREER USE OF THE NEW CHORDS. therefore. three spe- of septime chords. us. . which according to for- mer instructions can . 214. One only shall be indica- ted here the combination of those chords which have arisen from either omission or addition of intervals.

4 Minor Melodies. To this we add the following remarks 1. for "We have foUnd two new chords them . and to employ them in the formation of sequences and preludes. it is still necessary for the student to continue his practice of harmonic combinations.158 the preceding. We have occupied ourselves so little with the minor scale. Major Melodies. and particular attention should be given to the harmonization of given melodies. if it can be done without causing confusion and faulty progressions. that we now require a more thorough practicing of formations in its compass. the major nonaits inversions. Then he ought to treat every . chord and the septime chord arising therefrom. As introduction it would be well for the student to construct. with Both chords may be applied to all the tones contained therein. for instance. ^feS—tfifS J N 6 ' 1 rrrE^ ' J h 4 i-^J- U JJ 6 7 „ =^ 6 2 6 3 5 6 -•- 4 5 2. in all inversions and positions. as many as he possibly can. from the chords of the minor scale harmonic designs and sequences.

minor. ^-i: S*- ife^ 4 t!3 :p— •t|6 6 6 2 6 m C mi- 4 5 H4 H 4-a^ 87 We find in the figuring of the above some new signs which require an explanation. M^ 3E£ -M-li iEk^ ?•= i»^=S-- '&Uf. In major this answered very well. into Jt|. for the we 217.159 given melody in two manners. 4. isi -i» 5 '^i §t -l^ 6 tl8 1 H3 1 H t 4. it always refers. ^iite^i 'M EBtt. and we have to make use of figuring. a | above the d Frequently the figures are crossed : G instead of placing a # before them %. If the key were would indicate the triad d-f^-a. accidentals. Until now we have taken all our chords as the ordinary key-signature (the sharps or flats placed at the be- ginning of a composition) indicated them..the i\ d would indicate the sext chord d-f-bb. Bnt in minor this key-signature does not correspond with the actual scale. Thus the under the second g-bVf-d note of the bass in No.. The same has to be done in the thoroughbass nor. and right below according to the second and third manners in their inversions. 0. indicates that the triad g-b]. a 6 above But there is no h\. . %. his chords and using them first We give here have no room. i. $. 317. for instance. man- ner of harmonization. an example the last manner.-d) is (not wanted. jS. In. If an accidental without figure placed above or below the i\ bass. First according to thej^rsi it. minor. to the third. by choosing of. in order to change the is b}. e. therefore. . m must place a before. and we. our scale of 6.

to remain as chord (a) as tal if it . P^ 219. was allowed to our next object will permit the descend. therefore. Additional Licenses of the Dominant chord. while the seventh (cov- ered by the other voices) ascends. We fifth fundamental tone. which might be obnoxious. having given birth to the diminished triad two nonachords with occasion sion. of the succeeding were merely the octave of an omitted fundamenit tone (b) or may descend into the third of the succeeding chord. less restricted progres- voices. if covered by the middle the succeeding chord complete. Among all.* * See Appendix F. We have now completed first the circle of harmonies developed immediately from the fundamental harmony and the tones of the major and minor scales. because the accompanying ninth but the second forces the seventh to follow its natural laws. while the seventh was permitted to ascend. their septime chords. and to the Already on a former we have permitted this chord a its third. instead of its fundamental tone (c). .160 3. is less rr Talso participate The fundamental tones of the nonachord may in the first license ^i i =F=^ admissible. particularly when in the outer voices (d). in order to make It is now to favor the better connection of chords. in order to avoid covered oc- taves. 218. the dominant chord has proved itself the most pro- ductive.

we we must composition." composition in major we would introduce the In that case passages and phrases like the following. these foreign chords sions." raa- would be called " digres- How to arrive at such chords." This combination of several keys in one phrase can take place in two different it ways. and to se^e it distinctly another one. of our labors. In such case the step from the one key into the other is called a " transition. how to classify them. in order to construct. Transition. but which would have been touched merely accidentally. or execute in an essential part of the whole. requires no particular instruction. or at least form it an essential part of the same." or " to modulate. . But in order to extend the sphere i. Modulation into Foreign Keys." Or we can merely touch or even a sequence. We can modulate into another key and iri remain in to the end of the composition.. 220. as the results of the rules of transition will furnish all the requisites. or how to construct them. according to the above. All our formations thus far moved 'within the compass of any- one particular major or minor key. combine the tones and harmonies of two or more keys in one The technical term for this proceeding is " fo modulate into foreign keys. in the course of a composition. e.161 SeTcnth Part. and contained neither tones nor chords foreign to that key. must call other tones and other chords into action. is to leave one key. use one or a few chords. we have a mere " digression. without actually exchanging jor for another key. which are not indigenous to that key. then. and to add to our melodic and harmonic means. in a new key. If. therefore.

We . 6. which tones.f%g% with its three major triads {A. it. the " dominant chord. we take ' A major a. dzc. These mutual non-distinguishing tones need not. D). g^. But which are the harmonies which serve us as the surest sign of a transition ? Those which surest indicate their key. F\ &c. and in which we do not perceive that C major has beeir excMnged for A major. E. have several tones in common (a. c\. We modulate from one key into another by exchanging the . C major. be touched. we say that we have entered its key^ attach all further observations at once to the first transitionchord.e manner of modu- But we perceive immediately that much is here mixed' up wMch The two keys.h. Therefore might be called superfluous.. and the The moment one of these chords appears in the course of our modulation. tones and harmonies of the one for those of another aes harmonies instead of for instance. /|. We require a more distinct sign of transition than mere single tones.e. ff. cjf. a." and then pass on to the others. they are not distinguished from each other.. MODULATION FROM ONE KEY INTO ANOTHER. but lalting. therefore. therefore. '^i <^> «i fi ffi «! h «i with its three major triads ((7. iiii the dominant chord with the nonachords derived from triads contained in it are the ones. The remaining three.d. This womld be the most troublesom. indicate the transition. But even in our monophonic phrases we have already used foreign tones without exactly exchanging one key for another. This we can only expect from that harmony in which we have discovered the first conception and the foundation of keys. however distant from each other.162 CHAPTEE I. e). also the most complete. rf.

This to is only decided by if a-c-e. to modulate into the same. for all of these nor a nonachord. A we are at liberty to go to We need. If we tend to modulate therefore into any other key we have but to troduce the dominant chord of the latter. for instance. in C major. But it is no sign for the tone-sex for in major and minor it is exactly alike. to It know which chord . Our transitions can therefore only be attached to major or minor triads. A minor. according to the rules of harmony. Here We In have in major three minor we have two . alike. major and two minor triads. first of all. nor a diminished triad to return to tll% have tonic triad. We know already that every Its dominant chord can only therefore. one modulation a foreign dominant chord makes it is its appearance. is Since the dominant chord also the decisive sign of its key. we have to modulate from any key into but to introduce the chord e-g^b-d. It is • by mutual necessary. major or if a-c|-e. but it is undecided whether we are in A . and since the dominant chords of major and minor are exactly major or minor. The above dominant chord tells us dis- be . for instance.163 1. In order. only to know the domi- nant chord of a key. but the chords shall also appear We must bring the transition-chord (the domiwell connected. If. THE DOMINANT CHOED. or in any key but A. tinctly that we are no longer in (7 major. major triads and three minor triads. But this modulation must be effected in the course of a composition. Not alone that faulty must be avoided. at once impossible that we can in major. cannot have been a dominant chord. the following chord we have gone A major. it must inin- be the decisive means to modulate into its key. The dominant chord is the distinct sign of the introduocion of its key. of the prece- ding key was last touched. both chorfls must be connected tones. and the proper manner of its introduction. progressions nant chord of the new key) into connection with the last chord of the preceding key. in exist in own key and in no other. therefore. the chord e-g!^-b-d. major or A minor. we are in A minor.

D\.. We need hardly men- tion that we have used intend c-e-g. Of such chords there are sev- eral. D. It is clear that we can attach to each of these chords any transee at sition-chord which has one or in common with it. B\. We. With the chord c-e-ff. in order to effect the transitions as fluently as possible. to another chord in G major which has one or more tones in com- mon is with the dominant chord of S. and every other chord c-e-g in* G major can here accidentally be the mediator between 223. therefore. and at b the four triads of minor to which a transition-chord could be attached. B. EES ^ more tones :£S=^E1E:: '-^=W we A a the six triads of G major. -&&& h. the dominant chord of which is not connected with the former. go to E. for instance. If we now to make a transition from a chord. In going we would require the chord which has noTnutual tone with c-e-g. we make use of a mediator. we can connect the following dominant chords 222. A. from first C major 5-c?|-/|-a. G. A B i= m 1 z^z W-. and J-rf|-/}f-a.. W because it Deducting the dominant chord at brings us back to : we have still eight actual transitions to F. and which at the same time connected with the chord c-e-g.164 221.. and 'A\. for in- stance from into a key. -fr =^^ feE ^3Z . the inversions of the dominant chord. m the * preceding key. for instance.

we shall now make by .165 It is easily perceptible. we must consider those chords -which remind us of the to-be-expected key. as we nearer than the other. the dominant chord a\. . however we are led into an opposite flats. at B In No. 224. (as already know) is merely external. Thus. following which at we afterwards find the key of E D and e .-ff. a-c-e in a-cj(-e.-c-e])-g]}. e. 223. therefore. Finally we must consider that a transition-chord. we see the nearest mediwe find the most distant ones. A more intimate relation exists between such chords as indicate nearly-related keys. because the mediating chord has no tone in common it with the first chord. that a mediation may contain so many foreign tones less foreign by means of interposed chords with Therefore tones is desirable. in No. arbitrarily changing for instance. at A 224. C major chord c-e-ff in c-e\. the chord e-g-b reminds us by itself of the key of E. or indicate the way to it.5fe^=§= i -@- ^ ^jp¥ . is only related to a degree. however. on ac- count of the three foreign tones ter connection In order to effect a betas for in- we interpose another chord as mediator stance. Since a major or minor triad always reminds of that key in which it is the tonic chord. and prepares us best for the transition into E . while at d and e At b. that one of these . was too distant from a\)-s\r-gh- C major. and key. i. though con- taining one connective tone. direction. : and minor to major and triads in c. because belongs to the same However. for instance. mediations lies nearer than the other the one at e is the loosest. keys with ation. the chords at c and a. major to minor. the connection by means of tones in common.»- Z2©= -tr--^ -|S>- fe ^ pE -#- -&- $ --§- Sr 321 =i-= W^-ft . though connected with the previous still by means of c. indicate at least the direction. use also of foreign chords to prepare the transition.

i. to modulate into proceeding late is. If the connection of the two is not satisfactory. the most practical the chord ^om which we modudominant chord of the and at some distance from into this the key ting which we wish B. 225. In the above case the tone e is the connective tone. 222. the dominant chord gives us the following modulations or transitions into all the dif ferent degrees of our tone system. in modular sketch would be the one at a. and brings us nearer to Sh major than C major. a-c|-e. .166 the chord c-e\.-3- iSj -& -&&- MP 'ZSl ^ Then we must examine whether these two chords have sufficient connection. Thus in the above (b). voice which can take it most conveniently.) but obtain also a harmony -vphich reminds us of C minor. to place the foreign tones in that posed the minor triad a-c-«. the to modulate. A strict adherence to this rule will be our best safeguard against harsh progressions. Thus in No. however. but the remaining tones are in absolute contradiction to the first chord G major. 3t-&. then. from C to first For instance. S: fe fe= =fe- 226. In order. {c-e\. 225. and finally have taken the dominant chord of B. According to the above developments. c we find other mediations of the same transition tor for the abrupt transition of at d and e we find a media- No.-g. we have first interthen the major chord. e. At b and g. a. which has formerly had the same degree now to be raised or lowered. We must be careful. we have given c| to the upper voice which had c and aj} to the lower voice which had o. to write down first any key. a glance at the chords will soon suggest a harmony which conand to nects the two chords. (we change the major chord into minor) and thus gain not merely an additional mutual tone. From Cto .

it being a chord belonging. . and the exercise in diflferent positions of chords and other keys is left We have here only to the pupiL Each of these modulations. as a matter of course. (a) 229.. as we know already. the minor triad of the subdominant would be the nearest indication of our going to minor. &c. i)|. F\^ &o. can he exchanged at any time for their enharmonic representatives C|.167 femployed the nearest and best mediating chords. and for which our ordinary transition-chord suffice. We have reference to the major and minor of the tonic. such sign is required. can lead to minor as well as to major and. (for instance. deserve that name. We must now speak of a modulation which does not strictly . G'b. 228. Mediating for every particular case and its application to minor keys. to either of If can no longer be the sign of a transition. C major and Cminor.) The dominant chord which the two keys have in common is cer- (dominant chord) does not tainly the nearest mediator we could seize. the keys of B\). E\. TM its but exactly because of these keys..

(b) would indicate the transition from minor to 2. and that the one of 231 (c) is more satisfactory than the one 231 (b). facilities. indeed. THE SEPirME CHORD OF THE MAJOR NONACHORD. and resolve them in either major or minor. THE BrONACHORDS. and consequently indicates that chord and the dominant chord as well as the key. for and characterizing the same.a^^3^3i. we take occasionally the liberty of considering every nonachord as a mere dominant chord. they the nish us the only that difficult same mediation. 3. its tone-contents. 231. Nevertheless it has not the perfect characteristic decision of others . 23o. «^ -&- -&- S- S- -&- S- That the resolution (a) No. And. perhaps preceded by the triad. -bpg- Owing. it can exist as well in the parallel key well as in for instance h-dfa can be doubt is in A minor as major. contain the Since these chords complete dominant chord. to the just-mentioned existence of the dominant chord in either. demand and find to manage. The major nonachord leads us to expect major (a). however. the nonachord. according to . on account of their tone-bulk they are somewhat more same transitions. triad of the subdominant. is apparent. the minor nonachord indicates ininor (b). is less satisfactory than the one of (b) 231.168 and the major major tonic major. But this insignificant soon silenced . modulating fur they must be capable of having the same into a key. We know that this chord originates from for. is apparent. But on account of their nature they have the additional advantage of being at the same time indicators of the tone species into which we modulate.

indicate the minor key at once. this We chord. ii but requires a certain confirmation as at c. With the original minor nonachord. however. it know that chord derived from the minor nona- and with the latter from the dominant chord. THE DIMINISHED TRIAD. for instance to ~^*"~ 233. according to its original position. stance Thus. 234. Consequently belongs to must share the faculty of either. F D -&^" Si= fei:: m is M m: tonic. . -while our own feeling anticipates already in- the signification and the progression of the chord.169 by the succeeding chord. in effecting and characterizing it modulations. sible. is per- fectly satisfactory. and yet the one at b not exactly inadmis- 232. THE DIMINISHED SEPTIME CHORD. it would. for is the resolution of h-d-f-a into C major. or from dominant to 4. :^= --ii =a^ -M-#- --^i:i^--•- -m- -»- -0- If this deviation were not so trivial. but like the former used in major. as at a. But in re- turn it has none of the vagueness of our last septime chord. We have first considered this chord as a dominant chord with . for instance the chord can only be found in G 5. it is the minor species. Independent of these deviations. Ab E i simply lacking the vigorous step from fundamental tone to fun- damental tone. the septime chord furnishes its series of modulations with or without mediation. its Ac- cording to derivation and tone-contents h-drf-a\) it can only belong to one key minor.

170 omitted fundamental note h-d-f. always expects after a diminished triad that is key which and expect than nearest related to the previous one. This chord evidently lacks the decision of characterization which the dominant septime chord vrith its sub-species is in possession . e-g^-b-d-f. we trace it to g^-b-d-f. . because this key is nearer related to G major same chord occurs in ^minor. appeare. -&—Smajor or minor ^^ J3\. F 6. see We by this that the diminished triad. triad. C major. the chord b-d-f occurs. The succeeding chord only tells us which of the two was meant. consists of thiuds. For instance. and expect A minor. indicated keys stance.j| ffjf. we trace to g-b-d-f. minor (or major. placed we can also derive it from this chord by fundamental tone and retrace it to the key of the diminished septime chord.. like the diminished septime chord. for instance. though sharing the modulating faculties of the dominant chord. and we might lead them accor- dingly to B. can be based on the dominant chords of and lead to F. one above the other. for instance. because this latter key is much nearer to minor than major. 4 Only the follows in reality. =2Z^fi i. however. therefore to to the C minor. ejif*. Thus it if in G major. In the other case or in other words key of A minor. A. modulates with less decision. THE DOMINANT TKIAD. But if the A minor. £ but they might also be based upon the dimin-cjlf/.d to iis as But since the diminished the incomplete dominant chord of G.) 236. for in- 235. /* 4 fU tell final chord's in each of these examples us what key Our ear. . ished septime chords. omitting its major or would indicate the key of it would refer to g\-h-d-f. G. The following modulations. F^. J-c^ referred to g-h-dr-f.

The phrase according mediately into its to the first chord is in A it minor. But the triad g-h-d disagrees with this key. or D stand only in more distant rela- 7. that the or C minor. triad. while tion to it. . our modulation from A ear anticipates the decision . and be resolved accordingly. and this is exactly the lack of decision which we have mentioned. it provided it contains one or more foreign tones. because A minor and C major Cf stand as parallel keys in nearest relation. Thus it here at a 237. Therefore a mere triad can also become a sign and means if it is of modulation distinguished sufficiently from the until-thenit prevailing key. D major. But even here. a (b). and if resolves like an imperfect dominant its chord into the tonic harmony of is fundamental tone. for instance. and since tonic ' resolves im- harmony. THE MINOR TRIAD. or an actual modulation into. By this indicates at least that for the moment the original key reigns no longer. Finally this chord can also be the sign and means of a modulation. it indicates sufficiently the minor to C major. it expects the first modulation to C major. if succeeded by the tonic be treated as an imperfect dominant chord. C major. will dominant triad. Yet we have observed already. key to which the new chord is indige- 238. and nous we expect either a return into that key (a).171 of. Certainly it might also as at B have been led to major or even D. The chord g-h-d. can belong to either major.

several keys in one compo- We construct with them. merely as means to combine the harmonies of sition. We use them in more extended and well constructed formar tions. each of which itself productive we have to consider each one by We consider the modulation into foreign keys. we have now them that 1. . In regard to the succeeding chapter.172 We need not add that our former mediating chords with for- eign tones belong to this category. that we have is so to consider in three different views. 3. to remark. new formations. the application of these new means. independently. 2.

without absolutely requiring them. EXTBENAL CHARACTBEISTICS. than more distant keys. be external or internal The characteristics of a digression can the former actually exhibited. and into shall rather modulate into nearest-related keys. A. or adnqjts 3. from such melodies as merely permit. will have to be constructed so that the new key. before us the combining one phrase. 1. which formerly we had not to make. no further instruo It remains only for us to ascertain a modulation. THE NEW MEAJSTS INTO THE HABMONIZATION OF GIVEN MELODIES. Once arrived new key we it treat it for the time as an original key and require for tion. it faciliates therefore. We might call them genous and digressive melodies. subdominant and the three parallel keys).173 CHAPTER INTEODUCTIOlSr OF II. in the new key we proit ceed again on the same principle. therefore. ability of We in have now.. We indi- must distinguish melodies which absolutely require modula- tion into foreign keys. (the keys of the dominant. How this is to and effects this modulation into be done we have already learned in the in the last chapter. melody. 1. The Ascertainment of Digressive Melody. of one or ' more digres- In the latter case we shall always prefer that which lies nearer. Our harmony. in a single melody. If in a These consist in the foreign tone of a melody . two or more keys. Having arrived i. we prefer remaining in new key. Whether the melody sions. and where this Whether a melody requires modulation leads to . the latter merely indicated in the melody. A dis- tinction arises now. to unnecessarily seizing another e. The digressive melodies will always lead us for more or less time into foreign keys.

At some viz. A c| in (7 O major. We suppose at first we have arrived in the key in which the foreign tctoe first appears. : future time we shall even discover another possibility. wit —as soon as we find a doubtfiil external sign of we is interpret it according to the principles which guide our the probable keys modulation. moduladigres- To sion. E minor. &c. for in no / this foreign tone of the But to what key does This question melody lead us 1 we cannot answer with complete certainty. not consider as belonging to A major or B. 239. we have major / again as a sign of digression. D first key to which the can But these are all mere suppositions . 240. for instance. minor. that a foreign tone belongs to no harmony. we make quite diffei'- ent uses of such tones. all These are based upon the regular progression of tion.174 Q major the tone f\ makes it's appearance. O in major. and among we select that one which the nearest to the principal tone. This insecurity of external characteristics leads us to 2. we would consider f\. we do as the key in which /jj major.. for instance. and the tone/t] to consider the there is makes its appearance. Proceeding from C major. we consider it as no longer in C. and consequently indicates neither harmony. nor modulation. for instance. but to major. and upon the principles therein developed. c\ is but as belonging to indigenous. This melody. Having arrived now by means of this tone at another key. but it can also be conducted to ^ minor (b). for the tone/| is foreign to the key of C major. it is true. as the first appears. nor digression. or which otherwise cor- . INTEBNAL CHARACTBRISTICS. not as leading to D major. i C -J- ^ major to can be conducted from O major (a).

as the G containing an_/5 in preference to any other.d Accordingly we would the phrase No. we should go to G major. 239 from G major to If Q major as the near- est related. . nay.175 responds with the laws of construction. for instance. and not to E minor. Even if a melody contained no we would if. : melody of a first part in C major should end thus 241. then in the course of the melody the nearest key / to again appears. foreign tone.^ led. preferable to the retaining of the the same key . aslc whether internal signs would not make a digression advisable.

can be triad. three septime chords. =p^ -&- Third of three triads.si ^ 1 —^ F 5. three septime chords. Thus the tone 1. or diminished two nonachords. and 244. or ninth of a chord. that time third. but in seventh. that every tone can be either a funda- seventh.176 We ascertained still later. . minor. i 2. w. -TT lo " F —"g—F— . ^ '-»-' W-- ^ 1?" M ^ >fe«- ^ Fifth of three triads. &c. septime or nonahchord of the key in which the melody any key which contains that particular tone. 246. * "~ I fe^=F*=« Seventh of three septime and two nonachords. C. 248. for instance. :M b! We have discovered. written. mental tone. 245. ^ ^s '&- ^ ^. three septime chords and two nona- chords. But at for We is we were limited to the indigenous chords. 247. independent of the different inver- . and two nona^ chords. Fundamental tone of a major. one and thirty har- * for every single tone. third. fifth. monies according to the above. of a triad. have now a much larger field for such investigation fifth. I^a^^a 4. & 3. Ninth of two nonachords. every tone of a melody can be not alone.

[g\-b-d-f) we consider as fifth of a diminished septime chord. We have now ascertained how many chords can possibly be used for every tone of a melody. must be con. ducted conveniently (fluently) and intelligibly.shall. Application of these means to indigenous or digressive melodies. because it is easier for the bass to proceed from c to d. and the turning points of the modulation. {vide No. and the question arises which of them we have to choose. The The thesis closes with the as dominant triad in chord g-h-d. We have preferred the former. and generally . 9 6 f6 fcl b5 6 4-7 diately after. Our first care next to this. will be to preserve the unity of key. i n ^f^fe S 6The first chord remains unchanged. in preference to chords of keys. occupied the parallel and dominant pi-incipally in the Having . Accordingly we treat the tone e as ninth of the chord (i/|-a-c-e. The second tone we consider The d immeis fifth of a triad which brings us to A minor. or which to exclude. develope itself in the cdurse The rest will of our labors. while we shall mark the thesis of a phrase the triad of the dominant. or major. in the course of a composition first of the dominant. begin with the vyith latter. We . shall we always think of those chords which belong to next-re- lated or near-related keys. We can either consider it C we accompany the preceding e with the or we can consider it as tonic triad chord c-e-g. 195) of G. or with a modulation to the key Finally. No chord should be chosen. end with the dominant chord and the tonic triad. and each. and in that case . the introduction of which would cause faulty progressions the connection of the harmony must be retained. A minor upon us. therefore. Our general rules wUl be sufficient for the present. • more distant Let us attempt now to apply our new means to one of oui former melodies (No. 255.177 C. as seventh off-orc-e. which forces the tonic triad of sixth chord brings us back to Cmajor. than from c to /|. in consequence of which we have to modulate into it. 195).

to the keys of We are limited.178 first part we turn now to some other related keys into which to modulate. 256. for instance. are require no further explanation. it by its c this The remaining chords here. by no means c. (i-c\-e-g. that we devote more space and time to the foreign keys than to the principal key. some harmony derived from it to get into the first of . 255. tone into F major. if we insist upon introducing consider the second tone e modulations into foreign keys. There remains for us the parallel of the dominant. the e it Being once in D minor. We cannot justify this. or the above mentioned keys but all these chords are too foreign to the last four measures of the melody. Therefore. we as fifth of the chord in order to modulate into J) minor. The chords which we have chosen trary. we might accompany o-c-e . Looking at the harmonic contents of our phrase. It would require the chord its parallel. THE COMPLETING OF OnR WORKS. we prefer the chord modulation. arbi- Thus. the subdominant and 6-rf|/|-a. in order it. as at 256 or continued as at b or The reasons for our present selection will become apparent at a future time. therefore. to attach our further remarks to No. 255 would perhaps somewhat like this 257. a. F major and D minor. we might have treated the fifth measure. it No. of the sixth measure with the because prepares chord but since is our object to go with the next a-c-e. We will now place our present a form phrase completely before us. we cannot but observe. proceeding which .

179 takes away the unity and firmness of the whole structure.t::-. The third tone of the second measure has two chords (and consequently two figurings) beneath it. without its influencing the treatment of the whole phrase. and retained the key into which we were led by the Then again in the antithesis. This is no fault. I triad. for instance we give a treatment which does not even begin with the tonic 259. At first we enquired which chord was suitable to lected chord. The upon the dominant it is true. becai. not easy to introduce a new chord. we consulted what keys we had already employed. Here. this or that particular tone of the se- melody. the harmonization It is might be varied almost to infinity. and JF major. Finally. and the antithesis touched upon G minor. The penultimate chord had necessarily to be a triad. But in order not to lose the dominant chord for our final cadence. for we can rhythmically dissect every tone and treat it as tone-repeti- F tion. we . 'it is clear that the above treatment is by no means the only one possible. and selected those harmonies which woujd bring us into the other nearest-related keys. but not before a chord from C minor found room. except it with the plea that possible. thesis closed i 5 No sooner had we touched the keys with flats than our whole thoughts turned to these.ise the resolution of the preceding chord required such a one. With the aid of foreign chords and their inversions. minor. 1 I I I j IPW^m^^Grt^ I it^zMizat :tT=^: !J 1 I I 3ti^-- :d. '^ 2 6 3 tl m \.1 Jalii-- bbY b6 mm Ul^-d iW (2d measure). was our object to introduce as many keys as We must further remark that in finding these foreign chords we have observed a two-fold proceeding.

By douhle or triple figuring in succession. ^ we r r f ' r r ^^ For this reason also consider it best to give such an altered degree to that voice which had formerly the original degree. How can ? we indicate that a bass tone contains harmonies ^ 5. I I -* E r than to write as at b. . pressed if the succeeding chord brings us a degree which already existed in the former chord. finds its It is at a former opportunity drawn the attention of the pupil to a false relation. two or more For distinctness sake the triads.) (mi contra fa). we consider it better to write as at A. (by 5 3. with foreign tones often way into our harmonies. for instance. ^ r r it is Now. and has technically called cross relation given ample opportunity for the writing of volumes. which. Thus. (Page 166. save that now raised or de- by accidentals. on such occasions. Proceeding from one chord to another which has one or more notes in common with the first one.180 have led one of the intervals of the triad into the seventh (/). Figuring of two or more chords. it has generally been our rule to retain such notes in that or those voices in which it or they first appeared. though they do not absolutely require We have already. are also indicated it. 3. we can- not pass this subject without devoting to it a few remarks. and thus satisfactorily ended the phrase. Though the pupil who follows our principles in the conducting of his voices need not fear the occurrence of such relation.

we shall unhesitatingly permit such cross-relation. this natural proceeding. when by the passing annoyance we gain a greater we meet first advantage. and may have reasons occasionally to permit such cross-relation These reasons we will now point out. and stand to each other in an unnatural relation. at A. appear in the same voices (treble and e.f. . or. those cases in which the degree to be altered exists in two voices at once. not re- however. or disagreeable. But the moment we deviate from had the original. while the bass stands perhaps in major. in Z> or At D G minor. while the bass is in C minor. the out making octaves. called Such equivocal relation of one voice to another cross relation. this matter and have earnestly and anxiously warned against We. withHaving once admitted the doubling of /in . e\) which formerly had the notes and c. but also because merely because our manner of conducting voices avoids such we never decide one-sidedly. and consequently can submit in one only to the for instance. tion. need attach no such importance to this matter lations of itself. upper voice cannot go to /| with the lower voice. finally. /|. Whenever such is not 'the when the harshness of this relation corresponds to our design. e and c|. because the voices do not pro- gress flowingly and naturally. Thus at a and B the treble seems to stand in C major. altera^- Here. and because the key of the one contradicts that of the other voice. while the bass stands G major. At d the treble indicates C and is D minor.181 the notes alto) e}). and give the altered degree to a different voice from the one which Mz i^ ! rt mi rr i--^r-r c the treble stands in J - l^z =F=is the voices have no longer a flowing and natural progression. a Former theories have laid much stress upon it. In pointing out the admissible cross-relations. A cross-relation is case.

and permit If in either it of the second link as a newly entering voice. when . but near-related tones. as at b. W-Si ir Here. This relation is also covered or smoothed over. c| is admissible. newly entering voice. fe :d^i-4- 3^. when the contradictory tone has the appearance of a as at A. and d. relations can we can see how easily such crossbe avoided and how much milder and flowing the At c. be- and consequently the cross-relation of cause they belong to different sections. The same occurs in the following phrases I ip-jz fe^ „l -J- J r^UT¥ 5S fe^ T r it We have now proved ness. that this progression is permitted and can hardly be counted among the cross-relations. four and four chords constitute a phrase. case the rebellious tone conceived more distinctly. however. can that a cross-relation. But in different it is exactlj' because ol this necessity and because the voices are led as naturally and easily as possible. I I ^=0=F+=if or when the two opposed voices indicate different. we must of necessity lead the two fi The same is the case at b. -£3. in the S u --^ is m I j^_ ff c rrfand I first example. serves only to more plainly distinguish the sections. modulation can be made.182 the first chord directions. A similar state of things is. with all its harsh- be even desirable. as the only right expression. when the cross-relation occurs in chords which belong to different phrases or sections. In the second example we the consider cjf two and two chords as different links. c.

and with the next voice (the treble) Mozart breaks to harmony at once. Mozart commences thus s. the cross-relation seems to lose its ^=#= because the change of modulation occupies the hearer. until with the sixth quarter-note he turns decidedly G major. The succeeding this voice decides for the latter. ^. for instance. and then con- tinues. For the same reasons cross-relations are well applied. jor. and such . or c-eh-a\. IZt m harshness. {A\. ^32:ja ife In rapidly succeeding modulations. before entering the fresh C maThe second entering voice leaves us uncertain whether c-f-a\) {F minor).183 is our object to introduce a voice decisively.p-rrf~f ^ ^^ and keeps us in anxious gloomy manner. Who perceives not that this piercing tone — it forms a is abso- cross-relation with the preceding a of the second voice — lutely proper and indispensable to the idea of the composer ? If Mozart had resigned the a\) or the a^ of the higher voice. we quote here a passage from Mozart's Quatuor in G major : which of late has been the theme of earnest discussion among German and French theorists. particularly in a flowing progression of the voices. m #== I £22 te i 3i -CZZisr. and the analogous succession of his voices would have been lost. major) will appear. uncertainty. m^ r - OES in a mysterious. the character of his phrase. also. As a further illustra- tion. the dominant of the principal tone. when we use them in slow harmonic sequences and sharp and weighty modulations.

Until now we have only spoken of cross-relations between two but tlte same relation can extend . mz . but by themselves. could not be upward pressure ii'om d to a. understand why cross-relations are permitted which. and well constructed progression of the of As one many instances. are actually strange and contra- which are the unavoidable consequences of a proper different voices. in the lower and middle voices. ^ :^i corresponds to the character of the cross-relation. by Sebastian Bach. marked f.. BF¥ ^^==^=^ l^^^to m ^. bb.184 progressions (which are based upon the omission of the resolution- chords) have of themselves a certain strangeness which well i And thus ^ we t -^ ^=1_ . or the spoiling of the upper voice. considered dictory. b. Wg^— drf ^^^p^- -CET Pm^ i3— 3^ d^ m It is 4^ ^^ -^t^=^-^-=gg fes evident that the cross-relations the avoided without sacrificing «K «j/^/ff) 5^1 ™d again from $• toal. above the second to a third chord. Here . we give here a passage from a fiigue in C minor. and in such case it is called an chords in immediate succession indirect cross-relation.

are recoge|)-i^c. because the dominant chord tinguish major is not sufficient to dis- and minor. and of which the d. while g-f-e For the same reason the phrases b and f. . is belongs to C major. (a and b) are less distinct than those in the outer and because the cross-relation in the latter voices. &c. Secondly. in which passing-notes take the place of intermediate chords.. make no favorable impression. belonging as it does to both modes. and because as well as formerly. not the intermediate chord destroy the harshness of the cross-relation 1 because the flowing voices considered as a e\!-d-c. Why does Firstly. melody of C minor. nized at once as phrases belonging together.185 JJ!J-JJ UJfl ' I I h ' 1 [I we at c see a series of such movements which first act upon us as is cross-re- lations. g-f-e.

in order to become familiar with the various chords. iff. A. we 259. give us . Simultaneously it is with this. and back to C.186 CHAPTER CHORDS. and same can be done in various manners. The modulation to the key of the major second above. The modulation into the key of the minor third above. For this purpose only we give below a few examples. 8va. We know work and we require only a practice of the same. or F\. <rb.. issuing from C. easily seen that the 260. how We have already been made in the dominant. and can be employed by or in con- nection with other chords. The modulation into tha minor third below. would lead us to E\. or D and back to C. FORMATION OF NEW PASSAGES WITH THE AID OF FOREIGN Every introduction of a foreign chord can be considered as a itself. ascend from every new key into its dominant. new harmonic design. would lead us from C to A. the chords change in positions and Inversions. for the formation of new passages. acquainted with the modulation Continuing it. III. JE]. already to go to . would jj.

which would have would have been thus led us to G'jf major . we can now consider the degrees of the scale as just so other words. F. 264) or in the lower voice. jE major. The beginning of No. &c. major.187 In the fourth measure the dominant chord ought to have been <^|-/ tion X -o|-c|. vice versa. O. Instead of this we have enharmonically and would have brought us changed the above chord into e])-g-i])-d\i. A\ major with major with twelve sharps. 264. placing these tones No. or. the continua- 262. ^^^^#ii Tf ripf . A a F &a. and the ending of the remind us of our first harmonic lesson ascending and descending major scale. i'' many tonics into which we modulate. keys with less signatures. B'^ 6^1 major with eight. as below a 265. either in the upper voice. from C B to B. The same occurs the sub-second 263. last passage the accompaniment of the While until now we have moved voluntarily into any key. 263. In we go from C major to D major. . Eg f"-=*T which has brought us into in the modulation to ten. &c. (as in A.. and would have involved us in an infinity of signatures.

and regulate cordingly. it was different. the very furnish new designs. much as pos on paper and (improvising) on the piano. because we always returned to the same position. 261 and 264 were comparatively easy. and vice versa. we take the ascending and descending chromatic G m D Eh E &Z.188 or into another voice. and write our chords now with sharps. be- some of the tones strive downward. 265. Placing the triad in a different we are absolutely forced to place the second triad again in a different position. infinitely. 266 in other positions. ± i we ld= Ai list %\ r ^ wis T r every masterillui-tra- If our former advice (the consistent continuation of design to a well formed whole) ing of those difficulties will tion now heeded. such exercises ca^be extended exhaust them is almost impossMe. present difficulties The different positions will often to him. But No. I 267. Thus No.m^odulations and passages as sible in all positions. and a cause in ascending modulations single design sufficed to carry us through. As an give here No. too. and to But we recommend the pupil to practice these. scale. 268. the remaining voices ac Or. as may be most convenient to It is clear that us. In No. . 266 position. and we only changed first the posi- tion (2d measure) in order to get along with one stave. now with flats. we in could have finished as we began.

PASSAGES OF DOMINANT CHORDS. 1. since every dominant chord contains within itself already we can reject all the triads of No. 3SZ. like all the former. a passage But a triad. =^ 271. P ^. ds _£2I :te :fe --^ z\S2Z §&- m JZ. '-bzsn -y&-fe- . we have obtained nothing essentially. practice of these passages must not be all limited. -&-&- =g=fe=^-'&Z13Z :t| fo- we have its tonic. and consequently can change every triad into a dominant chord. but should include the other transition- Thus far. through. and have the dom inant chords follow each other immediately. Here 270.eed to the actual new formations. we leave to the pupil The to the chords. dominant chord. 270. new.189 Here are the beginnings of the same in dispersed harmonies. regularly resolved every dominant chord into the triad of and every triad has been changed into a dominant chord which we owe to the introduction of foreign chords. ^ ^±ir^^L^dS=^ F¥g=J Q^ T'-¥ ^ ztzi =* to carry- which. We will now pro. however. though we have discovered extended combinations. We can consider the dominant chord as a major triad with added minor seventh.

ele- ele- Already (page 75) we noticed that after the first six tones which nature had given us. Strictly speaking.). to retain the passage. and yet to obtain perfect chords. c. I their appearance.) Thus the nature of the tonic element strives of itself downwards. a seventh tone made its appearance.) for instance. which destroy this The above passage it chord. 2. in rapid progress. 5. then. (1. or the dominant chor-l g-h-drf. which descends a semitone.* for five voices. g. 7. and which stood in the simplest relations to each other. If it were our object to have the above passage tetraphonous. But in the same instant. (F-c-a. INDIGENOUS PASSAGE.. higher than Now we know . c-e-g. in #fi=*=#=. cidentals. an must and can serve us as 61. an(J a. has a predisposition to resolve into the first harmonic mass. and becomes We have written the above we enit order to avoid the irregularities which countered on former occasions. by omitting the acunity. though lower than our 6b. c. in the same manner as we have illustrated it in No. 271. but without unity of key. This seventh tone. (the tone relation a. '. the chord becomes anew a dominant chord. either the third or fourth voice. * The above resiilts of the analogous development of the harmonic ment are already indicated in the natural development of the tonic ment. (c-e-j'-Jb. 3.190 T=^=^^ES^f^:^2~=^. that the second harmonic mass.) which resolves into a new tonic. 7. we had no name. and with Let us attempt. made 6.. for which then after which only. at the same time voluntarily rejecting the foreign tones. drives us from dominant chord to dominant from one key to another. e. by means of the just mentioned ib. Here we the seventh of the following chord. the other tones. would be best to omit 2. with the exception of the third. <Sco. e g. it is nothing but the foreign tones which occur at every new chord.^ -&- gg~ see every tone follow its regular progression. DERIVED FROM THE ABOVE. or the tonic triad. 4.

as appears in No. us.proper. were the case. JVew.. 272 is perfectly. that of resolving into triads. major fifth. instead it requires but the mentioning. Familiar to some new ones. besides the final chord. two chords with minor minor seventh. OR NO- NACHORDS ONLY._-J-_i_-J_iJJ_ ^F^ ^m we also discover Here. 5 and 6. it would have resolved into c-e-ff. No. major fifth. 4. theii 3. . and No. According to the above. are progression. 270 it has taught us already that it is nothing but a voluntarily-altered its dominant chord. ff*' SUCCESSION OF NONACHORDS AND SBPTIME CHORDS. and minor seventh. or e-g^-b-d. Aajor fifth.note-g!lj-b. But No. with major first third. 273. or even into nonachordi . and 3. Being nothing but voluntarily-altered dominant chords. and as such No. 1 and dominant chords. nonachords also. two chords with major third. progressions are those of dominant chords. third. and ma^ and jor seventh. are 8. 2. No. can resolve into dominant chords. amidst familiar chords.191 1227 272. a chord which at a glance might be taken for a nonaIf such chord with omitted fundamental tone. beside this one.

Thus from No. They are treated From each of the above nonachord 5. I m •275. consisting exclusively of major intervals. ninth. with minor third and seventh. in In the same manner which we formerly gained an indigenous succession of septime "chords. ^ ^ and No. ones. which is left for 4. and minor Nos. successions. 7. 3. 2 and familiar nonachords. we can here. either in major and minor nonachords the student to prac- alternately. 274. bp: z^trtfa •F=t=^ can take place. INDIGENOUS PASSAGE OF NONACHORDS. ^ The latter tice. and major fifth like unaltered These chords require no additional rules. 6 and ninth. No. exclusively 5. fifth. --i=l=l --^—f—r^-- 3E^^ Amidst two Nos. by omission of acci- form an indigenous succession of nonachords.192 I 11 i^--^. dentals. 4. 274. major and minor nonachords. vis. we can develops SUCCESSIONS OF DERIVED SEPTIME CHORDS. intervals. (as in the above) or in a steady succession of either major or minor nonachords. Nos. 1 and 8 we find here several new. with minor major minor seventh. of minor third. we gain .

we have an opportunity to introduce an appendix to the passages discovered. to deviate from the rules of the dominant chord and the dominant triad! to omit the resolution of /J-a-o into g-b-d? to have the seventh c ascend to d! to double the third. c.* How to despoil all these passages. too. the passage a B —from 277. . however. is left to the student's own indus- But the let us consider once more that all the above passages. and similar ones formerly mentioned. and we shall soon learn that this. S>-)g- is::ai r fetEzgx :pi^=f±t i^:g=: -4-p- r ri-p But is it proper at . are hidden and justified by the analogy and the firm progression At a and b the actual resolution-chord occurs merely of the whole passage. at last. then below ? These deviations. a succession of minor nonachords the passage c —from a succession of major nonachords the passage —and =^ from the indigenous passage No. we gain the following ^E^dfe ^m is which.) Then. 134 and 136 we took the step into the dominant as basis . and many that might be developed from all arisen them with so many new chords have * Here. as easily to be seen. carried the design straight through. try. (Page 119. and D. particularly in Mbs. now we take the step into the subdominant as design. & 279.193 276. Here. and particularly those of the nonachords. is tl e later and in a diflterent position we have — — case too at c and D. 275. 278. reversedly. brings us nothing new. b. 271. and here. of their superfluous tones. like those in No.\. or to lead it now above. and how to carry them through their various positions.

have no stimulus for motion . was already mass and the second position of we cannot but acknowledge the intrinsic unity which runs through the whole tone-development. or seize a tonic har- mony. until we arbitrarily rest. they pro- duce no sages . for themselves. from succession of two dominant chords or more properly from the passing over a single tone that. . the actual end of all harmonic motion. instead i. justly call the . leads us with its appendix from one key into the other nouncing the return into its tonic. They.. with the exception of the dominant chord. which. 271. e. therefore. We can. without the necessity of moving into another chord. is unbounded for each of the passages originating from finds in its elements neither rest nor end. as they (particularly the major triad) were the beginning. in No. but drives us incessaptly through all the degrees of the scale. together with the diminished triad. $ ^^ ^C2. the sext chords are merely all Therefore. not . Its first inclination is which it it drags the no- nachords and all the derived chords then. indicated in the second harmonic the scale.194 FROM A SINGLE DESIGN. though given only with the dominant chord. its finally. re- motion it. we have taken Sb at once. after its once . 280. dominant chord THE origin of HARMONIC MOTION. chords. — — of taking c b\. Equally just is the designation of the tonic triads AS SEAT OF REPOSE. to . -33: r I I and we have again an illustration of the infinity of that tonical development in which every step hrings us a new series of formaConsidering again that so many septime and nonachords. as at b. They are the goal. as at a. new their mehdically (by the parallel direction of or most voices). each stands there by itself. towards the tonic. obey A SINGLE LAW. and no necessarily connected harmonic pasmost flowing combination. tions.

. the centre around which from the two harmonies to the end of all tone-motion. 167. for none of its chords has a tone in comcan fully appreciate the mon with Now. for the first time. or chromatic. But in the latter case it is evident that the stimulus of this tion is not properly harmonic. the chords manner in which which they form are at least melodically connected. as here its in 281. we name DOMINANT. diatonic as No. move into or towards The separate voices only move diatonically or chromatically lar up and down . The tone so called reigns over. consequently no inclination to it. modulations turn. harmonic sequences and The greatest motion of the triad we can oppose to it and harmony would be a succession of sext chords. but exactly because of the reguthis is done.19S harmonically connected . but merely melodic. it is and leads every tone-combination first and tone-motion. the next succeeding one. c-e-ff moThe chord has no relation to f'a\}-d]) .

(for instance. Now. thirds. The diminished s^time key chord. which is only dis(quint-sext chord) tinguished from the inversion of the by the name of one contents. VARIABLE MODULATIOirS. That the inversions of the diminished septime chords sound a fundamental chord. when this c d-f. When we invert this chord. which equivalent to a minor third. * See Appendix (J. tone. place the b above ah). 1. as we know. (major or minor) while the dominant chord leaves the species undecided. (page 169) that . shall speak now. is the two tones form the interval of a superfluous second. the clear- est designation of a it clearer than the dominant chord be- designates even the species of key. 3. for instance. in and f-ah. consists exclusively minor of b-d. according to the view which take of their relation. b is enharmonically changed into a minor third succession of three minor thirds. A. we have ab-cl> again a and instead of b . consequently a new diminished septime first chord. inverted tone. it is Of cause this chord we said already. f-a]).196 CHAPTER IV. like 2. that consequently there are only three tonically ferent septime chords in our system. while of every other species of chords can be found twelve. this we just designated a means of variable The diminished septime of minor chord. But owing to a peculiarity of which we very chord becomes what modulation. d-f. We turn our attention here par- ticularly to two chords. That every diminished septime chord contains in its tones dif- three others. but by no means it in the actual pitch or tone- And since this proceeding can be applied to every dimfollows. inished septime chord. . That every inversion of it can be considered as a new dimin- ished septime chord.* By we this name we shall designate such means of modulation as can lead into more than one key.

chord of the minor. has its minor ninth position a half step above the octave it therefore. The industrious fourth one." Consequently every diminished septime chord can. we change in the whole chord enharmonically into and arrive thus e| F% minor. e{{-^|-5-rf. by merely changing a name. thus I IlJ J" I 283. leading to d-f-a\)-h. (sounding like the second inversion of our first chord) change the g\-h-d-f. if it descends a half step would fall into the oc- tave. minor. by the harmonic change of a single note diminished septime chord assume the form of a new (or the terz-quart (ci^ab-cb). new diminished septime Q\3 which would lead us to But in order to facilitate the writing of it. which leads us to ^|j minor The quint-sext chord of this first) is new septime chord /ialj-cb-ebb. At d we f. the second causes that with every inversion. b-d-f-a}. key. take the quint-sext chord.. change of name nor inversion alter the actual effect of the chord. To the above three observations we will now add a (the equally simple and productive "The seventh of the diminished septime chord of the nonachord). which leads us to A minor. £]. student will practice all. Here. again (at c) enharmonically changed into a chord. We need hardly mention that these modulations can be efiected in every inversion and every position. by means of . at a. en- B we see the quint-sext chord of the same.197 The first can be said of no other chord . and that each of these sep- time chords can lead to major as well as minor. 6 in ct. since neither Now. Dh or Cjj we At see the diminished septime chord. g\-h-i-e\. again into and thus obtain the fourth septime chord. we can represent the same results at once. we arrive in a new 282.

be observed. With every this step chord.5. major or minor. Let us do step. . the seventh would twice descend a halfstep. and B\) major or minor. Ac. sages or sequences. and A). to the student to carry it out through the various posiagain upon harmonic pas- Here. and other tones a half to . this gives us four new modulations D. were the case. E. consequently increased the distance of just so much from the other tones. to D\). 167 and which are admissible on a ac- count of the then-mentioned m. 286. 284). b-drf-a)} This gives us the above four modulations with a circuitous course of the dominant chords. gives us four modulations. this all at once — The seventh may descend a whole step . the single chords of which have as little relation to each other as those of No. and again as in No. But the same is the case when we This retain one tone and elevate the three otlftrs a half-step. Here we have obtained the above results by lowering one tone it of the chord. we now attempt it with all four tones down or upwards. with which we arrive here at we can repeat the new diminished septime If operation of No. 281. the other tones would follow as in No. 286. three tones Here we have led upwards will of the chord. (or rather a quint-sext chord of the same).198 the descension of the seventh. &e. ^ i "^ it iffi^E2^ % it i^ we meet -^ % :fe :^MP^- leaving tions. for instance in h-d-f-g. (once according to No.elodic connection. Q. 286. F. be changed into a dominant chord.

but the seventh was elevated. But we will attach to these some other nearer . may ascend a half-step while others as- cend a whole 288. our third and seventh of the dominant chord have risked.199 Of course direction . some deviating steps . and to most of them in more than one way. The third pursued here its natural course. Already in Nos. or B. one dominant chord into another. This proceeding is based more upon our pleasure than any law of nature. proceed (at a) from that of the dominant. i^^^ four Here we have again and it new modulations to it B. Thus the simple diminished septime chord leads us immediby means of an assistant chord into all twelve major or minor keys. per- remains for the student to carry out in other. the same proceeding can be carried out in an opposite one tone step. ately. and G. and the fifth and fundamental tone have also pursued a different course. ^S©. 271 we have arbitrarily changed the resolution of the third.. 154. -59289. vis. haps more favorable positions. and 188. _£2_ We . is applicable. and is only admissible because of the near relation of key. and thus have arrived at a inant chord. new domsubdom- new key (that of the Let us now pursue the opposite. $ li^ fro^-. A\). F. and consequently at a inant). The dominant chord. at No. of the same (as at b) It is but rarely that a continuation deviation. under cover of the remaining voices. 155.

E. perhaps causes an modulation to resolve the A or minor. excuse these deviations c-e\)-g. But g goes to triad and instead us. remains C major-. In the same manner c-e])-a\) at b and we dominant chord into or a. it seems in- were going to be the tonic triad. By this means we are enabled to double (k)* * See Appendix H. relation of the keys justifies this proceeding in itself. to the subdominant of far C minor. as omissions of as illustrated by imagining them by d but the near . -iS^ 5 W E . instead of c-e])-g. for g-l-d-f apparently proceeds to i?' mi- nor. We will now add to these deviations might have been mentioned earlier. At A as if it / of goes properly to e. d the to c or e . into the At c. other tones pursuing their regular course. which but will certainly be better comprehended here. a. tiial c. a few free resolutions of the dominant chord and the diminished septime chord. c-e-g. it. :iES^^=g=± ^g=~ s-e- m. perhaps. D and.a.200 291. -&•292. while in reality we merely go to e. form with another chord. the fifth/ (the seventh in the nonachord) does not its pursue natural course but goes beyond fundamental tone. . until finally in the last chord the seventh obtains its due. 6 to c. We might c-e-g. ^^ -& s swhile the it At A the seventh of the dominant chord remains. At B we neglect even this . we have of a before ac- which.

and And now comes whole leads us back to the principal tone. in . ends with a cadence . its principles. the key first part. is and anti-thesis to a first and second part . in the compass of a Though this is rather too soon to think of composi- tions which require a more firm and extended modulation.201 CHAPTEE V. we take instead of the mere triad of the dominant. . completeness at the close. and leads us to expect a return to the principal the second part as something expected. consists in its enabling us to form more firm and more ex- tended constructions. cadence not in the principal tone. constructed. it still does not satisfactorily. but altogether in another key all its and thus with end tone. The last and most important use of modulation into foreign keys. 257. The first perfect first part. in order. we but elevated this thesis this. full The a whole. as is construction of a two-part composition. already. we have No. we will take the opportunity of exhibiting at least ing The harmonies of one single key permitted us in reality nothmore than to form a period of thesis and anti-thesis and coda In the duophonic composition or codas. in reality. for its was only rhythmiin tonical respect it was by no means so well end we had merely the half cadence on the first The part second harmonic mass. there to end the satisfactorily. of the dominant for the close of our Thus anticipating. There remains now for us but one step . a mere extension of compass. GENERAL ORDER OF CONSTRUCTION. we could formerly. than single key. But this second mass has long since become the triad of the dominant which reminded us of the key of the dominant and served as close of the thesis. cally satisfactory . but this . closed the thesis with a modulation into the dominant but the close was rhythmically imperfect. Here we have then A.

is the general rule for major. Thus the first part of This is a composition in C major will end in G major. shall follow until weighty reasons and more extended formations from this rule. the second part has the return to the principal key. but prefers to go into the nearest-related major key for instance. the near- and suificient until larger and freer formations lead us further. but as were. Therefore.202 The first is progression. though carried out with higher and richer means. the For instance. in dominant triad g-b-d indicates at once the key of G major. mode of the dominant. the modulation in minor into the does not generally turn minor mode of the dominant. (for instance in A minor «-5'|-S) by no means indicates the minor . elevation into a higher key . it neither clear nor sure like the major triad. which we . major. In minor. as we have seen already. Nor is the minor key so intimately connected with its dominant as the major key. Not so with minor . for the actual triad of the dominant in minor. It is therefore again the fundamental form ot page 81. has been developed from the latter third. from A minor to C major. this . This is the regular progression of the modulation. $ -igfor e-&~P- S— p1 -s-s? ^^E and f^ ^- S-&- f minor- . modulation from minor to minor would add for the gloom is to gloom minor triad. The above est. by the depression of the That which characterises the triad is characteristic of the key also. Our first construction in two parts would therefore be represented in the following sketches For major justify us in deviating I gd- 293.

as it uous elevation of the —a one-sided point. of the it second we know not yet whether to give such a division or not. the second part brings a second motion first i. . beginning. SSSl i: i parts appear here in the original length of 8 mea- the first is divided into thesis and antithesis. by means of a full cadence. ends in the principal tone. ment of the We lead the from movement BEYOND ITS ACTUAL GOAL. back to the quiet But the second part is to a degree separated from the first. C major. and have thus .203 294. Consequently the alteration must take place in the movefirst part. After that we leave the principal tone and is move towards a higher key in which the part B. made a whole of the first part. for instance. aud now we can fall upon the actually wanted key of the dominant. Thus the character of the first part disagrees with the meaning of a close. damental principles of all tone-motion. e. which ought to be quieting and soothing. The thetonic of the first part. is start. according to rule. Second two-part construction^ We have now. to Z* major. i rw tp=^±y -p- _ss_ $¥ The two sures each . to end. in its nature. a continIt is true were up to the final . But this whole. without falling back upon the principal tone. The to sis harmony begins here the first part: it is needless repeat that we might also commence with another. How the first can we now unite these two essentials ? —the elevation of part and yet a satisfactory close According to the funfall it. the close ought to a tone lower than the one in which the into movement led But we cannot alter the close.

But this impulse seems here to be less forcible for the felevation in minor rests less upon the elevation into a higher key. soothing close. also. in fact) we pass on to the subdominant. we discover now an unsatisfactory movepart follows its original des- ment towards the ter if. ought to contain an elevation and stUl upon the principal tone. to the quiet of the principal tone. Below we give a modulatory sketch . In order to achieve this low. In the second part. (too effect and now we can an elevation into the princitor constructions pal tone. same proceeding should be applied in minor. vigorous major. and gain a perfectly quieting. in A minor. and finally into the latter . fij-st to G major and then to Cmajor. in major.204 united elevation and depression. The second tination. end. It it had somewhat more vigor and decision. for instance. But it would be betfall as the actual ending of a whole. the modulamust first be led into the dominant of the parallel key. than upon the transition into the clearer and more If the tion .

made harmless by makes the the repetition of the ending. we have but same time avoiding the danger of remember the already mentioned final CODAS. But we know already that we can choose more distant keys without touching upon the nearer Our present means are require a further extension of modulation. ones. the licenses of the dominant chord give us new means to avoid the actual close in the principal tone. or codas. which of course conspicuous. into distant keys. By such a proceeding we not only gain on space. The interrupted cadence. Afterwards we introduced the dominant key of the dominant. at the vagueness. tions of the dominant chord. but the very repetition serves to strengthen the ending. with or without alteration. or even the in passages (sequences) will we shall be perfectly sufficient only be able to use richer and more . after a full prec.205 the dominant. or of the parallel. and the subdominant. of construction. principal tone again D. (page 86) which might repeat the phrase. to go still further. In that case a more digressive modulation it is less objectionable. or with the parallel key. for instance. The unity of our well-rounded phrases would be destroyed by too great an abundance of modulation extended modulations. If we were . and to introduce the coda. For we make use of one or the other of the free resoluThus. we would again seize the nearest related keys these are the parallel keys of the principal tones and of the two dominants. as the nearest and most appropriate steps. paration of a close in . until finally this purpose we end with a full and perfect cadence. Formerly we had connection than to. for our codas (page 86) first no other means of represent the ending imperfectly. But if it is our object to give to these phrases a richer and more to extensive modulation. is because whatever in leads away from the more principal tone. Now. by no means so profuse that they should The second manner first.

. belonging to this category. and finally a principal cadence.297. A We already (page 86) that cession. or to any chord which would know a coda." The imperfect cadences. when they take the place of a perfect cadence and cause the addition of a coda. which we have for- merly (page 118) seen. ^ it 206 -^=$=f=^^^ 'P-'Pto the triad of we could go bring with or ^b. too. we can apply two or more codas in suc- and that they can be the final cadenoei eflfected by renewed avoidance of Such preventive cadences are called " Interrup- ted cadences.

The thus diflerent manners of modulating which we have learned far. ABEUPT MODXILATION. that modulated into another. can. field until then was the of modulation less same time our transitive chord had always more or If connection with the preoeeding chords. a tion of the former one. we could have begun a second piece modulation. begin in another key. in other wordSj we have to expect after mere repeti- new phrase. we daries in order to produce such new formations as can easily be derived from what we have learned. M 1 ^ G r which ends in major. are fully sufficient for all the constructions capable of being formed with our present means. or perhaps a and the retained tone is the connecting link This tone. . voice only retains a tone in some rhythmical form or other the end. will pass our self-proposed boun- more extensive formations. instead of modulating into another in we had ended the key. the key which at the By the we had left the one key and we renounced. without Here we have a phrase 298.207 CHAPTER VI. a continuation. the But since our object for present is to prepare means and foundations for future. can now become a fundamental tone. as if transition. mer harmonic relation. One . any other key without the necessity of a conclude that it From the above we —when a phrase ends. as it were. were a new one. as it were. without reference to its for- between the two phrases. Until signified now we have more or effected our modulations by chords which transitive chord less distinctly. first piece. a succeeding phrase.

« it is ¥. third or fifth of a E\) new tonic triad.208 third. G minor E minor C i O minor --^ :&« 5 major 5 minor G Git E ^ lis=F4 ILB\> ^e- E major D minor D major. of any septime or nois nachord in which Ab it inherent. we require no transition the retained tone can immediately again become fimdamental a tone. but we could in the have retained the third or one and applied it same manner. the fact that the previous phrase But we have depended more on was closed. major or minor ninth. and that the harthe harmony. mony had ceased. But since we considered the phrase No. the remaining tone was the con- necting link of the harmony. »E In all these cases. This gives for the three tones eighteen modulations. seventh. 298 into the following. 301.B. %W -s- M This gives us again twelve modulations (not counting the repetitions of those already counted) into major or minor. fifth. 298 as concluded. each to major or minor 299 C F D Bb or or . less . >-a»- —"J—tl t-^ d J 1 . 298 we also retained the fundamental tone fifth. in new key. for the fifth considered as fundamental tone of the dom- inant or nonachord leads into no new key. true. . and consequently can prepare or SIX different modulations. At No. We will now in reality depart for a time from We will change No. .

major J minor ii Vt major jyxaxaax 303. we could have after the above passage transitions into six different major or minor keys. A Or the same tone. and enter a foreign key without any mediation. and. The cadence is full and perfect And immethe rhythm only leads us to expect a continuation. And bound to attach our new phrase to the tone/ since we can stop at any tone of our tone-system. once. any particular tone. therefore. in a foreign key. and thus. a nonachord. by our •purposely resigning the harmonic connection. At last we have arrived at the point where we can resign even this last connecting link. By . among •which there are four which since we have not reached in No.can J*" at. 300 and 302. diately we continue. have not the are not absolutely slightest harmonic connection with the preceding chord justified g-h-d. This/ can again be part of a domi- nant chord. and they are connected with what preceded by the mere thin thread of the melody.209 and after the perfect. They are by this very disconnection. part of a new tonic triad. o\. i we ^ I£2I m %%. But all these harmonies and keys. ending of the harmony we continue^ in a monophonic or octaye passage up to. E\. 303. be. 802.. in this case it would perhaps. A\. at which we arrived in Nos.be/. The second measure closes in C. again lead into three major or minor keys. or any chord derived from the former two. B\. Here is an illustration. without preparation. it is evident that there exists no key which could not in this manner be attached to the preceding one.

a new piece which takes up the thread of the previous phrase at a different place. feE $ fT^ h-^f^ and turned to 5 b major.210 -what right it ? Because this continuation is a phrase by itself. we should still consider the first chord as the second as a second modulation into £\> tonic of ^\)f and major. is only indilater. though the key of b\)-d-f-a\>. that we consider the new chord JE}} H\)-g-b\f once as a tonic chord. as were . if we should continue thus 305. cated by the dominant chord If the continuation which occurs three notes should not correspond with our expectation. . And it is exactly because the continuation in the third measure is con- sidered as a at new phrase. and perhaps in a different sense.

its dominant. without bringing anything new. too far. in which we men- tioned the order of construction for compositions of two parts. and demands room for If the association development. At The or that time the transition in major into the key of the domi- nant or parallel was the means and sign of the close of a part. for the dominant will soon be a principal sphere.211 CHAPTER VII. One more rule can be derived so easily from the previous prin- ciples of modulation. end and consequently would be altogether unnecessary Therefore. that we retain it at once. necessary with another key is absolutely we must take the subdominMit. After this comes the dominant as principal sphere of modulation. preceded by itself. and its subdominant would lead us off nant. seizing and combining of various keys gams additional imseveral phrases are to be connected in one piece. first appears the actual principal key. and which combine several phrases in various keys into one is a continuation of the fifth chapter. if we must extend our modulation its we shall have to select the parallel of the dominant. when when others have to be repeated in a different sense. and influences its relative keys. which prepares (page 200) the close. in forms has reference to the order of modulation which should be observed whole. . as lation. though its full imIt portance will only become evident in more extended forms. ORDER OF MODULATION FOR MORE EXTENDED COMPOSITIONS. portance. . And now shall this par- allel occur before or after the subdominant. In such a case every key mentioned in the laws of construction becomes in At time the field fOr a new phrase. nearest re- The third principal sphere belongs to the key of the subdomi An extension of modwould lead us to its parallel for. ulation in this third sphere . its dominant would be the principal key. Its subdominant is the princi- pal key which has just been passed. and will return again at the here. which must follow soon after under any circumstances.

Were we tobreak up these major and minor masses. and can only be comprehended as belonging to the latter. To this parallel key we could attach the dominant. none of the keys would achieve its full efficacy. (or rather the parallel of the principal key's dominant) and afterwards the dominant of the principal key itself. a simple and vigorous distribution of masses. corresponding thus perfectly with the gloomy and undecided character of the minor keys (page 202. and intersperse them at random. Major. jF minor. As a summary of all the above we give now a diagram for the find a order of modulation in major. Minor. and we would have the following diagram : A minor. of the sub-domi- which we perceive at once that the parallel . in major. ded by its parallel. Cmajor. A minor. best po. Then the key of the subdominant and its parallel would naturally follow.212 We allel would prefer the latter. But this analogical powould place a new key where we want it least where the elevation from the subdominant to the principal key is of imporAnd this must decide us to have the subdominant precetance. JD major. sition would. immediately after the principal key. 3 minor. of course. G major. D minor. sition . At Its either place would stand in the way of proper elevation. major. E minorf. F major. naturally resists such a sure and simple combination. Cmajor. therefore. that. There but one relative key which we have It forgotten thus —the it it parallel of the principal key. sufficient connection. either at the beginning or at the between the subdominant and the principal key. is is made in the principal key. the second sphere is occupied by a key of a different mode. The far close. and the modulation would become unstable and restless. i*" G major. would be proper to attach close to the principal key. by the intervention of the principal parallel. becomes first duly organised. in the combination of major and minor. Everywhere we have' an analogical progression. A minor. and. The order of modulation in minor.) The cause of this lies in the fact. we be where all the parallel keys meet here mass of minor modulations which. Major. because we cannot reach the par- without passing through the subdoi/iinant.

petition of a key. E minor. we concluded to end a part of major in the parallel instead of the dominant of the principal key. merely an extensive passage simply its aim or second part. let But us consider we have achieved now from a different point of view what by our order of modulation. 266 is already such a passage . too. with the exception of the principal key. as is — fixed. at Keys. No. If we deviate. But the principle will remain the same throughout. or by omitting altogether the disturbing key. are not tied to this order of modulation. 270). is G major. In like manner each phrase. of a series of well connected single chords. In reality. and the of the it first were. appears but follows from the whole tendency of our work. Both these orders of modulation have another property. but of two and two harmonies the dominant chord like others. D minor. is The whole composition. &c. dif- Passages. whose object merely to touch the harmonies of ferent keys. can rarely last particularly. i^'major. PASSAGES OP PHRASES. might be obviated by placing between them the principal key. though the dominant would find a position at some other place. (for instance. If. and each one part of the composition : an important anti-thesis the thesis of the first. A minor. or in various other ways. be neglected without serious disadfrom the above. C major. It key. that parallel must not occur again afterwards. which gives freshness and decision to their effect. as a matter of course. for instance. and give to any key a first different we must take care to adjust the other keys accordingly. The following order would perhaps come into existence : C major. it consists not No. position. deviating orders can also be attempted.213 nant this (at f ) does not attach itself as easily as the others . : and the succeeding triad. Not merely the fills passages lead us through different keys. by repeti- . which are merely passed over can occur any place. but that other. but the actual spheres of modulation are different keys. therefore. the non-re- vantage. Uach once. that these or- ders of modulation are by no means The absolute laws.

do not require a frequent repetition. 306 see. were insignificant in themselves. The phrase in No. be made a passage. can also serve as designs for such chains. that passages. if formed of more extended phrases. 306 — A. and which regularly descends a third. Here. we have such chains before us. we have placed it in a higher octave. and in order to invigorate it anew.214 tioii on different degrees. the phrase of which originated from the de- No. Thus we have here 307. sidered superfluous. already. can b. i^i_4ifMJ: a passage before us. and accidentally represents it in minor . —A and b). each consisting of a combination of four chords. is in itself more rounded and satisfactory the first repetition makes it moie vigorous. 307. ^^m^ sign. the second repetition will already be conthemselves. It is also apparent. But even here we (No. or a phrase chain. Phrases of greater length. are apt to get too broad and expanded. . for instance at a and 306. as a matter of course. that phrases which are well rounded in The phrases and only the repetition made them a more significant whole. however.

or the basis of a quarUsext chord. the following 308.215 CHAPTER VIII. in reality. But the dominant is not merely the basis of the dominant chord. But we must proceed. at another time as a tonic harmony it can be fifth of the tonic triad of the principal key. and perceived all their the possibility of combining any keys with modulations into a single whole without destroying its unity. Where is. chords : It could bear. At page 91 we have already learned express this origin in tones. much stronger than that of the At that time we found in for the tonic. But even making but a limited use of these means. Such an accumulation of harmonies would weighty return to the principal fiirnish a much more key. at least. We have now developed a mass of harmonies. and to introduce the dominant chord simultaneously with the tonic: . than the mere domi- nant chord. but it is also the fundamental tone of that triad which we consider at one time as a harmony of the principal key. however long continued. the beginning and origin of all motion ? we have perceived this in our deIt is in the dominant chord necessary that . the nonachords and the derived septime chords. It is scale against the first har- monic mass a succor should we now find a similar succor for the principal tone. velopment and have distinctly acknowledged it (page 194). there comes into existence a balance of motive power against the calming mass of the principal tone. THE PEDAL-POINT. which is the tonic (page 72). The dominant chord itself is nothing but an issue from the tonic (page 76) resting upon a tone of to its harmony.

310. and build upon a domi- nant chord. as new tonic. (page 163) brings with it the key of its own dominant . the dominant. The tonic triad as quart«ext chord. we can open the way for its dominant. known septime and nona suc- 312.216 309. in which the most essential of all modulations. $ new tonic. as a new key. and we can combine it in this capacity.) in the following harmonic formation 311. But since every tone can become a we it can con- sider our dominant. and in its original capacity {g as tonic of Gf major. and ff as dominant of C major. too. . or with the addition of the already cessions in a stiU richer formation. The dominant triad as tonic harmony of another key have been combined. i ^ Only now the dominant has reaUy become a tonic. and having just now considered the dominant G. how when it becomes the tonic of a new key. The dominant triad as harmony of the principal key. But we have seen already in our order of construction. The dominant chord of the principal key.

Thus we see in the pedal-point. consequently {d) was near at hand. every tonic can stand as dominant'. itself. the g in the bass solve into drf\-a. passages which are a condensed recapitulation of the whole modulation are built into the tonic upon the single dominant. While in the pedal-point the chain of chords returns to the prin- cipal tone. we can develope a pedal-point upon Uniting. * can we explain the chord a-ci-e-g in No. the sustained bass serves to connect the chords built upon it. tha. therefore.d a-c'^-e-g. still remaihihg. and for this the "modulation into the dominant of we have introduced the chor. 314? By. It is exactly for this. But as every dominant can stand as tonic. drawn into the whirlpool of the dominant chord. alone. and ascending and descending And i =«: r- f thus. then.217 313. working towards a certain aim. consequently the tonic. in two respects. only speak of its position in the above modulation. have considered the first chord as the tonic of <? major. one of the most energetic tone formations . This chord had necessarily to rehave selected the latter. How We & We . chord after chord is 314.t the pedal point is only then in right place. the pedal points of dominant and tonic. firstly as the basis of a wellclosed series of chords. it certainly does not agree with the pedal tone ji. are thus led and is the last and strongest means to make a decisive and vigor- ous return to a principal key. then only the sustained bass serves as a rest ing place for the mind and for the tones. after a rich and extensive modula tion has led us far from it. and sec- ondly as the connecting link and support of these chords. its when it is intended to counterbalance a rich and ex- tended modulation .iknd thus the chord g-Ti-d-f-a was naturally presented to us. and harmony of the principal key.* Such chain of harmony is called a PEDAlj-POINT. we can. or d-f-a.

a series of analogically and successively developed chords. secondly. it. In the above example. in order to obtain a on the strength of which we placed the subdomgood foot- hold for an elevation and a richer tone development. We can It is. sustained tone. firstly. we have called on the harmony of the subdomi- nant for aid. can for Thus the be placed at the beginning of a composition object and origin of the pedal-point and which we have a rich modulation in view. in consequence of the profuse employment of the dominant harmony. BE ISl flre have at once the fullest and most majestic end.218 315. pedal-point. too. We will now set aside take a two-fold view of confine ourselves to the analyzation of its contents. and it is. an inde- pendent. which at one time is an essential of the . This reminds us of that deviation from our principles of modulation (page 211) inant at the beginning of a phrase.

: All these octaves are independent of the harmony. m tPr'S-^- 318 The pedal-point can be employed less extent. By inversion we mean here that combination in which the original fundamental tone resigns place of a middle voice. I its position in the bass. and pedal-point. . And thus is the inversion of a pedal-point also fully justified. Since. reigns quietly over the whole movement. in every form to more or scale can take and in such a case every tone of the the place of the tonic or dominant. ^"^"-^TTTTj III' 4-'^^:^319. will become the basis of a Below will be found a few such applications. 316. but stand merely as a duplication of the original fundamental tone. * See Appendix G. we can also double it by means of octaves. when standing by an independent voice. |_ q- I I . which be suiiioient to serve the student as guides.219 chords while at another time itself) it is it is not. 320. without regard to the web of the other voices. which. and occupies the 1 ItJ J I 1 I'hJ or that of the upper voice. g'. as tonic.

The melody has been developed upon a diatonic and harmonic by means of rhythm and the first principles of musical conin- struction. . Devehpmenf of Harmjony. the guidance of voices. — — None of all succeeding harmonies first is equal in clearness. it was effected by the triple structure itself. f)-- gz which is the parent and modeTof proportion for all the others. tone-species and their scales have been firmly estab- basis. We stand again at the boundaries of a vast field. The two lished. Our rapidly increasing richness has furnished us with innumerable means and ways for the most manifold objects. But most important of all is the development of the chords. Let us now glance at our results. RETKOSPEOTION. as far as The two together engaged us so much that the melodic element. We should not like to lose any part of them.220 CHAPTER IX. dignity. But the power of our first formations the meaning and importance of each exist still. 321. or by such alterations of degrees as were originated by modulation. A. The fundamental forms of musical construction have been dicated. This development of harmony led us to modulation into foreign keys. neglected. A rich and important part of tonical development is spread before us. and strength to that harmony. had to become subordinate and also the further development of rhythm and construction had to be .

idea then. Therefore. and wrong at In order to ascertain where such progressions are rightly or wrongly. as we have know what momentary parallelism of voices in general expresses. It remains now for the student to practice on paper as well as far. consecutive effect. two or more voices progressing in octaves i M^ Ff . This is not the place to exhaust such a subject. Its was the basis of the dominant chord with all its variations and descendants. In order to arrive at these objects consecutive fifths we must first ascertain what such It is not enough Such principles would degrade music to a mere slave of the senses. while it would prevent mind and soul from taking any but the most superficial interest in it. everything he has learned thus Having arrived at this point of harmonic development. two voicef makes establishes a unity between them.221 fifth The depression of its third has given us the minor triad. If the progression is intended to convey an idea to us. that either rightly or wrongly. without injuring the proportions of the whole tone. can be right at however disagreeone place. able in their another. And thus.web. or octaves in reality express. we have indicated their admissibility for particular objescts. At the same time. octaves or fifths. we must look back once more and consider the relation of voices in their progressions with each other. have we been ied to the modulation into foreign keys. stated. We have already observed that two voices cannot well pro- gress in octaves or fifths with each other. at the piano-forte. gradually. and have gained means for more extensive compositions. to say they do not sound well. It is sufiieient for us to know that the parallel progression of those voices resemble each other. to a greater degree than progressions in difierent directions. must be interpreted that This proves. hovvever. first employed alreiady we must such therefore.

for ^ two upper voices seem to lean on each other. instance. For the s*me reason are the parallel progressions in sixths or thirds (as we find them often in duetts) so well calculated to cement the unity of voices. Besides this. a too great extent or accumulation of parallelisms apt to produce monotony instead of unity. The first of these are now the Octave Parallels. a characteristically-different progression of voices. For this reason have former theorists established the sixths or thirds. too. In polyphonic phrases. should not progress in parallel Thus much of the parallelism of voices in general. We have to consider the effect of two voices. and for the same reason have consecutive octaves in tetraphonio phrases been condemned. that bass and treble. of which everything most necessary has been said. rule. particularly in the is outer voices. and similarity cannot always be welcome to us. Therefore all paralthat the lel voices are capable of leading ns past such progressions as by themselves would be offensive. Thus are the following progressions justified by the parallel directions of two or more of the voices.222 are considered as a monophonic mass . or lower and upper voice in chorals. we would probably prefer. according to the intervals in which they progress. (page 101.) . 93. Thus we perceive in the following. I J Kl -^ -r-frrTT But this unity fl On the contrary. ex- ample No. as if they were determined to be reckoned as but one. these parallel progressions preserve the same characteristics.

—=p~i r~ is I ' i r^^—r^ '^ a phrase in which the third and fourth voices proceed in oc- taves throughout. according to their position. ) 11 1221 e . Without teristic entering more deeply upon the meaning and charac- of this interval. were ev- idently intended for an independent path in the harmony. formed by such voices. or Quint-parallels. g.223 We convinced ourselves at that place. that in No. 92. The one is a mere reinforcement of the other both in reality form but one voice or melody. the harmony. Thus. we have spoken Two already. as. r FtF I I . that octaves as mere duplications or but that it mere reinforcement. the alto in No. as it were. still uncompleted and e. c and . Consequently a succession of two . and that the interval of for instance. and though until then an essential voice be- came merely a Here I duplication of the bass . of which. or ia other words made consecutive octaves with that voice. we perceive at least that it represents " the triad" to a certain degree. 54 the fifth was the first new tone developed from the fimdamental tone. too. and answer their purpose full well if it was the composer's object to obtain a broadness of volume which could not be effected ciation of a single voice. We remember the fifth. was the triad. are admissible was quite a different affair when the octaives were . as it were. first dawn of harmony c-g the. (page 102) and select ot them the succession of or more Major Fifths. took its place between the essential voices of itself. by mere to stronger enun- From the octave parallels we turn now the Fifths.

) able than others. lower voices. 8 3 $ ^ in repetition. why one quint-succession can be more disagreeatl^ than another. so. . This explains.^134. dominant and subdominant. This hollow repetition it must be already displeasing to us when we couipare normal development of our harmony. particularly when the faulty chords are separated by a pause. ^ai. when its ingredients belong to non-related chords for instance. fifths represents to us. or belong to different rhythmical links (b). when we meet with such . indicating or belonging to non-related chords (like those at a and b). Even the contrary mo- sometimes a sufRoient excuse Thus has Haydn introduced them in the Overture to "the Seasons:" ?t. the one appearwith the ing exactly in the manner of the other. then. diately preceding one still more. d.. a succession of two triads. indicating or belonging to related chords. tion of the delinquent voices. 321 -&- which no triad appears in the same position as the imme. is for their progression. Fifths. are more conspicuous and' more disagree(c. ti- Ete^ ^ ±3 when the two. have the e —a and d—g — d and g— notes ^ a c.

but others. ^ r is It T I considerably softened when they appear -A thus ^^ f Still less — *\-^-' — li- ?2Z . r «P0 fifths fall : i iL-i. well con- nected. as in the following i^f^^P^ i J- )f Another liind of mitigation that not the chords indicated is when the other voices insure us by the fifths.01 -iB- unpleasant are such successions when they are hidden . as in a degree the connection of the interrupts or hides harmony.J-J and particularly when the on the unaccented parts of the measure. the unpleasantness of the mea- sures A and B of the following. Thus. tend to mitigate the effects of such succession. too. I Jinatead of i =lzE_lir=4:g: r I f— it f- tends also to indemnify us for the fault. succeed each other. Intermediate tones.225 An interruption of the quint-sucoession ! by means of ^ rests.

that an abstract rule can spread much mischief. and that we are always able to avoid consecutive fifths. But we must always remember. and has caused the most contradictory rules. the succession partakes. e. though. when we have some sion in view. if we wish to.226 by a flowing progression of the voices (a). of the disagreeable character of major. minor fifths do not dessucceeds a ignate any original chord. two fifths can be considered as essentials of one chord ^ i rj This. in a degree. It is true we have often made use voices. B I -*—Ti r we hope. and that quint-successions are not only sometimes admissible. but never without hiding the obnoxious tones between the parallel progression of the outer . It is a natural con- sequence. but actually the only righ1! way of expression. (c) are not included A I B m M: I n from the very fact that fifth results in U i" I I "I in the prohibition. its We have perceived that the prohibition has good reason. merely to practice the avoiding of fifths. too. (a).fifths. that fourths. (b) or minor arad major fifths. will be sufficient for a subject which for years has set our theorists at loggerheads. i. SUCCESSIONS OF MINOR FIFTHS. But therefore. and SUCCESSIONS OF MIXED FIFTHS. should share somewhat in the inconvenience of quint-successions. of consecutive fourths. if for no other purpose. fifths at this shall not prevent us from using these particular expres- a later moment. attend for the time to these prohibitions. therefore. or when: the (b). when a major fifth minor. The inversion of a a fourth. We shall. of major and minor.

such harshness can be the very representative of an In short. which in reality does not exist. because the anxious listening to every strange tone or chord leads us to suspect something wrong or bad. for instance Pis^ Successions of thirds and sixths are the most unobjectionable. But if the chords are otherwise well-connected. . artistic idea. and often. A succession of major thirds. and it cannot be denied that there is something harsh in this succession. we will always guard against that effeminacy of mind which makes us hesitate at every full and vigorous expression. and which always deceives itself. this harshness becomes much less perceptible. too. But we must warn against a too frequent and too long use of them. as they are apt to give to the music an effeminate character.227 Successions of sevenths and seconds can only occur when one Sep time chord leads into another . ESE^ i -iS- -Sh r has also been thought objectionable by former theorists . as we have had it in our har- monization of the sixth and seventh degrees of the scale.

It is clear that the invention of new hatmonies does not remedy for each of these new chords must again be constructed this evil But we must take a different view of the harof three tones. It is now our object to attempt the reverse .228 Eigrhth Fart. all the other tones of the first it chord. too. independent and well rounded. there remains a certain monotony in our compositions. the different voices . CHAPTEK I. However is richly our still harmony has been thus far developed. we had to resign all free and animated rhythmi- which enlivened our monophonio and duophonic composi- One voice was chained to the other. zssz 322. The consequence of this was that zation. . ferent voices. SUSPENSIONS FROM ABOVE. From this point of view we discover the cause of our difficulty in the fact that All our voices progress simultaneously from one chord to another In the following phrase. enter upon an interval of the second chord. and when one entered new harmony. Every tone of our melodies belonged to such a chord. Displacement of Chords. and thus continues to the end. for instance. which owing to our close adhesion to regularly-built chords. and every chord stands there.se as soon as the first g goes to /. tions. monic element we must look upon it as a combination of difa . the others were sure to follow.

for instance.* Thus the nature of the suspension suspension is itself teaches us when such admissible. the suspension must be prepared . we still hear a strange tone instead of the proper tone of the chord. the upper voice holds on to the &st chord upon g. has prepared us to find it still existence in the chord in the second. it is advisable not to insimultane- troduce the suspension and the retarded interval ously. 323. if it But we should not have introduced first first ha4 not remained from the Its chord and thus become bearable. in spite of preparation and resolution. the discrepancy between it and the chord must cease. SUSPENSION. e. the discrepant tone must exist in the preceding chord. and must be given to the same voice which forms the suspension. to which it does not belong. Firstly. shall not progress The upper voice. i. If. A tone. Secondly. the discrepancy exists between the suspension-tone and that interval of the chord which has been retarded fore. in by it. and then the discrepancy ceases. and fifth chords are absolutely unchanged.. voices progress from the still first But while these three This g does not belong it. The same can be » said of the e in the fourth chord. this discrepant tone. Strictly / speaking. i. Yet the discrepancy between suspension and chord is not justified. e. the suspension must be resolved . finally resolve into the proper tone of the chord /. there- fore. the suspending voice must finally enter upon the proper tone of the chord. The The three lower voices are the same throughout. is absolutely discrepant to and must. we were to represent the above phrase thus: * See Appendix 1 . chord to the second. '-i- -&- The succession of chords remains here first.. -J_. thus stretching is called from one chord to another. third. with the others. to the same chord. for instance. There- order not to make it too harsh. essentially the same.229 shall not progress simultaneously.

and at first with . 323) leads us pension which we shall call Suspensions from Above. can suspensions be employed? Everywhere and with observation fulfil the above conditions . ^^- r interfering We have to make a distinction here between fundamental tone The octave can be suspended. W -f=^ TT m 22= ei^ ultaneously with its ^^ the octave of the fundamental tone (in the second chord) -would be suspended. to if it. This suspension-tone is one which must descend a degree. this in our descending scale. every tone of a chord. now. Consequently every tone of a chord which descends a degree. of the d. In the fifth same e manner. to one species of sus- The preceding attempt (No. of these conditions 1. in the fourth chord. for every chord. in every voice. where we can Where. in order to resolve into the proper tone of the chord. 2. '''$ ^-^=^=4=^ 2221 r and octave. can be employed for such a suspension. without with the simultaneously-entering fundamental tone.230 J—r^ 324. while the fourth voice has the suspension still The discrepancy of these tones would be greater. in 3. in the upper voice. Let us attempt the upper voice. the upper voice has the fundamental tone. the disagreeing tones were close together. while the same interval would be introduced simsuspension.

though resembling still treated very differently. which resembles a quart-sext chord. . 327. ^U- I I ^ QE :23i ^-FS e g— ^ —g— SI- -s'- p^r^f J- descends a degree. . We perceive into existence as. because it nowhere For the same reason the alto had to wait until the seventh measure. gave us no trouble. and can want them. sufficient that we know them. chord or triad of It is quite immaterial whether It is we consider such formations as chords or suspensions. for it to consider this mass either as one formation or as The introduction of because all suspensions. way . c-e-g-h-d. resemble by some of our former chords the septime instance. call them into existence whenever we But there are other suspensions which. thus far. are nonachord. ^J-J t: I I -e- -^ W\\usi : I will introduce all the suspensions possible with And now we these chords. it ought to resolve into instead of resolving into Here. Thus we might consider the first tone-mass of the fifth measure as an incomplete former chords. But how with as- cending successions ? Here. it is an actual advantage. But in that case c-e-g. this ambiguity need not stand in our allows us another. the second chord. too. though called suspensions. for here harmonic formations which. for instance. f-a-c. and were appropriate for is it preparation and resolution of suspensions.231 326. nay. while we intended quite a different harmony d. The bass could nowhere become a suspension. all our voices descended.

but un- in the treble. first Here.mm.A-^-i P2was able 1-^ sr in this succession to alto. ki sr look upon the contents of the chords. . and the treble goes to d instead of h. we had changed the triad into a domi- . is ^^^»lJlij^Md: f fe- an illustration of the proceeding. but the one and the other forms the suspension and goes to Leading this h again up to d. which might be suspended by fortunately it is This c exists in the previous chord. same manner we might suspend the but the d is again in another voice. 3F 329. we are again enabled to e. Here. now. alone. c In the e?. because the one suspension and resolves d goes to into c. form suspensions- in the third measure. But if we merely c. 95. s. harmonized in the sions : mamier. sions are quite practicable. as formerly in No. i m 0- P Ps-\ -022r &- f^VfT -e- 221 f 221 BE -Ai The If. because none of the voices descend. a suspension from above seems impossible. takes first two tones to one g and then goes to c. of the third chord by we give the voice. 2. Here while the other forms a 1. alto. We have now two goes to voices which have the tone c .232 328. for instance. make a suspension. is:. with all its suspen- 330. is the ascend- ing scale. J. The rf. suspenIn the second chord is 6.

1: 331. What have we now gained by these suspensions 1 First of all. too. indicate them by many new harmonic formations. If we wish to figures. the tenor would have had opportunity to form a suspension. if the b made a was not already in the upper voice. the tenor could have suspension. would then be marked thus «rt^ r : V . we must write the suspension and the The above succession resolution under the bass. BE In the penultimate measure.233 nant chord.

The bass prefers de- cisive steps.r-i I m f^ J- z3tji=Mziz ^. Suspension of Fundamental tones. and No. to acquire the greatest facility of constructing suspensions. such as eroise we know now.^ -TjJr BE =^ extensive our means. however. above all. The suspensions of the fundamental tone of a chord in the bass seem so harsh. all togethei'. j-^gi .234 It is now necessary. without having it in in our power to obviate the harshness of one. the upon it. 195 ner. The suspension of the fundamental tone in the bass shakes. and however are and for this reason wherever another. we could and by no means as free as we should we had to introduce the suspensions many as we could. can serve us as basis. Nor does the bass at all require whole formation based the melodic finish which is necessary for the other voices. . As an example we all give — with simultaneous suspensions in the voices. great the mobility of our voices. as it were. Every ex It we have had finally B. 335. like to be. as far as they are possible without change of harmony. (2). that we must enquire whether it is at all admissible to make use of them. will be advisable to treat one voice after the other in this manhere. fZ: we as But. or may first write. or the meagreness of But on the whole we have gained considerably com- mand of our different voices and their characterization. particularly when progressing in fundamental tones.

IT" f m^ it gEE^=i«^=?: to retreat before a g= would be cowardly momentarily harsh com- bination. ^^B I —^^33—1^— KB. an excited. &c. . as in Beethoven's Finale of the ji I^ li C| minor Sonata.235 But in this very consideration lies the proper answer to the above question. the bass the harsh suspension of the fundamental tone in the bass will be should happen to take charge of the melody. if in wish to express a deep emotion. 335. When we Or.. agitated mood. just the thing.* * See Appendix J.

as indica- ted in No. scale. Here 336. in into the higher c and e. we call suspensions from They require no further explanation. . contradistinction to our former ones. but merely in the fact that a tone of one chord stretched over into another to which ' was not indigenous. FROM BELOW. The ascending with employment of these suspensions would present an appearance like the following: 387. 330. sions. we can introduce these suspen- with proper regard of the necessary preparation. we see the b of the first and third chords resolve into the higher c . and again we see the h and d of the penultimate chord resolve These are the suspensions which. The necessary ciples. when we attached our suspensions to was not in this that the nature of the it suspension lay. and resolves into the next higher degree. too. figuring has been added according to known prin- In the descending scale.236 CHAPTER SUSPENSIOK-S II. sus- But this can also is be the case when the preparatory and pension-tone lower. We only acted arbitrarily It tones which descended. below.

237 i^ 338. .

we us. Secondly. and have accidentally acquired reconnoitre we can see some new harmonic formations. that the tone of a melody need no longer be considered as an independent tone of the . has been retained from the previous chord chord. in them the strongest A new means. can form harmonic succes- sions firm. and in this capa- city they will be of vast service to In the course of our instruction we have only spoken of what was absolutely necessary for the occupation of the student we have not even drawn attention to the fact. Now that we can them fully. . though we have occasionally permitted some deviations from the natural progression. as the most important. of these means. DISPLACEMENT OF CHORDS. the necessary progressions to another chord which nature has given to the dominant chord and all its sub-species. are actually the Next to But as far as we have chord. chord. and observe their effects upon the harmony. it might be considered and treated as a sus- . they are less conspicuous than the new tones. suspension-tone. on ac- count of their having been in the previous chord. Firstly. The Suspension combines both ens them too. most general connection which chords have on account of their intervals belonging to one and the same scale. and that means of harmonic connection. the mutual tones. by means of suspensions. its it but since it absolutely disagrees with the new monopolizes the attention. Thus. the resolution must follow while the new chord in existence. there were two means of bringing them in a harmonic relation to each other. now.238 And now we must return to the heading of the whole part. and that. unseparable. and strength- The . too. they most ineffective in the new For. . soldered one to another. seen. has its decided progression but in consequence of disagreement with the whole new chord — as far as we can judge at present from the nature of the suspension — this progression cannot be postis still poned . The suspension-tone. Formerly we have looked upon the suspensions in a literally melodic point of view. also.

we find even three tones between Beethoven. we might easily explain above by imagining the chord /|-(i-c|-e. more chord- Thus. The resolution of the suspension was necessary. In regard to their Thus much of the resolution of suspensions. . If it were at important to reduce every the new formation to fundamental forms. the suspension and its resolutions. in order to explain and justify the discrepancy between the suspension-toiie and be postponed. that we have done justice to the nearest and most practical object of our instruction. of the and ninth. Op. But J. seventh. But now. then to all and finally to ^^f. has gone even A t^^i=H i -fi @W «-a-c| . the suspended e reaches correctly into d. * See Appendix K. by pla- the new chord.239 pension. new chord found its way between suspension and resAt B. but not before the third of the olution. but the explanation that/jt is of here of minor importance. we must not fail to draw thelattention of the student to some peculiarities. ^^^^Ih&^ The first measure closes with the quart-sext chord first the suc- ceeding ineasure begins with thS dominant chord the a of the e-g\-b-d. or tones. in his Sonata farther. resolution The whole reminds us of the retarded third. in which chord is retained. before doing this the a goes to the foreign tone/|. But this justification can cing between suspension and resolution another. in the above. first and must resolve into ^ff. 101. in the septime and nonachords. the retarded resolution of is the suspension our chief topic. here at A.

but our experience and sensation lead us to imagine the chord It is easily seen that in all these cases the preparation of the suspension does exist. and we adhad to take place in the same voice preparation^ . m ~^' BE at A. -^ 'ff ^ F=F f m^ ff II ' y^ c^" jr~s BE 2?". . inasmuch as its tone or tones have appeared as harmonic tones in a former chord. into the new one. first At c-e-ff. But now we can derive from ii many new and freer formations. cannot say that such formations are inadmissible or wrong but we must admit that there is something estranging m them. but in a different voice. even in the ?ame octave. suspension. and have stretched over. and resolution are in reality nothing else but the pe culiar progression of a voice. we aimed at all at a decisive.240 preparation we must remember that a succession can only be un- derstood. These unprepared suspensions might serve also for a milder. c the suspension-tone does not even exist in the chord. startling combination of tones. as we'said before. And. The suspension-tone at sis not even in the same octave. it we see the chord g-b-d with a suspended was in the chord." but in a lower one. if anxious expression for instance. Here iE^^^^m^^^. mitted that it This was in fact. though only in imagination. its resolution. finally. first ^ ^ ±z c . we might allow a suspension without any preparation. We . r .

) more peculiar formations. ought to take place while the chord into which the suspension its has found way is still in existence. and can in that manner be easily explained. but in the meantime h-d^f. the suspension. however.cb-c-e and that the resolution is effected on the proper it. ^ 1^0 ^^ - -zsa w manner of But often the apparent irregularity lies only in the J^^^^P^— 1= written thus O^^g ^^s- containing apparently unprepared suspensions. But we must return again It to the resolution of the suspension. toTie. and g-h-d have changed into. and 2. Both tones pureue the chords sufficient their prescribed course. It is The chord does not influence But there are still We know already ft5. the pro- gression of a voice from oi:e chord-tone to another. -&- y=^ -19i -^- W- Y e P The /of and in e-e-^r.. w Phrases like the following.341 P writing it. 3 Here. as . of two ways in which to retain a chord while one or two voices progress: — 1. (Nos. might have been E=^ ^i=: -G- 221 J2—-S. of the chord' manner should the c-e-g e resolve into the d of the chord g-i-d. we see the resolution take place on a the treble ought to resolve into the like different chord. 59 and We need not hesitate to employ the two in succession.

and d. but since diffiised. it might often be too we will here P E / ty^ * ^^ i -^-: i Jtt . but immediately after the resolution the voice passes through several tones of the chord. This cor- responds perfectly to our rules. b. is correctly re- solved into the next tone . Here. the suspension of the treble at a. for instance. particjilarly the su»pensioiif obtains its due.242 long as either of them. c.

and to make and the harmony either milder or In the above it is not only better to introduce the suspended chord-tone simultaneously wtth the suspension. though -'(2- i BE The ate it. it still more. tn make the accompaniment of the above thus : ^^ Here we pension. g would resolve into a. which though containing it the resolution-tone. we see this form twice before us. and h though the resolution of g would be an octave lower. for instance. has in another voice. one and the same time. . agdn a niles of the sus- We see the suspension-tone and the suspended tone at in diiferent voices. m another voice can serve in a degree as the deviation from the first but the chord-tone expected tone of the resolution.243 contented with the still sounding chord. and . OrC-e . 1 "^ -e- -&- I jG^Tn ^^^ ^ does not obvi- =F=f= Z2= distance modifies the disagreement. But this very defect serves only to isolate the suspension-tone the discrepancy between stronger. if it Finally logically we must mention an ambiguous form which Here arises ana- from the suspension. the The g of the treble remains same manner does the b remain with Were we to consider these tones as suspensions. in with the chord the chord c-e-g. they could only be from below into c. see •g--g-- ^?# -^V-fi- m.

The following succession 17" I I i PT'if^ I f would be absolutely wrong. because they unite or solder another.244 that of b retarded by two intermediate tones. produce a disagree- when given effect. we have a perfect control But we have seen making the single it Thus much of the suspensions themselves. to Therefore. and suspension-tone and suspended tone would meet in the same moment. Let us glance first at FIFTHS MITIGATED BY SUSPENSIONS. Here at a. but the suspen- . It is sufficient if is absolutely im- But w6 need not bestow too much time or thought upon these over them. But in that case these suspensions i I would be nothing but octaves of another voice dragging after it. able This last remark reminds us of the reputed octave- and quint-successions. and at B it is still less objectionable on account of the suspension. on account of the seventh therein contained. we see an evident quint-succession . if written as at a . they serve as modifications of such relations in their nudity.. as it were. A regular explanation of these tones formations. as. possible. that in all their fornis they have the effect of chord less clear and distinct. it belongs to the less objec- tionable class.

worse. It is different with OCTAVES COVERED BY SUSPENSIONS. those at b. on account of still the meeting of suspension-tone and suspended tone are more so. Here. . that suspensions make the evil Thus if here. the octaves are objectionable . it may often happen.245 sions at b. soften it to such a degree that we need not hesitate to employ it. 1 i I r I i I i at A.

What made The and fact it the suspension comprehensible and sufferable? of its having been a part of the preceding chord. therefore. manner with the chord a-c-e. which The The succeedIt is ing chords. reverse. effect than the prepared suspen- have to consider well. / To attempt the which it one that has already been heard. But the tone has not remained from a former chord. m d appears % i^ -^ in like ±: We see here that the tone c appears in tone m is total contradiction to its the chord g-b-d. and thus blunders . but has been antici- pated from a future chord. without any justification of appearance. 341. and with which disagrees. must pro- duce a more harsh and decisive sion. We Sometimes voices. In other finds its explanation words. clear that such discrepancy. not even prepared. it is the consistency in the progression of our which leads us to anticipating tones. ANTICIPATION (ANTICIPATED TONES). in and justification in another chord.246 CHAPTER m. let us now lead a tone into a chord to it does not belong. as for instance in the following where the upper voice pursues its own course. if the introduction of such effects corresponds with the object we have in view. only. /jf-o-c and g!^-b-d explain the contradiction.

by means of anticipation. c-e-gi. in the overture to having closed in La Vestale. as in the following : 344. — —^ i^f=f^—# g. Thus. for such formations. the figuration of a melody may become more animated.247 upon the tone e. It is best to trust to our inspiration for their development. ~i\ f= r c acts in which the anticipatory merely rhythmically. or of dis- covering possible liberties we might take with these tones. full There two chords. Thus. Pis'- ^ And again these anticipated tones are used^ decisive entrance. Spontini. and cannot be considered as belonging to the chord in which ancient cadences. r r (6). it appears. Sometimes the anticipated tone is merely intended to add rhythmical vigor to the succeeding one. after F and modulated to D minor. and only justifies is no need of searching all it in the third chord. •which belongs to the succeeding chord. instead of the dominant chord which accompanies it. in the 343. anticipates a tone 345. . Or. when one voice makes a his opera.

in thirds. one after the other. nor to It is the preceding. The passing-tone does not belong to the harmony stance. and the de- pendency of every tone of the melody upon the harmony beneath it. . can we not include termediate degree in our melody 347. reality nothing but the third But knowing that the third is in degree. because harmonic tone to another harmonic tone. that we can introduce its tones in melodic form. We go from e through d to Thns we see *. It agrees with the harmony. Yet we a choice. The suspensions and anticipations were the first step towards the liberation from the triple nature of our chords. and that another degree lies this in1 between it and the fundamental tone. FROM THE CONNECTION OF THE CHORDS. we see the treble pass through all the tones of the chord. »And this new view of harmonic formations must open to us a new melodic sphere. harmonic element to speak strictly. nor to a future one. consequently. f It pro^ ceeds. a mediation between two tones it and e). Here 1 346. Tor have the tone of our neath it. or. a filling of the (c neither to the present. simply a melodic subleads from one melody. But we know that in every single chord lies the element of melody . it belongs to either the one before now at least melody does not belong to the chord be^ it or after it. at once the nature of the pass. . The Pass. But if in reality this dependency of the melody has not ceased. and this new liberty has arisen from the itself.248 JVinth Part.

though the fourth chord not as satisfactory as the is in reality nothing but a continuation of the same harmony which did not displease Still more strange would this form us to the tone d. This is but upon a passing tone. and a. We are already familiar in with it.249 CHAPTER THE DIATONIC I. This leads us to something entirely new. . if a new chord should meet with the foreign tone : 351 ^ff .^^ n fall h. PASS. former arrangement.: We see that melody. last We see that the chord does not upon a harmonic tone of the melody. from 348. We might e to g. 346 a second passing-tone. the repetitions of the chord have also been here employed. have introduced No. be.f. the Tf=f the chords fall Thus we are led to place the whole scale always upon a harmonic tone of the upon one and same chord 350. m we might have re- Instead of the prolonged tones of the chord peated them thus 349.

f. in which we consider d. we might have achieved the same object like the following by a different rhythmization. But we are by no means confined to the tonic triad. reality ^ ^ sM P Tf w^ *=f we have done this already in In No. 23 1 is the ascending and descending scale with the accompaniment of . i iS^Eg^ we see the it is nothing essentially different from No. Let us now con trast the repetitions of one and the same chord 355. is when happening upon the entrance of the called a Participant Tonei^itl'-' Sa.a. Here. (c) balances every- A chord passing tone. a distinction. the twoy^'s are passing-tones. which two e's are participant- we consider as unessential. 350. however. -349.250 but the immediately following harmonic tone thing in either case. and whole scale accompanied by one single chord.' * ''^ Thus in the following example. ^MM=i i I. a. This has led us to employ two passing tones in succession. and b as passing tones. Had we tried to avoid the participant-tones. while the tones. perhaps 353. 356. itself.

with one passing-tone and one participant-tone. and B we introduce our passing-tones. and consequently in different voices simulta- The above tells us that every third can be filled up with one passing tone. neously. and every fourth with two. have we not filled out the bass have produced a peculiar kind of octaves. at A.i- IM I f'^mw^F^--^^^ 11 — V=^tMi ^^ fSEi^ tt Fi 1 ^ -0-0 iJ-J- -»-0:^ 'i D i i^ I J 1 y=ri j#-*— aL ^ l^§fe ? Why. that it is immaterial in which Like the suspensions. Let us at now employ them as often as possible. to speak strictly. we have taken all our passing-tones from the reigning These are called Diatonic Passes. 357. or. harmonize as We take again A simply. they can occur in every voice. it ' our melody of No. voice Above we all we must remember introduce the pass. A. dz ^. ? t==|: F would Because it i 12*" '^J .251 the subdominant and dominant chords. Thufs far scale. in which we have only- taken care to begin and end on a harmonic tone.^M^ 1 . 358. 255 as basis. and well deserve a thorough practice before we proceed.

. and in the latter case between ^^ w alto and tenor. at e filled between bass and out the bass 1 alto. the first at c case we and a have we not filled out the alto 1 Because in should have caused consecutive fifths between treble and alto. A similar case would have happened at B. Why. 360. have we not It would not have been wrong 359. f but the seventh-succession between alto and bass.252 (1) which are even worse than the open octaves at 2. Why. and the accu- mulation of passing-tones in the three voices. would have given a dragging character to the whole phrase.

fill Our But present means enable us to every third and every larger interval with passing-tones. we see passing tones employed. which are foreign to the key. we g. are in the chord in their original form for instance. 362. Thirdly.253 CHAPTER CHROMATIC PASSES II. we seized between c and e the intermewe can now take the tone c| between c and or rf. see among the passing-tones raised degrees which . let us attempt to fill out a smaller interval. -^^ This gives us Firstly. or natural degrees against pressed or raised de- . The Chromatic Pass. c| against c. ^1 against grees. the second. much to consider. A. AND ASSISTANT-TONES. Secondly. With rfj the same right that diate tone d. we see the small space of a third filled by three passing tones. between d and e. and thus are led to take the whole chromatic scale upon a single chord. Of course we can also introduce depressed degrees against natural.

as it ought to be according to the above rule t or why in No. we might this. and by This teaches us also the proper manner of writing passing'tones. But such a momentary oross'relation. And since these passes are practicable in every voice.. now shown in the upper voice can also be But we must look out. of course. If. for instance the c| at a. whether there room for these passing tones. have we written b\> instead of a#. d descends to d\. effects . -^ame manner. 362. is nothing '''$ Bd=^&:j P =5F ^ i I but a leader from one tone say it (c) into the next one (d). or e?K and c| instead of eb and d\)t Because the strict observance of this rule would lead us to tones too foreign to the original key. be called accordingly.254 363. can produce cross-relations. it is merely a part of the hielody.. in No. is according to the passing-tone nothing but a continuation of the preceding harmonic tone. at b. in order to lead to d. sequently it should. A passing-tone. t)- iiitS33= 73SZ i X iatfl :^ a =1= I ^^ II S>^ -& i^ :fe I These formations remind us of our former cession. in order to lead to But why. they must be practicable also 365. appearing in an analogical suc- no disagreeable it justified. What we have done just in every other voice. and c. and would notes make the reading of more difficult. raises itself until it reaches the d. 363 have we taken /j) instead of ^rj. :^=^^^^^^B3E&=| M\ '^^m . Conin the c raised to cjj. particulaiiy is in the middle voices.

the more passing tones we introduce above or below the harmonic tones. we have introduced some but we have by no means exhausted all possible r For this would lead us into false progressions. m^ 368. But. the thesis may serve as an example. in order to in' troduce the chromatic passes too. And again we return to our phrase of No. 357. or even in three or more voices 366. the more are the latter placed in the shade. ^^^s i- . The treatment of passing-tones. i JEEJ^^fei^ rr-fi '^0-t-f^i—- w¥^=-y i -fS f^f^F seIe F- ?^|: >J. In order to suspensions. and would overload the phrase with foreign tones.# ^E£ :f: -&- -J-. make this phrase richer. of course.255 m two voices simultaneously. and the more danger is there of causing confiision.

for reasons neither of these expedients might be of any poor. But these passes serve tion. the possibility by interposing smaller ones. for instance. of the pass would lead us to think of We gain by the pass. because there is not room for eighth-notes at o. i the half notes of a are resolved into quarter-notes at b. The chromatic passes add another danger relations. could place the d. also to increase the rhythmical anima- Here. the very effects at such places a necessity of interposing this. we might avail ourselves of tone repetition. as we have just of filling up larger intervals' explained. and into But between e and / we can gain no such animation by the mere passing-tone. And yet there may be a tone . consequently A pass between supposes always a vacuum. a step in the melody wide enough to admit of an intermediate tone.256 With the introduction of the diatonic passes we ran the risk of fifths spoiling an originally correct phrase by consecutive and cross and other bad relations. It is true. between c and c and e| there is we can have no pass. Between c and e we d we had room at least for cj( no vacuum to be filled. or of a harmonic by-tone 370. one. that of accumulation of foreign tones B. and the second might be preven- ^ The first might seem . The Assistant Tone. =>^ many But use.

Such tones are called Assistant-tones. For such cases we require a The phrase a 371.257 ted by the progression of the bass. which. too. We derive it thus ^r*i 372-9- I up by passing-tones at b. We shall have more use for these assistant-tones at a future time. At present it will be sufficient for the student to practice chromatic passes. We can change our mind and return before we get there. At e and we have made use of half steps. as at c and d. ascending or descending. . might go from ciof. with the occasional introduction of assistanttones. Half steps are generally best for ascending. They can be either steps or half steps. But must we absolutely go to e 1 is filled The d led to e and back to f c. ! 1 particular aid.

for the present. f The ?~K^> Z!' It is easily perceived that the two-eighth-notes of the second measure are in reality nothing but the chord ffJ>-d. i i: ^ I If. suspended in the upper voices by a-c and the lower voice passing from b to the d of the next chord. But the greatest advantage obtained thus is that we are no longer . and Our harmony to it. in the " Magic Flute. then in the capability of making our voices more connected and more flowing than we were able since we deserted onr monophony. results of these passes consist principally in the additional means acquired . phrase. opes itself melodically based upon harmony. as they were formerly too angular and rough." in a and animated triphonio phrase. But our only object. our melodies can now become too round and polished. and at a future time we shall be able to to judge to what degree we can make use of them. forced to construct a chord for every tone of the we are liberated at once from the is melody yoke of harmony. each of which devel. is to practice these passes. light 373. originally. but not chained This melodic relation can even sometimes be predominant over Mozart. It is true that by a too frequent application of the passes. was 374. writes thus the harmonic element. now dissolved into four voices. r i^^^fc r ^ f W . PASSES.258 CHAPTER THE KESULT3 OF The III.

fegM i&t^ r r IZ± lU^UM^i: "rT --^ ^: r construct similar illustra- the preparation of which suspensions does not even exist in the It will not be difficult to Two more illustrations here. and harmonic-tone and passing-tone. the voices and the dia But in the since the passing-tones now actually begin to play a part harmony itself.259 at A. A similar proceeding has . P u choii tions. they are also applied. tones. originally. to which. been applied in the following 375. Ei -e>- ^ -yri&— "cr H-ge become \-^ -cr merely to remind us that even cross-related passes can -^ become suspensions. though merely pseudo-harmonic as real harmonic tones. 377. for instance. they did not belong. they can at least disfigure well-known chords to such a . or. c-e-g. also new chords. The passes can 2. W- s r f -r all tr ?2I where the simultaneous application of suspension and pass has preserved the flowing progression of tonic progression of the bass. We use them as suspension-tones. 1. suspensions as and c 376. and according to rule as written at b or c but Mozart wanted a more flowing progression and he mixed up suspension. by making of the at B passing-tones at a.

we might apply the same proceeding to the major septime chord. as a matter of course. further. m triad has :|bi- 3E a superfluous Eti^d=^ f= r this circuni- The ' now is fifth. It fol- and use the new chord its fifth..J MM. and owing to stance this chord called THE SUPERrLTJOUS TRIAD. and for the formation of new sequences. ' '.1.. we can embody with (a).1. ff-b-d'jf-f independently lows. its It can be introduced whenever superfluous fifth has not ap- peared as a previous passing-tone.260 degree. this superfluous fifth (b)... added seventh.. also. It is the only passing-chord which boasts of a particular name. and it can be used in all its inversions. . rrr^' Since the dominant chord is nothing but a major triad with it. 380.. owing to its origin. 379. must as- S81. which. the rules of the dominant chord. -^ tiP'e—- f Knowing. we can use them independently. Here .U. without regard to The in the first of these triad. with the exception of cend. b^J. that every septftne-chord is nothing i^ but a triad with added seventh. new chords arises from the pass of the fifth major 378.. that their origin.

* If this new chord to be * The chord d\i-g-i-f (o) boaBted formerly of a high-sounding name. therefore. and which might. be called the double-diminished we were in want of a new name.i it W--»- We have done new chord. ibAi E^=^ ibA. it was called the chord of the superfluous sixth. f- m^ f^^ triad. call we have obtained the septime-chord. fifth. only superfluous. M. and thus. Jnst because the superfluous sixth. depressed interval. and thus formed a g-h-d\. if is at a . the same name was given to another chord. the passing-chord and to it the seventh. but it is absolutely unsystematical and confusing. we altered the dominant chord by fifth. we can now make a triad from our new septimechord (f) which is even smaller than the diminished triad. sext-chords. i c-«-^|. . if which we might all the superfluous septime chord. ck-b attracted princapal attention. 378. d\>-f-a\i-b. Let us now attempt it by depression.261 382. it were at necessary to have a name for every new forma- tion. tion of the Formerly in No.-f. eleva- 383. terz-quart chords. -i ES£ I'^m^the chord c-e-g. or some similar name and not satisfied with this. . at b we have placed the passing-tone at once on the place of th^ proper harmonic tone. and This name is not quint-sext chords wei'e all thrown into one category. which had altogether a different origin. And which differs from the dominant chord by its and by the absolutely necessary descension of that as we formerly made a diminished triad from the dominant chord. we have made from by adding (•-e-jijf-6.

fifth.262 used tetraphonically. 387. {g-byd!^) which resembles a well known sext chord but which differs from : it in its progression. by transfor them the freer resolutions of the dominant chord . ^ we ^-^ Ife ^ -&- r Finally. thus 384. Chords like these. are led to harmonic formations. or mediation. The minor triad. as at it can only be done by the doubling of the g in the above. ssventh. $M {g-h\)-e\/). in which the for- merly unlawful quint-succession appears purposely and with good effect. and thus different keys. because after its it once exciting our expectation by into a tone resolves which has already been obtained otherwise. But tone it can easily be seen that not every position of these chords appears favorably. $ ^V5 ^ '!fn- ^t^"C3" fc 1'^^ iZ- "ST -e- fe -xsr •ST f We know that the diminished septime chord (b) arises fronj . (c?l)) All those positions in which the conspicuous strange appearance. has a major fifth. instance. and even leads to a new septime chord 386. is close to the third (6) are unfavorable. too. which take their intervals from can become ferring to new means of modulation. and by transferring to it the elevation of the we obtain a new chord 385. deceives us.

:^- m^^ i : fe But we are led here dent has probably to . is are useless and wrong. But us return to No. E *. and with good effect. /f-ab-c-e^. have also submitted to the suc- Here now. the resolution of the chord brings about something so forced and confused that it can almost become incomprehensible. and at d follows the chord. T"^ Thus. 388. 388. formed by it. Why are we justified now in making use of progressions which we formerly denied ourselves? Not merely because we now . too close upon another tone of the harmony. which are by no means disagreeable or inapplicable nay.263 the dominant chord (a). 383 and 386 are well in a different position But the same successions T 389. quite correct at A and b.-&- an observation which the attentive before us. . as Mozart has done. which can even be used. TJie successions of No. The lower voices form here consecutive fifths. we have intro- duced the passing-tone ab. viz stu- made that the peculiar posi- tion of the chord-tones does much to favor the admissibility If the foreign if and is the comprehensibility of these successions. cession of heterogeneous We fifths. at c. in slow movement. admissible. tone the two resolve in one and the same tone. the passing-chord d^-f-a F=> let E^ tlli j T-r while at o it is ff & spoUed by the position.

we see in the passing-tones dience to the letter. The /t] passing-tone would have as surely indicated and retained the If key of C instead of G. against slavish obe- Every artistic nature has within it the impulse to free itself and to become independent . we should not haive been prepared for . also.264 consider them agreeable and fit for use. 4 Here we tain the will see both dominant and subdominant defend and main- major. and preparation of transitions. ailalogically. 3. But already w but modulating in the second we see a phrase beginning decisively in in the third measure into it ' ! major. instead Here is the point whence arises often the greatest error. though the dominant chord of key does not make its appearance even at the end. we had taken the passiflg-tone f. from the sixth measure. the or. and yet. everybody that imagine himself in G major. means of modulation. so that /jf indicate the subsequent hardly requires the dominant chord. And. but reason must decide how &r a deviation is admissible. new and regular instead of the nearest. the introduction Here 390.nt observation. to accident. measure does the passing-tone major. We ir- say the greatest. at least. This leads Us to a very importa. but because we have noTf of owing them been led to them consistently. finally. because active minds often seize the ther development. P --F ^ G Jfl 1^ C major. and thus cut off at once every fur- But we must warn. G J J I ' J_J_ j \ .

/ti and the tone . reason. 392. therefore.265 Q major we but rather confirmed in C major. In future. if we intended to remain in C. will construct the pass before a modulation. For this verythe tone f\ would have been unfit. so that it pre- pares rather than contradicts the subsequent key. i :*=* r^ 'f the right one.

CHAPTER POSITIONS. purpose to overload our voices with harmonic and non-harmouic additional tones. Before making use of the latter. and faults could only be avoided at the expense of give us always complete chords. DUOPHONIC. These. I. we must first consider What The harmonies we can best represent without imperfection. that the progression of the voices often pre- vents our directly reaching those tones which seem desirable to . It is still natural that this incompleteness of chords should happen less than four voices. The Treatment of More or Less than Four Voices. THE TEIPHONIC. or more frequently with we should still oftener make use of hannonic bye-tones. ASD MONOPHONIC COM- We have perceived that not even four voices were sufBcient to by making use of harmonic bye-tones.266 Tenth Part. But we know already. however. five voices. It requires now but a brief considera tion. tion of the more-or-less-voiced composition. and it may not always suit. unless the completeness of the chords. triads require but three voices. Complete nonachords were altogether impossiSeptime chords could only be carried out completely with ble. will force us to make use of passing-tones . and consequently can some- times be better applied triphonically than tetraphonically. if we our wish to avoid a certain emptiness and superficiality. therefore. Latelt we have limited ourselves to the tetraphonic composi and only occasionally represented one thing or the other with more or less voices.

the proof this gression of the voices will often force us to chord. wherever they seem preferable. for instance. that point. for the sake of flowing progression. or. still The duophonic accompaniment would be We could employ the natural harmony. or pursue any other course. 395. take a mere succession of sixths. in order to represent our chords as completely as possible. unless we prefer to end with a sext-chord. precaution will not always/ be sufficient. We have given necessary information on harmonic bye-tones. 393. leave some chords now necessary to know what all tones of a chord can best be omitted. make use Let us now attempt the accompaniment of the scale according to our first er.rd. more meagre. that the fundamental tone can be omitted. we were accompany the first tones of the scale with triads. we to shall have to resign many a position. howev- of the inversions. If. manner of harmonization.267 us. even in triads. with employment. in which case we have a diminished triad left . $ P=f we had this It is & -JF I 2 : though to introduce sext-choi'ds in the former. But even complete. The dominant-chord cannot be represented completely without The fifth is the interval in it which can best be omitted. We know. we in- must. We perceive that the final chord of b has lost the fifth and th. too. . the position at a and b would be preferable to that at c. Therefore.

for instance 397.i--ingharmony can be completed. No.268 we The nonaohords would have to resign third and fifth. -yy—h 398. According to these principles. rnffT^^Tf- too. that by means of added bye-tones and pa>. unless preferred to exchange them for derived septime-chords. perhaps thus m-wri 1 1 In duophonio composition to the we should have to cling still closer model of natural harmony. and : to successions of thirds and sixths. and the voices made more ^m w :^^^ Li'j ^^ 1-5= Instead of all further explanation we merely give here a single illustration. i ^ — d " ^^-^ :?-*! :?=^i F-^a- CCj' ^^m1 . 217 would be harmonized triphonically. in latter case the third which had best be omitted. ^^m We know. tones the flowing or animated.

We must now confess that the mere scale. tonic. ^feg^ means for every in the following ^--^^ i -f:^ -S t£?. the thesis no longer end upon the parallel. can easily be mixed with the harmonic tones. Our phrases have long broken through the limits of a single scale will . having in our tone- possession the means of a fully-developed harmony. easily see that We know already that chords can be melodically represented. first lesson. but strives tqwards the domiin the nant. fore in reality. or has become a separate part and ends &c. &c. but we resume it. Thus we see monophonical ritornel of a concerto by Sebastian Bach: 400. &o. or the we have a continual longing for harmony and the Can all this latter strives again for embellishment by suspen- sions. we must return This was our phrase can be carried out. 399. by a single voice. finally. passing-tones. key of the dominant. though the first and most necessary. again to the monophonic composi- tion. in a single voice ? be done Beyond doubt. . passing-tones. in part or entirely.269 which the student not the only may analyze for himself. and the foi'mations attached thereto. is way in which the And. there- harmonic form. Then we can suspensions. gfe^^- ^± itijiqc ^^J^E^ m rn^M m^^^^ . of course. the We have. and conse- quently can distinctly express every turn of the modulation. is but a meagre basis for melody. This.

will be suiHcient for us to indicate the means and possibility. .that it contains all essential points of an energetic modulation . It the modulation into the subdominant (measure 5 and the modulation to the dominant. the tonic chord at the beginning the turning to the dominant (mea- sure 2 to 5) to 6). as the student of illustrations. . harmony will have no difficulty in writing such .

all Nevertheless it will not always the voices clear through the throng. two or more bodies. must take the fundamental tones more frequently. . THE MOEE-THAN-TETEAPHONIC COMPOSITION. we must think of those harmonies and those reits free sources which permit each voice to pursue and independ- ent course. e. A. the necessity of leaving harmonies incomplete will occur less frequently. but instead of tones. when a numerous mass of voices once happens upon it is dispersed harmony. Above all. and only progress in small steps for. "" think of procuring more space for the The bass must go lower.271 CHAPTER II. and covers them. which. to extend chord internally. must cling to one Next to this. or polyphonic. All these rules are so clear and consistent. In it The Polyphonic Composition. . one choir. or to connected. in order to give a firm basis to the numerous voices. that they require no particular practice. latter a and of the tity nonaehord) in order to find the greatest quan- of matter for the many voices. to make of the triad a septime chord. The middle voices. very difficult to control it and to avoid confusion. position as long as possible. {i. occasionally between a greater and less be possible to lead We shall have to choose evil. we must middle-voices. in it we shall often ble one or careftil to more consequence of which be forced to douwe must be arrange our voices so that they are not in each other's way. in turn. every we must always remember in the right place. though form separate' choirs among themselves. Finally. and we shall even be forced to employ duplications and progressions which are contrary to rale the greater number of voices forces them upon us . first is in preference called many-voiced. and have been pre- pared so much already. Wb The must here still distinguish whether all the voices belong to one single body.

The polyphony ^upon entirely test in the orchestral composition is something based successions. more treatments of the same culty. At o and d are two. different principles. six voices. and have introduced a somewhat richer modulation. Thus. Hfere w^m we have written a simple melody with an a<«iompaniment of At b we have arranged it ootaphonically. We have everywhere taken as many voices as we could introduce without diffi- practicable enough to add still more voices. save in extraordinary and leads the student to ponderousness and affectation. we have here .272 save a few attempts to apply our acquired information even under diiBculties. The student ought to begin with very simple of how 401. as this man- ner of writing cases. is of but little importance. and many voices they admit. We add the subsequent remarks. It is • for seven voices. at A. but warn expressly against a too-great extent of these attempts.

trary direction. and even then have to cross between tones which have been much better represented by other voices. in c is a similar choir There is another in a. proceeding in a con6. which formed itself in the voices 5. independent of single inconveniences. 3. separate choir. 5.273 B ^^^^ 402. which. undeniable that the ninth and tenth voices find their way only with diiBculty. 401. The other voices were added as well As a matter of course. In No. count the pedal-tone. and d of No. that they form among themselves an independent. we cannot always finish one as we could. this it form sext-chords and appear as a well-closed mass. voices 1. b. it is if we But. together with the upper voice. after having written the bass. the and 4. 401 for ten voices.9^ -4 e= ^^m^it *=(: ^ arranged the melody of No. and 3. 6. In order to obtain the greatest amount of clearness and care in polyphonic compositions. is always best to have two or three voices progress in thirds and sixths. was desirable to have a second mass. Wherever such choirs occur they ought to Soon as possible after the upper and bass voices. formed 1. by the voices 5 and 6 and the voices 8. or eleven. 401. In a. though much less connected. . consisting of the voices formed such a choir. and to place these parallel voices so close together. we have immeAfter diately written the voices 3 and 4. . and 6 have another be placed as in B. and 7. i ^ i^i^ -°-#- g^ B= 1 BE ^m^ m^^^ -•.

as. 396. we will now gite a hexaphonic (six-voiced) treat- ment of No. 401. -4-S& -3-g — i: w r-*- -e- 403.^J^. It can only be done where a voice seems particularly apt to such treatment. as in the following -i. for instance. when the general arrangement of the voices permits it. i=s -Jzz^sz Y upper voice. ^rff-r*=nfTi^ J-J-^ ^^ . or. In conclusion. with slight alterations of the ^W ^ --^ 3t=t & e^ f--^BJ. the voice 8 in No.374 )r two voices before beginning the others.gj.fi^'.J_J_.

eight dif- sometimes forming and at other is effected times dissolving two or more voices in one. the phrase. as a whole. and though at some places former treatment. satisjfiied with a number Handel. withexis- out a particular and sufficient reason. We composition. (page 90) and have decided that these duplications cannot be considered as actual voices. less while the remainder will have to be of voices. steady melody. but only appropriate phrases. in his oratorio "Israel in Egypt. we have obtained a greater volume of tone. and that every excess is injurious. or parts of phrases. consider the following phrase For this reason we can . is by no means an improvement on the this is But snuch less owing to the manner of It execution. slowly-developed harmony and quiet. There is an apparent or pseudo-polyphony which by doubling some real independent voices. bass or treble.275 rm~im It r cannot be denied that the whole appears overloaded. he will not treat everything polyphonically. the result would teach us that even in the number of voices simplicity and suffi- ciency are always best. that the phrase But even admitting had been treated with an artistic object. but simply to illustrate the possibility and the manner of writing polyphonically. ject to was not our ob- make a work of art. or perhaps have had such cases in the double-duophonic all voices. manner ." has treated Several choruses in this ferent voices. particularly in simple. sometimes employing different choirs. But even under the tence of a reason. Not easily will a composer overload his work with voices. than to the forcedness of the task.

the This cal is more customary manner. merely as pentaphonic. by themselves. of which larly. We can form two or more choirs of voices. . though selves. the phrase it contains nine voices. Not even it bellishment of one or the other of these assistant-voices. The Double-choired. the real polyphonic manner is absolutely incapable. Dividing the voices contained therein into two or more masses.. particu- which is not limited to periods or phrases. for instance. by- means of bye-tones or passing-tones would change voice . because it is more practi and useful. gives to the whole manner a mobility.H. but which can be employed in even the closest interchange of choirs. or. transparency and clearness. it wovdd still be a mere duplication of another voice. (page 72). The first manner. manner can be em. 406. or Polychoired Composition. we we can employ one or several of these masses can unite them in real polyphony. into a real we were to write the highest voice of the above. B.276 405. and if thus. this There are various ways in which ployed. these assistant-voices should exchange their parts Even if among themthe em- would still be pentaphonic.

even when they from the are all combined into one grand whole. the fact of each one being a whole. and requires but a simple considrefers to the real which then. while and make the harmony as complete we all are at liberty to permit between two voices of different choirs those relations and progressions which the real polyphony upon us. causes us to conceive each one separately. the most manifold applications are open to us. but each choir separately. and at every separation of the single choirs. also. we can distinguish it From this it follows that pendent whole. All these formations will be reconsidered in the orchestral and They do not. for the present. not merely all to' gether. . as long as others. the other can proceed in unison. octaves.277 The choirs can have equal or unequal number of voices and position. and clear as possible. All this demands no eration. But as soon as we consider every choir as a separate whole. new law. require even a vocal composition. another can be more figurated. of course. The united must appear as a whole . characterize we must treat each choir as an indeit by good upper and lower voices. choirs polyphonic com- position. &c. or take the pedal-tones. The different connected choirs can be employed differently one choir can be treated simply. It is suiiicient to have indicated them. particular practice. or contribute in various ways to the effect forces of the whole. While we give the hai-mony to one choir.

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THE ACCOMPANIMENT OP GIVEN MELODIES.SECOND BOOK. .

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There are two species of melodies.]—-Ed. or melodies of the people. form a music peculiar to Germany and to German composers. information embodied in these important branches as he found it. first book we have acquired the means which the and rhythmical elements offer us for artistic objects. or to reduce this informa- tion to mere principles and to adapt them to other cosmopolitan forms. which in their sphere were probably satisfactory. Though we have already constructed compositions with the mere natural harmony. owing to their importance. . but either to give the forms. we are led at once to THE ACCOMPANIMENT OF GIVEN MELODIES. German theorists have attached to them all those rules of composition which perhaps could have been attached to other musical The translator had no alternative before him. Beginning again with the most simple task. but they can already be considered as independent works of art. the secular melodies of the people. or for other equally unimportant reasons. and. the choral melodies. Jn the cal toni- We shall now proceed to the application of these means for artistic objects. and to style of * [The chorals and national give a literal translation of the work before him. The translator of this work has chosen the former. the accompaniment of which can be demanded of the composer 1. Other melodies are generally provided with an accompaniment by their composer.281 INTRODUCTION. independent of the correct conveyance of the author's ideas. sitions were merely the means of practice. to let it pass for mere brevity's sake.* melodies. and 2. because. we were always restricted in our means. he thought it too good an opportunity of acquaiating the student with these peculiar musical forms. : |. and these compoOur fiiture labors are also merely devoted to the practice and development of our means.

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283 First Part. that from various points of view they admit of various accompaniments. in ^ time. and is now an essential part of Christian. a few passing-tones. by the rhythmical signature of a piece bythmical thus.* interrupted but rarely by notes of longer duration. For the noble simplicity of its melody makes it appropriate for the most manifold harmonization and accompaniments aye. parts are such parts of a measure as are indicated . which each in its place and for its object can be considered the best. The division into single. us from our fathers and forefathers . for instance. their melody pro- gresses generally in measural parts. in 4 time all the quarter-notes. . Their compass. their consolation and their strength * Measural notes. facilitates their internal arrangements. occasionally. each of which. The choral the religious and artistic importance of was always. But in other respects it can also be called one of the richest. most . each them. one tone. and their measural construction for with the exception of very simple. particularly evangelical worship. short strophes (phrases). fiirnish us. the choral forms one of the simplest lessons for accompaniment. a passing- attached. the est task for the practice of erally. while none can be caUed the only correct one. Even tone is the adaptation of words to them is syllable has. forms a whole. all the half <Sic. in every respect. for centuries past they have been the voice of the people. The Accompaniment of the Choral. Thus. their melodic progression is generally quiet and steady. as embodied at present into our first mode and of worship. because of their simplicity. is easi- accompaniment. generally. the treatment. and will remain so Many of these melodies have been transmitted to for all time. of the chords have so general a destination. The choral melodies. and the survey of very simple . to which. Added to this is now the lesson. genis not too extended. as it were.

Even now. it an artistically higher Thirdly. more more or less rich in harmony or less melodioally developed . 3.from which we have to* consider our lesson and to decide different treatments. from its respective But there^e three points in par. and ever after they are mixed up with our as people's song. it choral. a highly productive matter for sacred music.284 they have been the armor of the church at the time of the Eeformation. by the organ. and best support Secondly. it will soon be perceived. each of which' upon the treatment of the Firstly. in simple majesty. but to take into consideration. they will pass on to posterity. that every good choral less decided character. We can make it 1. the character of each single verse. character the task. of view. we should choose such harmonies as are most easily attached the melody. as CHORUS. in material respect. and Thus of the all our ideas connected with the choral are elevating. a highly important form. melody in the simplest manner. ticular. not merely to have our treatment correspond with the general character of the choral and the words. From every point we can accomplish our object in various manners. . phony 2. and even for secular music. also. and with all these reminiscences. . of deep significance. this the But besides treatment of the choral is an important part official duties of every organist. led life. with all this power. as OBGAN-piECB. and therefore To make the exposition of this typical is aim of harmonic treatment. we can make our object. melody expresses a more or has a typical significance. perhaps for centuries to come. Points of View for the Treatment of the Choral. may be our object merely to accompany the choral In this case to. We have already of said that one and the same choral can admit many point of view can be correct. more or less voiced we shall generally prefer tetraThus much as an explanation of our lesson.

though having the signature and close of our modern different treatment. above all. chorals. /t| and end accordingly. in moSt cases. These marks.~if keys. (or are. But they end upon G. that the signature and close are the of a key . perhaps. with G. because.285 CHAPTER I. to decide upon teristics choral melody for treatment written. first we also know what are the nearest modulations of each key. instead of /jf. It is clear. that under such circumstances our present informa- tion will not suffice for a proper conception of these chorals. which. conceived in the style of those centuries. but they have Finally. Confirmation of the Key and the Principal Points oj Modulation. not the signature of that key. All our former principles are by no means immediately appli cable' to these ecclesiastical keys. but keys en from either. at least. they and instead of closing with the dominant chord close with the triad of the subdominant. ' us safely. and which we shall call ecclesiastical keys.) and belong to neither to our major nor to our tirely different minor keys. We meet with chorals which have no signature. already. to say nothing D minor. still demand a we would produce characteristic efiect. and instead of 6b of other deviations. charac- the key in which it is We know. again. will be sufficient to guide But we have to encounter a peculiar difficulty in the Many of them originate from former centuries. begin. A. predominates throughout (d-f^-a^). and which according to our former ideas would be either in to major or in ^ minor. seem to belong to out. GENERAL CONCEPTION OP THE MELODY. Other chorals. As soon as we have selected a we have. . and yet do not belong G major. we find it| throughwe meet with a chorals.

and is in reality Ve have.286 They demand a in better information on the character of the keys it is which they have been composed. and exactly this in- formation -which will form the . which can be treated as belonging to practice. modem keys. that before having obtained the above in- formation. belongs to one of our modern keys. or has the mere appearance of it. But it is also clear. annexed a few melodies. we shall not always be able to decide whether a choral written in one of the ecclesiastical keys. therefore. and which will serve at least for .contents of the second part of this book.

— .e. m^hnn^rr^^ s m m^/TS r^. 3da. Jtf/- >t^*^ .^it^ <'/ —•—- m^m a—p- F.=p=?^ i i ^ ^S^ii . • rJ -* :^ ^e^.-& ^^^i^te r M^-gBst ^ |g^F^ -• ^twv.i. J'^^^w.287 Ima. *-T ^o^-n/i^ Ojttu is ^a^F^fTflPq^^j^^gEi i ^ »- JPE -0-m-^'. it*jt ^ ^ Y=x:s=i S^^^S^feEfEgfe • m /Hitv^.

.^„./de. Je//*^!^'^»-^''^«^*^*^ ^^S i -1^— i^ gg^F^a i =#^ ?=P=f= ..fe6-»*v ^s^gfe HCyrr€^t dJiu^ CA/ frV^ o«-^ ^ ^Tt^ B^^f^fPs i^S3 * ^^^^^p^^iil ..2S8 iifi'-^*- zfr.P. f f r jE3ri:=pitf:^ i ^£g '-¥ -0-m- cl^cJU.f^'y^ ^^^^^^ .^^^. ^r^^^^^t-d^CUkM ^ i nr^¥T^¥=f Ol^ m *—m- a ^.

^ :^--4 .d. l^r=^M-T^ tP2-~ .^_ it^z -^-J¥ ^ T m :'?: . •^^-?^3e&e^ f-^: .^_f2: ^=3 ff^f^Ff l-X P=f > . 1 Oh ^p= ! I fe=-Hfe=grL=:g| f^ iEgre T i=S: 'Sl 3E . Having once decided upon is how to arrange the the key of a melody.289 question general modulation.. for in- stance.<:1 :^ ^- :«: :?: J.d. must be our first guide. as. the case here $ d= =t zgpi -%-- zzt -&- ^^^ f±:^^ -i '^- :ri ^p&ir^ M » d ^ F-F ^^^^_^|lpJ^ :^tj:/^^. the first four of the above. but This is it is indicated by the arrangement of the whole. The rhythmical construction of the chorals. In others again. this division not distinctly marked.is d: ^^s- f-V" tJEPfei €—-§f— . the next Many is chorals are actually divided into two parts .

as chief for us. indicates at tmce a division of the choral into twice three strophes. the more so. and. (these. Instead of the dominant chord we might also use the major or minor nonachord. more or less satisfactorily. we close. therefore. G major. at the end of each strophe . have preparation . we consider. if the melody per- mits it. B. and to close it with either a half cadence. while If a choral has this two-part form. except in the last strophe. finally. and consequently the most preferable. therefore. The importance which ful these strophe-cadences. We must reflect well. sible. form but imperfect cadences) even the dominant triad is admis . which passes from the triad of the subdominant to the tonic triad. : what conclusion of the modulation is possible and which is the nearest and most natural. however. strophe as a separate part of the whole.290 The second part repeats the first two strophes of the begiimingy it and thus causes another beginning. separates Thus we have to treat each that strophe from the remainder. since demands a carethe numerous strophes of a choral demand full so many different cadences. moments and end-pomts of the modulation. 2. or the derived septime chords. from the dominant chord to the tonic triad. the minor melodies in the parallel. We shall require occasionally another species of full ca dence. the major melodies in the dominant. which conclusion would be most in keeping with the character of the choral. i is =F It is and called "ecclesiastical cadence. and most appropriate for the progression of the whole . the end of each strophe as a resting-point of the modulation upon which the latter breaks off. or voluntary retardation. Each single strophe of a choral has again its close. What 1. cadences have we now at our command ? The cadence." evident that this . 407. or a full cadence . which by means of pause or interlude. Summary of Cadences.

and of the fect full cadence. which formed of the triads of subdominant and dominant 408. it is formed by the progression of the tonic triad into the triad of the dominant. for instance. and we have employed it on different occasions to close the thesis. and the it. would go from c to d. F major). whether in major or minor. must be a major triad. in choral treatment we - cannot well do without little and we need not care how much or how it is. we have employed already in No. triad of the suBdominant does not so well prepare the final chord. In . which of the enumerated cadences are possibly applicable in it ? Most of the choral strophes end by ascending or descending one degree of either a step or half-step. 3. or the will of the composer.major triad. The of the ecclesi- astical keys. 407. it has not the impulse of the dominant chord to resolve Yet. i -F r However. And now we have to enquire at every choral. (the forms of No. can at all . or from d to c from c to or from h to . could also be half-cadences in because into it. first merely the end part (if there is any) demand a per- The half-cadence. satisfactory Full cadence and ecclesiastical cadence. 105. in an imperfect form of the whole. that the final chord of the halfcadence. All we have to remember is. as we know. in the chorals. it must be em- ployed occasionally. b. But we cannot always employ or replace it in this form. necessitate occasionally is a second species of half cadence. This. be- cause both tone-species have upon their dominants a. events be em- ployed for single strophes. imperfect such cadence may it "ST consequently of two chords which are not even harmonically connected. be. major.291 cadence closes not as satisfactorily as the piv per the full cadence two chords do not even designate the key with decision. it c. when the periodical construction was of minor importance. after-effect by another cadence.

now survey possible cases. 409. considering the last tone either as fundamental tone. must be part of a last major or minor triad half-cadenoe and we know that the Let us chord of the all must be major. at all . p 1 E.*c == .292 The last tone of the final strophe. events.C. minor or major third (in the half-cadences exclusively as major third) or fifth.

j^ .293 There are other closings of strophes which exhibit a repetition of the last tone. W=3k±jt^r=^ ?^ =t "t ^# —PSignature and end-tone indicate here the key of P f ^ .^_^ ^ 412. whether to treat the last two tones as belonging to the final chord and to place the preparative chord upon the previous tone. J/j^ ^ "^< . as enumerated here. as at B. and instead of fundamental chords we can : . . As a matter of course we need not absolutely use the triad c-e-g or ce\>-g to go to (^ but we can also substitute the sext chord e-g-c or eb-{r-c. we can make a full cadence with g-b-d-f Instead of the indicated nonachords. we can to c in C major or C minor. or to attach the f^ whole cadence to the ask which of all m last two tones. now fc: analyze a few chorals. or the descension of the third ." The formula is thus If we take e as fundamental tone. Whether all these cadences. and upon the adjudging of each particular case. And now Let us only. are appropriate or not." 5 stands for "Fifth. in such case it depends upon the student. is a question to be decided in future. 5b major the stands for " fundamental tone . as here i 411. we the possible cadences is preferable in each particular case. take inversions. i^^l^ BE ^- ^^^m J J m t goai=gjJ%FM^^F^ a at A. also take derived septime chords.

as thesis. by means of the nonachord e-g-i\)-d.ample: tonic cadence at the end will be S-rMjdUtXu^^. We might close in C minor. The third strophe. might also end in the parallel {^G minor). too. The nonachord f-a^c-e\i-g would enable us to close . The second strophe pal key but. according to our principles of modulation. can consider the two strophes as the Now. too. apart closes. but here. But. as a first part. four strophes. • p -0—0F-* irz^zs i % —F— ^ r- -» —^- i i . can consider the last two strophes as a second part which returns from the dominant key into the that the third strophe. Q signature interfere with but in that case the minor. in the dominant. Here is another ex. as a first part But have we not already considered the first strophes as a whole. and it would matter but little that the cadence would be imperfect. in regular minor. and with /. first first we It part of the choral. without having the final manner. too. We perceive now makes a half cadence from the full upon the dominant . it. this digression into the parallel comes too soon. in the Gf melody we should always meet two of which re- instead of the /)( of The above choral contains semble each other in length as well as in tone-succession.294 close can be accomplished with the dominant chord. the more satisfactory. The first strophe admits of a like close in the principal key. ^^'^ 413. might be ended with a full cadence in F. The beginning of the third strophe corresponds to such conception. We might also close in it . but for so small a phrase this is far too distant. as the princi- from the opportunity to end the second part satisfactorily. since the second strophe admits of a close in the dominant. and would have confused the harmony. a repetition of the close in the principal key would have been lame. which ends on the dominant 1 Consequently we principal. it would be a mere repetition of one and the same cadence. or even A]) major. which evidently inclines towards ^ major. cadence would be imperfect.

is. might be led into B\. towards a close In order to contin- and always in the same manner. major.! » g ^2^ 414. « W:^^ 3 -& ^ — s •- i^zp: *: 1 3F Ij-jj- i * ::izz±zd bizfz This melody offers some may serve as third and last example. the keys of the subdomin9. us. The third strophe can make a full cadence in D major. then. and the question t. and such modulation corresponds have now decided the two most important points of the modulation. by means of the nonachord g-h-d-f-a . B\. therefbre. to which everything else must be subordinate. slight difficulty. that the penultimate strophe leads to D major in in in . we should have to remain . The key of the the nearest modulation.295 "Ehis choral is really constructed in whole is evidently G minor first . g. retain always the most simple. to em- ploy the half-cadence from the subdominant to the dominant. The first strophe. ually in G major even the penultimate strophe is appropriate for a half-cadence in G. by a. minor. We now prepared for all the nearest modulations. Let us admit at once. the other But it is clear that simplicity would here lead to monotony. how shall we make five cadences ^ The ot. two parts. by means of the dominant chord h-d^-f^-a . therefore.nt and the parallel. though inclined to modulate into D major. g can be employed for a close G major. . in addition to the principal and consequently gives are key and the dominant. by means of the dominant chord d-f^-a-c . . major part. by means of an actual modulation. too. but this would be anticipating and injuring the effect of the just-mentioned full to the ending of the We cadence of the whole part . or can make a half cadence upon the triad of the ^minant. C major. and we prefer. would be the parallel. because five of its strophes turn in the tonic.^ The followipg chora.

we should have had but one minor strophe. aim was merely a general appropriateness. We place the cadence of the subdominant. and with five major strophes. and deadened the the key of the But in that case the decline of the modulation in the subdominant would have been too conspicuous . belong to the easily seen that more than one deviating arrangement could have been for instance. we see that our actual natural. and to the we would like to give to one or the other phrase. E minor. a and analogically-developed modulation. We must remember. the third in or C major. consider the principles which have led us.296 We close the first latter. cessary. must permit such alterations. according to its character. should have modulated in a vague manner. two for the major. to confirm the The last strophe belongs already to this key. and two for the minor modulations. therefore. i. two minor strophes against four major strophes or two strophfes for the principal key. strophe in the principal key. as near as possible to the end . we effect G major. consequently. G- major. Thus much of the sketch of choral music. which we gained in the above ? And where would have been the decisive juxtaposition of subdominant and dominant ? But in return we should have fallen again upon former keys But where in that case E minor. that the above sketches or plans of modulation are subject to priate they many alterations. E major. nay.might have ended the second strophe. For two strophes we might have chosen. would have been the steady mass in E. color which to the meaning of the words. It is third strophes. and the fourth the third in again in E minor we might have closed Q major. subdominant. fresh. The second and parallel. in made . e. . G major. also. E minor. —consequently in the fourth strophe. E . we . however appro- We have appeared from our present point of view. . while in the above sketch there reigns abetter symmetry. instead of E minor. minor. without regard to the single moments of the melody. consider them as ne- may when the melodic contents of a strophe would not agree with the harmonies of the pre-destined key. But when we re- of former keys by returning to them.

such succes- . corresponding to religious dignity ial character. i 1= ^ ^f^k^i^. and without losing sight of our aim. and we erally prefer vigorous dignified modulations. triv- We shall sext chords. also avoid too frequent inversions. particularly quart- The latter. s r f^^= '^: T- =M r mi r f For. in consequence of our having so many • endings and such short strophes. we avoid every unnecessary repetition and . with due regard of therefore. we think of the nearest and most appropriate chords. to those of an effeminate. the harmony its of each strophe has received that destination. DISPOSITION OF THE HARMONY. according to has all now to be arranged decisively and steadily. elevation. first Again. look then to succession and connection. and. the principles heretofore mentioned. For the same reason we for instance shall generally avoid those harmonic successions in which bass and treble progress in thirds or sixths. We and bear variety in mind. which formerly seemed so appropriate would here make the harmony monotonous and weak. it destination . every wavering. too to particularly shall gen- when the melody might lead us and monotony. for the preparation of the ending. soon as the strophe-cadences are decided upon.297 CHAPTER As II. 415. owing to the preponderance of the outer voices.

own chord. it is but often. however. A tone of the melody can also be considered as No. 2. instead of equi-long measural duration for one syllable. But we must add chord is to To give each tone of the melody true. or to give a separate chord to each mea- . It parts. 5S m ^^9\ ^t A J. its own the most re- simple. a chord can be tained for several tones of the melody. tone. stance. 417. the ending of the third strophe in No. We need not here repeat that. as in No. We meet occasionally. this the follovring 1. suspension. 414. The tone of the melody can be considered as mere passingFor instance. as vigorous as the employ- ment of a separate chord for each tone of the melody. notes of longer depends then upon us to give such a tone one single chord. of No. however vigorously the latter may be organized in itself. A I Neither of the above are. 4. may devi- The whole disposition of the choral melody tells us already in that each tone of the melody ought to have its other words ought to be a harmonic tone. 1. in the proper place. might be treated in this manner : 416. 414. m 3. as in the third and fifth strophes. we ate from this rule as well as from every general rule.298 sions are apt to produce monotony and effeminacy in the harmony. for page 287. in- and consequently as a part of the preceding chord. the last strophe of the choral. might be treated thus 417. Thus. AJ=L=i i BEl .

which might be treated thus 418. the other as added. therefore. We can. and which the har- monic tone sion of our the progression of the melody does not indicate the one as essential. But it is more customary and vigorous. most appropriate as harmonic. for it. or we can give a separate harmony to each of them. to give a separate chord (for instance in the penultimate measure of the to each tone. . thus 419. one or the other tone as passing-tone. ^^^8p^^^3 s I I . 5. we follow the progres- harmony and consider that one as harmonic. 414.Ji5.^ ?=FK shall ? ?*£F= right in its place. r though the is treatment as at a or b Each of these conceptions can be is more common If but the question which of the tones be the passing-tone. but different. which. The just-men- tioned instance might be treated. We iind occasionally same a case. 1= w- rrr-r SSfg I ~cs-jitp=rz:5=l ^^^ I I e^d^P^I^EfePE^^^Ei ^ i f^ When a syllable has two measural parts. for instance. It is less usual to treat each measural member . the third strophe of No. is according to the connection of the modulation. 414. or thus.299 sural part therein contained . tied notes first and second strophe in No.) these two tones can have a single chord. treat the (for instance in the penultimate mea- sure of the choral) a measural part divided into two measural members in such —two-eighth-notes instead of a quarter : note.

which. now. and. is the triad of the dominant.SEd2: the following fundamental bass. if mony and to overload the modulation. therefore. because those at a and b end with the same tone with which they began. chords. let us to our first choral. therefore. it is also most natural to begin with the tonic chord. is the chaflging of the dominant triad into the dominant chord. we are once determined to employ two chords. Bq± fe£ Qfc. e. After these observations.1 A 1 HF¥ r '-^ We must then intro- or its inversions too trivial for the chorals. connection of chords. best. as at c. We have now found 421. appropriate for a particular expression.P=i=tt 6 2 6 probably the one at c. and to the first /of the melody that the last We know. we ought to prefer the closest though the treatment at d may be i. the former might . 420. No. strophe we have decided to end in the principal key. . There remain now only the tones 6b and c . And now we have harmony between these fixed points. and we shall find the mere repetition of the same chord too monototo find the nous : J. the chord bh-d-f. ^ but shall prefer a more pliant inversion. two tones must be accompa. duce new The nearest.300 because it is apt to interrupt the steady progression of the harTherefore. nied with the dominant and the tonic chord we shall take. 422. The nearest step. Its first now turn to the task itself. 412. then. therefore. leads back to the tonic triad. Three times more does the / appear in the melody.

therefore. yields under any . and would be an additional reason for choosing no other chord for the tone JI7. regarded the bass. If in this harmonic disposition we have specially a good reason for it. Thus. which reminds if it us at the same time of the parallel. =^^ 6 2 6 ^^ m 6 7 3= We this see here. And exactly because of this attach the subsequent chord to this harmony and accompany the following tone of the melody with the triad of c. in that voice. if e\!-g-b\). or a terz-quart chord on the can We now understand second tone of the melody 424. c. we have in its being an outer voice. the subdominant of ff. The subsequent sext-chord gently prepares the descent of the bass a triad would cause here a stiff progression . consequently more conspicuous and more important. we had not just had that with the subdominant that chord. The next strophe we intend to end ural to turn towards it in F. 01- triad.301 be accompanied with the tonic chord. nat- as soon as possible. we therefore. it is. were not too soon for the triad of ff. the new key with decision. We prefer. in addition to other observations. reminiscence. the elevation or ascension is accomplished by quart-steps. in order to introduce Its first tone. as we ob- tained it. therefore uniform. Obtr r :t weak and inappropriate would the succession at a have and how insignificant at b the two inversions of one and But the greatest loss would have been in the the same chord been ! How ! sacrificing of the consistent progression of the bass. that the bass as- cends and descends in a decisive direction. why the beginning could not have been made with a quart-sext chord. the first strophe would have this form r 423.

while we are proceeding towards F. to go as far out of the way we shaU. But we consider this dominant triad as were a tonic harmony. lays even beyond B\> major. c-e-g. i fe^=r i msE Here are the last strophes with three diiferent basses. which we employ as sext-chord. The triad of e|j. It is natural that the dominant triad. it lies now nearest to change the foreign chord g-h-d-f'vcAo an indigenous one. and follow it up with the dominant new key. the major triad or sepa strophe ? time chord of ^. which we might choose. again the nearest but we have but just employed and the subsequent dominant chord Would appear weak and a mere repetition. (page 190. tone.302 cii-cumstances no nearer harmony than the triad of the doinmant. for the other in g be- the dominant chord. g-b\)-d-f. and enables us. One more longs to demands its harmony.. should lead to the tonic triad. . so as to avoid the repetition of the tone if it / in the bass. any chord ? The triad of the new dominant it. But in is it worth while. besides. avoid the In the absence of par ticular reasons modulation to C.) The second strophe of our choral would now be thus '25. for so short is intended to be ^ major. or to strengthen the modulation to F still more. g. "What can is this g be . But we have the minor triad of g. as we have learned already. to preserve the freshness of the dominant chord for the cadence of the stror phe. /ac. like the dominant chord itself. triad of the It is it clear that this triad is quite sufficient tor the transition.

has been the means of our returning most rapidly and most decisively into the principal key. {/. or a more frequent ously it and untimely employment of them.-f-a-c . i^i that there are still require other harmonizations possible need not here be added. three or four times in succesintroduced. might easily disagree with the religious dignity of the choral. the secunda chord issues immediately from the Simultane- preceding final chord. this principal key becomes decided. f-a-c.303 $ 'i=F^ =*—•^ =P=F= s^ 2 6 6 5 ^ 426./)j would have been nearest. and in accordance -with the nature ot inversions gives a greater mobilty to the harmony. has remained undecided. therefore. we modulate into the subdominant. At the bass tried to avoid the return to It g. At A. £}. This has caused a cross-rela- . begiven on At B. an actual modulation into the sion. and thus ascend to the principal tone. now. 7 -©S 6 4 5 3 4 7 ^=E » 7 6 6 S=E r which -vrill rtF some few remarks e\. and we must consider how far otherwise. But it is here now the more decided. to therefore the sext-chord. the treatment of it upholds this dignity. The subsequent harmonies which seem as if conceived for horns. in the first part of the general rula strophe. of 5b. when c. its first tone. major. We parallel of the principal key. but in that case the bass would have proceedtake the triad ed in thirds with the upper voice. It is only in the penultimate meacause sure. and how far the words admit of a more light conception. the return to the principal key. contrary to the page 301.

to touch once more upon the key of the dominant. however. and in the triad.^E We might have avoided it could be easily mitigated. would be better concluded manner of a. change the major sext-chord into minor . I 3 OEfc 3 5 if this ^ intention.304 tion in the harmony. . but we should lost by it the symmetrical progression of the bass. instead of a/j(). in other words. We might. by means of a /—fi- ^ ^^ f~^'~f~r~ or I :^=i ?'=F^ I 437 uJH' 1 I 3E5 J . altogether by an have alteration of the bass {//|. this would give a more serious turn to the whole strophe. are not in their place.' and at a point when foreign modulations. in the penultimate measure. :^=t3p: -&- foreign and serious ending corresponded to the words or to any particular In that case we should have made a modulation into the parallel of the subdominant. and conclude the choral thus : b: -&- 428. change this obnoxious /| into /. than that of c. Prompted by the foreign we might also turn to C minor. This makes it advisable. tone. also. or. which. accordhig to rule (page 211). and thus to return gently and quietly into the principal key to end there.

reflections in the preyious chapter We will now were merely preparaharmonize one or two chorals. The tory. indicate that method which has proved which itself the best The following of the most slight choral. SIMPLE TREATMENT OF THE CHORAL. as long as labor. is one of insignificant and unchurchlike melodies. but it this is moment to us. we select for this purpose.ft 7f . and at the same time and safest. gives us an opportunity to illustrate the method of our r- 49.305 CHAPTER III.

The third strophe turns again towards the tonic of the principal key. as it will permit Yet. but leaves us ample room for other harmonies. however. and. we should try to avoid the C major triad. therefore. confirms the dominant. of the melody makes for instance. but with its minor triads re- minds us of the two parallels. preferable. 430. and have confirmed the principal key in the first strophe with such harmonies as the melody admitted of The second. 6 6 we should disfigure. because we have introduced the distant chords and afterwards turned to the immediate proximity. or mask the key in the very beginning and the further harmonies would be placed in the shade. We have here submitted to the har- mony. far. responsible. i m zMzziL first tfEfclHE=E| ^= Tl6 m 6 . very difficult in the above. strophe.306 We are not must hasten us. But we to its assistance. which is so forcibly indicated by the melody. for the melody. If. as indicated by the melody. at least for the first four steps. clings to the principal key. too. This treatment is. as shall find that the it at least. The arrange- . we distinctly-expressed character for us. finally.

and the principal key. As 432. in this connection. and the parallel would appear strange and But we now discover that the same cadence is requisite for the first strophe. second illustration.. -^-d=^\-t=i^*=-*^^61. K n^liM I 1 1 ) I .^F=F=iF*F=*=^ff=r 1^ d_d_ *: '^M=^ r te^E^ti 3=* g^h*—*— . For it is impossible to have the cadence in the dominant. I. the cadences could only be mitigated The monotony of by the suspensions even .icipz -&- -e IV. as possible.. . if the 433. and we shall consequently fix upon the all. only towards the end we see the voices beconie more'animated. parallel after We decide now upon the third str6phe . could not well be avoided. the first After this fix it also in we decide upon the close of part at II. A^- 3 II. e\. will take the following choral. the subdominant gloomy. 6b «b two strophes of which form a first part.I S jc:p: t=f=.307 ment of the harmony is as simple. * ^P^ III. and in accordance with it I. the quart-sext chord. and are repeated at as such. ^1» major. eb t ^ i the first -»—*. _ . We first fix the key. would be out of place. — - / 61. 61.?="Pl^ m . the close of the whole. \v«. I I ' I.

and with which we have at present nothing to do. Graun repeats two strophes which form a first part. it would have been best to end it in the dominant. to which his choral in reality. the first is treated in this manner. we have liberated ourselves. the remainder confirms the just-mentioned principles.308 principal key had preceded it. perhaps. instead of the parallel. first place. Thou.^j^^£La ± W^. in the gree. ing. hance the modulation in the beginning. by Graun. the chords are clearer and more dispersed. too. The observations made formerly upon the monotony of the cadences have not been made without results they have prompted us to enrich the modulation intrinsically. Here. instead ib-ff-b]. and for this reason.-g. and in both repetitions the composer clings to the harmonic . The folIt lowing choral. and the parallel of the same in .r^^^=F^=-P -0-p^ - ^E . with different harmonization the words of the last strophe. belongs. the voices are freer and more mobile. &c. system of the ecclesiastical keys.solved on deeds Ap- . are repeated in a coda. $s " ^ But r p=^ . -A J. the second strophe. the fifth would have been equally easy to enby touching the dominant chord might have been a-c-e\. but under existing circumstances. to adopt the arrangement of No. already. was Re . 'A —=^ ?f of e vil. it -will be best.. 433. to touch upon the subdominant in the very beginning. whose tears were flow When Zi on ^ --^hd zt :i SS=^ & -& F in sight. in a de- from the close position of the harmony .

J- ^ ley -i -^- :te M J :^ Je - J Lord? « I I I That bus.£2_ -JO- its f^ Wliere is the oBve. ^ And ye for fe=^i=-i: ffS i 2^= -S> ^ S blood A. Is zL_d_J_^ :?2= his blood f-=P= your on H- g^^^ P¥^^?%=f=-^ Is ^ S soul! his blood on your soul?' . the val ^^ OEE i fiP= hides thee. J :J J- £ . -M: d= f=^E|g=f^=f. proach-ing J SJ de-cline.309 h rJ rJ ^sA J- J_J. M: now thirst - J ?3I ing.

but we have sions. becombination the harmony is formed. THE HIGHER TREATMENT OF THE CHORAL.e^ m r- ^m It and we with almost the identical harmonies. have also furnished us with the means to give to our voices the necessary melodic connection. The voices were employed. assistant tones. principles of modulation will of course remain the same. rarely in suspensions or passes the harmony. &o. almost itself. *==rat£=?LjU !^ W- . I 1 I ^ . In the preceding chapter plest we have executed our task in the simexclusively. a higher anima tion of the voices. And chorals. the Let us compare. and through them of the choral. as it kept as close to the requisites of the melody possibly could. flow. passing-tones. this is and pliancy. M^ It: * ^ see. Suspen. the representation of the harmony. The even in a higher conception. 433) with the treatment below.310 CHAPTER IV. . g 434. without becoming meagre and weak. treatment of the last (No. KJ J U-U 1 h^ i=J=J=iy:d=J=3=Ti H^f-S*rrT-^r-*n*^-7? fc±. in manner. for they are based upon the very elements of harmony consider the voices as the motive cause by their already been taught to power of the harmony. what we miss in the former treatment of our for instance. g^^i^^l 11*1..

but conceive it as an artistic work. melodically-expressive voices. comprehensible. and representableness can and that it is absolutely im- possible to designate to hensible. of incomprehensibleness. With this expression we shall designate. and to represent for a voice.. others too low . we understand by it it the quality of a voice of being conceivable. however. A. the position and progression of voices. do not always permit us to elevate the voices to an animate melody. we shall endeavor not to neglect any voice entirely. human vocal organ to exSecondly. some combinations cannot be represented. Such considerations. or more than is absolutely necessary. Thus. Since The Characters of will the Voices. and the quality arising therefrom of being easily represented. Though our present means We no the. to be executed by four animated. however. present. is clear that comprehensibility exist in a voice in different degrees. /«%. to reach a tone or a tonecombination. do not belong here. For this purpose we must now bestow some attention upon the vocal element. to speak of what we might call THB CANTABILITT OT VOICES. which enables the ecute easily and conveniently. be appropriate here. It is more important what degree a melody ought to be compreto know on what basis the com- prehensibility of a voice rests. or are at least only represented with difficulty. but will be treated of in the science of vocal and instrumental composition. to elevate the afccompanimentit voices to animate song. without dimming the choral melody. . e.311 This is the higher character at which we aim for longer conceive the choral as a congregational song. be now It in vocal or instrumental music. sufficient to know that intervals extending For the present it is beyond the octave are generally difficult. i. It can have a physical or a mental reason. some tones are too high some tones cannot be reached on some instruments . can only the impossibility or difficulty which meets a voice or instrument.. or a less degree of lie in A physical reason comprehensibility. it. we purpose.

For this reason there are no more comprehensible toneproportions than those of the major scale and the first chords . And thus we say that the latter developments must necessarily be more difficult of comprehension. two. Tone-propor. if to the monies of the same latter. called after the four princi- But the four voices are not merely ingly too. to comprehend the more distant and last fortions are comprehensible ceive mations as easily as the Therefore. is more difficult to comprehend. characterization of the voices is justly based The means upon the tetraphonic composition. but they are characterized accord- we exceed this number of voices. as the juste milieu. or from one to another. than to foreign tones sooner to nearest-related than to more distant tones. OUTER VOICES. it is first. that we need but follow our previous rules of harmony and progression. connected harand. one or more of the principal voices are taken In every first ofie. the minor scale. Alto and Tenor are middle . generally. Treble and Bass are outer voices. while on the other side it enables him who has comprehended the connection of the whole. We may perceive now.connected chord. or more times. already. or thirds. and representable as soon as we conthem and the more so the clearer and surer we conceive them. Thus. and MinnLE VOICES. therefore. for they are based upon more or less intricate suppositions. A voice proceeds also. more easily to . a voice most comprehensible and " singable" when in. particularly in its nearest intervals. without add- ing difficulties to the treatment these reasons that by being overloaded. more than duophonic composition. the development of the tone and harmonic system proves on one side the progressive difficulty of comprehension. which has sufficient for most and the most important harmonies. scale. and particularly its superfluous second. It is for we can call it the normal composition.312 rests The mental reason of comprehensibility or incomprehensibility upon the consistency of a tone-proportion. progresses in the order of t>he scale. we distinguish now. in order to wiite that which easily be sung. of all. If pal voices of the vocal chorus.

wide passages and . unless for some very imtherefore. the female (or boys') voices. We more care upon their progression than portant object. some When we now approach the particular character of each voice. two separate couples Treble and Alto. most capable of rich development.en. Sustained tones and . The outer voices. eflfective and imon account of their must bestow. as we it treat it at present. The Treble is the upper voice of the first couple. it must not be one of the outer voices. their and bass. are Both of these outer voices. perceive that the four and bear in mind the representation of the four principal voices. upon that of the other voices. the alto alto by is. the tenor by fore. In the choral. If any one voice has occasionally to be sacrificed. the is upper voice has the melody. to assume the free movement of an upper voice. to enter voices. except for progressions in large particular reason. therefore. the property of the church. the bass below. the bass also the is the most portant voice. They are. ofi. intervals. suspensions are principally their property steps should not be suffered. movement must be and their progres- sion rather in smaller than in larger steps. treble there- and tenor. as it were. has movement of an upper voice. religious This melody service . Their character quiet. the highest treble and the lowest bass are the outer their voices. have the most space for movements the treble above. most conspicuous. and of the altered. and particularly in cadences. and Tenor and Bass.313 voices. in the first place. The middle voices are enclosed on both sides. the male voices. Next position. however. . If there are several trebles and basses. the Tenor the upper voice of the second couple. we voices form. This observation enables us more deeply into the actual character of the middle lost the free The Tenor. But even it likes if but for a short phrase. to it. which made it a middle-voice. less free. the original upper voice of the male voice-couple. in consequence of the existence of a higher voice-couple. must not be and is therefore called CANTUS PIRM0S.

by means of the bass at least characteristically. or Applying it violoncello.' it departs from the higher more than necessary. for the present. often bold progression. on such tion. decisive. sometimes in keeping breaks in upon the other voices. It is the mix- . the different tone-regions of this instrument acter. On the contrary. The Alto is the lower voice of the upper voice-couple. would represent the outer to bassoons and clarinetts. is a free. to give our voices a higher melodic animation. apart from the general pharaoter of higher and lower tones. As we have known it in and as such we have our very first attempt at harmonizait. tried to preserve It. Thus. we shall endeavor. while violin voices. and manly. but then it is done with its character. by itself. Ap- plying the above to the string-quartett. we would give the tenor first part to the viola. It is different with the piano forte . an accu- mulation of smaller measural parts would deduct from the rhythmical strength of a melody. and moves niore quietly and cautiously than any. in bold. clings more to the upper voice. but it lacks the manly vigor of the b^ss. The Bass. and contra-basso. Application to the Choral. In our future treatments of the choral. and loves a dignified. FiBSTLT. the first bassoon would have the character of the tenor. The organ. or ascends beyond the alto. tically. is enabled to represent the B. in juxtaposition to all the other voices. or rather. have all the same. and the space for its free movement. the alto to the second violin. and the other instruments share in the remaining voices. too. and preserves a certain passiveness against the inroads of the tenor. and large steps. of the character of the voices. and vigorous under-voice. pedals. for. We know that the strength and the merit of a melody do not deits pend upon the number of notes. the contrary. no particular char But if a composer has constructed his voices characteris- the listener will inadvertently transfer the character of the construction to the tones of the instrument. instead of adding to it. it is absolutely middle-voice.314 and instead of seizing upon the voices nearest. Thus much.

. and variety to the rhythm. so as to enable us to sustain the uniform movement of the whole. The more vigorous and quiet — ones moments appertain we shall give to the generally to the bass tenor. we shall at first lead our voices and moderate the use of bye-tones. or whenever we can unhesitatingly take the higher for the lower octave. and in order to avoid the overloading or shall obscuring the harmony. forget the compass of the different voices. at least. depends the characteristic of the voices. animation. we only. too. not merely the rhythm. secondlt. and their employment which gives significance. quietly. to lead our three voices charac- teristically. This restriction will also have the advantage of guarding us against too great dispersince the higher animation of the voices tends greatly to sion of the voices.1. ture for designs. and to Increase the animation rather than decrease it. 11^1 nor higher than lUgLOi . as modulation and position have left undecided.»11 Ei T^ 22 the £ass not lower than H i . but the tone-contents also as far. the passionate and the alto will cling to one or as the other of its neighbors. shall permit ourselves to use lower tones. We shall the Treble not lower than ' />1\ . But increase the tension of the choral. Nor must we upon lead it.315 and contrast of slow and rapid steps.. . nor higher than Hi- when the bass ascends or descends by octaves. Por the same reason. we but rarely give a richer treat- . We shall endeavor. nor higher than 3t: the Alto not lower than My Wr . We have to bear in mind here. nor higher than ^t or the Tenor not lower than ^_ .

in order to avoid the monotony of a repetition or a halt. which strophe strophe.: 435. we had to employ different chords. The modulation of the nearest. and resigned even this key in the very next chord. we preferred A minor (the parallel of the subdome-^-S. and reserve the cadence for the last beats. . most conspicuous moment of the above second strophe./j^_ jv m J BEIEPE^^i. inant). the end-tone of the afterwards repeated as third This end-tone lasts three beats. first two strophes is the one which was In the third strophe.316 ment Here to two simultaneous voioessand still more rarely to three. but A major being too distant from the D principal key. and a single harmony. ci2w^ c/^i^Oe^nf >0 I^V\J< 'ii yfejj:4tuxi -^JL . In the last strophe we have touched upon the subdominant. we thought at first of the key of A major as dominant of . t ^ is gatEEEf is r The is the first chor&l treated according to these principles. '^ 1 n Jjv I ? . ^ 3L M^i i m jrr^-i J il l! I ?^¥^ p^ mmm ^ J. however much varied by suspensions or other means (as in No. 431) would not satisfy us.

^ji .317 The examination of the is least voices is left to the student . will Below be found two more chorals which the student will do well to examine attentively._j-ji4C^ %^*^f#^^^ u 437. and at every such point. rules have not The deviations from genesal been made therein without some particular reason. the student should not viation has been 1 436.CTi. *Hl m g?3EEE* ^- I . m •#tfi«p: ^-^¥? =*-«- S i j5. rest until the desufficiently justified. the tenor favored in the middle voices.

as illustration. stands in the is way of a good progression of the tone or a phrase it The former the case is repeated several times in succession.318 :i=^ m^ choral. It can be seen at once that this phrase admits of . can be —Those who know how many harmonies wUl have no difficulty in made subservient to one tone. is The latter is the case in melodies which skip when it often happens that this unsteady voices. when a or when takes a turn which prohibits a dignified and rich development of the harmony. f-r-r- '^^^^m^m^The importance of the student. or where voices. distant. Tone-repetition. many and richer treatments but it would be difficult to find a treat- ment better in keeping with the intent of this choral. be best 'to consider the single A. These can only exist in the melody when it it requires a particu- lar execution of the harmony. this obstacle: surmounting B. and requires an attentive consideration. or causes a colliIt movement cases. once more. and unexpected On the following page is the second part of a choral. or. Phrase-repetition. and to direct attention to two different 1. they will merely have to care for a of frequent consistent arrangement of these different harmonies. as service. TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES. at least. a good arrangement of a few near harmonies can do more than the roaming in the ipost manifold. chords. an educational medium for the and as a part of the religious it prompts us to re- turn to points. communicated to the other will sion with the melody. —This is occurrence in chorals. restlessly about. Sometimes the Frequently intent of the choral is such that the modulation of such a repetition should not be varied. . but slightly.

for a musical theory. and influences everything else rhythm and harmony. 439. we advise the student first to investigate the mean- ing of every single choral.319 438. to seize the current which issues from . is such a case. cally. ^P^^^ ^^^^^m rf^f?f*^rf^^?f effective. At a we have treated the first measure triphoniand the tetraphonio harmony of the next measure is the more At b Tve have balanced the skipping unsteadisteadiness of the harmony. ecclesiastical harmony. In — such case occasions. But the treatment of a choral stricted art. ness of the melody by the calm 2. ARTISTIC AIM OF CHOEAL TREATMENT. are such melodies or parts of melodies as cling too firmly to one single chord. more or less. and his conviction is not a subject — . for it does not issue is not a work of fi-ee or unre- from the unfettered spirit of the artist. Harmony and melody are merely the means of expressing what moves our soul. and thus threaten to exclude other harmonies. we • can only express what the cantus firmus permits or Therefore. The principal matter (the melody) is given. and what the choral is intended to arouse in the hearts of the singers and listeners. m m -G- f=FF ^m F? Here Unfavorable to dignified. In works of unrestricted art it is the aim of the artist^of his inner promptings and conviction ^to seize what is right science cannot directly assist his prompting.

320 the melody and influences the other voices and the modulation. and the progression of the voices. without rest. all This current cannot be seized monies. but never passing the nearest to seize something strange or new. the first harmony is must consult what upon which the melody insists. but by touching upon possible har- by a steady development. and thence we We move on steadily. that only This truly proper which strictly appertains to the object. never remaining stationary with- out sufficient reason. or returning to something previous. Oddity and unexpectedness belong to the is dilletante . . course will indicate to us the proper modulation.

and voices in such a we shall have to arrange the other manner that the cantus Jirmus can be distinguished voice. but it is also possible to mahe one of the other voices the abode of the melody. 'from them. 1. we find that they are not quite sufficient. and in that case we have to consider two points.321 CHAPTER V. (the simultaneous beginning of all the voices) give us but little hope to distinguish the cantus firmus from the other voices. shall we take it from form Only with more means. transpose the choral to another . means for the formation of On reconsideration of the an upper voice. make it satisfactory as the conspicuous part of a whole. as soon as the upper voices. exactly like the principal melody. The cantus firmus will not appear with the same clearness as in the upper voice. and the manner of our present treatment. in the we can permit occasionally an unmelodious progresupper voice we must not do it. If it requires but little instrao- depends upon us. THE CANTUS FIRMUS IN OTHER Until now we have always employed the upper voice as abode of the principal melody . to which of the three lower voices we shall first. The upper though no longer containing the principal •melody. 2. develope its melody with great care in order to we must. as given in the last chapter. where we speak of the It cantus Jirmus in the upper voice. The accompanying voices move in quarter and eighth notes. In bass and middle voices sion. If we have we to consider the tone-region for a melody lies high. tion. and in a later we be enabled fully to accomplish this object. This similarity. and therefore. But this later this practice can best form requires some preliminary practice. VOICES. and be inti'oduced here. will still absorb considerable attention. unless tone. give the cantus firmus. it wiU be more appropriate the tenor than for alto or bass.

EPS t ^ f. is most suitable to take the cantus firmvs. one progressing in wide steps. or having a choice made for us. sketch the harmony. The tenor. of all. The cantus firmus in the Alto. other voices. for the alto quickly progressing. to make the new upper voice as consistent Where.' S B^ m—r»— —'-^ J—r^M p—• -r»— d * . As illustration. 440. and finally we complete the work by carrying out the and flowing as possible.322 Then we have moving upwards. we take. or a more favorable position of the same. and first attempt. we select anorther. one be better for the tenor . will be will more appropriate first Having made our choice. inclining towards below. this is not possible. P f=5^^=f3p i^f-^-fe^. will be better for the bass. here. A. we fix upon the plan of modulation. to consider the character of the melody. with one harmony. One . in general.

Here a former melody. because. its isolated position makes it more The two higher voices. as upper-voice of the to the cantus firmus. We progressions in thirds and sixth. at least. that on account of its tone-region and moderate movement of steps. first of all. close position. or inclining upwards. every other voice If is -more richly developed than the cantus firmus.d guide our invention. however. We know choir. uncharacteristic tone- mass. This teaches us. while the higher voice couple. that the tenor. but particularly so tone-regions. the cantus firmus is particularly ap- We propriate for the alto . Nothing but a doubling of the cantus firmus. that the bass. we perceive that it separates the bass from the other voices. namely —the insuffi- distinction of the cantus Here. treble and alto. other. however. is already. B. will have to be constructed with particular conspicuous. need hardly repeat here. male more appropriate Considering this position now the relations which are called into existence by of the cantus firmus. we were to avoid this. then. said. thus. or. evidently. Most melodies are those moving in high is suitable for the tenor. 441. but merely intended to facilitate at. we what we have so lately ciency of our means for the proper Jirmus in the lower voices. the cantus firmus in the tenor.323 perceive. find confirmed Considering the whole. care. the seventh and eighth measures only de- part from the character of the alto. for instance. all the voices would become an indifferent. . is not our purpose at present. being sole and independent. whether we select the above harmonies or others. or a conspicuous tone-medium Tvould serve us to distinguish it from the rest . — the cantus firmus in the Tenor. will cling to each and mutually support each other by means of suspensions. that this is not an absolute law. still remain intimately connected. this.

be frequently impossible to form a perfect ca still dence. or the whole will be overloaded and spread. How dences 1 can we now make aiAends for the weakness of our ca. with iifth. and that consequently . for instance. they end with the step of a second c-d. when the imperfect cadence occurs at the the end of a part or the whole.J J J- i T. c-5b. The introduction of the cantus firmus in the bass. I I eis j .324 s^^^^m I 1 f-f-r-frg 442. a-g. not avoided. . This will be more inconvenient. an inconvenience which can only be hidden. very rarely with the step of a fourth or It will. therefore. The nearest would be a prolongation then we have the pedal point. I I F= The cantus firmus in the Bass. The reason of this lies in the fact that most melodies are conceived for the treble and tenor. brings with it. in most cases.^ ^&%=7^^ rfcl J- ^^e 3= .fii i m-r zm ' i^:^^^^^ - :d^: -i W7" iSfT-f- -J- et-i s^E^^^i^ J J- sP J I I l^rt^^^ Jill n-^:ff^r7-*F->. But of either means we must make but a limWe take ited use. the above. Its high tone-region makes it a former choral as illustration. r C.

and to close in the parallel of the subdominant. =p ^E r-iKj I 3i I IE I ^ =J= p- -© ^Efe=^ --¥ — •- M==f^ IE SE ^^ ^ r ter . according to is that mentioned in the chap- the third strophe only had to submit to a slight alteration. for the closing tone of the cantus firmus (c). I I 443. major.325 perhaps. therefore. It is clear the cantus firmus in the bass gives us nothing but a melodically-regulated series of tones. are now at the point from which we can give a clear view We of the whole proceeding. :* d_J. "We had to consider it as fundamental tone. or with a modulation to F m^ But this was not practicable in the present instance. an addition which does not change materially. upon . T- & rrr ^-F= f=Hi kSljr^ g 5b ir- 1 First of all we have reinforced the cantus firmus with a lower it octave. ¥^ - i . should have closed with a half-cadence in jor. would have forced us to end with a quart-sext chord. and we must. think of avoiding this inconvenience. first The plan of the modulation This strophe. less appropriate for our object. — spppspp^i fTT I I J '" ' ' ?^-?= F- ±^^ z^ W. known principles. fc^ ^E:Je^P^SEF^= £p# JJ-J-J.

anti1 cipation. Thus. shall Whence septim* above we now . first. the beginning. and finally it passes with dominant chord and triad into the principal tone. and limit them to a They . The remainder needs no explanation . or of the most appropriate for the particular case. indicates the end. it triad. take the chords ? Each bass-tone can be fundamental tone of a chord. therefore. and a nonachord chord. acter of the voices. our strophe closes with the dominant . resembling Let us now turn to the char The high small space.326 which to we have all. chord. to construct chords. formed themselves melodi- firmus press the other voices upwards. pass. then follows. region. cally simple. most necessary first plan of modulation. (inversion) and the tonic triad it begins with the domi- nant triad (apparently in JF major). the pedal-point. a it can be another interval in an inverted can be a tone foreign to a chord — suspension. the dominant chord of the same key. £\) major. and above which we have lead the other voices as melodically as possible. What what shall is we choose from the above for the We select again. and the ascending character of the cantvs have. with remaining bass. then we think of the nearest.

LESS VOICED TREATMENT OF THE CHORAL. &c. for instance. A. is best to keep . because the less melody of the voices voices. these cases we must select such harmonies as are suitable duophonio or triphonic treatment. or perhaps duophonio treatment can only be justified by particular reasons. free. without thiii harmonic volume would be but a mere Therefore a triphonic. as we know so it at present. though the most necesfirst sary facts have been given already in the tenth part of the book. and with many chorals it will be absolutely impossible to render them satis- factory duophonioally. and transparent manner or when we have in view a combination of particular voices. The choral. when we intend to represent the whole in a light. Many good combinations will have to be sacrificed. 1. The Duophonic Treatment. ternal. requires particular care. male voices and a In for a all treble. THE CHORAL WITH LESS THAN FOUE VOICES. generally of equal measural value and in short strophes. the more distinctly will the feults and merits of each be preserved. at least tetraphonic. requires fiill harmony. it will In duophonic composition be necessary to construct the It accompanying voice as simply as possible. and many otherwise less approBut in either case the priate harmonies will have to be seized. tones. two female voices and a bass. treatment conveys a particular expression . variety. two . since in comparison with other compositions.327 CHAPTER MOEE AND VI. the more. The reasons for triphonic or duophonic treatment are either exwhen we have not more voices: or internal. We have to add a few words in regard to the treatment of the choral for more or less than' four voices. pier for instance. it much lacks melodical volume and rhythmical The simple thread. when this sim.

is s?^ s The Triphonic Treatment. m#». And since a richer development of the voices is permitted. aiS t jtt: 2. two voices. Harmonic bye-tones. than for treble and bass. merely to sufficient. and passing-tones will do justice to our hannonies. will not be The above phrase would. and at the same time melodically perfect our voices. 445. A given here. suspensions. or tenor and bass. will for particular reasons. for the well connected. But we must not lose sight of the character of the triphonic treatment of the last choral is choral. f=lS I &?: I1 If. therefore. we have also the means to make up in melodical volume and fullness of the single voices what we lack in numbers of chord-tones. iy= r f ^- r W n 3 suspension. in case by themselves already we should go beyond what is absolutely necessary. under any circumstance. be more apit propriate for treble and alto. voices at its For the two command are sufficient to give a character to the whole. not merely richer in tones and harmonies. under the The second and third strophes hegin with a supposition that there is but a small or no pause between. This treatment but it admits also of a freer and richer development of the voices. remind us that the greatest simplicity can often be . them to the most necessary inThus the following choral might be treated in this manner 444. it be better to give to the accompanying voice a peculiar char- acteristic. two more distant voices are taken.328 the voices together. In the latter case would be better to construct the bass perhaps in this manner. and to limit tervals.

jEdEddEJEJ i^n r-^^ t^fe ©--r SS The triphonic choral is l}J_:f:_l^_^d.d_ r also well fitted to have the cantus firmus in the iower or middle voice. II m^^^^M i :SE=3 is fe^^ggai i¥ =?2:: 'P?>n*^ -jt=zt^zJlzjt fE-:^ 2221 m The voices mobile manner. . and simply as example we give here the above ohog^l with the cantus firmus in the tenor.329 E 446. BrRr-^h—'^^--hp-f--^-ff]fft»-j> SF=%f _ — I »- J=J=-Lt^^. This requires no instruction.. gE^^jE in the following are developed in a richer and more ^:^=y 447.

will be . second chapter. another voice. Therefore we more than four voices. particular reasons sonietimes only we add or to the last chords of a choral. For either case the information given in the sufficient. except for to the last strophe. P e^FJq:^fej=-FP^J=!^"PT»^j:=fc^d=i =F^ P^ t^ztpz B. tenth part. in order to obtain a full ending. of the last book. ^Thb choeal with mobe than four voices. tetraphonio choral is We are convinced that the shall never quite satisfec- tory in regard to harmonic volume and fullness.330 mEfS^^^^Pfe3?E^3E '& 448. write a choral for .

or the lower voice. tetraphonically. but we repeat here that the practice makes us con- scious of our powers. the that the cantus firmus can be placed in the upper middle voices. . We shall merely remember to make them as melodious as possible. we can give to a choral melody. monies. as far as ent. triphonically. can be carried out in the most manmanners we can make use at the same time of different har. therefore. ifold we know them at presEach of them. and construction of voices which us. based upon the different modulation. and can add We We nothing new. forms.331 CHAPTER HOW VII. but that object and circumstances give preference at one time to one. the capability and the facility to harmonize a given melody in various ways. and to the cantus firmus in the upper voice. ternal forms of choral-treatment. harmony. The external variety consists in the fact that a choral can be treated duophonically. and therefore least important to it is conditioned. can transthe tetra- pose the cantus Jirmus as well in the triphonic as phonic and polyphonic choral. and that there is no absolutely best We treatment possible. and different construction of the voices we in. at another time to another treat- ment. have given the means in former chapters. and poly- phonically voice. The construc- tion of the voices is the easiest. by the choice of chords. TO ACQUIRE FACILITY IS THE HARMONIZATIOlf OF THE CHORAL. Tile internal variety. and we now merely indicate how the most manifold treatments can be obtained from a single melody. require. however. have always maintained that a choral (or any melody) can be treated in various ways. to which is we have thus limited ourselves. But placing aside all these various we will limit ourselves to the tetraphonic treatment. There is an external and internal variety of treatment. These are the ex. essentially at least. But the modulatory and harmonic design or sketch are the .

also. In general we can only repeat what we know already.332 most important for us. principal We ingly. and led the bass in a higher octave. accord- Next first. of the slightest alteration which opens to us a new way. The first strophe the most naturally in the principal key. to the principal key we must ascertain of what modulation the close of each strophe admits. then the most appropriate. How can we always find new modulations and harmonies. without trusting to chance ? The reply to this question and the necessary instruction. merely give beginning and is and it remains for the student to carry it out. . And to these end-points we lead our harmony. This wiU result. fc Sgfefj?2=S=i cSasS -0-0. and simply because it contains the greatest number of repetitions in the smallest space. We take the following choral. But now to work. taking advantage. the ending and turning-points of the modulation. in designs and direc- tions of the bass. f=±f « J- We have taken the tonic chord for the first two tones. and finally those in general admissible. however. Let us now attempt to lead the bass in an opposite direction. constitute the contents of this chapter. nearest Here we take the and pass thence to the more distant. -• • 0. 449. . at which we have to consult how they can be employed in one or the other manner. first ascertain the key. and fix upon the mo- ments.0-0- *-•- yap^ i ^EfagEf: We shall m indication.-0 a • ^rr 450. employing first the nearest.

exhibit a more marked direction. 451. It might.-d. If and forces the middle voice to an we were to begin in this man- but in its stead we might would have to avoid such exaggeration. because they This gives us a new treatment. from manner the fourth tone. ^^ Jl A. .4. the following strophe far. =t equally passionate ascension. I I -d . be thus ^lf=i- 1r 452.333 ^fe^l 1 rfr'=FT=f TIT 451. lies particularly in its last step upwards the middle voices have to ascend so high. us return to No. ^ f=F this £ The bass. perhaps.iV I 1 I .fe^| f=F="=r=r . 453. ^^"^' It: 6 7 it m all 7 6 6 7 for but in these cases would be advisable to employ the second strophe a less extended progression of the voices. jlj rf The bass ascends rather ner. The exaggeration of have begun too low.J-J-d . might also have proceeded in 454. A i^ mBut let i^^ £^S I al =F S^F the bass .

in Let us now attempt a more quiet melody for this voice. because the chromatic progression would embarrass us by the smallness of the steps. instead of If and this would have enabled us modulating at so early a to continue either of the moment to the parallel. perhaps We might thus: m^Hm^ rj tt r gression . we should prefer a by we were diatonic pro- gression. We should.334 Both these fundamentiil forms exhibited a bass progressing wide steps. and ascends again diatonically.5-^ ipi =F to close in the tonic. k i 455. m J^J r i P^^^^1 -g**' rJ=i . movement of the bass. I 1 i continue the diatonic E^. g^ continued thus The bass descends here chromatically. above. perhaps. fe-^E :ttP= ^E m 456. continue thus 458.be 3 6 mt 8 6 t g^fe 4 4 . and their being harmonically so : unlike. But there was no need of discontinuing the chromaticpro- we might have * ii 45T.

The latter leads us to the subdominant of the principal tone. in order not to anticipate too much mere first two indications. being the triad of 0. Sebastian Bach has solved the question for us in four different manners. All these formations are based upon the chords. It is true and soon follows). Of what ? major (be- The latter it would not remind us of minor. and we. and caimot well be justified in connection with the whole. Here they are & 459. therefore. but it can also be third or fifth. it. give here an illustration. But such treatment is cause b preceded H not absolutely impossible or useless. mi r^=£ff=mT teS^^f^ l-j&i <M & ^ -E'l. Let us now depart from first We retain the tonic chord for the tone. and turn at once to the second eb'? as third. therefore. but we must find a different harmony for the second. and is. . or perhaps an inversion of this first harmonization. the nearest. We of e or leave it to the student to analyze and examine the ff above.335 We must break off for here. What now can the tone ^f be ? We have already considered it as fundamental tone. but of that this tone is rather distant from our melody.

i r e. in five treatments 462. Here P 461.) he has actually modulated to £!. e. and closed with the major triad. But such it much to. At other times he has merelypassed from SJ minor to A minor.consider the g as third of As leads us to the parallel of the principal tone. W^r^-tfT-^OLili a?= m Bach has em- 1 ?^ we have ployed it just touched it. also. =Wp: -i » — »- m it lies ^^ i. 3=p4 nearer m^^^^ f=^¥W^ ^^. begin with the fundamental chord. might. without remaining in : it. We . thus. In the above we have always begun with the sext chord.336 0-- 1 460. ^i^ =1 rr—rrrtr I ^^Pi^* rr-r I ' gai^^gi^-^gfepg Sometimes (at a. d. ?="r^ :^ .

searched for knowledge. r—r- mz We '^^i^Lj-J-L-ki ^ it have attempted here twice. Every- body who has followed us will see at once we have exhausted nothing. and from the chord i-t^|/| we have been led to the superfluous triad g-b-dl^. or rather its sext chord. At a we have developed At b we have retained the in- tone b in the bass. But we have gained enough from this simple melody. and the middle voices were consequently fluenced in like manner.337 463. and that though succeeded by other exercises. A retrospection upon our work would give us the feeling of the young anatomist. who was forced to bury his knife in the most charming formations of nature. facts. practical contents of the it is in fact the cap stone of the whole First Part. a consistent progression in the bass. . But we hope we have gone far enough to indicate how important this practice is. He followed the path of reason and We have that only been able to indicate rules and attentively thus far.

the former system does not merely appear deviating from. they have finally led a higher and They had it . without having at least an outline of its history before us. we must . to lead into our system and to be lost or submit to for in our . with the dominant chord. with another advantage. and the final chord cal chief-part) tion. The Chorals in It has already the £leclesiastical Keys. Their melodies even. and as we analyze the points to which these ways have gain a we The It new view and confirmation of our present system. but preparatory to our present system. the tonic and its harmony is often not even the basis. upon a rhythmi- forms the most satisfactory ending of a composi- But the antique melodies exhibit attempts of not ending Nay. or antique keys. a perfect full tells us. the history of music . that cadence (with tonic in the highest and lowest voices. They require a modulation and harmonization. in. truth and in it it only was a progress of music pos- Considering from this point of view. the beginning and end of the whole tone-movement. (last part. do not agree with our To treat such chorals properly. independent of harmony. one corresponding to that old system. principles. been stated chapter I. but former system of keys. and that they cannot well be treated cording to our different modern system of modulation. first be familiar with the keys in which they are written at least enough so to judge of and select the harmony. The familiarization with the ecclesiastical.338 Second Part. . i. will bring subject. e. There were then other ways of modulation led. system there lives more general sible. This study belongs perhaps more to historical —but we cannot well comprehend an called. latter gives us for every general purpose the nearest means. . or not upon the tonic harmony. for instance..) that many to a ac- chorals belong neither to our major nor minor modes. as it they are sometimes These keys have been developed long before our present system of keys and modulation was in existence to the latter.

there for us. full of truth. the births of a truly inspired. Independent of this. but also in what they deviated from it. . are not the arbitrary attempts of a and experiences brought down to us from one of the most eventful and important epochs in the history of art. c. —though they have They —a truth which stands and will been unable to establish them- selves as general laws.a. gb and ab . they are opinions stand firm. belongs the fact. to conceive their melodies in their spirit.f. e. had a different object and afterwards they achieve that object exactly according to our present their cadences. time did not permit it. at a later period.ff. upper keys were introduced which led to the even. but they are results they form an important confirmation of the latter. for instance. g. and c. To the latter. c. Thus they deviate. bb and «b were from a| and The temperament of the organs of that and though. b. But this confirmation and agreement is exhibited. and as such. to harmonize is them according it to their ideas. d. songful period..339 These attempts are the results of an intellectual conception of the tone-element. additional for these tones. general laws. if they otherwise agree with our present prinfew. the principles of the old system retained their hold. and reigned until gradually the modern system became predominant. that their system did not contain all the tones which we possess. among others. c. The tone chain c d e f g a b c. wherein they . The most essential point of our theory is to follow the old masters in their ideas. d. steps and half steps were not of like proportions cf dif- could not serve for cij). not merely in what the ancients did according to our manner. 6b. came into But the ^# and ferent gjjl existence at a much later period. temperament. a. At first they had only the scales f. in ciples. much in the old chorals which has ceased to be essential because was not conditioned by the ideas which led the ancients and influenced their works. to obtain from them the truth therein contained. d\. . e.

or prompts us We merely add. we with due regard to their essential laws. suspensions. &c. shall see that the element of their system did not consist in this. passing tones. that their voices were not generally carried out so richly and perfectly as those of our time. that we have for not retained their often effective rhythm. permits us. their proceedings will not be binding upon us . but have adopted our theory the melodies. as they are sung at present in our churches.340 It is also known that the ancients did not make use of so many- chords.. . But since we shall write. as our object to.

f.c. two positions for each of their keys. f^) 2. 2. The of view ecclesiastical : 1st. from dto d.d. They might have added a seventh scale. without depression or Thus they obtained the scales b. b. as the first (here the second).) A.b.ff. 5. succession of seven degrees belongs to all Former theorists attempt to make every degree of the eleva- scale a tonic.c. different either Their melody throughout.f. .g.)ff. Lydian. from tonic to tonic.341 CHAPTER I.c. i'.f. ecclesiastical The keys.f. Mixolydian.e. keys can be regarded from a two-fold point from a melodic point.a. 6.f. : but this scale not even admitting a tonic triad. from c to c. however.' 4. Dorian. jEolian. from / to /. 5. tion of a tone. from e to 4. The Melodic Point. 6.)a. and 2nd.) d. These theorists acknowledged. d. a scale. as mere scales. from e. Phrygian. c.a.g.b. «.e.a. of which. — or moved in other . from g to g from a to a. as scales intended for the basis of harmony (therefore actual keys in our own sense of the word.d.c. and to build upon it. THE ECCLESIASTICAL KEYS IN GENERAL.e. The names of the above six keys were : 1.d.d. in melodic respect. they considered the scale of D.a. e . e. 3. it could not become a key. Ionian. 3)) «)/)5') «> *)«! «. or principally. from a harmonic point.)/.g. b btob: S.

vis: the Ionian. have a certain and B. Of the tone-chains based those only could upon the seven degrees of the scale. d-f-a. ff-b-d. not our object. if the tonic. to invent melodies according to the ancient system. From such au- thentic melodies they expected the character of decision. moving from tonic to tonic. The Harmonic Point. Fiom It is this melodic form they expected a milder. Or. ^^e-c. the Mixolydian. &c. we find. Leaving aside the Lydian key. and consequently cause deviations in the har- mony also. — Of the remaining six scales three admit of major triads. the triad upon its tonic {b-d-f) being diminished ^and consequently could not become a key." represented in this form. was also called plagalic." The other have minor triads upon their Tonic. become keys which admitted of a tonic chord." —even the whole scale. had that name. c-e-ff. the Lydian. softer character. while those which plagalic mildness move around the tonic. the melody moved around dominant to the scale. however. They can three scales compared to our " Major. transcendant joy. The tone-chain of ^ admits of neither major nor minor triad.342 words if : from the fundamental tone to its return in another octave. viz : therefore be the Dorian. Yet we cannot fell to perceive. but merely to learn the treatment of those in existence. a-c-e. the jEolian. however. more animated. the Phrygian. flexibility. its octave. and might be compared with our "Minor. These melodies they called "aM<A«»fe'c. e-ff-b. that only the Ionian scale actually real- sembles our scales of major or minor. perhaps from the Such melodies they called "phffalic."' Soon. that all the melodies based upon the tonic are in possession of a certain authentic strength. The others deviate ready melodically. firmness. and attaching our observations .

it. Dorian. and they all contents.343 to that find key (the Ionian) which really resembles our major. but a diminished one. Thus we see. as it were. Upon the dominant of the Mixolydian. then the iEolian. while tonic and dominant have major triads. its dominant. Mixolydian. exactly like our major. again. B. does not admit of a key being built upon closed in this circle. Upon its dominant is based The jEolian key. the intervals. The other progression. The Lydian key is similarly crippled by its subdominant. if en- Ionian. however. major. iEolian. how- ever. from G to same G*. we always have the progress from one key to another similarly constructed one. which however leads to the Ionian tonic (c ). which has minor and the tonic. (as far as we can is see. should find a place before C. al- of the gian. Its tonic and subdominant adtriad. cripples the whole key. mit of a major triad . is based the Dorian key. A E The Ly dian key. which upon subdominant and tonic has minor triads. Next comes the Mixolydian. and finally the Phryalways based upon the dominant of the preceding one. we upon its dominant the Mixolydian key. which must necessarily end with because the next tone. and upon the former the dominant chord. D—in short to all same major keys. Ionian. for its tonic and dominant ti-iad are minor . . leads us every time to a differently constructed key. triads upon both dominants Finally follows the Phrygian key. the Dorian. for the present at least) its subdomi: nant triad. however. which. Phrygian. as in our Quint-circle. upon its subdominant. upon the dominant latter. But this progression of ancient keys exhibits an important In the latter difference from our own quint-circle. this scale admits On the other side upon its tonic. The Ionian. a progression of keys ways a fifth distant from each other C a D jE". of a dominant chord. while its dominant has neither major nor minor triad. which admits of neither major nor minor triad. It is a minor key. has major triads upon the dominant and subdominant. has a minor and consequently has no dominant chord.

The Phrygian is distinguished from the jEolian. for it]. as minor . the Thirds for stamps the key major. But it permits also the use of foreign tones. which is minor. but not the seventh. it the key was a lower . and sometimes one or two 1 degrees higher or lower. the Mixolydian? 1. its The Ionian has Third. distinguishes this key from the subsequent one. 1. minor Seventh. Transposition and Signature. superfluous Fourth to distinguish from D. They had only fifth to substitute were any. E. by means of which each scale could also be represented upon another than the original degree. the major Sixth. : In the characteristic of Mo\\&n we must consider as essential \. characteristics of those keys. if they do not destroy Thus the ancients intro the essential characteristics of the key. are the essential 5'{f). Which tones are now essential to. How was tliis transposition eifected We ly see by the above that none of the ancient keys required a signature . 2. 2. Admissibility of Foreign Tones. These foreign tones permitted also a second application. were mereand J|j. the ^olian. for the foreign tones. which distinguishes from the Mixolydian. which distinguishes it all from the Dorian. it The Lydian has the the Ionian. It is The Essential Tones of every Key. instead of C Ionian was F Ionian. the sign of major.344 C. duced the major seventh in the Dorian and jEoBan keys (cjj and for third and sixth. the Third. Thus far the ancient system strictly follows the original scales. . discover which tones are essential in an eccle^ essential easy now to . it and characteristic of the 2. the minor Sixth. This was done particularly upon the dominant and subdominant. if there accidental. and from the other keys by its its Second. and it major Seventh. because stamps the key minor . Those tones are it is which distinguish one key from another natural that we begin with those keys which resemble each other. siastical key. Which it are the characteristic tones of the Dorian? it the for Third. for it distinguishes it from the Ionian.

The signature of one flat flat ( b) indicates to us the key of jP major. A. c. We have thus exhibited the general rule of ancient signature transposed keys. A in Dorian or B Phrygian. b. E. 5b. in originating in this to transposition were called genns contradistinction the original keys. C) di a. e. the Dorian upon A. The Ionian was thus upon G. &c. a. we must In our C major consider them as belonging to the Dorian. e. ^Ij) c." Hypo-Ionian. e. a. e. still belong to as we must consider them mixo(|) G Dorian or A Phrygian. for instance. the Phrygian key in the positions. g. c. e. lydian. b. f. though having a signature of one G. but if we meet with melodies ( b) which. the substitution of /| for /H transposed fifth above. D minor. f. b. c. or G. we must consider it as D Mixolydian. f. modern system we have but two keys without signature and A minor. or Mixoly- dian of the ancients. how- melody under this signature which belongs to the tone-chain of -Z>.345 and the Mixolydian was then upon scales C. or the tone-chain of C. the Dorian upon G. Phrygian. a. as melodies as we have only to do with the we find them. b\. the were Ff G. tone-chain of D or 0. or B. /|. g. which. all same manner. fifth The keys designated arising from transposition into the to above were for instance by adding them the word : "Hypo . d. It will now be easy to understand the signature of other transTo represent. /#. &c. g. which were called genus durum. g. or A. A. the Mixolydian upon D. The signature of one sharp indicates to us the ever. d. d. -0. The keys molle. In the the keys a G. without signature. It is immaterial to us that not all keys were transposed in this manner. Meeting. &c. If we meet with melodies. a. e. with a key of G major or E minor. belong to the tone-chain of D. d. c. — . Hypo-mixolydian. c. ffy ".. fl g. d.

deviations of these keys. . F. in more than one tonechain. . which we shall endeavor. is or of the tone-chain C. and though until now we have only observed the external it is clear that these must also have given them a diiferent internal character. each can ad- mit foreign tones in melodies and harmonies each. to comprehend. whUe we. by means of tone-transposition.346 «. or. are not prevented from modulating into every possible key. . and now for a sepa- rate consideration of each. finally. We follow the path on the same tonic. Modulation into other Keyi.f the quint-circle. In order to complete our analysis of the ancient system. «b. therefore.. and its treatment. Or. a. *!?. we go from 2. d. Thus much in general of the ancient keys . and the combination of different keys in one composition. they had a vastly greater variety than we .. e. Thus we see a series of diiferent its keys before us . — flats. though generally seizing the nearest related key. the more it decided. We know of two ways of modulating. ^. *. A melody of the tone-chain flats. «) 4. and pass from one major tone to another. or major for minor. e. peculiar character of their different keys conditioned that certain digressions or modulations were absolutely inadmissible. c. a}. /. also. ff. too. We substitute. minor for major. can be represented by means of foreign tones. b\.. ny means of the major key. we must add. «. «. at some future time. a minor key to another vice versa. in the other case four J). 1. with four to be considered as a transposed Phrygian. and parallel. t required in the one case two. — with our major and minor. d. that like our own system powerful means of modulation from one key it possesses the all into the other. The ancients. they formed a new key on the same tonic ^modulated without leaving the tonic—but. modulated according to their quint-succession—and in still different progressions but they always found diiferent keys. with a signature of two flats. / e|7. /i <^) 9. On the other side again. here too.

which. not festal. in three different : treatments of a choral with the following strophe 464. in the reign of the ancient system. became peculiarly distinct. in their Mixolydian. in their Lydian key.347 CHAPTER THE II. or retarded upon the parallel of the subdominant. not exalting enough. what do we on the Ionian dominant 1 Either another Ionian tonefor reasons to chain. In could hardly stand for an actual modulation. for instance C to G. if not an actual modulation into that key {A jEolian). this is the nearest. lation into the we find the modudominant either entirely avoided. find For. the first forms its time with the subdominant and it tonic. ^=rH=^i=^^ cadence. can see this at once in the order of the modulation. had two more. to rise from the Therefore. least exalting modulation. and. while if the ancients. it But least very reason. and on its recurrence he treats thus . differently constructed major keys. — ^but for that reason also the most for this liked. was was not high-minded. and consequently that of the Ionian also. (hypo-Ionian) or the Mixolydian key. We —But all our^iajor keys have the same construction. by means of ca- dences in the principal key or the subdominant. know already that the Ionian key is the only one among the ecclesiastical keys resembling one of our modern keys major. Thus Sebastian Bach. little sufiicient be afterwards explained. According to the principles of our modern system the modulation in We major goes almost invariably in first to the key of the dominant. it fact it common. was as Ionian tonic. in the ancient church-melodies. lONIAIf KEY. Thus the character of each. they chose.

348 465. ^pi^iS^P u s^ ^^^^m +-r .

We have then. > X-M "^^m 466. Q Ionian goes into Q- F we a modulation which very far from our major. THE MIXOLYDIAIf KEY. a cadence which make our cadence by means we have used occasionally as a half-cadence. however. according to our prmciples. This is by no means. i^3^Ji i ^i f i ?i f=i= S«f-. (p cJ. like lies G Mixolydian (originally Ionian . In order to exhibit the peculiar characteristics of this key give here a Bohemian choral. therefore it takes part in the transpositions of the Ionian. but to theless there is in the Mixolydian is key a dominant chord.349 CHAPTER III. Mixolydian is in fact Ionian in its origin. ^ . that it is a major scale with minor Seventh. of the subdominant ./u^ ^«. and which is generally known under the name of ecclesiastical cadence. the only ecclesiastical cadence. For this reason has the Mixolydian key a peculiar inclination to modulate into the Ionian.. but it on the tonic and points towards the Ionian scale. We know of therefore with a it. Nevernothing left.. and we shall soon arrive at others. and' minor triad on the dominant.'rrT'rT f- a 1 . It lacks therefore the possibility of a perfect cadence. Ionian).

b\) . e. but merely with a deep earnestness. The Dorian makes genus molle (d. own tonic in the «. THE DORIAK KEY. i J ff. goes to the subdominant of the F in ' Again we give here a Dorian choral which exhibits that key its mosL distant And rare turns. and latter. for instance the Oredo. or represents this key upon /. with the Ionian Lydian. We know already that it has a major triad upon the subdominant. and in most of their ecclesiastical songs. With it goes into the Ionian.350 CHAPTER IV. was the key to which the ancients en- most solemn music. but not sad. Severe and strict. (?|. by introducing Thus the major element This it is predominant^ and the minor of the tonic cannot impress us sadly. and that it can change the triad of the dominant into a^ major. . -^ ^ ^ *mJ 467. The authentic character and the low region of most of the Dorian melodies corresponds trusted their short with this character. is the character of this key. prompts the Mixolydian it it to modulate into the Mixolydian. g. d). a. But it is frequently the case that other modulations precede this one. The Dorian is the first minor key of the ancient system. The intimate connection with the Mixolydian. with which the Dorian has the subdominant chord and the two characteristic tones (/and b) in commpn. its the ^olian. its nearest modulation into its dominant.

*^mm^ ^mm 351 .

d\. and thus makes possible to have the triad of the dominant major. not being a characteristic tone. however. instead of striking The modular tions. Its characteristic tones are c and^j the minor Third and minor Sixth. softer and gentler than predecessors./Eolian . does not modulate into the minor or major key of its dominant. it often changed into a major seventh. and / being in the . is satisfied with half cadences upon dominant (without modulation). /|. for this would require the tone c\. or h. rf|. /j(. . is seventh. a.352 CHAPTEE V. Upon The the dominant of the Dorian rises the jEolian key. or turns to the Phiygian (which can hardly be called a modulation) and through that into the Ionian.(Eolian ct] Nor can the an essential tone. and the cadence of the jEolian key decisive. its This key. and making use of these its is another essential tone. jEolian. /|t is not permitted. for this would require the major triad or septime chord h. But the ancient system has no rfjj. go to I) Dorian. THE ^OLIANKET.

469. i^^Si*^*i ur r T'-rr f^^: "Cj I ^^^m^ $ ^^^^i# r^r ag^ .

and with it its minor Third and minor Sixth. because in its very final chord it requires a foreign tone. b. can it form any cadence with tones belonging to tones b. in succession. that the Phrygian key has no cadence which we should consider perfect .f. c rf|. or in addition to Thus have we two Phrygian cadences — . d and f. the same reversion of the order of modulation which we formerly noticed in two major tones. only that the Phrygian cadence is still less independent than the Mixolydian./. It was effected harmony the characterthem the minor third ol : This led to the strengthening of either by introducing in this preparatory istic tones. for this d jj. b. that If therefore. «. &c. distinguishes itself from all other keys latter. however.354 CHAPTER VI. and consequently of ecclesiastical scales. 470. a. it all of all diatonic scales. This. the half cadence of the jEolian (from this instance as fuU cadence. THE PHKYGIAN KEY. from which originated. e. naturally conditions fact that the ancients is characteristic even apart from the (rf|) had no major seventh from e. the minor seventh. e. i*^^ ff. For. for the From this follows then. is therefore its characteristic by its minor Second. would be chromatic. — i. and the scale. the tonic. two half steps would appear time. and can close in no other way but upon e. with the use of a foreign tone. /jj. This is the last of the ecclesiastical keys. in fact. to give to the Phrygian scale a d |. ^ to ^) serves in We perceive here in two minor tones. again. its cadence. nor. 9. d. the Ionian and the Mixolydian . g!^. two half steps never succeed each other. it Thus it is entirely dependent would require the upon the jEolian. the dominant of the same. The lone and cannot be changed. it. we were /.

but by no means as decisive and own cadences. . causes that melodies often begin in tones of one of these related keys. there.r^. We see here a close intimate connection to the Hypo-Ionian &. we should obtain so significant a result. so that it is almost impossible to know at once in which key the melody is^it^en. Weak imder it and helpless as the Phrygian stands without hesitation.^ . which can be placed Ionian. Q^ic^^w^ 472. In consequence of the relation between the Phrygian and the Molim. '^^^^m m I Ht^ ^^^ ^ A/fe. with the Ionian. ^^ m BE the first ^PP II iUl £ 1^-4 fm^ r^. ^ H. and through we are led at once The dependant nature of the Phrygian. its and its relation to an almost opposite major key. as well as the latter inclines towards the former. .355 which are peculiar to satisfactory as our this key. we recognize the Phrygian distinctly.. keys the former likes the modulation in the latter. the it firmest and clearest major tone. ^f3g Uii m ?3^3F5J^ r strophe points distinctly to the Dorian key but the next strophe having a modulation to the Ionian (7. proves that Only towards the end the former cannot be the reigning key. it is really as- tonishing that in connection with the Ionian.rf mw^ ii-.

— thei only characteristic of the key. We have reserved One the analyzation of this key for the is. and was thus crippled on one side. .) to such a degree that it could not well escape being mixed up with very it. all the superfluous fourth it This one tone only. K e. d. from the Ionian and from must not be altered as long as the key is intended to be Lydian. distinguishes the other keys .356 CHAPTER VII. last. THE LTDIAN KEY. The fact of this tone's making a dominant chord impossible (c-e-g-b\i) would not have mattered much for most of the cadences were prepared. since the reformation. and that. Dorian melodies. and conse- quently could not modvdate there. . Only in Bohemian collections do we and in others the Lydian appears in merely passingly in other keys. Nor would it b. therefore. but by the triad of the dominant. 9. But in other spects this tone b. in consequence of this b. there was nothing to indemnify us for this loss for this b could only lead to a modulation into the domi- nant at once characteristic of nothing and the most Every single key. for it was easy enough to avoid this step wherever it disagreed with the melody. And. of the tonic. . In the first place the Lydian scales resembled another much more apt and useful scale (the Ionian in the genus molle /. lacked the tonic harmony of the subdominant. — re- ^was the cause of the decline of this key. a. particularly Its characteristic is b. reason for this rather irregular proceeding that even in the ancient system. except the Phrygian. find Lydian melodies at all. and without demanding a sacrifice. «. thirdly. it has vanished entirely. In the second place the Lydian. These are the causes of the —a modulation commonplace. f. had it. this key has never been able to acquire an independent and rich application. not by the dominant chord. have made much difference that the superfluous fourth (/ b) is an unmelodious proportion .

as this liberty was achieved. And in the same degree inefficient. are no longer necessary . the ancients were restricted by regulations and rules. These. and in many instances we had to accord to it more subtle distinctions and better characteristics than our own. nay. we have in our own system. for the standard of modern art. with the additional advantage that while we can make a free use of them. if But it would be to en- a misunderstanding and an unartistio roaming. and the reasons from the other ecclesiastical keys. Every form of expression which the ancient system oifers to us.357 Lydian's never obtaining any extensive for our separating it efficacy. we were deavor. The deep meaning of the ancient system could not be denied. to return to the rule of the ancient system. the directions which the ancient system gave for certain objects had necessarily to become . in our labors. such oppression would be insupportable to the tone-artist he wants liberty.

nor do we speak of those which one composer or another has invented in the manner of the artistical people. but as the translator could not find a better one.* We need hardly mention that by those which "national songs " we mean . a composition.358 Third Part. but reasons of the deviation. it not pronounce wrong for that. should be called patriotic songs. but always in the it sense of the nation from which it originates. the organic word. where it has become the property. We rules . have always avoided the abstract application of made if a foi-mation does not correspond to general rules. But for this very must not be judged by general principles. we do we search for the particular The people who invented them have all not known those nales. one of the most invaluable vibrations. the translator has thought it best to retain this word. they have only unconsciously carried them within them. they have not become its property. The Secular National Song. those melodies which have really lived among the people not more strictly. But present above and nearest to their heaits was * This word does not exactly express the meaning of the author. and genuine reason . but they have not lived among the people. perhaps not for general purposes. and as the true meaning of it will become apparent to the reader in the course of his studies. and by it it becomes deeply significant to the musician. And it is the most vivid characteristic of a nation. in which every nation unconsciously exhibits the enigma of its fexistence and of its sensations. . who is probably the most capable of taking in and comprehending the simple melody. Such manufactured national songs may have merit (perhaps more than an actual national song). they have not been attuned to the people's ! sense or voices Only where that has been done —where the song has ceased to be the work of an individual. Whatever the real national song teaches him of his art is true . This is the deep meaning of the national song. but in the sense of its parents. the voice of the people as such —only there we see the national song before us.

or i. make himself familiar with them not to imiwould be vain) nor to employ them in his own would be little) but to enter more deeply into the . or by a combination of other instniFor the national song. like- wise the arrangement by Liszt of Schubert's songs. is sung by the people. he can do so. often it is accompanied by a pe now. expressive of a popular na- word or sentiment. and make it a rule to consider the Pianoforte as accompaning instrument. of the conditions under which the song Here must we look for the nearest and reasons for the melody of the song. and the deviation from their property. every other work. as can tents of the song. its In the first case the song remains in tional natural sphere. or perhaps the representation of a national song as an independent composition (without words. To Scotch songs. or triphonie phrase culiarly national instrument. and thus elevate the work . This occupation can be limited. general law.." the latter class belongs the " collection of " cyclus of songs to a distant A by the same author. in which case his accompaniment will be subordinate or he can accomplish a higher object. and without regard to rule or principle. or meditating upon the form and' the conit can consist of an independent treatment. us. to the mere performing. invention of an accompaniment. either in the style of the people. a duophonic. and by its manner. e. e. If the musician. might also be included here . into a higher sphere. construct. In the other case it becomes an independent work of art and can no longer be considered as a mere national song. (that soul of art. sometimes unaccompanied and monophonic. We shall begin with the most simple. . and the hearer. i.359 the feeling of the became truest moment. has to invent an accompaniment. (that works. Thus much of the interest which the national songs have for They are so important and so instructive that no musician should neglect to tate them. for instance ments). upon the Piano." by Beethoven. as such. he can increase the expression of the song. by means of his accompaniment. sometimes the singers from it by ear. itself. friend. .

apart from height or depth. CHAKACTBK OF KEYS. Thk first task in the treatment of a national song . now character is cool. if possible. now warm. now sad and gentle. and apart from the peculiar character of different instruments. The national song is intended hy many. just as suits the 1. is sung in one key or another. select. now If is it clear and firm. which at all transmitted to the listener. The next important point is the character of the key which we Every musician knows. of voices. CONSIDERATION OF VOICE-REGION. In this selection we must think above all of a proper position to he sung of tones for the voice. that key which corresponds best with the character of the song. which the lower than the tenth : for high voices and is at 2. as one nation sings higher or another. we have now perceived this difference of character.360 CHAPTER I. or ought to know. it will still he well to confine ourselves to d~—f: a tone-chain which lies convenient least in reach of the lower ones. . GENERAL CONCEPTION OF THE MELODY. is the desig- nation of its key for it can easily he imagined that among the it people a song singer. hut natural that we should select. that every key. and must not exceed the ordinary compass Though it is impossihle to give the exact points to compass might extend. has a character of its own.

everything to the general form and character of devotion. for in the one all we see a representation of . therefore. finest and sharpest features.361 CHAPTER II. the national songs in general differ more from each actual lection of the The other than the chorals. while in the choral. upon 1. We no longer speak of a uniform or impartial distribuThe harmony has no longer the obligation to intion of chords.^and in order to avoid under those circumstances monotony and weakness. to which law —^According to one already known Already in the first chapter of the eighth part. and has characterized each melody distinctly. can. above all. In the treatment of such melodies we must decide therefore. The variety of a variety their contents and their predominating mood has given us of rhythm. But according to us. go farther than in the choral. for each we have in addition to the uniformity ^generally a chord measural part or syllable. we shall. to consider the chords as so we have learned many spaces in which the various voices . The Measure or ike 1 Quantity of the Harmony. in two respects. PIAN OF THE HAEMONY. in the choral. and the accom- panying voices become subordinate to the melody. — songs. Though we shall be guided by the same principles which assisted us in our former la^ bors. it intends only to support the melody of the song. with the seharmony and the modulation. is subordinate Secondly. demnify us by variety and vigor for the monotony of the rhythm. work of the composer begins but now. the various conditions of humaiiity in all their variety the various sensations are represented in the most peculiar. and our voices as melodious as possible. Firstly. wa have made our harmonies energetic. But this is altogether different in our secular of rhythm a uniform distribution of harmony.

therefore. progression of this melody in the most clear and simple manner. since would be unnatural to force all the six tones of each sec- tion under one chord. those tones of the melody which beconstruction of a song decides generally long together. —we will at least designate the end of each section with a harmonic point of rest. in the above melody. therefore. In going from one chord to another. let us take the melody of the well-known. ^m^^^^^ ^3S3 ± J- f£p But we see already that there can be more than one division of spaces. To begin then with our labor. the move from one space into another. This would give us an ac- companiment like the following 474. which separates the more or less distinctly from that of another. " Qod save the Queen . In the same manner we have considered the various keys through which we pass in the course of a composition as so many voices merely spaces. in one harmon- modulatonic space. Consequently we must keep ic or together as * much as possible. The rhythmic-melodic what tones belong together." 473. that we moment It is clear. —but larger and more important than the former.362 move about. and the three tones of the fifth measure. in . p^ii^ it ^^ itat The whole formation tells us at once that the melody consists In order to represent the of three sections of two measures each. consider every step into another space as an important contents of one space of the whole. Thus. and that the necessity of supporting the sectional points of the melody is not always alike pressing. we might have embraced the first two tones of the first and third measures.

d. i^i ra - =F - =S^SEli bis. or the object of our treatment will al- ways be seen. upon the but it char- acter of the song. ra pro no should be treated in like manner. /|. O m^sano. had best remain on one chord. that however clear and simple the above treatment.tis - si - ma ! is - si- ma Dul I ^=p: n m ra. and the more tones we comprehend under few chords. the more light and animated will be the song. The decision in such case depends .££ pi - The Italian prayer " Andante. O sanctissima. b. o. the more weighty. begin thus The second and fourth measures The second part would perhaps 477. ^PS 4 -iJ-J- f^m. that.:^^ a! iifriz In teme- - Ma - ter a - ma - ta. it by no means corresponds to the weight of such a song. 221 --^t'. But returning to our national song we see." . S=:: -©1 'A -9.-•- P =?2= m . The following would be far more suitable ^m^ 475. and d. have given the tones of the second and fourth measures to two or three chords. m^^^ I I tT> 5. we might {ff.363 one chord and vice versa. c). the more changing of chords we permit. ta.

Number of Accompanying Voices. four. the more full and heavy will be the mass of the accompaniment the less voices we employ. . the more mobile and it light will be the whole. or five voices can diciously employed. sometimes on account of the musical contents of the song itself. there is in one and the same song sometimes a section which demands a stronger emphasis sometimes in consequence of the words. The above judge is so clear that will be comparatively easy to be made effective if ju- how many voices are requisite for one song or the other. than another unable to accomplish even the peculiar treatment of the hannony will now and then be it. ^^il^gH 3E3EE ^=^ :^m full 35 :P5iii= ^^S^l might be treated with the shorter tones might H * 0 —•- i^i^^pi harmony in the longer lightly. three. We shall soon perceive that . voices will often produce the desired Thus the following song : 478. but merely to the number of voices constituting the harmony. Two voices.364 2. The more tones we combine. Until in general now to considered what number of voices is more appropriate for this or the other song we have add two other considerations which were not requisite in .* Next to the chords we must decide upon the number of voices which are to accompany the song. But the alternate use of few and many effect. now we have only the chorals 1st. The mere change of forte and piano is often insufficient for such purpose . •— M-hile : tones. nor to the forte and piano of instruments. be treated more perhaps thus * As a matter of oourse we have no reference here to the number of singers.

As illustration we give here a well- known military song 480. particularly on instruments incar shall make use pable of forte and piano. We — or pianoforte. or for the accomplishment of particular effects the polyphony for single — ol moments. number of voices. demands and only consideration. (Book I. or sustaining the tones. but as a general thing all. Every other direction . altogether independent from the the first upon the typical character of the choral. OFEF^. depends above which. chapter II.) and effect this change in the num ber of voices only at the beginning of new rhythmical sections. absolutely unnecessary.. ^# P^T a 5E g: f In such cases the decision depends M is tion or accents which the particular character of the upon the rhythmical construo words and superfluous. it is E5 But we will remember the advice given on former occasions. I I i^-^ H 'J m eE£ ^ i 1 I I ==1-f^- -i^- £ possible. melody demands. while otherwise we proceed with one or two voices.365 :£3E 479. like the organ 2nd. In the chorals such change would be and occasionally even as it effective. first part.

formations.. Finally we must consider 3. or overcome. in the latter case in melodic form. but also one after the other first in the case the haraiony appears in harmonic form. which are called shall The melodic form of the harmony gives us many ingenious harmonic figurations. The Form of the Harmony. We have . and which we now consider. and which we must now try to simultaneously.366 Occasionally the number of voices is reduced to make the ac- companiment more practicable. figures in Between the two stand the well-known which one or two voices of the harmony anticipate the others. &c. the chords in different positions. like 481. Until now we have used but always so that the tones belonging to them generally entered But in this very simultaneous sounding of three more tones there was an unwieldiness and awkwardness which was long a stumbling-block to us. . The means for it were always at our command. seen already that the tones of a harmony can be introduced not merely simultaneously.

1- in melodic form. we add to this the rhythmical variety and tone-repeti- a single design of No. t- i which give us already six Four tones give us twenty-four forms. 6. HAEMONIC FIGURATION Discovery of its Designs. its The nonachord in primitive form would give us one hundred and twenty-five deIf signs. Of course. are not sounded simultaneously but one afBut in what succession? Here are three tones 2. Even now we see that it is next to impossible to exhaust the foi-ms of harmonic figuration.: Eg i^^it= $^^^^^^m. 6. every other three tones. harmony 4. We we know already that with the name " harmonic figurations" designate the representation of the The tones of a chord ter the other. and every four tones give us twenty-four designs. tion. and that we merely can give an insight into this element. In No.867 CHAPTER III. 482. First of all let us glance at the designs. 1. 3. 483. Monophonic Designs. ^iig^g^g^ii different forms. or three differently-situated tones give us six other designs. . arising 482 we have been made acquainted with the designs repetition from three tones^ without taking into consideration toneand rhythm. independent of the variations which might be produced by change of rhythm. 482.

Duophonie and Polyphonic Designs. thus we i tlSWWW i=i $ aSsS-^^i r r figurated four chords in such manner. 2. a triphonic or tetraphonic chord a monopho- we make a tetraphonic phrase duo- phonic or triphonic but in the figural voice there are contained three or two harmonic voices. '^mm^^ HH^P ffi ^•E $ m^ir^^Sjr^t^^^ i ^ li^i^t m ^^m^ ^ r . Ah and figurate the other . while the middle voice in this case . we have made from nic succession . that at a we retained the In the former cases upper voice. But we can retain a part of have here 484. In the above we have resolved a whole chord in melodic form. at b the lower voice. is figurated. it. But such duophonie or triphonic phrases can again be made tetraphonic or polyphonic by the addition of new I voices : 485. and at c the upper and lower voices. is In short this element absolutely inexhaustible.368 gives us endless numbers of other designs.

if re- duced to the harmonic form.. and in reality present this appear- ance : =i=S=r= =i=iC=5= =r=«="=?=n^ 486. hexaphonic. that such phrases. however. not be difficult to find . here only seized the nearest. are not triphonic or tetraphonic.369 It is clear. &c. We have more. ^^^m It will 1B=P= We leave the student to practice such figuration. but pentaphonic. from the above.

This will give however. .. It will require but few observations to guide us merely in the execution of the harmonic figuration. THE HARMONIC POINT OF VIEW. It is e. In the figuration. EXECUTION OF THE HAEMOMC nGURATIOK. we consider them from. only af- terwards that is c follows in b. all If. their Let us reconsider the figurations of No. however. and finally There ? a similar case at Are these tones treated wrongly No . Retarded Resohition. the seventh goes not to but ascends to g. 1. just as They fall into two halves. ^i r r r -"- r r -•- -»- -221 -aIn the simple harmony the septime chords c. to e. as in No. proper observance of those rules. 484 and basis. the same voice. A. 484 and 487. at A. we start from a previ- ously fixed harmony. Consequently in our it has to submit to in general. 482. are properly re- solved . but represented partly or entirely in melodic form. or imagine at least such a harmony to as in Nos. h goes to / descends e. some points worth mentioning. a harinonio or melodic point of view. we are involuntarily led to a rise. The harmonic figuration is in reality nothing but an actual har mony. harmonic 437. those rules which have guided us harmony therefore.370 CHAPTER IV.

in many cases. to the consistent execution of a figural design. But the retarded resolution can exercise by is its very retarding of one or more tones a peculiar charm. est satisfaction. but one after the other. Octave and Quint. by no means as distinct as those of our former harmonic forms in itself such a mobile for the figural voice hides and covers them with melodic bye-tones in such a manner. m! ^3-^53. octave- and quint-successions which appear at b uncovered. Thus we see here. 489. here . This is called a " retarded resolution. the But even if an actual faulty succession forms the basis . 486 have been made apparent. 485. the tones of which do not enter simultaneously. D. The attentive reader will already have noticed that in No. of a figurated phrase for instance. there have occurred octave-successions which No. It is undeniable that the immediate resolution gives the quick. and is and flowing melody that the suspicious successions are only the consequences of the doubling of voices. in and e. Are such successions No In harmonic respect they are . c.371 the figural voice contains three harmonic voices. 488. and absolutely indispensable.Succession. ^ "?~T wrong ? n all i at A. 2." if there are The same takes place as in the following : suspensions in the harmony. and is therefore the mildest formation. at A.

The same takes place in the third and / Each B. as actual tones of the haiTaony.Tones. to the harmony. Therefore it is evident that they if can be introduced into the harmonic figuration as essential tones of the they were fol- harmony. B I -^r4 f->-r^^?--r-P=. they and we have often considered them Though the passing-tones do not belong enter simultaneously with it. above all. This has been done in the lowing little phrase 491.372 490. figural voice represents. F| \ -I \ i BE =?2= The d measure in the first is first measure is a passing-tone .. 3. tone to the expected fourth measures. a melody. Passing. imm 4M =^ PT T I I the melodic form and the intermediate steps (here a sixth between every two fifths) would mitigate the bad effects of such succes- sions considerably. the c of the second a suspension and becomes afterwards a passingd.-THE MELODIC POINT OF VIEW. and as far it as its contents and its relations to the other voices permit. .i N -d- -P =^z i fipzpipi'^irprp^p.

reasoils — the designs and dii'ecand we have not passed on to others without good ^we will not depart from it now. or which belong to the same harmony. in harmonic figuration. ^. Each measure pressed. These two merits might the figure -^^m easily be combined by intermediate tones. is a progression. 2. — Consistency of Execution. and we shall per- haps occasionally return to it. the closest relation to each other. in which the relation of each tone to the following is ex- The closer this relation of tones . for i instance be the most firmly. and less vague than c. 492. 1. the melodic connection will be the stronger. particular which Of these laws there are two in demand mention. We shall not depart from without good reason. lie to each other.. the closer the tones of a chord Here. is. the more apparent does the relation become therefore have tones which succeed each other diatonically or chromatically. If we have once seized let it it a design. for instance. the figure c the least firmly The figure b stands between the two. We have always endeavored to retain tions once seized.373 must follow the laws of melody. we must work to the test of its powers. closed in itself from tone to tone. An unnecessary. It is more connected. :j= . Therefore. aimless changing of design would only cause confusion and restlessness. i 1^^^ a will spgii M^ as. Firm Connection. expansive than a.

tal melody But the close union of the isolated tone-groups to a flowing figural voice This connection takes place.374 1 I 1 III I m Thus 1 1 ^eS far rests the ^ is equally- internal connection of the figural upon the power or formation of the design. second . or the last tone of the first first tonfi harmony group can be of tht^ brought in diatonic connection with the group. important. either as the fundamenindicates.

close. I and begin with the following . Passages reduced to Harmonic Figwration. and the liberty to select. we must not omit them. and rhythmize ac- cording to our pleasure.375 CHAPTER V. We : shall need but few I illustrations. because the uniformity of the passage. cannot but greatly assist us. This is a comparatively easy task. but these exercises tend so much to the development of our musical powers. and willi be of so much advantage in later exercises. that 1. THE EXERCISE OF HAEMONIC FIGUEATION IN PASSAGES AND GIVEN MELODBBS. It is time now to is resume the practice of our new means. ^:^L^--j--—-g- j_j '_J I 495. LU ^»iWipW ^ l^i^ i _ I ^=n-r^fff Here are a few of the most simple beginnings "—•- M: F-=F^ ^ r . Per- haps this practice not absolutely necessary for the mere accom- panying of national songs.

Here ^^^^^^^ ^-^ 3EEEJ£ M m P . BES^z fi 1- X iz ^- we have no duced longer repeated the design slavishly exact. . melody of the upper voice indicated by the At b and c the melody is still visible. while here „. An 497. Hen'e 498. i^^ ^^^ s^ .A extension of our chords would give us an enlarged arena for our designs and the carrying out of them. to each chord. r ^ tS" sf- we have given a half-measure Teneramente. but intro- at the same time an accidental suspension.-] ^t=m g:J: Oon fuoco. j^te^iA — rT II * t if^ i I it vanishes altogether.376 At first A we see the tones of the figural design.

In the following fragment 499. Lfe^^ 500. Accompaniment of Given Melodies. in order to keep up with the melody. and If this designs. ^ m^^^m^ *=?= i 1 t i . B. we must occasionally relinquish strict adhesion to the design. If in it -*-h#- -t. i ggj. we C the same accompaniment in three different accompaniment threatens to overpower the melody we can easily add an harmonic accompaniment. Only the irregular progression of these phrases makes the task somewhat difRcult. Andante. we can now attempt with a middle voice. All our former melodies give us opportunities to practice on them the harmonic figuration.377 2. see at A. 501. ^^^^fep|^ the above we have figurated the bass.

. placing of its But the tones on rhythmical chief-parts can soon balance this slight defect. causes a greater or lesser deviation from the principal melody. as might be expected. 502. therefore. and we pass on at once.378 The figuratfon of the upper voice. Sh The mm 1 1 =l=f£ ' -J: further practice of this figuration presents no difficulty. to the next chapter.

we can omit any or all the intermediate tones in the above. and have and d we have enriched the designs of a and b by means of made them more cannot always suit us to introduce the whole series of fill connected. The harmonic mobility. therefore. It lies near. to out every third 504. and which have driven us already to the invention of suspensions and passing-tones (Parts Eighth and Ninth). . PASSIKG-TONE AND BTE-TOITE.379 CHAPTER VI. i ^i=± at c i^ T^=t¥ frTT^ '-^&w-T^:m gS" ^ diatonic and chromatic passing-tones. ^= m LLiLLT J. to introduce these passing-tones in our figurations. harmonic Thus here. with omission of the intermediate tones. But or fifth it diatonic or chromatic intermediate tones. $ ^ a tifi If ^ Consequently But we must remember that the very step of a third or fifth was nothing but the progression from one degree to the third or fifth. 503. but figuration developes before us a picture of great it suffers from the monotony and emptiness which are always the companions of the mere harmonic element.

The one not lead to P e. This is the case at a in the above. I -t:- t- we can chose these I I I "^$ m^-d=i=R=H=J=iii=:R=fi:^i^ I m i±:^B^^SEe^pEpf3^ But we must here add a few remarks. and the only question arising then would be. which are best omitted'? the subsequent one. The pass is a flowing movement.JJ y. The passing-tones at b are less satisfactory. below we can select or omit at pleasure. must therefore lean towards the subsequent tone. and in that case we shall select the one nearest to the subsequent tone. keep distant. B . join it closely. as it were. With the same right we can retain but one of the passing-tones. Of the intermediate tones between a tone and its third or fifth. 507. because they goal. ft is ¥ better than the one at c It is .h^^^l=k^:U 1. at a or b but to for the c| does same in descending. from their actual The passing- tones at c are in direct contradiction to the supposed key. as it were. and sound strange. the chromatic passing-tones.380 505. A . it. iip=ppi&=H=^^E *The object of the passing-tone is to lead us into it Instead of the three intermediate tones of a third we need take but two. ^ I J I Bill . 506. having in its completeness a softening influence upon the melody. Of the following diatonic and d. . which. without steps. must necessarily progress in wide .

in our harmonic figurations we gain new tiiriei- successions. After this we need not hesitate to introduce descending help- tones in ascending passages.S81 In incomplete passes the whole influence of the pass ti'ated is concen- upon * ^ — B u ^ 1L _ o_ D _ 509. and without fearing. for instance They are so sitnple and satisfactory an addition that we can even begin with therd without preparation. even. ^ stt: one. without regard 512. 513. ' - ' Embodymg them 510. while it has no connection with the preceding Such isolated tones of a pass are called HELP TONES. ascending help-tones in descending passages. i 'm ^ ^^ ^ ii -m-M ^ %^ to its contents. the remaining tone. the effect of false-rela- tions (Jb against h\ in the above) provided always that the help- tone leads to a chord^tone. or introduce them simultaneously with the p<«i chord. 511. which. leads smoothly into the next one. i -&- i . and vice versa.

'''$ Seie^ r^ of the first f only that the resolution retarded. such as DOUBLE TURNS. and unite the help-tones and let their resolution follow terward. Here . passing-tones can be introduced in false relations. however. too. &C. Each of the passing-tones Consequently finds its resolution in the chief-tone. TUlftlS. The introduction of them demands. 514. tone is somewhat TBILLS. reason. The attentive student will here perceive at once that all our musical ornaments. and should not be permitted without sufficient some justification. from the above that give it in the repeti- tion of a harmonic tone we can a help-tone from above as well as below (a). are in reality nothing but an accumulation of help-tones. £ as well as d are here resolved in c . we might omit the latter the first af- time.382 or to employ either or both in vague tone-chains of harmonic figuration.. i li3Bi i^ffi a^es^ It arises a fiiL One step farther. In the form of heIp4ones. -^^^^fc and consequently we can also introduce the two in immediate succession (b).

not hesitate to lead the help-tones first i ito other harmonic tones. ^^m •hf- taken g instead of y|. can be explained in like manner. I T— 5—-i F^g ^-•-« ^-»- ^ i — — s-«-^ -f ^ ^ I- obtained from thein we can once. 521 P1^^ ^^M . A similar passage from " Don Giovanni" 519. the designs the passing-tones by with a pure harmonic figuration . for instance. ^m^^ 1=^ ijtihjt ^ig^^F is we see a e| against a cfc|. This secure a flowing progression of the different voices. before the tone of the actual resolution appears. done to For the same reason we have here 518. that help-tones do not resolve immediately into a harmonic tone. Until themselves. We shall. at A. therefore. 516.383 M 517. 520. now we have merely treated of If we mix. see the resolution of the passing-tones and help-tones at But we have already seen in No. at b /| against /H. now.

however. for in that case its resolution would have been far different. 6. are Passing-chords or Transient chords. Finally we must add that these real and apparent passing-tones and help-tones can occur simultaneously in two or more voices. Thus we 523 Y r at A. This would be the case manner if we were to remodel 520.^t-J. m iffl. for instance. will such mixture be good.y|. is first and last quarters . The design in the second is clear enough in the d. and which. however.384 Not always. /I and S relate to g and almost entirely effaced. each help-tone and therewhole passing-chord consisting of such help-tones ^must — — return to the originally-intended find here main tone or chord. This can lead to harmonic formations which were not in the least intended. tells The resolution of this accidental formation. in this 522. but and third the impression that the two help-tones. one into the other. rfjf. at b we see actually all the four voices of a chord {b\)-c-e-g) proceed to help-tones which seem to form a chord of their own (6-(fj(/j(-a). as their origin will indicate the rules to fore the be observed . and least so when the two elements fall confusedly. us at once tha-t the chord is not a real one. and a-rfj(-/jj . . called by persons fond of technical terms. within the chord c-e-g and 6b the groups £?jt. Their treatment requires no particular directions.

In the third measure we might have written three times e and then c. This will have the additional advantage of reminding us of the application of the passes. therefore. and thence have found their way into harmonic figuration.385 CHAPTER YII. m -§- ^i ^- 4- ^ SP' with the &- Ei^i '^' feE3i ^^ sii ^t We begin our task ^"f A. and it now became absolutely necessary to continue throughout the whole phrase. fifth. Their practice. . Thb help-tones have stepped out. The movement it for in quarter notes of the first measure.-^FIGCRATiaN OF THE UPPER VOICE. at first with the diatonic passes and help-tones. as they contain nothing new. but the help-tone made it less monotonous. as it were. The directions needed are but few. induced us to continue it another measure. from the diatonic and chromatic passes. must be attached to the diatonic and chromatic passes. and sixth measures need no explanation. p E^E^J W -&2 t^Sf^fati^iff ' ' ! -^ I The first. '-J. and. and the following phrase may serve as a basis 524. INTRODUCTION OF PASSES AND HELP-TONES INTO FIGURATION. ' 525.

consisting of its repetition and a help-tone. let us introduce into the upper voice tones from the fundamental harmony. #^=r^p|?£^c^^ti^ we have zation. ^IS^iS containing harmonic bye-tones and diatonic passes. ig^^^ And now we Here &o. 525 a more animated formation perhaps like this 526. .S8« Thus we have accidentally arrived Following up to the' idea of figurating at a figuration of a single tone. we might give No. arrived. will proceed to the chromatic passes. like this $^^^^ : or of greater compass 530. Ths would give us fonnations 529. and which until now were laying idle. The nearest would probably be this 527. at a somewhat-varied rhythmi- Merely passingly do we remember here the rich and powerful means which rhythm oflers us. pj ^^i^^gi^ m^^^m^m m . for the first time. We might combine the chromatic passes of No. i 528. a single tone. pgg^EJ^gi^ now to the Let us turn harmonic figuration . 520 with the harmonic bye-tones and the uniform movement of No. 527. P"^ ^E?: z^t^ ES.

Dolce. that at except. 524 bass so meagre. but even more animated and marked : 532. g= WFi i i '-^ ^ g— -^ mere d- I The introduction of a help-tone instead of a tone-repeti- .387 or in extended figuration Ten.ti fie- ^^ -^^^ mm Ten. 531 i^^ E ?-• _^. t' tJ:=. t or in a similar manner. B. and a thousand other designs and formations. perhaps. e. 33. *T&. Returning to No. to give we first it find the melodic movement of the we hardly know what to do with it. a more animated ihythmization. FIGURATION OF THE BASS.

ffi =P I f f tion (a). to the following 535. upon the second part of the upon the first (c). perhaps. w ^S it m^Ms'mM up this exercise. 525. in this us the means of sketch the bass At first we might manner 537. i5i 1 ^^^^^ J- ^^ J J ^ . 5 J- * like In order to rich a development a simple design those in No. m=a if show how -sj- 4-M:. oi this : it (b). leaving to the student to follow Were we at all inclined to change the melodic basis in the bass ofl^er of No. X and by means of the different passes. to a great degree.388 b34. the harmonic figuration would arriving at a richer foundation. The design c would lead us. for instatice we would soon tions. with monotony. would do away.' we merely igive one here. It is arrive at more interesting and extended foraaa in easily seen that the above figuration originated . or with -r ffj CTT :7T' mea&flre. 536. 534 can furnish.

without a change of the this case melodic basis. :^f?=Ji *jiji~(*~ !flic e? A:^ It Mai^-f- LU ^m the latter would lead from formations like a to such as b and many _ others. 537 which in . FIGURATION OF A MIDDLE VOICE. must combine the two middle voices into one. which in his future polyphonic labors will be of much advantage We have reference to . would have been : 539. Yet we would recommend to him. The little space at our command is here greatly in our and we must therefore either lay the voices farther apart. to the zealous pupil a last exercise. These directions will be sufficient to practice all the different forms of the pass in connection with the harmonic figuration. or way we . !''_ 1 _i L-*^ l_l !_::: l_lJ liimpbh mn-!—£j —v^=^^- ^ 542. much would have been a development like the following. 640.389 No. however. Bi: nearer to No. not. 537 ^^^^!^^ b. and stimulate the inventive faculties of the student. C. The former : pro- ceeding will call into existence formations like this i 541.

and a few illustrations will be suf- We return again to the passage 136. in like manner The other the wider steps with diatonic passes.^ J -&- T- ff^f r ^ Let us now ^^Efed J. AND SUSPENSIONS TO HARMONIC PASSAGES.390 THE APPLICATION OF HARMONIC FIGURATION. introduction of passes in the upper voice as a matter of course they can only be chromatic. . a 3 P~ At b at A. -s- ^^^^^ ^ rr^ voices proceed diatonically. ^ a third. Let us now attempt the . introduced suspensions in the In order to avoid the consecutive fifths which the passes would otherwise have formed with the upper voice. ^ "M^'r-i'T i^^ iS upper voice ? ^ Why have we. HELP-TONES. fill fei- descends alternately a fourth. Here the bass 136. CONNECTION WITH PASSES. The task ficient. ::^ —(^ W^:^ 543. we have sus- pended all three of the upper voices. is IN an easy one. and the third voice.

391 -Ml $ 644. and bass. which will be found in a more or less similar form. give the following W 545. the pupil must not to begin with the most simple designs. in the tenor. alto. =d= ^t^ ^^^ at ii J^ . -±^-^ et: r a«sj ^lrr=fs^^i four notes of the treble can be considered as the prin- The first cipal design.though we have illus- tration. given here a somewhat complicated fail But. ^ rS we r zJzz:!^ W=^^ Bi As a ^e=r^T tt^f^ . .^^^ and varied developments which last illustration of the rich the industrious student can derive from the simplest designs.

1.. (vide Nos. In juxtaposition to the harmonic accompaniment. We can in most volatile and flowing accompaniments endless forms. 477. passes. We are at last fully prepared for every kind now represent the of accompaniment which the character of our national songs might demand. effect. The richer the change of chords.. which we could not explain at the time. We have the necessary means in hand we have practised their application. (Nos. some of the tones in No. Yet we can be guided by certain general principles which will always indicate to us the proper direction. meaning. like that of No.) or the these chords by rests (No. Our labor now is but trifling. the more interwoven those chords are.392 CHAPTER Vm. by means of suspensions. &c. we have . 479. 475. the more conspicuous will be the character of this hafinonic accompaniment. as we formerly constructed accompaniments of full and firm that chords. and guard as against aberration. &c. 477. and it only depends now upon our selecting the right means for every particular task. 475. and the dif- ferent conceptions of which most or all of our songs are capable. 480. The great similarity of many of our present forms.- only occasionally interspersed with hannonic byCasually tones &c.) the lighter will be the accompaniment. makes it impossible to point to any one form as the only right one.) we learn now. 475. to judge which form of accompaniment or representation is most in keeping with the character . APPLICATION OF THESE NEW MEANS TO ARTISTIC ACCOMPANIMENTS. A strictly harmonic accompaniment.) are separated The milder and more rarer the change of chords (No. produces the most firm. of each song. &c. are nothing but help-tones. and heavy 2. 476 and 479. 3.

sixth. will this fundamental character become more simulb. the more extended the the figures. the more conspicuous . 6. The farther apart these rapid the tones. The more firmly the melodic connection of an accompanythe by means of passing-tones. It is necessary. and contains at legist no disagreeable passages for instance. if prompted by the deviating tendency of single verses or parts. 5. the former case it . and more attention will it detract from the principal melody. 4. or to be played in connection with the accompaniment. more independent a melody will this voice become. full. Passing-tones or help-tones are apt to figuration make more connected. is not necessary to place the melody in the it accompaniment paniment so but will itself^ be well to construct the accomit that. to ascertain whether the melody is to be In sung._4.) taneous voices share in this movement. lightness. deavor to keep in view the general character of the song. and a certain transparent con- nection of tones.393 the harmonic figuration._ S-j_ 17* . the more movement. as were. (No. ing voice has been developed the After these observations for each we will construct our accompaniment we will even change the form of accompaniment. quart-successions to which the melody would form the T=l 546. by affords a certain satisfaction . the fundamental character of which is animation. i^ a^i f-» :P!=F §1 Accompanitnent. \. 485 d and the more do we approach again to the fullness and firmness the harmonic it of massive motion. But in every case we will ensong according to its contents . melodibally satiated. grace. also.

in its simple construction. resembles our first periodical formations. tions will But these consideraon the accompani- be treated more fully in the chapter ment of vocal music. &c. to be played without being sung. perfectly in keeping with its object and characoi If it were intended to be accompanied by the pianoforte. it is sung duophonically by the people. a few simple chords. As is above. ^ which. The first of these accompaniments would answer to the light verses. 548. This treatment ter. Let us begin our labors with the following song S: ^^47.med on one instrument —the pianoforte. to such treatments in Here we shall confine ourselves principally which melody and accompaniment are per- fo. would be final verse. the second to the more serious and sad this latter and the coda might designate mood more characteristically by moans of a more developed harmony . supporting the rhythm. &c. sufficient.394 irregular steps in the upper voice.

Ores Oi d^. most simple manner Fiu animato. we might form a more animated middle voice. This has in the been done here. S3 ^ •-•-*-*»-H- n 1 S3Ee!^ *^i ^^ if ^: If this form of accompaniment should be deemed too simple. Nl_ 9J^ I -^=^- m^^ I •r ^ -a- r^^s^^a? biy ^e^3^5E -g- Sg3s|- . t=^-M 550. :?— L i?=it -T^ R-. -£«. -sar-t 1 i_J 1 f— P • 1 .395 W^^ 549. we were to give an indication of the suppressed emotion of the singer.

for instance : .) perliaps ihus . and assumes a more complicated foi-m. It is deserted in the close is indicated again at the end of the whole. though resembling our first conception (No. excited character. The made itself more independent from the design.KS- but which departs altogether from the simple character of a national song. and for the we might still : give the third one a more anxious. 448 . combined with the of the thesis.^ 552. p _L „ P .396 The design consists of the second voice of the national fifth song. Let us imagine one of these representations employed second verse. and antithesis has of the chord. which might have been differ- ent and simpler .

Franz Liszt has been peculiarly fortunate in the production of such forms. -«- -«- ^^= & 553. I ^ I II rt:^^F^>_dl?l r 1 -'*-' I -*--:8-:r 1 L'-^L -pfp p ^ R--^Fed.piano. 554. c. if the melody were it to pass more from the character of rural by lilce a mere recollection. we might surround with accompanying reminisceiK'-es. iF:=g: or Other nearer or more distant formations.397 But if we were to depart still simplicity. ^^^^^g^^pgi^ *===* "^^^f^^ =^5Z^ ^ZlSl w^^t -^^m^&- ->--N- ^n^ii^^ *-:E=K£Et^^S --»-#-f -+-—*- iM^g . Marc. espr.. espr. et^" IS: j^J44^ Fed. f * J^ J ^ '~^"5"I<2>"5" — -«-/-N-«-:^ N-«- Maro.

but admits of many harmonic : con- ceptions. gentle. aipi Shall P -4^= we harmonize the beginning thus ? ^^ 556. expression of the longing for her to whom to this the song addressed. two measures previous is . is less we will throw a hasty glance upon the above song. It simple than the former.398 Finally. We shall have to make use of interrupted in a and imperfect cadences. Both points have one and the same object. is —the . restless desire manner which corresponds perhaps thus |^^!S^ 555. for the rest merely a repetition of the same. f=^ e^-t 5tEJEE&^ f=r a m ei m -| f^-1 - P^N* I S=: h . and the imperfect cadence of the second part. We see in it two particularly conspicuous points the pause in the third measure from the end.

The latter refers particularly to the painfully anxious chromatic progression of the bass.) and the second time we would pass c. ^'iff^'iVr ^m^jj ^-rjJ^^Tf E=3^^§^^ggag m T^T *^ 1f»-iS»-l7'i f T^ZlT iS-^iS^ and with the following measure we would return the the beginning (as at first time to a or p.399 It would appear too unsteady and assuming. -F- m ' r ~^~rr ^m -•- r d---^J: :fe=F m^ h=f - ^^tlu: . over to the second part. We should prefer a full and gentle figuration of simple harmonies " 557. as at 1IE=3 558.

if we -conceived tjiis song in a more J^estless mood. we might form a more animated aecompaniment.4Q0 Or. ess ^^ and exercises. perhaps thus: 659. 3^ it±i=E=3: r m We leave the student to practise these and other analyzations .

Our prelude time was ex- tremely meagre. either by indicating or by actually sounding at the essential harmonies. p.401 APPENDIX. until we arrived at the harmonic figuration. and were able to construct more passages. already men- tioned the prelude with which a piece of music can be introduced to the singers or listeners. . 120. with or without the passing tones and that we now return to the prelude. and in addition to these. 560. THE FIGURAL PRELUDE. dispensable true —but — it so easy of attainment. In the first chapter of the Fourth Part we have at that . Thus much we have leamecTalready Passages like this. belong to this branch of musical Nor does theory. is this subject actually We consider it merely as an appendix. perhaps other near related harmonies. on account of lack of means soon after gained varied harmonic and though we new chords. quent composition. and even now we have to be limited to the most subordinate forms. It iS for this first attempts. that we shall not hesitate to treat of it. yet we could not overcome the monotony and dryness of our help-toties. The prelude is intended to prepare us for the key of the subseit.

560 this We P 562. 4 561 m^ p 3 4 _(2_ -&- bt 3 6 7 t b -z^e^:^ BE yes £ -h^ bs b ^ n p -e- are quite appropriate for purely harmonic preludes.402 or these. We have already learned to develop such passages more firmly passes. . is or any other form. But such formations are the presumptuous development plicity not in keeping with the sim- of the task and the hannonio foundation. W=i^ =F= ^=^ ^ because ai ^P W^WS' rx^—^^ If i s d i T=^^^^ less appropriate for preludes. by means of suspensions and might therefore give to the prelude No. and melodiously.

we might form from one single chord a prelude. 8va. and closed\ with the tonic triad. remunerates us most amply for its lack of harmonic variety. sumingness give us the possibility of volatile formations. dominant chord. or any one 'figurated chord we intrlpduoed the harmonies essen- to the designation of a key. which. by means of harmonic figuration.403 Here again we discover in the figural forms the proper means They mitigate the stiffness of the chords. Thus. and with all their unas. It would be already a progress if we employed the for the after tial figuration if. without preventing us from elevating ourselves to more energetic. flowing and melodious ones . they permit us at the time to remain longer with every single chord. in its mobility and variati<3n of form. as we have done here : . m^^=^^^ 563. and as they do away with the monotonous stiffness of the chords.

too. and afterwards carrying figural design. ^~—^ • m This. may serve as an illustration of such foundation.404 S64. should pianoforte. ffi i p=f=r=rT^^^i^ SfciiEg u ^m ^ A. selecting an harmonic succession. and one of a higher order. and then at the We by can obtain a richer formation. out according to a fixed The following phrase 565. figuration simple har- monic . be practised. in the it manner of our first preludes. Legglero. first on paper.

how- two designs (triplets and eighth-notes. because the foundation assumes a more rapid In c. too. . progression after the third measure. and it requires merely a steady progression. a single help-tone has been introduced in b and in c we have employed In continuing this. help- and rhythmical form. this would be first necessary thus : we might omit the second design. as have made but sparing use of these means . change of design.) our designs would have to be modi- fied or divided. We ever.) we have seen in a. series and series of new we have introduced passes. and form the . ^pi^^^ls^^l m ^^=f=g=ta^^^ ^ S ^^E^ ei f ^%%i it gives it already mobility and variety. to obtain from formations. particularly after tones.405 566.

406 567. by no means diflficult Guided by the student his may venture beyond the limits of the phrase. either on paper. or improvising on the pianoforte. and exercise invention in free harmonic formations. . 3e# Thus much of it. W^ this p^ ^m ff exercise.

APPENDIX AND NOTES TO MAEX'S THEORY MUSICAL COMPOSITION. 23 PARK ROW. OF THE OONSEETATOET OP PARIS NEW yOEK: PUBLISHED BY MASON BROTHERS. BY E. . GIRAC.

by MASON BROTHERS. In tbe Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. . according to Act of Congress. in the year 1854.Entered.

much definitions be clear and comprehensive the developments strictly cionfined to It is points immediately connected with the rules or definitions. Nothing more apt to give an idea of the soundness of judgment of Beethoven. quite a different thing to write for learners. perhaps the subjoined to every precept. The paucity of precepts contrasts In this. ought to be unfolded with as . which times obscure the practical rules. precepts brevity as possible . with interest. that you have to avoid. or learned. from that fecundity of thought and richness of expres- man laying down a code you have to practise. and many others. Albrechtberger. his master.INTEODUCTION. Albrechtberger. The latter no doubt. This . in the author. thoughts developed with a wonderful abundance of ex- and sometimes with but brilliant figures of speech. The practical ' of precepts must say to the pupil. the most practical man who was early German and the ever seated on the professor's pulpit. he must show the pupil how to observe this. we think he was influenced by These few been written. by numerous examples So used to do Cherubini. and how to avoid that. often- In instruction books. So did the it such as Fuchs. will. My object in writing the following Appendixes has been to con- dense and abridge matters which. theorists. lines serve to I show in what spirit the Appendixes have rules. of is whom would be too long to give here the names. this greatest theorist who ever existed : so did Reicha. derive little benefit from those evidences of learning. they will follow. with reasonings and arguments pressions. But the former will. skillfully linked one to another . does very well with readers conversant with the subject. Italian padre. be satisfied with philosophical views. are too prolix. after all.' He must still do better. Marpurg. sion paraded by the writer. than the concise- ness with which he has developed the rules of Counterpoint and Fugue in his musical studies. and mingled with secondary considerations of the subject. Martini. wonderfully with the number of examples. but sup- have given compressed and short .

IV

ported and illustrated by numerous exercises, intended both to put
the rules in practice,
himself.

and

to

serve the student as models of

work

for

Though

these Appendixes have been composed to be explanatory
to the large treatise

commentaries
in themselves,

of Marx, yet they form a

vi^hole

and from the treatment of the triad down to the passing-notes, where they break off, they form a compendium of the matters contained in them, in which nothing necessary to the instruction of the pupil has

been omitted.

They have

another advantage

they offer the teacher of harmony a text-book in which the funda-

mental laws of harmony have been laid down, so that he will have no other task
his pupil,
to

perform than to direct and superintend the work of

being thus relieved from giving, himself) but very few

directions.

But how must these Appendixes be used ? In the following manner.

The

student will

first

read attentively, and endeavor to understand
to 113.

thoroughly the work of xMarx, from page 94

Next, he should
to the

put aside the author, and begin the Appendixes

down

chapter

on the pedal-point.
given (page 215).

When reaching this part of my work,
At the page 219, of the
author, he

he will take

the text of Marx, where the fundamental principles of the pedal are

must

resort

again to the Appendixes (page 128), in which the manner of framing

a pedal apd some other developments are given. At this part of his work he will have to finish the Appendixes. I have confined my work to the suspensions, but they are fully developed, and more completely shown in the work of Marx. If the student be aptly possessed of the
matters treated in the Appendixes, he will be able to understand and
practise the chapter

on passing-notes, and the following of our author.

When reading through the Appendixes for the first time, the pupil will
have
to neglect those that are
I,

mere observations on

the text, such as

App. H, App.

and App. K.

When

the Appendixes-v have been

once read through, and studied carefully, the pupil will take the
text a second time,

and then read the Appendixes in connection

with the text in the order in which they are referred to by numbers
inserted in the book of our author.

These

directions are particularly

addressed to students

left to self-instruction,

or amateurs living in the

country, deprived of any assistance from professional men.
pupils enjoying oral teaching, they will use both the text

As
and

to

my

Appendixes, as directed by their teacher.

A

few words now on the exercises, especially
left to self-instruction.

for the benefit of

students

After reading the rules and explanations, the pupil should copy
the base of the exercises

coming

after

every rule or explanation,
to

without looking at the upper parts.
the figuring of the base.

Particular care must be given
fill

This being done, he will

up the

har-

mony

according

to

the figures written carefully under the base.
to
fill

Before commencing

up the harmony, he ought

to read over

and over again the rules on the three musical motions, and watch
his

work with utmost

care, in order to avoid fifths and octaves either
it,

hidden or real.

After

he will compare his work with the upper
If he discover

parts written above the base in the Appendixes.

faulty successions, or mistakes in contradiction to the figuring, he

should recommence his task,

until,

by comparing

it

with the exercises,

he finds no
triads,

fault with his
I

own arrangement.

When

studying the

which

consider the most difficult labor of the pupil, particu;

lar attention ought to be paid to the connection of chords

most of

the faulty successions arise from breaking this connection. the student has succeeded in writing his

When

work

correctly, (and to

succeed in

this, it is

not necessary to arrange the parts just as they

are in the Appendixes,) then he must create a base for himself, and
fill

up the harmony.

In the discords, particular care required
;

is to

be given

to the preparation,

when

next, to the resolution.

These exercises are carefully
of which
it is

figured.

The

figuring

is

that

adopted in the Conservatory, and, generally, by the French school,

necessary

to

give the pupil a proper notion and view.

The triad is figured thus, s. The diminished triad, thus, -9-. The augmented triad, thus, fs or

^s.

When
or
|,

the third of a chord or triad is suddenly altered
s,

by an
|,

ac|,

cidental, this accidental is placed above the figure

thus,

or

showing that the third
triad
is

is

affected

by

it.

The dominant

sometimes designated by the signature
in the

which constitutes the leading note
according to the key.

This applies only

to

minor key, thus, minor keys.
is

jf

or

i),

The The
the

doininant seventh, whatever

may
-?..

be the mode,

figured, %.

seventh, arising from the suppression of the fundamental in
is

dominant seventh,

figured thus,
is

The

diminished seventh

figured thus,

-8-.

All the other sevenths, major or minor,

t.

The major dominant ninth, §. The minor dominant ninth,"! "'' ''?• The third is seldom figured, except when

the dominant seventh

resolves incompletely on the third of the tonic.

The perfect fourth is figured «. The augmented, extended, or sharp fourth, +4. The diminished fourth, -t-. The sixth, both major and minor, eBut when the sixth is suddenly altered by signatures
ing to the principal key, the accidental or signature
the figure, thus,
ijs

not belongprefixed to

is

or

be.
-a-.

The diminished The augmented The The

sixth,

sixth is figured

by prefixing the accidental which
jje

affects the sixth to the figure, thus,

or
a.

!)6.

second, both major and minor,

second, arising from the third inversion of the dominant
is

seventh, in both modes,

figured thus, +2.
thus, da or
flz.

The augmented or extended second,
I
to

give this figuring as the one used in a great school, and applied
;

these Appendixes

though,

I

confess, there is

much

that is arbi-

any other method of figurBut the ing which may convey an exact notion of the harmony.
trary in this, and I do not disapprove of
pupil

who

studies alone, being necessitated to submit
it

to.

that of the

exercises,
it.

was incumbent upon me
all all

to

make him acquainted

with

I

have now given

the directions necessary, that the student

may

derive from these Appendixes
written, and, I

the advantages contemplated

when they were
certain,
if the

have no doubt, these advantages are
observer of
all

student be a careful

the given

directions.

EM. GIRAC.
New-York,

My,

1854.

APPENDIX
The The preparation

A.

TREATMENT OF THE TRIADS.
Triads, to be treated properly, require

much
its

skill

and

art.

of the dissonant chords
is

is

not a difficult matter,

and each of their constitutive tones
the laws of their resolution.

called to

proper place by

Here the pupil
nection which

is left

alone, having no other guide than the con-

may

exist

between the chords

—a connection which
;

he must look
his care.

for,

and the discovery of which depends entirely upon
is

Besides, there

a difficulty which he meets with at

every

step,

and which must be carefully guarded against

we

mean

the faulty successions of real or covered fifths or octaves.

On

pages 101 and 102,

we

have, by our author, been
;

made
them

acquainted with octave and fifth-successions

on page 129, with

covered
again.
cessions.

fifths

and covered octaves.
also learned,

We

refer the pupil to

Our

care, at present, will be to avoid these obnoxious suc-

We

on page 100, that the connection of
In other words.

chords consists in the mutual tones of the chords.
Connection cf chords
is the

mutuality of their tones.

But

is

there some method to follow in order to obtain this con?

nection without mistake
tion of the

certainly there

is

;

it

consists in the

mo-

fundamental tone in the base.
tone of a chord
it

The fundamental
or sixth.

may

descend a second,

third,

fourth, ffth, or sixth ;

may

ascend a second,

third, fourth, fifth,

These

different motions of the

fundamental tone of the

chords are called by theorists, Progressions of the fwndamentod.

They

have, also, admitted two sorts of Progressions

:

the Regular,

and the Irregular.

The
sion.

Progression by a third, fourth, a.nd fifth below, and

its

inver-

sion of a sixth, fifth, and yburt/t above, is called the

Regular Progres-

The

Progression of a second below and a second above, and the
is

corresponding seventh,

called Irregular Progression.

The descending

progression by a third, gives two mutual tones.

The

Progression, a fourth down, affords us one mutual tone.

i^
The
Progression by a Jifth gives one mutual tone.

i
The same number
these progressions
sixth, ffth,
;

of common tones
is,

is

found in the inversion of

that

in the progressions of the fundamental

As

to the

and fourth above ; and they are equally good. motion a third above, it cannot be used but under

certain conditions, and no

admissible.

more than one progression of Such succession by thirds above as this,

this

kind

is

i
is is

&c.

not very desirable.
received,
is this
:

The

condition under which this progression

the fundamental, after skipping a third above,
a. fifth,

must be brought downward

and the third of the second
triad, as,

triad

may

be made the leading tone of the third

i
Hence,
it

would appear

that this progression

by a

third above, is

more

satisfactory

at its turn, is

when leading from a major to a minor triad, which made the dominant of a transient minor key by the

elevation of

its third.

All the regular progressions afford us some

common

tones.

But

the progression, a third and a fifth below, contains the fifth of the following chord. In such progression, we say that the fifth is

5
•prepared ; and

whenever

this preparation occurs,

we ought

to avail

Hence we will make it a rule, that all the tones which a chord lias in common with the following chord, must be pro.
ourselves of
it.

longed into

it,

as,

-^
In our following exercises
the chords

^~
we
will designate the

i
mutual tones of

by
to

this sign

-—^ or ^—^ placed over or below them.

Previous

our explanations of the irregular progression,

we

feel

obliged to give a full account of the three harmonic motions, which

have only been hinted
Theorists

at on pages 90 and 91. acknowledge three kinds of motions

in

harmony

:

the

Direct or Parallel, Oilique, and Contrary.

The Direct or Parallel motion takes place when two or more
parts (never

more th^n three) ascend or descend simultaneously,

as,

^^=^b^^^
The
Oblique motion takes place

r-r-r-for more parts or voices

when one

keep on the same tone, whilst one or more ascend or descend.

i
The
the

X
Contrary motion takes place

when one
more

or

more

parts or
at

voices lead in -opposite direction to one or

voices,

moving

same time

The

first

of these motions

is

especially admissable in two part
it
;

compositions, but

when used

alone,

affords but

few resources.
is

The second
it

is

far richer than the first

the contrary motion
to

the

most serviceable, on account of the variety of combinations
gives
rise.

which

The power and beauty

of harmony

lie in

the proper

6
arid skilful

employment of these motions Combined together ; and
:

from their motion, the theorists have fixed the following rules
1st.

Two

fifths

and two octaves, prohibited in the direct motion,
than three parts can move in direct motion

are allowed in the contrary one.
2d.

No more
Four

;

and
fall

when they
3d.

thus move, they are liable to give fifths or octaves.
parts

moving simultaneously

in parallel

motion,

inevitably into faulty successions of fifths or octaves, and most of
the time into both of them.

Let us now come
have
is

to the Irregular progression.

Here the chords
consequently there

not,

and cannot

have any common tone, and

no connection between them.
such a progression,

For the

distribution of the chord-

tones, in

we

are under the necessity of

making
us take

use of the contrary motion in order to avoid the parallel succession

of fifths or octaves.
the two triads/, a,
c,

As an example
and g,
b, d,

of that progression,

let

which

in the staff will give us the

following combination of notes

i
It suffices to

look at these chords to perceive that no

common

tone

exists

between them, and therefore no connection.

On

the other

each of them goes up
that
is,

hand, if we consider the tones of the chord f, a, c, we discover that to meet the nearest tone of the chord g, h, d,
three parts

move up
it.

in direct motion.

Let us see

if,

accord-

ing to the second rule of the motions, there be not here some of the
errors mentioned in
to d,

In

effect, the treble part

progresses from c

while the base part moves from
parallel motion.
It is

/

to g,

and thus gives us two
but

fifths in
fifths,

not in our power to avoid these
;

since the tones are essential to both chords

we can

avoid

having them progress in parallel motion, by giving the chord-tones
of the chord/,
a, c,

another construction, as in the following

i
All

now

is right.

We

have obtained the

Jifth

o{ g,

b,

d,

by

causing the third of the chord

/ a,

c,

to

descend

to d, whilst the

fundamental tone, /, goes up

to g.

But as we have adopted the

four part writing in our exercises,

we

shall construct again

our

chords in this

way

:

=A=

which
It is

is

equally satisfactory.
to advise the pupil that, to

i

^
avoid faulty suc-

worth the while

cessions, in

motion;
tones.
c,

many instances, it does? not suffice to take the contrary much however depends upon the position of the chordif instead

Here, for example,

of placing the third of _/",
it

a,

in the outer regions of the

harmony, we had placed

in the

middle ones, another error awaited us.

^m
to the tenor,

Thus here

the third off, a,
tal,

c, is

given

and the doubled fundamenthe other real {g,

to the treble.

Both follow a descending motion, and progress
fifths,

simultaneously in
d)
;

the one covered

(a,

e),

and yet we lead the parts in opposite

directions.

This we have

avoided above, (at A,) by inverting the intervals.

We
much

deem

it

proper to enter upon these particulars to show the
of keeping from faulty successions, and with

pupil every

way

how

care he must guard against them.

Finally,

we

cannot close our illustrations upon the subject of con-

nection, without laying

down a

last observation,

which

is

this

:

not

to destroy, by an awkward arrangement of the chord Here, nection which exists between the chords.

tones, the con-

i
have the tone
thus
c in

=i=

an improper use of the contrary motion, has not only destroyed the
connection of the chords, but has led us into the very fault of covered fifths and octaves, which we intended to avoid. As both chords

common,

the proper arrangement of the voices

would have prompted us
/, a,
c,

to tie

them, by continuing c in the chord

i

The
move

connection being thus observed,

all

the other tones,

C;

e,

g,

easily to the nearest intervals of the following chord,
is

This

observation

of the greatest

moment

in filling

up the harmony,

Exercises on the Regulak Progressions.

No.

1.

No.

2.

^ ^
is
ite:
5
fifth

32:

#:

I

Ty

55&6&55 5^5 r
we meet
with a kind of
fifths

-si-

In these examples

and octaves,

which

call the attention

of the student.

They

are called hidden.

A

hidden

or octave is that which takes place between two parts,

one of which proceeds upwards or downwards, one or more degrees, By filling up the skips, while the other skips to the same intervals.
the hidden interval appears real to the eye, as.

Real

5th.

Hidden Bra.

Real Sva.

In Nos. 1 and 2 there are several instances of hidden fifths and There are instances of hidden octaves in No. 1, from octaves.

measures 4
5
to 6,

to 5,

5

to 6, Y to 8,
to

and 9

8

to 9,

and 9

10

;

in both

to 10 ; in No. 2, from 2 to 3, between the base and one of the

upper

parts.

Instances of hidden fifths are found from 1 to 2,
to 7,

between the tenor and treble ; from 6

and 7

to 8,

between the

But all these successions are permitted whenever the upper part moves to the fifth or octave by a single step, and the lower part skips to the same intervals, as in

base and one of the upper parts, in No. 2.

Nos.

1

and

2.

We direct the attention of the pupil to the
2, in

second measure of No.

which the connection

is

occasionally

broken in order

to raise the

harmony.

In the present instance, the base
;

raised parts lead in opposite direction to the
easily,

they move

on page 130. These conditions ought to be attended to whenever we break the connection of the chords for the sake of raising or depressing the pitch of the voices.

and

their progression is natural according to the rules

The

irregular progression
;

is

not so satisfactory to the ear as the
it

regular one

and

for

that reason,

cannot be carried on beyond
inversion and in three-part-

two or three chords, except in the
writing.
to

first

We

would say,
it

too, that the

ascending movement seems

be more suited for

than the descending.

There are

also cer-

tain degrees of both

scales in

which

it

seems more admissible.
from four
to five ;

Thus, in the major

scale,

from one

to two,

from

two to three, from five to

six.

In the minor mode, irom four to five,

and from
latter

five to six,

and
be

vice versa.

The

other degrees of the
progressions

scale

cannot

used

in

irregular

without

breaking into the major mode.

The

following exercises will serve

as illustrations of the foregoing remarks

Major Scale.

No.

3.

^^^ f=r^
rf
5 5 5

-^-j-

j-^--

T=T
-•— ^e-

E^^l^^
jhJTl
-J,-

T

p

ii§f
5 5 5
5

5-5

Minor Scale.

h

h

55"?
5

F^Tf ffT 1^ jipgs 555^5
5

-^
Ef

-§Z':3ZL

10
In both exercises, the irregular progressions produce consecutive
fifths

mentioned degrees.
chords,
it is

by contrary motion, and, in both scales, go through the aboveAs the minor scales afford but few indigenous
always advisable,
in their treatment, to get

them,

now

and
of

then, into the triads of the

major mode.

So we have done
dominant triad

here, at the star (*),
c.

where the minor

tonic joins the

SEQUEBTCES,

OE PASSAGES OF TRIADS.
lone,

We

call

by

this

term certain motions of the fundamental

stepping according to an " adopted model."
a certain

This model consists of
steps of all the fol-

number of

tones,

which regulate the

lowing, as

i
Here
latter

&c.

the

first

tone goes

down

five steps to the second,

and the

goes up a fourth

to the third,

and so on

to the end.

These
the

sequences depend entirely on the will or fancy of the composer.

They may occur
commonly found

in

any

strain of a piece of

music or exercise

;

beginning,- middle, end, are equally suited for them.
is

The one most
theorists

the above mentioned, which

some

have

styled Seventh-progression, as being thatof the chords of the seventh.

No.

5.

I
gfe

'

^ ^

i^JJu J
I

^

*
,-~T"^

rc»

»

^

d=t

r

^

^s

^

^=i

led out of its usual way of resolution in (this is always the case in these sequences or passages. 6. is assimilated to common triads. the to ascend to a higher pitch. losing its which the the diminished own character. . ^m^^f^r^ isssi ^ §1 P iscziS:: m± p i: w i fTTr ^rr^F ^^p . the by this dotted curve • ' ' * • harmony is made stars.11 =c i --9--» <9- j-d_j-. and we shall have done with the progressions. too. the model of At a. No. 5 three instances of sequences. in order to give the parts a regular position in the uniform steps of the progressions. One example more. triad.i &Eid g -^ T^- ^!t"i£:rf: g/ " f * —^ F ff ^ There are which is =^=^ in indicated No.) and forced into the current of the surrounding fun- damentals and this treatment is quite satifactory. c. Mince Scale. b. diminished triad is At the .

and the fundamental of the chord g. any other tone but the fundaof chords the funda- mental in the base i. of the chord I. not counting the fundamental. 6 above. at the star. fifth and sixth . at e. where the measure. . the of the chord is in the base . the leading note is disregarded and restored to the major mode. but not fundamental. as can be seen in No. d. at B. A chord is is is inverted whenever . it . h. to the two stars. The chord first inversion takes place. According to this principle. g. with this one but material difference. as such a denomination belongs only to that tone which was the lowest in the original construction of the chord by thirds. and the tone given to the base its the lowest tone of the chord. There are as many inversions as there are tones in the chord. ^ reappears fifth after having been depressed at the sixth So. it is called chord of the and figured In the second inversion. in the inversion mental is placed in the upper parts. it consists of a third e. A. must be at reinstated at the first opportunity. when the third of the primitive is in the base sixth.12 i i^#f^p^ <g— ^^==F * fg P gj = -"g i as in the Eitas! I=- =Pt ** r f f ^:^ »i m But it In the minor scale the sequences are treated in the same manner major . the dominant triad is introduced again. We come now Inversion of the Triads. after having been made the the 1. there are but two inversions in the triads. e.

it is called the chord of the fourth and sixth. satisfactory to the ear but the same progression becomes unexcepfirst when the chords are put in the inversion. we must use either the contrary motion. a progression like this : i ^^ though the tionable.13 consists of a perfect fourth and sixth . 2. or used in three-part-writing. thus —is- i When ject to another condition. First Inversion. fi. When explaining the irregular progression. But if we more than three parts. as i ^^^ This progression might have been longer and equally good. the succession of sixths — is sub- ^The third being in the base. is neither clear nor . since there desired to have is not any faulty interval. : The chord of the may occur with these two features or . and figured I. we stated (Appendix. the fun- damental tone sixth then is given to the upper parts. Thus. as in this example : —§-- i The contrary motion is even unnecessary.fths follow the contrary motion. at most. page 9) that it cannot be carried beyond two or three chords. or double one of the upper : parts.

higher position. It is first evident. as good as this i in which the said interval is changed into a fourth. Second Inversion. such a passage should be written thus » ^ I ^^ much 1 not in this manner. as the So. if The second preceding. The chord of the sixth needs no further remarks. in the second. be inversion of made to form any succession whatever. care. when used in does not fiflih passages of a certain length require so when standing alone. which undergoes no other change than is a . Thus. the primitive fifth is changed into a fourth . so as not to faulty successions of fifths in the upper parts. remains unchanged. we are permitted to use such succession as this i ^^ we are forbidden to use the same chords in their second inver- sion. second. and the position of the primitive is almost indifferent. in the following: i in 1 that of which the fifth. Thus even two consecutives ^ . % the sixth is it All these cautions are required . vifhich are not less objectionable there than in : Therefore. 3.14 In the first it case. the triads (| chord) can not. and avoid the the base. that in a succes- sion of sixths we should take the fall into construction.

<Bk g At A. -a. even standing alone. The six-four chord. or by the base itself. and really is is. as i If the resolution be effected in the the upper parts. it differs from that of the sevenths. in which the resolving chord is. lie is somewhat done as in the discords. when the first fourth is followed by the second inversion of the diminished triad. fol- . single instance. As fifth to the Resolution of the fourth. It is not the same with whose resolution is done in the following way if : the base resolve the fourth. i or by the third inversion of the dominant seventh.15 are not admitted. the base. This preparation may be effected either by the upper ^Ei . a sort of discord. parts. and the same tone. viz: Preparation and Resolution. it yet it is considered. form the preparation of the fourth. a the perfect fourth. and unsatisfactory. it is. and the sustaining tone becomes the fourth. fourth continues on the it ascends or descends a step. and at B. below the fundamental of the seventh. though hidden by the outer parts. the tone e. with few exceptions. in which cases the perfect fourth is immediately followed by a sharp fourth. although the perfect fourth is the inversion of a concord. the sustaining a of the chord /. by making a tone over from the preceding chord . cannot be used except upon certain conditions. here. in There is a which two consecutive pure or perfect fourths are allowed . because. cannot be denied that this interval Preparation. c.

' ^ we make an i important observation : 1 when \ In the cadences and half-cadences the perfect fourth requires no preparation. keeps on the same tone. we may strike these chords immePreparation fourth. the base entered : same harmony. upon a new chord. progression the base meets always with. resolution then. is not bound to the foregoing rules . as will be seen and exemplified in our further expla- Finally. the chord. and the fourth * resolves by ascending or descending a step i The either 1 made by the base. and conformably to .16 lowing a contrary course. has no need of preparation. and stops on after the fourth. IS/S- or differently. resulting diately. the base runs through several chord-tones of the same chord. thus i nations. can be by the upper is parts. the preceding example should close thus i f^L^fie the preceding rules of resolution. the sharp from the second inversion of the diminished triad. then the following cannot be ob- jected to i because in the its rf¥ But if. or necessary only for the perfect fourth . as well as the preparation. according to the ending harmony.

7. 2.— In the construction of the upper we advise him to look carefully at the consecutive fifths or octaves. 1 * ^ First Inversion. very difficult to be guarded against. come the exercises on inversions of the triads. and. ^ iiS= a s- i F^fT^ »=3— No. either real or covered. Unin verted Triads.^ T= T~"r . Notice to the Sttident. in many trf instances. ^ ife ^S ^^ r . 8. We now No. 1.17 A parts. vi'hich are most obvious in the inversions.

^ ! J i^^m f -f^:^ iS~~r7s : r^ -i. a i J_J=F. 1^ ^§^ E^ -rr- t-^ ^^ . o :?2iz:rp (^ ilr^ ! I ^^ i ^ 1 J fe id. 9. ^ I "-T=f^^Tf gr: -fg H° . 4. Inversions used promiscuously. 3. fi. Second Inversion. -i-J^ *^ d I J i o P- ^f= ©e i!^ ^=t m^ 6 5 6 i ^^ No.i i 11. 10.18 No.»- jg - & l ^- No.

and will be enabled to manage dexterously the difficult work of part-building. this He may so derive many these comparison. by varying the same harmony. After comparing to write different constructions. We warrant that he will im- prove much by so doing. 4thly. e. the student understand the different features We make with which the same compare the cessary by each advantages from harmony can be endowed. ^ 4 . them both with sharps and flats.19 -A I We 1st. same way. by using both did so. 4 ^^a r ? f- ^ have written the above exercises on the same harmony 2dly. we would induce him over again several times these exercises as they are. he should himself compose other exercises in the i. . and then transpose into different keys. When all this is done. and induce him to difference of construction of the upper parts made neposition of the chords. first unin verted chords inversion . to inversions promiscuously. 3dly. second inversion.

The ninth differs from them in this cannot be inverted. and Dissonant Chords seventh has presented itself to us on page 102. viz dissonances. many instances in which it ought is be prepa^red. the second. an interval termed discord or dissonance . in itself satisfactory to the and therefore can be used without preparation. but need the adjunc- tion of two intermediate tones to the seventh. 94. and this dissonance. since the one is the inversion of the other. reason it for that can be used only under certain conditions. with seventh. Theorists acknowledge two sorts of dissonances improper. The improper are five. the perfect and augfifths. but. is not satisfactory to the ear. in practice. the seventh. is a terval. The improper The dominant style of to with the exception of the perfect fourth. to No. which the dominant has been given to serve as the basis and fundamental These two tones striking together have given rise to an in- which we are unacquainted. in the present case. and of three to the from the explanations which will be given its of the dominant chord and near-related nona-chord. and ninth. but only resolution. they are looked upon as different intervals. and The proper dissonances are three in number. The and : disso- nance. the diminished sixth. These dissonances do not form a chord ninth. it is incumbent on us to say what preparation . and augmented and the aug- Strictly speaking. : the proper. seventh does not require preparation in the free yet. tone.APPENDIX The dominant B. and so we : ourselves will consider it them. the seventh and second form but one interval. The Dominant Seventh. or consonance. on the contrary. the Pre- paration and Resolution. is The consonant chord ear. in general. as there are music . as will be perceived alone. as arising from the sustaining subdominant tone. mented mented fourth. do not require preparation.

the preparatory tone d. in its original construction by thirds. or in the middle. this resolution is five degrees below the fundamental. . and afninor seventh. By becomes only the lowest tone. designate only that tone which. there are several other sevenths. but and not the fundamental tone. which is it from the figuring of the 7 simply. When a fundamental tone leaves it its place. prolonged. i^ 7 I p r i. or four degrees above. and the dominant triad subject to it. There are inversions. we the original construction tone. every seventh has three The dominant sists seventh. perfect fifth. They of the to a. i I ^fesEE^^^I .f. con- of a major third.81 moreover. at C all shorter. it by was the lowest. with this (x) sign below. Inversions of the Dominant Sbventh. This remains the fundamental whether be above. is equal to the seventh longer . in thirds. which belongs to to the succeeding one. is the preparatory tone ofg. below. and this causes the preparation to be objectionable? The law of resolution belongs to ig sevenths in general. the term fundamental tone. in- which it is . at it is At A. It is figured \. besides the dominant seventh. as many inversions as there are tones in the chord (be. the preparation forvifhich is a law that admits of no exception. sides the fundamental tone) consequently.p chord djf. or longer . another tone of the chord must become the lowest . but never shorter. This preparatory tone can be either equal in length to the discord which it serves as a preparation.. . B. to distinguish other sevenths. Preparation is the introduction of a tone into a preceding chord.

and major sixth. In the third inversion. In our exercises. the fundamental tone tant . is the most impor- next to it. is position of these tones gives the name to the inversions Thus. and call it the chord of the se- composed of a major second. Consequently. it cannot be doubled in the upper parts. and we counsel the student to do so. The second fect fourth. without causing faulty successions of octaves. Nevertheless. called di- the chord of the fifth fifth. It is It is composed of a minor figured | or |. It consists It is of a minor third. It is latter. As {he third of the dominant chord (now in the base) invariably to moves upward the tonic. the of the chord. inversion (the fifth being in the base) is called the third. figured | ^^ f In this inversion the fifth is diminished.22 In the dominant seventh. This fifth occurs only in the dominant seventh. in importance. we count the intervals from the cond. we shall have it prepared. inversion of the dominant seventh is in the third inversion of all the perfect. and minor sixth. and sixth. It is and a major figured 2. in which the seventh is in the base. tritone. We must likewise avoid dou- . an augmented fourth or sixth. in practice it occurs very often without preparation. especially when the opportunity presents itself. is the seventh. i ^= Some theorists advise to prepare the fourth in this inversion. ^^m This augmented fourth other sevenths this fourth is again the characteristic of the third . and when It cannot be prepared to suppress it. the minished first inversion with the original third in the base. being alvi^ays perfect in the other sevenths. in his own. per- chord of the third and fourth.

that its fifth seventh descends a half step only. as doubling «f the fundamental. it lacks the is Theorists have provided for When the chord . This addition no new to our chords. that its its Thus. . natural consequence of the regular resolution of the dominant is that chord the chord of the tonic remains incomplete it. a motion contrary to that of the If the fifth cannot be used reg- . forms the fifth. In is allowed suppress the to the fifth. we must give the fundamental tone in the base fifth. when descends or in- third ascends one step. they advise us to double the fundamental so that. and the others are called chords of the third and fourth. though of great advantage. The names of these inversions are not influenced by any change of position in the upper parts. =1 Jm M -^ a pi same rules.23 bling the base in any of the upper its parts . to the fifth of the tonic. in the upper parts. the other. ^m. would have to do same in the upper parts. gives us for all inverted chords difiiculty. while the base goes its usual way (a fifth down or a fourth up). and then a faulty succession of octaves would be unavoidable. Both of the first two chords of the following are called chords of the sixth. not in- verted. it is unnecessary to have recourse obtain a full resolution. . the same rules versions. hold good in the different A fifth. But then there are it five parts in the to of which harmony . for. if doubled. follow the which govern the original and fundamental chords. stretches over to the resolution chord.we said of the dominant seventh. and that still ascends one step. as the second has to it descend one step in the resolution. many fifth instances. it if only four parts are required. the We by simply giving : a motion down i In such an event.

55 ^ - ^ At N. the fifth moves down to complete the tonic. the fifth of the dominant seventh' is dropped. No. as for the inversions. in which the or preserved. and the fundamental doubled. in which the fifth of the dominant seventh is left out. Exercise. A ^E 5 ~rf . always possible to get the resoluto the tion-dhord complete. 12. takes the contrary motion. by prolonging the fundamental tone chord of the tonic. Exercise. 13. in both cases the fundamental traie. ^ ife ^ 4-e r r ~ ^ —[=?=§ 1^ 2?I i At r f=f= ffl^a E^ ^ the beginning of the second measure. I No. and moves downward upward to complete the chord of the tonic. at P. we must avail ourselves of the doubling of the fundamental it is tone . in the base. it moves upward .24 ularly. . and the doubled fundamental tone stretches over So it is at the ninth fifth is measure. to the next chord.

i f =t=^ ^^ sP--=^ ^ . J J I J ^ 1 i^ -iSrI- l_^^ r- . Exercises on the Invbesions. 14. m i:^ f f "T2 T i f^^ =t t " ^-f- i ^E No. SEE -S^_ffl. Exercises in the Minor Scale.25 No.# T*! f f-f i^ I ^ -gg- i ^ No. i z^^ j==^j-^—. :4= 1 15. 16.

At B. for the succession of fifths. c. augmented is a succession of two Two pure or perfect it is fourths in connection are prohibited in good harmony . rather than the first inversion oi d.26 1 No. and into possessed of there e. this change. the student fourth is should observe that the first prepared . g^. effect. the other so. the reverse likewise holds good. something more characteristic than the latter. i. c. but not when the second is . is also.f. re- mark that at A the 6th tone of the minor scale a. made is the funda- mentai of the chord/. from the dominant triad of the minor tonic. preparing a half-cadence. 1 I w Eg—"-« fp I I I 17. the one perfect. is a sudden transition from the chord of produces a good e. he must. there augmented. gs^. In the present instance. a. f» measure of this exercise. the former is better. S^ f^m^ ^E ^=-U=i fc r-^ # « -5- 5- e^ J -^7^ #• i" AM: trf ^ At the third fourths. mode into the major .

and and treble. in No. The funda- mental tone being struck forcibly in the accented part of the measure. give necessarily real or octaves. i C. such passage as given in No. are tangible. and sometimes both. ^^^ Now. To render form we have only to suppress the motion of the inversion of the chord. To get . and base from the fundamental this passage. 175. 6.APPENDIX Four fifths. remains unshaken in our ear for the whole measure and the 2d inversion makes but little impression upon it. thus: i instead of 5. is a combi- . in this to the fii-st way Ii \=r^ -d—^&0. So it is here. parts. because it contradicts the But we cannot adopt such a meaning of the author. Is by the motion of the base from the to the first inversion ? By no means. 6. which correction. &c. 175 correctly written. 5. this evident. fundamental t E£ fifths ^ ^ the consecutive the consecutive octavfe between the base this faulty progression avoided between the base and the alto part. progressing in parallel motion. every second ' note in every measure ought to be the fundamental of a new chord.

the hidden fifths and octaves are strictly and . but with a closer harmony. in is We have established as a 6). page beginning of the second measure fifths. is not less faulty than the foregoing. is. 176 ence parts. 177 rule. thus 4-^ i s |E3^ W'^^^ 5 6 5 6 3fctg^ 3 1 ^itry-firW^m The pupil should bear in mind. The only differ- that the errors above mentioned placia now exist in the upper where the consecutives take the fifths. We will attempt to correct it We are obliged to give up the three-part writing of our author. No. for and between the same part and the objectionable. No. in numbers 179 and consecutives as in No. for alto. 177. to the fourth. are liable to fall into consec- utives. we see in this number a succession of hidden but to succeed in this. the construction of the upper parts adopted by the author. 179 in the way. and never forget. Again. From the . the octaves. in order to have a full harmony. has led him into the same correct No. and to adopt the four-part writing. is What to be done. the musical motions (see appendix. 180.28 nation of the fundamental tone with that of the inversions. _i_d_ I ^E3^ ^pe hh^ We -II- -^- m- m same a 5 ° + Likewise. between the tenor and treble. that in three and four-part writing. then ? We must keep from such combinations as give unsatisfactory results. that three parts moving in parallel direction.

between the base and the upper never allowed. it would be almost impossible to write any large composition. for Were it not such a liberty. are and octaves. But in compositions in which more than four parts are used. . fifths I scarcely need to say. and orchestra.29 absolutely prohibited. that real parts. in which grand choruses frequently unite with three or four solo singers. hidden consecutives are allowed.

As originating in the dominant chord. will set According minor mode. i. The qelebrated Reicha. resolves to the tonic. D. Treatment of this Chord. very seldom permitted his pupils to avail themselves of it. and considered as originating in the dominant chord. and therefore. We is deem it proper to supply this defi- The diminished triad is placed on the seventh degree of the major scale. as will be seen on page 71 and 72. because it stands on the leading tone of the mode. On the minor scale is placed on the second degree. Minor Scale. without forbidding absolutely the resolution of the chord to the first tone of the minor scale. except in the case of the half-cadences. triad consists of a The diminished fifth. it nothing necessitates to go to the tonic. and it. we forth the following rules on the use of the diminished triad in the A. gives the it same result. that dominant chord without chord it the its fundamental tone.APPENDIX The Diminished Triad Our ciency. in the author tells us nothing of the employment of the diminished triad in the minor mode. From this difference it of position arises a different use of In the major scale resolves into the tonic. to the principles of this great theorist. e. for this reason. and by Marx himself as an imperfect dominant chord. minor third and diminished i and is figured -5-. . professor of musical composition in the Conservatory of Paris.. it. calls the tonic after But in the minor scale it stands on the second degree. is. Such a view of this is altogether correct.

requires resolu- but not preparation. whenever can be. sT-o znsz ^ must be avoided. is figured h4.31 The tion. It TTic second inversion gives a sharp fourth and major sixth. which always to be done. sixth. which and can not be prepared. it the fifth f in the tenor part ascends a step to g^. The motions of the fundamental tone are the following i -?rrHg ^^Pitg 0T~0 m At A. because lie permits the fundamental in the alto part to is over to the triad it of the dominant. Its combinations with the dominant triad are the following i ^ at BAD. or simply +4. ^ «=: . The It is first inversion : is composed of a minor third and major figured thus +«. and account of the perfect fourth between the treble and base. on is elrThe combination not. diminished triad. This resolution is to the dominant triad. ^ B. instead of moving downward to e. being a dissonant chord. We adopt such an arrangement. B is unsatisfactory.

32 This fourth. BAB. on account of tion. *- 0T~0 ^ S\' a . needs no prepgira- used as follows a. It is its : being augmented. C.

which has an employment and a treatment of its own . the sight that made to ascend a step upper lost parts. we deem diminished . of the scale. and its resolution is independent of that of the dominant seventh : a character which does not belong to the diminished triad resulting from the suppression of the fundamental chord in the minor mode. But it must not be the diminished triad of the seventh degree in the major scale. of.^ f=^ First IifvKKSioN. for this in reason that the fifth meets with its immediate resolution. Ete 4 < i i^ *^ 4- =t==i= 1^ ^ J r f p'rrgg Second Invbesion. the fifth triad on the seventh degree of the minor . B I 2— 4- 4=: iS 1^ *=«= i^ -^j. major mode. B. it better to lead down a step. Hence.33 Resolution on the Diminished Fifth on the Seventh Degree. is by itself a triad.) a downward fifth motion-. to the third of the tonic. because here triad of the in the this fifth is a true seventh . : (A).4 f= we prefer the first ^ J J *= Of the the two foregoing' resolutions. i 5 . We have may be always given the diminthough in the diminished ished fifth (Ex. especially in the first inversion. and same part which sounds it.

in instances like these t i =^S^ . or fourth degree. as they have been omitted by our author. are common to both writers.34 ' when degree. of this chord in the major scale 1st. minor. and which. major scale. We must now look modes. We avail ourselves of the opportunity to lay them down here. combined with the diminished triad of the second B. some other accidental uses which have been adopted by good by the way. Some Exceptional Resolutions. We for may consider the above resolutions as the common treatment of the diminished chord in the minor mode. when giving the resolution The diminished triad is sometimes followed by the chord of the second degree.

are very rare. and follows the motion of the parts. *^t: T \i±- TT ^=t — * -^ ^t $. such as given by the model. the only instance in vi^hich the diminished triad can be properly followed by the minor tonic chord. m i -s==^ f :^=tt 3E T 1 fE^ Here each tone of the diminished triad is carried forcibly down. perhaps. the diminished triad can be followed by any triad whatever of the scale.35 3d. sequences. there is another employment of the diminished triad very obvious in musical composition. These instances are enough to give a proper notion of the subject. by the current of the harmony.^ . t At least. Examples. i This is. the We find again the first inversion of this chord followed by first inversion of the minor tonic. We mean the passages. or In such instances. we can say that the other combinations (the half cadences excepted) Finally.

of course. which forms the ninth can never be placed words. but although agreebetween them one characteristic its ing in this point. tlie ninth is not susceptible cf being inverted. which admits of no exception. follows that the nonachord has only three inversions. minor seventh. the fundamental and ninth must always be made to keep from each other. and major ninth. the very same as the dominant seventh. the tone in the base. the position of the nonachord. whether major nant seventh. This a fun- damental law of harmony. with one superadded third. Major Nonachord. having the same fundasame resolution . give name to the inversions A. perfect fifth. THE KONAOHORD. on account of the added ninth. which forms the ninth. have. since the ninth cannot b? inverted.APPENDIX E. turn. but somewhat modified in their figuring. each tone can. mental. arises from the domi- the dominant chord. become In other is the lowest tone in the inversions but in the nonachord. |. consists of a It is The major nonachord major third. it Now. It is or minor. In the construction of the inversions. ^gured . is differ- In the dominant chord. and those of the seventh and ninth. The Nonachord. so here. As name their the position of the fundamental tone and seventh gave the to the inversions of the dominant seventh. of the fundamental tone. there ence. a distance of nine degrees. the These two chords. at .

together with their respective resolutions. diminished fifth. and major — effect. like the seventh in the dominant chord. whether in theinversions or n6t. y. since . in the nonachord. ^m §IE I ^%fe —e— -» s I* i J. needs not lution.The fourth. to be prepared. sixth. sharp sixth.37 The minor first inversion consists of a minor third. figured I third. perfect fourth. ^^ We have nothing to it say of the resolutions of the chord tones of would be merely repeating what has been We have only to state that the fifth said of the dominant seventh. perfect fifth. must always be the nonachord. *«*• ^ The second inversion is composed of a minor third. major third. figured |. . figured +|-^effect. in its reso- descends a step. 18. and minor seventh. but in effect. third inversion gives a major second. No. The ninth. The ninth. "^^ and major We shall now give this chord and its inversions.

both the seventh and ninth can be resolved at the No. J-. 19.38 led up a step. which always descends a m same time as above. as. but simply the third it of the nonachord. as the figuring exhibits lution. inverted or not. 'J-. with a diminished it. i -I- In this case. by the reso- Here the h is not a fundamental tone. and so forth. disencumber chord of its overburdening tones. and then moves up a half step to c. the ninth first . But it differs from a seventh. 18. of which follows the resolution. Z^r t ^^P=t 1 In four-part writing. thus : fifth with the ninth. it becomes a mere seventh. In this chord. with the other tones. in latter case. the fundamental tone of the tonic chord. whether the chord be : Example No. the nonachord drops one of its chord-tones. and not m after the other. . the seventh. more generally adopted. in order to avoid the consecutive step. fifth. thus : m But there this is 4 s i r A r T It i to another form.1 L ^:::>s. or one In the next. 3«= P usually the fifth. which obtain the same resolution as . consists in the suppression of the fundamental.

on account of the consecutive fourth. as the ninth cannot be inverted. The Minor Nonachord. that the ninth minor. with the only exception. it must always be followed by the chord of the tonic. like the major. has scale. its The minor It nonachord. fundamental tone on the dominant of the minor consists of the is Like it. and diminished seventh. We The find here three inversions. -ipg- I we would induce the student to cause the seventh to descend a step to the dominant. a process which changes this chord into the dominant seventh. if ever used. thus i So much for the -gyg5 major nonachord. it resolves to the tonic. Let us now pass to B. first is composed of a minor Its third. thus i We as. since. figuring but its effect is 'V -55- . as it no satisfactory 'result. minor sixth. like the latter. :^ t sr -^z ^ affords have purposely omitted to give here the third inversion.89 in the nonachord. same intervals. diminished is "Z". -5- fifth. i Nevertheless.

it presents itself to us. The ninth descends a half step octave of the dominant. and major sixth. and of to the its inversions. Here lie some which we down in the follow- ing paragraph. third inversion gives a major second. fifth. minor third. The Diminished Seventh. As it have been made on the major nonachord apply would be superfluous to repeat thent. at first sight. figured +|-^effect. In the following example are given the resolutions of the minor nonachord. The fourth. "*j^. No. A. figured '|" — effect. we refer the pupil to the foregoing paragraph. nl". affords us a seventh. perfect fourth. C. The major nonachord. sharpi and major sixth.40 The second diminished inversion consists of a minor third. characteristic diiferences. as to . down shall note to the suppression of the fundamental tone of the major nonachord. Nevertheless. when we look at this seventh. which partakes with it of the same resolution to the tonic. when used without its fundamental. I ^=g Tsc^: ^ ^ FS #Og -g -' 'g ' Tia ife I '^that The remarks to the minor. with such a character of vagueness. 20.

inversion. the g. or f. fourths. to Thus. one extended the other perfect In order to keep from the second fourth the seventh to descend a half step to the domi- First. c. 7+ T we lead it back to the first inversion. seventh can either modes. by the dominant triad of the parallel key. or a minor. not so with the diminished Its resolution alone of the key For instance. may be followed by the chord. f. . thus ^ Second.|| d. thus ^^^ 5 Again. after g. b. to the leading tone. h. a. a). Biit there are some peculiarities in the use of this inversion. It is g^. e. i. a. it ±^. c. The h. it belongs. The diminished b. e. would give consecutive (e. can give us a clear notion of seventh. gi. a. d. a. {/. the Chord. f. the seventh. h. be led to g. as in the it first and second inversions. the seventh. e.41 leave us in doubt as to the key to which seventh. we are at liberty to go either a major. If the seventh were resolved directly to the tonic. resolves only to the major tonic. b). reminds us at once Again. i Third. d.f. major or minor. is not desirable in the third diminished seventh is as commonly employed in the third inversion. d. as in the first and second. d.f. Thus. it. we cause nant seventh. re 6 can descend seven degrees.

without any interchange motion. which. to write it it will not be improper down. i Efe= c. the base there allowing the upper tones of the chord to obtain. may descend . It is not so in the two other instances. No. The seventh (former ninth) The fifth (former . In the upper parts. their respective resolution. As to the third way of resolution (C) is by far the best. thus m inversion. which are not objectionable in the upper parts. 21. . as it may be seen at B. i?sz S^ H- HD. fall when in the base (A). The might third. the first -^ 1 With such an arrangement. with its inversions. strict theorists.42 Now that the diminished seventh is well defined. it into consecutive fifths. i m m It E«= ^ ^r a half step to the fifth the tonic. : but care must be taken to place the seventh below the third. B. although admitted by are by no means unobjectionable. should ascend otherwise. goes down of seventh) descends also a step to the third of the resolution chord. consecutive fourths are the result.

Exercises on the Nonachokds. =i=^ =?-f- rJ-4-r-J-5- 7 6 -5- ^ iT . '^ .e than one of the chord-tones are suppressed in the fifth nonachord. as here in the measure. the third should not be No.S£ ^b o .43 No.i .= i^^^^ When omitted. ^=^^fr=r moi. 23.i± — ^-jP^E^^E^ ^- ^=^ ^=1t?j=t 5 5 9 ^ i i -^ 5 . 22. I . Is ^i^m s^ y=fffT"f?"rtf i-ijLJ-<f s = §4 5 7 -B- 5 t=^ ^ i =fe^ f j! ei 1 =.

44 No. 24. '^ ^E =i=ra= F f 7 -5- d^ ^^ J JTT 5 ESE « « 1 S 75 r ^f £ 6 5 F 7+5 No 25. ^i#tJj^^##4^ rr r TTY ^E^ i^ |~^ ? ^=:^ -*— 3 i|j 8 6 - 5 -5- I +a 7+ 5 t^=4 i (^^$^^E-f^^^^^^ rr> =t=^= ^^^m ¥ 5 is ii 6 ir "ii" il . Exercises on Diminished Sevenths.

45 No. 26. ' I * I fee ?S ^^^j^^ T^r-fTT" TT -0—^- ^ ^^^ ^^- .

As tone the dominant seventh resolves into the tonic. it We will make fundamental a rule to prepare it. d. e. the first is the most conspicuous. h. as fundamentals of the lowing seventh a. We will now use d. it consists of a minor third. c. a. d. wards. f. came into consideration. by thirds. and deserves a particular it first. . have been after- taken as fundamental tones of major and diminished triads . because. e. cupy in the So. In its original construction fifth. and. g. g. finally. g. dominant. fundamental tones of fol- minor triads. and to classify them prowill give them an appellation from the degrees they ocmajor scale. d. c. a. is sometimes used without preparation secondly. a. In order to dis- we them from the dominant seventh. c. c. e. the seventh of the sixth degree. F. the seventh of the second degree resolves into the dominant. d. b. g. attention .APPENDIX §1. and sometimes the half cadences. d. like the dominant seventh. its fifth ascends or descends one degree. seventh descends one step. as e. NEW CHORDS OF SEVENTHS. a. . we will call the seventh of the second degree the seventh of the third degree g. differ from the dominant seventh in this: that they are based on minor sevenths and require preparation. They tinguish perly. e. because it serves to prepare the perfect cadences. In the harmonization of the major scale.f. a perfect and minor seventh. and enters upon the domi- nant harmony. h. either its Its goes to the its third ascends one step to the dominant. whenever it occurs in our exercises. e. c.f. a. Of these.

and is called chord of the fifth and sixth. and is called chord of the third and fourth. sixth. figured The fourth. ^1 m . Like the dominant. and figured P» ^^ ate No. perfect fifth. and major sixth. figured g.47 It is figured 7. perfect It is and major 2. third inversion is composed of a major second. The first is composed of a major third. sixth. The second and minor 4 or h I inversion consists of a minor third. Exercise. 27. called chord of the second. perfect fourth. it has three inversions. and all the sevenths.

because to double the third would give either consecutive octaves. i When ^ ui ^-M I third. 28. 30.48 This seventh can also resolve directly into the dominant seventh. No. ^ ite zS^ m i :e^ 3E i Its third can he elevated hy an accidental . the ^^m used with such an elevation of the doubling of the third must be carefully avoided. or a cross base. thus No. as appears in the following relation with the example : No. as. i ^^ -gg-O- . and forms a slight digression into a new key. 29. then it becomes a transitory dominant seventh.

perfect fifth. At B. chord of the second. descends one step. §s '^ 5-5 §:-*§ First inversion. 2. advisable not to double the part progressing by chromatic § 2. ^ i J=i 5-6 -si'-^-d ^-» ± f= =5?Z i w-T-tjt § Second Inversion. it is composed of a minor third. In its or | . The a chord of the |. The third degree of the is the fundamental tone of It the seventh of the third degree. resolves into the sixth to degree. same motion as the base. to a. progressing irom f toyft. inversions. 5-8-5 . and submits to preparation. and the base. and a minor seventh. No. steps. first is The seventh descends to fifth has three . It a or third ascends one step. its fifth to c. h. Sevenths of the Third and Sixth Degrees.49 At A. its Its fundamental goes ascends one step. c. consecutive octaves ensue. major scale e. g. Consequently. to tl)e treble necessarily follows the and. and the third a original construction by thirds. to a. descend to d. and sixth. causes a it is cross-relation with the former f of the treble. % the second a chord of the third and fourth. the treble gives up the /. —Example of I this -^ seventh with its ^r-^ i I ^ inversions. 31. d.

J r^ ^ ^ $ ^=f^ «q-=- i to the Sometimes. It resolves into the second degree of the scale. inversions as the foregoing. after a modulation dominant. . $ J I J. third. to to the primitive tonic.50 The minor seventh of the sixth degree has In its its fundamental on the sixth it degree of the major scale. perfect fifth. as. 33. 32. and has the same is number of laws. leading No.i r^ f=^=^P=^r P- iS=i. i=at . the two sevenths now before us combine with the seventh of the second degree. consists of a and minor seventh. original form. and subject to the same No. form a sequence of sevenths.

we shall style the former the Jirst major seventh. a. i if^ 5 1^=^-- '^^ -i ^z - 1^ ^ a g I Let us now enter upon the development of the 3. ser.51 The same by the formula. for being placed on the fourth degree of the They are the most discordant of the seventh chords. In their original construction by thirds. far from being harsh and rough. the latter the fourth major seventh. b. and the second f. on account of its being placed on the first degree of the scale . c. As with the sevenths above. They require an exquisite feeling in the compo. and the first of these sevenths will be c. 34. scale. :f=± i=^ again by changing the order of the inversions. and of course they ought to be prepared. to be properly employed and when used with discernment strike the ear not and skill. Let the tonic be and the subdomi- nant f. g. Major Sevenths. i ^ The same No. to the Theorists give that name sevenths whose fundamental c. e. 35. they are composed of a : major third. is the tonic or the subdominant. with the first inversion of the one followed third inversion of the other No. and a major seventh i . they unpleasantly. a perfect fifth. e.

. No. 4-s- =1: ^ The scale. a perfect fourth. fourth major seventh leads to the seventh degree of the to the harmony of the diminished triad. — 2d inversion. i fcp^^^^S 3^ ^=z± s .52 Their first inversion consists of a minor third. e. and figured a ^^ as. It is fifth. a perfeet sixth. It is sixth. : called the chord of the minor second. 1st inversion. 11 The fourth. and a minor called the chord of the fifth and sixth. 37. i. third inversion is composed of a minor second. 3d mva-sion. and figured t The second and a major and figured f. a perfect It is and a minor sixth. -ti The first major seventh resolves into the subdominant. as. inversion consists of a major third. No. or | ^m m fori called the chord of the third and fourth. 36.

Its resolving into the diminished triad leaves us longing fuller. for c. g. 38.53 The seventh. after so striking a discord as y. c. seventh. But/". in this at the : to prepare the first of these chords (unless to terminate we commence dominant seventh) and the sequence with the dominant seventh of some parallel or relative key. b. and this. or sequences . e. by a sequence of sevenths.know now how to prepare and resolve every chord of the we are accustomed to the manner of placing them on degree of the major scale. e. it or to resolve the seventh. c. f. e. c. c. 39. we reach the minor key. /jjl. to the dominant triad of the parallel key. Buf/t| cannot be changed abruptly. b. 3^ SE^ 5 7 7 7+ B Let us now pass to the 3. f. in consequence of our being It consists practised in their treatment. rily as c. No. will not be a hard task. without dragging us to a foreign key too left The only way e. a. e. as satisfacto- g. It remains now to combine them every in passages. Passages of Sevenths. us to resolve f. is either to lead the diminished triad after the chord. a. to fjt. at least for the something minor triad. resolves satisfactorily upon the major from leading to triad of the subdorhinant. . b. c. as. a. into the seventh of the second degree of the minor scale . e. and then. and We. d. a. No. a. ^^. e. is far such a repose as might be expected.

of which the signature is one sharp (/it). the relatives of g. A relative key is that major or minor having an accidental more or less than the principal key. No. that of the second and soon to the last. and its its parallel. the sustained third of the its first seventh becomes the preparation to to the third. are. 41. whenever tones moving through such a motion. If we /. first. Thus.54 But what is a parallel or relative key 1 A ture. and parallel b. the fundamental fourth upward. whose fundamental will be d. will serve us for the preparation of the seventh. In the sevenths. or a Consequently. be met with. and secondly. d. c. i #: ^ . which must be a dominant seventh Likewise. key of g'. is cfa. Let each of the following tones S which first ^ i^ : be taken for the fundamental tone of a seventh c will every chord in take the triad. moves a fifth downward. because both have the key is that same signature—. whose signature also the parallel f^ and cjj. e minor. the parallel key of g is e. such passages can take place with the inversions. we meet with a series of we can use them as funda- mental tones for sevenths. 40. we shall have the following passage No. i m^ As it Se =i= w -^ ^ from t^is results example. neighbor. a. for our preparation chord. parallel major or minor having the same signaThus. a.fjj.

44.55 Here. 42. may be properly used render some particular idea of the comits poser. there is an alternation of the first and third inversions. it Nevertheless. here charactei^es the mode but at . IT :t ^m ^ t # w- ^ g is fc iE 1 (f). In the minor scale. thus the major. the second inversion ble as the others. 43. that the leading note is disre- the accidental from the dominant tone of the No. on account of the fourth returning too quently. the accidental is restored. 1^ 3E ^ to is 1—1 r-^r f-^ ^ is i not so desirafre- In successions of this kind. following hegins with the third inversion. although regularly prepared and resolved. the passages of sevenths are treated in the same manner as in garded. No. the made natural by leaving out the sharp. At the star. i 'ZSZ « I 7 ^ ^^m # 7 is. which . mingling with the alternately The first. by dropping scale. The following an instance of employment No.

in which every thing No. he has nothing to do but to try every seventh. third inversion inversion of the next if c. mentals beneath them. . which does not agree with tone. will be advis- able for the student to look carefully at the fundamental tones. by placing under each inver- sion its respective fundamental. test: Suppose that we have put the following example to No. to the chords of the fifth and sixth. to their original construction by thirds. i - f gj o {-s ^ * rrpv V ^ 41^ m For. The same it rule holds good in the inversions. in its If we take stead double the fundamental. B. away this foreign we shall have the and following succession. i J-=-J- ^ ^ ^^ . we recall the sevenths. and examine whether each fundamental keeps its required step. C. the fundamentals below. 45.S6 thai the minor key may not be lost sight of. An to example will explain our meaning. is correct. they should step a fifth downward. When As practising the inversions of such passages. 46. ^ t ''7 * 5 It is plain that part of these inversions do not agree with the fundaof a seventh leads i. every upper tone answers to its ^ 7 1 We + respective fundamental. or a fourth upward. at A. we immediately find that there is a foreign tone in each seventh. necessarily to the first The Now.

48. we advise him to write some others of own. that be prepared. In conclusion. i o i^^^ :Jz=rA=J= zscz. ought to . at the except the dominant. recommend him his to transpose them into several presuming on his industry. We remind him. all the sevenths. '^S . He will avoid numberless mistakes by attending to the regularity of the parts. in order to rest upon a tonic of one of the relative keys.67 urge this practice upon the student. 9iE^ S i T=«- ^ 5 ^ 6 5-5-5-5 5 -f? No. the following exercises on the sevenths in general. and we propose to him we strongly keys. 47. beginning of the passages and that these pas- sages must close with a dominant seventh. likewise. No.^^ a=Sz -M — 7 7 + . Finally.

50. <l.58 m ^^1^^^^^ _^ $ cJ=>\g §EEE No. ii*^=f=«HBf^P?=PP^P? ts^^^^^E^ ^ — 7+5 ^. 49.Sc:z5^ -^JL ^t^=i -e—fH=^ i r J k :i=g= MT J ^=F=^ 5 6 (I "^^ — L 7 ' ^ 7 T+ No. ^^ -^ -• iS- i^ . fc-^-r-"r ^^ 7 7 7 7+5 iii ^-u-^T=l^ f=rii£ ^^ 7 7 7+5 .

r^ jk — # r 5I » — 7 74. '^ 1 ^j—g=|g "i 1—=y~T"o" 5~^ 3iS T^ r . Passages of Sevenths. 51..HJ°g|J"^sjq^gj f-f-n:g 6 ii ^| P"r g 2 > R 8 tt 5 5 ^g 5 7+ 3 No.u^ _c_ ^^-^^^ e-^ -s P- fe« # '^ ^S 6 . I nzzqr 5 % g S 2 g 8 f ?-rf i^e »--—i- WI I I r ! I j= r E^ 5 •—=*5 +4 l-V No.59 No. 52. 53. ^ PE^ IS* .

60

^

$
I

^

J-rJ

J-

S
i

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i
bsl

ri

#^
1
g

bJ

I

d

J
I

The Final Cadence.
The
or of
final

cadence, or simply the cadence,

is

the conclusion of a

musical period, on the tonic, either of the principal or relative key,

any

other, properly settled.

The dominant

chord

is

necessary

for the perfect cadence,

chords,

which serve

to

must be preceded hy some other make the cadence plainer and more solemn.
hut
it

This run of chords forms what
cadence.

is

called

by

theorists a

formula of

In the beginning of this chapter,
the second degree
ous, because
shall
it

we

stated that the seventh of

is,

after the

dominant chord, the most conspicu-

serves to prepare the perfect or final cadences.
it

We

now

consider
it

as leading to such a result.

Used

thus,

often undergoes several
tones,

changes in the resolution

of some of

its

namely
its

:

the third can either ascend to the

dominant, or descend to the sixth of the second inversion of the
tonic chord.

When
is

fundamental

is

doubled,

it

ascends a step

to the said sixth,

and then the third goes upward
but finally,

to the

dominant.

The

seventh

prolonged, and becomes the fourth of the second
;

inversion of the tonic

it

must descend a

step to the

61
tiiird

of the dominant seventh. of resolution.

The fundamental

follows

its

usual

way

No. 54.

i

^^3^3^^^^^

This
it

is

an exception

to its resolution.

In the perfect cadences,

may

also resolve immediately into the dominant seventh.

No. 55.
-Sr-S

i

^m
-

1
^.
-P—P-

but also the fourth, and
seventh, as,

In the second inversion, not only the seventh must be prepared, it must directly resolve into the dominant

No. 56.

^ i

i

62
Hence, the following
too
is

not satisfactory, as
first

it is

encumbered with
is

many

fourths

;

and yet the

of the two fourths

prepared.

No. 57.
'jL

e)

e)

63

i

!

J

A

1
No. 60.

4

J „

j-

i
o
I

P-

-^
:^ g=^-g^ ^g P;-e-—i=Hd '^o^ i^

1

!i

^
I

St
'

g

r
-s^

—=

g

9^^=^ "r~^

^*
56
jj

:i

f^rrTfT
-p
I

n-Tir

T*

1

^^1
No. 61.
I

r-6

=f

I ,*^
B

E

J-

z^
P
I

?E2£

^

'

r
I

f
-r^*S

F^
5 5

g
5
5

ffi=?
I

s)

S

5

5

I

j=j=3JTfc=i:Jzzl r.J j »a
i l

:

fcE

=^::s=
7

+

5

64
No. 62.
-s

—"-

-^^Ts

r^

^^ ^^

a*

iS

=F

7+5

5

5

^

4^^ a^jfe fel
J
H=

r

j ,j

^

j

3E
-7-

-rr—^
&
7

=r=e

In the following example, the seventh of the second degree resolves directly into the dominant seventh, without destroying the
fullness of the cadence.

No. 63.

^^ i=ti: I > r^r
See

i=Ed=^
^f=r=F=

^
=S=i
f^

-U=f=

1—

65

The Diminished Seventh on the Subdominant,
IN the

originating

Seventh of the Second Degree.

In

preparing the

gives rise to a

mental tone
into a

;

final cadence, the seventh now before us new diminished seventh, of which it is the fundaits minor third is made major, and the chord changes

minor nonachord of the minor key, g. bling a minor nonachord as to its form, it
resolution.

But although resemis

quite unlike

it

in its

The fundamental
;

is

always

left out,

andyjt,

a, c, e^,

only remain

i. e.,
:

a diminished seventh on the subdominant, whose
the fundamental tone ascends one step to the
;

resolution is this

dominant, and the third descends one step

the

fifth lies

stationary

the seventh does the same, and changes into the major sixth of the

second inversion of the
nant seventh,
as.

tonic,

which

finally resolves into the domi-

iw ^
ite:

As can be
thirds, this
fifth,

seen from the example, in

its

original construction

by

diminished seventh consists of a minor third, diminished

and a diminished seventh.
its

Of

inversions, the
It

first

alone
third,

is

used to prepare the
fifth,

final ca-

dence.

consists of a
is

minor

diminished
as.

and major

sixth,

which occasionally

made extended,

i

%fa^-gr

^==

t-

tteJa i? ^
In order to give the voices a freer and easier motion, this diminished seventh
is

changed often

into

an augmented sixth,

as.

i r ^m*^
fe
"n

:gto|

'-^

66
Here,
dji

represents
e\f,

ejz

;

and, no doubt,
It

it is

an easier step

for the

treble than

followed by eb.

becomes a kind of leading
to
etj.

note,

which leads smoothly and unmistakably
it

Here we think
of intonation, and

proper

to advise the student

never

to

give the voices, especially
difficulty

in choruses,
skill in the

such intervals as require
performers.

As we cannot

look for great skill in those
is

to

whom

the

performance of choruses

entrusted,
:

ii

will

be

advisable to avoid carefully the following intervals

sharp fourths,

diminished and superfluous sixths, and diminished and superfluous
fifths.

All these intervals are nothing but break-neck places for

chorus singers.

There

is, also,

in the

minor

scale, a diminished seventh,

on the
to

subdominant, originating from the seventh of the second degree,

which belong the developments we are now unfolding ; but particular attention

must be given

to the third,

which must be elevated, in
the chord
is

order to avoid the diminished third,
construction

when

in its original

by

thirds.

This diminished third arises from the elevaas,

tion of the fourth

degree of the minor scale,

This

is

not admitted

;

and

shoiild be avoided thus

Such a caution

is

unnecessary when using the

first

inversion, in
as,

which the sixth can occasionally be made superfluous,

No. 64.

^^s^^ im i T^T^^fr^
=J=

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Some
exercises will

now

illustrate the foregoing directions.

67

No. 65.

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its

The
as
it

seventh of the second degree, in

first

inversion, as well

as in cadences, can occasionally resolve into this diminished seventh,
results

from

a, in the

preceding example.

The

following gives

the

same

inversion, resolving into the diminished seventh, and pre-

paring the end.

^^^m ^
J

No. 66.

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68

The
key.

diminished seventh preparing the final cadence in the minor

No.

67.

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Example on
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F-e^i t %

I

sevenths, in general, and formulas of final ca-

No. 68.

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69

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70
Half-Cabences.
In the
foregoing chapter,

we have

fully unfolcled

the whole

matter of the final cadences, and pointed out the chords preparing

ihem.

We now

come
is

to the half-cadences.

The

half-cadence

a temporary form of repose of the whole
triad.

harmonic body, on the dominant
cases limited to a certain length.

This repose

is

in

some

^^^
example, in the case of the pause,

In others,

it is

indefinite, as for
.

or organ-point.

^^
r
r
cadences there are some chords especially approto

As

in the final

priate to prepare the end, so also there are particular chords appropriate to prepare the half-cadences.

There are two ways

form a half cadence: the one
is

direct,

whan

the chord used to form a half cadence
;

followed directly

by
is

the dominant triad

the other indirect,

when

the dominant triad
triad.

preceded by the second inversion of the tonic
case, the fourth does not

In the latter

need any preparation. from the tonic
triad, in

We

can go

to the half-cadence, firstly,

both scales.
Directly.
Indirectly.

MiNOK.
Directly.
Indirectly.

-p—g"-

7 7

degree. i. ^±d=E^ I « S»- i I. -2=f==i: i^ r-~r ^=U^^it-JCiSL- ^f-Tf" i f— J— ^^^ j- --s=^ f Minor Key. from the chord of the second degree. ^^ f -V—Jf- *^3=^ f r as. if m r i A a 5 -g— „6 5 - i Minor Key. Major Key. Thirdly. e. Major Key. :v-f- 1 r c d=i g=lj=f ^ . in both scales. from the first inversion' of the seventh of the second itself. and from the uninverted chord in both scales.71 Secondly.

from the diminished seventh its first on the subdominant. '^ Fifthly. j4 f JMIil^ J s MiNOK. A P^-IB^^^ -7- 5 % measure (A) of the foregoing contains a is The sion. from ther chord of the subdominant. and inversion. Majoe. ¥^^ 5- a - t -<9. B ^ ^=^P= ^ ^ 1 ^^ 'W & . from the chord on the sixth degree of the minor scale. fifth fifth succes- which admitted by some theorists as mitigated by the superfluous sixth.r S \l as. 4 ftj i Sixthly.72 Fourthly.

step. consider to this seems to be the first inversion of that placed on the subdominant. seventh. The third can either ascend or descend one fifth The fifth de- scends one step.73 !^ Tf" At in * I- t- B there is a fifth succession. first. has nothing conspicuous or it disagreeable to the ear. admitted for the same reason as A. and forms a this fifth is succession. with the base. as being mitigated In effect. In the the fundamental descends one step to the dominant. fourth. third. perfect fifth. are already acquainted. Minor A. But generally permitted by the theorist. viz. there are two chords. composed of a major and super- It stands on the sixth degree of both major and minor Majok o. On the other hand. is very easy to . and the chord of the augmented and superfluous sixth. This chord fluous sixth. We will. -m It H S diminished seventh. above. scales. of which then. Besides these. § 1. it by the superfluous sixth. has two ways of resolution. : the chords of the fifth and superfluous sixth. with which but the it we it its perfect fifth forbids us to trace first inversion has a diminished fifth. as standing It by itself. chiefly used to prepare the half-cadences. The Chord is of the Fifth and Sttpeefluous Sixth.

Finally. No. 69. changes finally into the of the dominant it The continues to the domithis nant. I J=d=J=Tl^: ^M^^ SEE ^-[^^'''Tf IT In the second. the fiindamental in the foregoing case . and forms with third it a perfect fourth.74 avoid it. triad. 1—or— ^ J=f ill = — « ^^= 1 . I Bf^= i f ' r r f f 'W f T I &c. should any one consider it objectionable. the superfluous sixth leads forcibly up to the dominant. Minor. 71. Major. 70. and superfluous vi^hich fifth sixth moves as but the third stretches over to the dominant. No. forming with a major or minor sixth. No. according as chord is used in the major or minor scale.

Finally. gression causes no consecutive § 2. Its fundamental moves down . Very is. 72. the sixth goes forcibly : up to the octave of the fundamental of the dominant. the profifths. This chord looks like the second inversion of the seventh of second degree with the major third . thus No. j=: ^-M^=&J m^ &c. usual way of resolution . to the fundamental of the dominant the triad its its third must descend is to the third of the same of dominant triad . 73. tlie but it is considered as standing by itself.75 As can be seen from these examples. and becomes the fifth same chord. and this also affords another means of avoiding consecutive No. fourth prolonged. with the SupERFLiroirs Sixth. thus resolved. often these two chords (#| and +|) combine together its . being augmented. that the fifth of the former resolves into the fourth of the latter. I gs ^=--jq^i-^:^^ ^£^ ^E ti --^ w^ . which afterwards follows combination fifths. ^ This fourth. has no need of preparation. The Chord of thk Third and Fourth.

on page 65. which has been employed by Haydn. as has been intimated. first We that the diminished seventh of the subdominant. . only. are used in the half-cadences. the ' first the second degree changes into the diminished seventh. as Sometimes the minor third thus is changed into an extended second. remains the same with the pre- ceding one that is. the resolution . in his work. cannot forbear to draw the attention of the student to a formula of half-cadence. At B. is The second inversion of this chord often resolved thus : the base stretches over to the fundamental of the tonic chord. " The Seven Words. which resolves into the triad of the dominant. on page 67. the perfect fifth of the fifth and sixth falls on the sharp-fourth of the third and fourth.76 B =t^# :i =F=P= zt=^ ^ inversion of the seventh of it As can be seen at A. the diminished seventh resolves into the chord of the tonic. and its inversion. 1^ In the last case." "We have already said.

thus i :f= ^^^E ^ making it a formula of half cadence. lution. r r t rTrf =t." deviating from the above c reso- has made jump down to the dominant. however.=t= . in " The Seven Words. very effective. 17=?—^ ^ r r T r^ r J^i-J—J- ^ fr *=!. Exercise on the Half-Cadences. formula of cadence it is seldom used. is notwithstanding this great authority. 74. No. Before him. no composer had made the second inversion of this seventh deviate from its usual this way of resolution.77 Haydn. As employed by Haydn.

^ 0_. V- =^= /L-^ J j:: J :^^=r ^ I J j^ i ^^: ^^ =1=^ S ^7+5 I d==^ J_r -J^- f=g^r^ Pi 44 2 i a '*—-» ^ 5 E^^ *=j= ^ i il =^ ^ s I i SI f=^ £r+T^ -p ^^ s i F^FP . 7+5 6 S -7- i :feES (I ^- *- M ^ [j'-^r~r-Y-"j-T-t J m J A Melody.78 f =*4 S^^^^^^ ^^=^i^^^== E BSE^ ^ 5 5 5- K E^ S P^^ ^ J 1 ^^ ly T^ No. 75. i ^A ^ . J .tj-J3 n W^.

whenever every matter has heen seriously thought of and understood.^i . to make a whole of the direction. . again. Not to repeat tediously the same we urge as a great advantage in point of rapid improve- ment. i- Jl i l-i i^U f to transpose the P^^ f it — Here.79 i=i i ^ =^^ =F^ . we would advise the pupil different instances.J—J_J_ * N. after looking at each formula of halfcadence. and practising separately. and. B. it foregoing exercises into several keys.

the principal key out of sight. in contradistinction to others. if the same key were carried out through to the end. —the melodious Rossini — in the greater part of his airs. whose for a while. from the beginning Therefore. is one of which he seems particularly fond. in order to break this effect is to keep. Modulating. The which introduction of a is new key to pass is technically called a modulation. is " from the original key foreign to it. for that reason. and trios. or key. then. by placing themselves in its stead. or one more or A remote key is that one. which might be styled the Rossinian modulation. and in which he has excelled. which. There namely : the modulation from the principal key up to the minor . when it has the same which differs from the principal by two or more accidentals." to. sameness of scale. duets. confines himself to the relative keys. into-another. Hence. is ascertained by the signature at the beginning. or key. A key is relative to the principal number of accidentals. § 1.APPENDIX A MUSICAL composition e. There are whole quartettes and symphonies by Haydn and Mozart. new keys are employed. less. but a troublesome monotony would the whole piece. This called the principal scale. others not. two kinds of modulations —Relative and Remote. which may occasionally be introduced. is grounded on a certain scale. Of the keys thus resorted some are relative to the principal key. are called remote keys. Relative Modulations. ensue. MODULATIONS. The relative modulations are the most obvious in a musical composition. in which no other modulations are used but Rossini those in the relative keys. and in several of his most effective choruses.

as relatives to g Recapitulation. worthy of remark. which three are minor. g. and its minor. the dominant seventh of that of. are a minor. hardly need say that immaterial whether be inverted or Let us take an example of a relative key. key of _/. To is Ihodulale into a relative key. or one tone . principal key . of No. Example of Relative Modulation. 76. next. ^StSh- i W sto- i s<g- 1 ^— ' fsSL I As can be perceived from the example. a. pal key. The celebrated Handel has built his mightiest effects with the relative keys. In this he has concluded numbers of the and most graceful periods. accident to suppress the in the principal key. so that the occurrence of a remote modulation in his works. with the same signature e. This proceeding next to gives us the e.81 key of the finest third degree. Its relatives Let c be the princi. and its minor. d. in a scale with sharps. C. key made use since it is it is the decisive sign of it its own key. sometimes two. and two major. with ytt. the dominant seventh of these relatives have sometimes three. g. As we have no l^ to it. We not. — relatives. d. e. we add which is same thing as c. is. if we and suppressed one sharp. f.

the keys. called another chord into action. 3. with the tonic chord of the principal key.82 in common e. 1. above given. are not so to themselves. have used the chord. We will mark whenever used as a transition chord between any key and the dominant seventh of the following Relative Keys of the Key of C. No. principal key. generally an intermediate chord must be placed between the key we intend to leave. at B we and e. are not relative with the keys.i * r^ . b. 2.keys. some other connected with it. that some of these.—From F to G. The one most appropriate to such a purpose. Thus. No. f. in the list key. alone. —From D to E Minor. g. although to the principal being nearly related So. 4. We have. . and the dominant seventh of that into which we wish is to pass. i i ^. has not any tone in common with it. The minor key. No. as differing from each other by more than one accidental. when we are to modulate either from g or e to _/" or d. then. is to be remarked here. and for that purpose. c About this mediate chord It we say more. and vice versa. d (one flat). which gives us some con- nective tone e. or this the tonic chord of the chord thus +. f^ D Minor to -rr^^r^ 1 r nr-^ No. as mediator will between the tonics. g. e (one sharp). .— From F to E Minor.—From G Major. when we develope the remote modulations.

g. since after every dominant seventh we are free to pass . 10. 5. e minor to has been secure that mutual tone. as the mediator between these because used different keys. 7.— From G Major to F Major. the first. 11. g major. g. In No.— E Minor to No. D Minor. the chord. No. h. the tonic chord of the itself. 9. d minor.83 No. therefore. without any other mediator.— E Minor to F. As we may principal see from these examples. the key. or No. 7.— From i a^i m m^ No. a. 2 has two intermediate chords. gives no mutual tone to the dominant . key presents c. or No. e. If we consider that d minor is a relative key to g minor. is we perceive that the dominant seventh of the latter key adapted to modulate from d minor to either into the major or minor key. i ^ i^s^ G Major to D Minor. Ei^^3 ^^^ffe^ No. 3. seventh of the key. most of the time. gives three consecutive tones to the following dominant seventh ofg well major. or No. d.

84

By
from

the

same

reason,
to

we

are authorised, in Nos. 7 and 10, to go
to

g

major

single mediator

d minor, and from e minor the dominant seventh.

d minor, with a

In No.

5,

we

are justified in passing from the tonic,

g

major, to

the dominant seventh

of/

(one

flat),

by

the consideration that often

a tonic

may

be considered as a dominant seventh, which

may

resolve

into another dominant.

Then,

in the present instance of

No.

5,

we pass from major g to the dominant seventh of the major key,f. The other Nos. require no particular observation and we shall put
;

the preceding remarks in practice.

No. 77.

Exercises on Relative MoBtJLATioNS.

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85

No. 78.

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5

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No.
79.

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86

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the dominant sevenths

The preceding modulations have been performed by using only but we can obtain the same result by the
;

nonachord and the diminished
seventh.
It is

triad,

both arising from the dominant

evident,

upon considering the origin of these chords,
Notwiththe dominant seventh, the non-

that they are

endowed with the faculty of modulating.
relationship with
settle
i.

standing

their

achords are seldom used to

a

new

key, and

when

used,

it

must be with discernment,
used,

e.,

the
;

major nonachord must be
to

when a major key
reason
to

is

wanted

and when we intend
to.

touch

a minor key, the minor nonachord should be resorted

The
chord

why

the nonachords are less suited than the dominant
is,

perform the modulations

partly, because of their being
is,

overloaded with tones.

This diminished triad

in this respect,

more convenient

to

modulate with.

The

seventh, derived from the major nonachord, and the dimin-

ished seventh, furnish us with
respective modes.
It will

means of modulation, each
as.

in their

be advisable to resolve them into the

dominant chord, before getting the new key,

^^ ^
-5-

^

Occasionaliy,
tions
;

we may

use the dominant triad for our modula-

but

it

lacks that decision which the dominant seventh and

the

nonachord possess.

This lack of decision

is

owing

to

its

87
adaptability to the the major and minor mode.

For

instance, in

major, the dominant triad, d,f^, a, reminds us of the keys,

g g major

and
all

g minor ; and

the tonic chord following

it

may

alone remove

uncertainty of key.
Finally, the minor triads, in

many

instances,

can likewise

assist

us in modulating.
the original

They
But

enjoy the peculiarity of effacing entirely
design to confine ourselves to the

key.

relative modulations,
triad,

if we we must to

take care not to touch any minor

which might lead us

remote keys.
minor, and
major, or

Thus, in

must avoid the minor
might lead us into
ej?

triads, c

/ minor.
g minor
;

c major, we The former

major,

JJ?

the latter into

But we can change the dominant triad into a minor triad, and pass into a key of which the minor triad is relative. Thus, in the case of c major, by changing g, b, d, into g, V^, d, we are at liberty to modulate into f major and
ab major,

^ major, or c minor.

d minor, which stand

in near relation both to

g

minor, and to the

principal key, c major, as.

I

^^
i

^^
i& u
This minor
from one key
principal
triad

may

afford us a proper opportunity of

moving
to

to others
;

not related to each other, but related to the
c,

key

for

example, in the key of

from

g major

/ major, thus

88

Na. 90.
I

i
*

El^
&c.

I
tine

6

ft

&
thus

=E
c,

Or

to

d minor,

in

same key of

No. 81.

i
We will
nonachords.

i ^^^=^^^
J;^
4=t=ti
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--^

&0.

6

^^ 5 1^1?
t=tt=t
»

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now

close the relative modulations,

by two

illustrations

of the subject.

One affords some instances of modulations by the The other is the "Wedding March/'' from the

Iphigenia in Aulis, by Gluck.

No. 82.

i

4:

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8,85
-

-

-

5

5

5

57+

5

89

--fffmwfy^fffr^'
ititt
5
ta 8

^^

3^
6
6

-ei-4-,

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^

i
5

=f
into

In

this

example, the nonachords resolve

the

dominant

seventh, before touching the

new key except

at +.

The Wedding Makoh, from Gluck.

A
aznzf;

iBt

Violin. /

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p o

«-=-Ht

2nd
VroLiif.

eS--^

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Alto.

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it

Bj^so.

9^^4^##=^#tf:=te
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90

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p

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o s

—s —

fi-

ri
H«-»-

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(2

Tsi-r—;:)-

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\

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f^^^gi^^
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=?=*=?*;

^^ ±e ^^ ^^
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91

^^^^^m
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1-*-*>-*-

mmi^^s^^
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pign^- Sg^za AoL

a

a

-M-

(t.

^l ^

Pg
This piece
is

&
admirable
for its simplicity,
it is

and remarkably
Besides, there

fit

for

the circumstance in

which

performed.

is in its

smooth and quiet motion something breathing of early music,

making the listener's mind feel the happiness must have enjoyed upon the occasion.

the

enamored couple

The

student should notice the digressions into a minor and d

major, at

A

and

B

;

after which, at C, the

harmony moves
first is

into

d

major, in which the composer concludes the
sition.
i.

part of his

compo-

This; affords an instance of what

called a transition j

e.,

a modulation by which the writer ends an important part of

a piece of music in a

new

key.

At
(F)

the beginning of the second part (D), Grluck again

makes two

small modulations, one into a minor (E) and the other into d major
;

and

finally,

introduced, and the composition brought

(G) a formula of cadence in the principal key is This is a fine to an end.
It

specimen of relative modulations.
simplest melodies are

may
by a

be seen here

how

the

made

interesting

skilful blending

of these

keys.

We
vation,

cannot give up this subject without setting forth a
:

.last

obser-

which should always be kept in view that is, not to multiply modulations, so as "to take away the unity and firmness of the whole structure ;" in other words, we must use modulations moderately, and allow the principal key to be predominant, whatever

may

be the length of the composition.

92

§ 2.

Remote Modulations.
already given
so
it

From
it

the

definition
is

of

Remote

Modulatioiii,,

ensues that a key
it

by

much more remote from
in its tones.

the principal

key, as
appear,

disagrees with
the
;

Aremoie modulation may

at

first

reading, to imply something difficult to be
it

brought about

yet

is

not always so.

A remote

key

is

by no
will

means a great deal harder to be got than a relative lay down here some directions, which will enable
bring about the most used of those keys.

one.

We

the student to

number

;

and were we able

to

They are many in sum them up here, we could not
means of modulating
;

boast of having given all the possible

for

many

others

may

still

be discovered by a

man

of genius

;

the

dominion of the art of music being boundless like the canopy of

Heaven, in which the astronomers, from time some unsuspected star.
§ 1
.

to time, discover

The same dominant

sevenths which have assisted us in

performing the relative modulations,
instance, in c major

may

likewise serve us for the

purpose of modulating into the corresponding irrelative ones.

For
minor,

we can reach

the keys,

f

minor and

g

through the very same dominant sevenths which have led us
corresponding major keys.

to their

No. 83.
From G Major to F
minor.

^^^^^^
Sla

^

>

&C.

.,

Ug
6

I

'P

3

93
No. 84.
From C Major to G
Minor.

^^=^^i

U

Sis-

=fe
&0.

^=f
Moreover, in every scale there are three minor
after the principal tonic
triads.

Then,

if

we

use these triads to serve us as connect-

ive chords for the dominant seventh of their respective major ones,

we gain
c
a.Te

d

f a—e

three remote major keys.

g

b

—a
e-

The minor

triads in the

key of

c e.

Their corresponding major ones are

df^ 'i—e

^ i—a, 4
to

No.' 85.
From C

Example.
Major.

D

From C

to

E

Major.

'Thiis,

every major scale gives us

five

modulations

irito

i.-

keys (three major, and two minor), which are based on the following degrees the major on the second, third, and sixth degrees
:

the minor on the fourth and

fifth

degrees.

We

perform these

94
modulations with the same transition chords which have enabled

us

to

modulate into their corresponding relative keys.
scale gives no

The minor

keys

diiferent

from the major.

The alteration which the third of a chord may undergo, § 2. when changed from major to minor, or from minor to major, can
lead us to keys followed by

more or less distant. This proceeding is frequently Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Meyerbeer, and other celebrated composers. For instance, to modulate from g major to e? major, we change the major triad, g, b, d, into g, IP, d, which
reminds us immediately of
said modulation thus
all its relatives
;

and we perform the

No. 86.

A

I
iS
We might proceed
B
still

^

\

4~m

=?=F
&c.

w
farther, as,
^

No. 87.

i
WM
The minor
us of
aj?,

^=^^ ^

Efe£

W
g,
J[?,

triad, g,

Jj>,

d,

through

its relative, e^,

reminds

which we are led by changing this the dominant seventh of the key, a^, major.
to

triad,

e[>,

g, h^, into

eb,

Now, if we intend to return to the key, g major, from the key, we will have to follow the contrary course ; that is, to change

from natural intend to go to keys with sharps into and as we changed major thirds minor ones. that in every scale there are three minor on the second.95 some minor triad. surely accomplished in the Our return following way : g major will ^' ' m asE We must be of a chord. ii^^ iM4 TT f when we affect M rr which can take such changes in the third to place the accidentals in that voice them most conveniently . to those i. and sixth degrees. we have started from natural keys. A and the same tones. and gone direction . the triad. which'had eb.. -ste- ^fe E Major. which had previously Sb . with flats. third. But here the pupil must bear mind triads. those shall in change minor into major thirds. so now we triads. changed into major. that is. B. we shall avoid cross relations. without alteration. and in the example. thus triad of the second degree may lead to e major and a No. c minor. in that voice which had formerly Thus. will help him less modulate into more or remote keys. We we are now to follow e. 88. an opposite . By adhering to this rule. triad into its major. major The minor major. He must From c avail himself on these to which. In the preceding examples. =t careful. Let us then choose to this and change it into c major. Here eK for instance. C. in the examples. strictly we have given e^ to the treble. is nearly related to the key.'we have given ib to the alto. Iee M ^ j^fesEEJ .

No. '=31 5 ^1 i The minor Triad on the sixth degree to b major. 89. Major. T m^. 90. He iBi=l ^ the third degree to major e. "! 9S=y . a major. minor cj|. # ^^1 A Major. fe . m^^^^^ B1| No. P— — 1 P- iai 5 1^ I ss i J p-0ifj^m^^ ^i C^ Minor. FB Minor. and / minor. and ^^^^^^^ E Major.96 ^ ^^ ite The Minor Triad on minor /jf.

and may we nev. 91.sy well. -^ ii J> ^ ^= fere. Nevertheless. in are of this connection. such modulations given here. 4 J r «PP i f^ «i * We seventh spite m as =r=f have here introduced such keys as have their dominant connected with some preceding triad. fare -well.sy world.well.Trr^=^ ^r and may we nev-er ^ -^.er meet a - gain. is The a specimen of their treatment No. . ^. bu . thou bu . fate-well. Fare-well. thou bu - sy world. following require in practice a more extensive development.97 ^ s^ I Fj Minor. (A) Pare- 1 Jfcfc r r^ i J- J =EE?= p-T—F=^ Fare--well thou J^AJ i ^r T— r-vrorld. I^ 1 i %H^^^ :li :^:^A :^A +^^ zk ± A :^A and meet a -gain.

in order cadence to previously to settle the dominant of the make such new key. the minor triad a.B. • is No.9-' I =^ er er meet a - gam. a. e. Ores. Here leads it the alto part being stationary on gtt ( A) for several measures. as modulations. g*3 « .98 and may we nev -I- - i rSzzfccd-. c^. prepares the ear for the coming key. i meet :^=^b and fe may we nev - ^ er meet a - gain. At the sign cipal +. and the major triad. __J ' ViOLON. 92. key of is e major. AND 2. I Violins.. I D. most conveniently to the definitive e. J (+) may r^rT=rT^ we nev - f frT. gam. 1. in which the final But the best course to take. calls us back again performed. cjj. to the prin- key of c.

also. from we modulate into a\f major. and making tonic. Mozart. the major third of a new we are supplied with a modulation into the the preceding one.99 m :^^^^ # ^ f «!. an extract of an instrumental composition re- duced to two violins. and double bass. Before setting forth the new key with a is new melodic so as to to design. &c.(^) ear. Beethoven. key a major c major third downward from Thus. such as quartettes. abound with such modulations. violoncello. satisfy the demands of the is This method of &c. thus No. symphonies. and Mendelssohn. 93. li ^^^^^^ m T^ Ft4=F^ A s^ fe^^ . The cadences and half-cadences. exemplifies pretty well our meaning. furnish us with means of modulations. The instrumental compositons of Haydn.. going remote keys sonatas. After every final cadence the tonic. Hummel. J t^ aft This fragment is ^ ! It &c. the dominant strongly and firmly decided. it By keeping on the fundamental. we are free to keep on any tone of make it the preparation for a new key. § 3. quintettes. to 1st. very common in instrumental music.

f=f-f—^^f=^ . keeping on the and making the major third of third above the a new tonic. F? / ^ i^ite^ i?^ 2nd. we modulate into the key. we modulate into a new key a minor preceding one. thus No. 95. -P g I f=f^-^=*f=p-t£n^ I Ei :^s^=f= M^ ^^ -0~n-»- . ^iSr ft fifth. a major third above the preceding' one.100 -^^ =?=hF I J3 r &c. i^^^^^ ^^E^s^ i Itt* ^=r4- ^ i By t- lu '^ris ^^ &c. thus ^m ^=3 fe No. 94. ^^p it ^1 the fundamental By keeping on the third and making of a new tonic. f it i 3rd.

After every major tonic we may get the fifth downward as the fundamental of a new minor key. ^a=i^u J^ -f^-fT=F=i«= iS :e^ 5th. 96.l— 9e-s — i=Tl^ »- mi^=F^^^#^^ ^ =fe . i EE f^— "f— =5=t^ i^ ^?- -. thus.: No. 97.101 4th. i 4=^4=^ #^^^ ^- ^^ ?s ^g^ -^-^ &6. thus No. f^ -d — ci —r5^ - ifc^^^^^ T" T=^=?= zfzitS E& p- . we may establish a new key on the minor' second above this dominant. After a fepose on the dominant.

6th. Ep-p-=TPp=p_^ ~-r=T . and by a melodic design. ^^^-= m P^f=^ k -^^ J. in order to return is keyg' major. J. This modulation eighth measure is ivatural. in which the final cadence concluded. f^m ^^i^± frr-r-u^ Cres. we may start from one of its tones.102 T r r ptt E and frequently used. No. 98. At the we use a proceeding already pointed out. i=^ -^- ggP^^ m ^ ii U_l J ^ J. or octave passage. reach any key we please. ji J. A \- i fe i J. We change the preceding chord minor back to the into major. &c. A J. After every tonic.

the tonic to we l^ave may serve as a starting point get the new key. . I1 Eg fe^Efe^ttteSE^fe ^. the longer ought to be the chromatic run. moreover. the quicker the motion. m t ti are led. run would have been at the it. as No. But this repose el'. four .103 7th. and complete the modulation. into c major. We might as well have taken rest at in the beginning of the third measure. to pay attention the motion of the musical composition. too short: it is proper to settle the new key part beginning of a measure. at the middle of the for the same measure. may be enough to determine the key on the contrary. in the parts seize upon the new tonic. The chromatic runs are frequently used to introduce re- mote modulations. at the et'. or five chromatic steps In a slow movement. In such a case every tone of. but not before least. or at is accented to of It advisable. by chromatic steps. or at a^. i i j-iL-i &c. 8th. 99. The ijiusical rests can become means of modulations. ^e^E£ From d major we which all J.liA ^mi S I ^_i. on c is quite arbitrary.

to fifth. is — Since is in Nos. The rhythm onfy leads us to expect a continuation f and immediately we continue. with regard to the modulations in this section. and mental tone. We ought to remark. 100. The tone retained can be the fundamental. the Nevertheless.. and deserve a special practice on the part of the studient. led. § 4. We can consider the dominant seventh as a major triad with an . or ffth of a can be a part of a dominant seventh or nonachord. after they are generally introduced by the accompanying which they are taken up by the singers or choruses^ Neverthelessj such the voices. 1. those exemplified in this paragraph are more usual. third. no transition third. exemplified them here in this way.104 withoHt retaining any tone to serve us as- a link between the aban- doned key and the new one. occurrences may is happen. the musical period' required. I i i i t full ^ ^g- ^ ^ by and ^ Em •-4=F^ J Here we have a and perfect cadence. in a foreign key. Observation. third. Passages of Dominant Sevenths. what right f Because this continuation is a By it phrase by itself^ a& were } a new pfece which takes up the thread a of the previous phrase at a different place. and the fundaand seventh of any seventh or noneefaordy of a tonic which it is inherent. as-: No.them- We have selves. as to be introdniced There not any absolute rule on this point. in Nos.. fifth finished. beside being the fundamental. 2. Again. 6 and 7. triad. the tones to which we have been tonic triad. 3. the stationary tone preceded by a full cadence. and consetjnently. that parts. and perhaps in different sense.

with the exception of the third.105 additional minor seventh. since every dominant seventh already contains within itself a we are free to reject the triad —which follows the dominant seventh in the above example-^and to have the dominant sevenths following each other immediately. ^ ^ ^31 W \rsr But. and change every triad into a dominant chord. at the close of the third bar. as I triad. The it succession begins and we see in every tone follow the regular progression.^ m3^^Q. * 7 I I m I I ~IP^ feU [! 2 6 T r g g^ V I 7 L 7 I T T ? H LT I^ J =^ l^i ^ir=^=p^j=j==^J2^^=Z^i pti^is ^^ 'I 1 ii^ '% ^ I >J '^ y^ H [7J J sJ k i t 6 i * - % m «S f' "" This example affords us a specimen of remote modulations. as given by the passages of dominant chords. as No. WD r . which descends a chromatic step. 101. and becomes the seventh of the following chord. .

the fifth is retained stationary on the following chord. to instead of progressing downward step.106 We it confined the above passage to major to tonics it ^. by changing the resolution of the third. In the foregoing example. or to would force us to call on enharmonic . i dEE^E^dfe^: fei =^ -^ iE a §i Lastly. has move up a full step. given by the ipant seventh. as . that of the subdominant into and as the subdominant has been successively changed dominant seventh. too. We will a now lead these passages in an opposite direction. and every new Aoxs\. i f—fcrixiqz F-+r^ ^ dom-- ^g i— we proceed to some other modulations. 102. a we have gained give the third a new flat at every resolution. as No. Our object now is to its usual ascending motion. would have led us avoid this encumbrance. we proceed from a dominant seventh to a dominant seventh the fundamental of the but the tonic of the first. encumbered with signatures. . deviating from its usual course of resolution. and step-. we gqf new dominant seventh and a new key. and the seventh moves up by a chromatic second seventh is At this time. a fifth. to elevate the seventh by a chromatic the fundamental tone. because. if continued.. changes. which we now intend to avoid as it is our design to treat separately the enharmonic modulations. inant seventh gives a new sharp.

At B. the dominant seventh resolves up a minor second. which is the might as well have to the key of Sfe major. e^. or to a. e^. and the seventh c. the fundamental fifth moves up to a. deviating to o^ c. it descends a step to 67. . . In the case of a. Properly speaking. all the tones follow their usual course. -i-y- dominant seventh to a. a. to ak. 103 iESa^sEi^SstS i '^'^t-t- i_t Muting— V* ' » te=^: \Lt u pE^gj^^ai ^ ^=^ fe?=:. c. which goes from its downward motion. except the fundamental. eV. led it ^e We c. stretches over to the next chord. efc the dominant seventh resolves to f. Here. In these resolutions. c. the third and the both to c.=qh?==iCi«: i f =^ KE I I M^iJ: ?=SS: T =i^ i-± I ^¥ie^^ rf ^tJ=^: ?3^ i I P^ At A. the modulations in ing else than interrupted cadences keys. as they lead to foreign we had to place them under the head of modulations. this paragraph are noth- but.107 No. f.

Thus. The Diminished Seventh. d.108 § 5. as well as to c minor. according as the case may be. in the present step. seventh. We seventh be used both in the major and minor modes. we convert into a . as. we shall give a view of it. is to give a full account of the diminished it seventh. into some other interesting combinations of The leading tone being unaltered. if we lower b a chromatic step in the diminished seventh b. may be changed into the dominant seventh of the parallel major key. d. in the different enharmonic modulations. Our design. it into a domi- follows that by ele- vating the fundamental of the dominant seventh. the dominant seventh of pass to e|j major et". that this chord may Thus. by depressing the leading note. if we elevate a half step (chromatic or diatonic. have already remarked. as far as helps to carry out remote modulations. by a chromatic Thus. on page 41. \ Mi^\% II But since the diminished seventh can be converted nant seventh. f^wd^t^i^ Let us now enter this chord. 1st. by depressing the leading note Every diminished by a chromatic step. in c major. the diminished belongs to e major. such a change enables us to return to c major .) the it three other notes of the diminished seventh. a^. In another place. Then. a^. from major we may suddenly major ^^ instance. it becomes c J]'. here. f.f. we convert it into a diminished seventh.

The seventh being unaltered. we gain a dominant seventh. while the three others ascend. if we elevate the leading tone. izs*: :# te^ ^ 1 we . whose tonic shall be a fourth below. we go to The fifth being unaltered. whose tonic shall be a half step above the preceding one ^^From major c ^ we have regularly three tones we go to dl? major. a half step (chromatic or we obtain fifth dominant seventh. Example ^^^^^=% We go from 2d. ic major to e major. the third and seventh. First Alternative. while alternately another remains station- In the following combination. fes^\>sf>- i major g. grees . the •a. fifth and seventh. step. we obtain a dominant seventh. The third being unaltered. half step . whose tonic is a third aibove the preceding one. or a above the preceding one . moving up a half ary. In the foregoing combinations. as i From major 3d. and sometimes a diminished third. if elevate the three other tones a half step. . if or major eV-. whose tonic is a whole step below the former as. i We pass 4th. . diatonic). we elevate the leading note. a half step. c. we have two alternatives. from major c to major 5^. as.109 dominant seventh. All the tones ascend. or a half step. sometimes a whole step. but in different deft the seventh three times.

and the three other . step which of the and d in the tenor by real fifths with a and g base. instead of changing into a dominant seventh. the diminished seventh transformed into another diminished seventh. major The seventh ascends a whole step. ^^^^ from major or minor c to f major or minor. ^^g- i^ A S =F step. Though first fifth these consecutives are admitted by some theorists. which is easily done. thus : i 3d. tones a whole* step as. The seventh ascends a whole the leading note a diminished third (or enharmonic step). to 3 aV. the leading note a fifth half step. 2d. as. eV. before reaching the tonic . as the much better to comes from a dissonant chord. All the parts ascend a half step. and the third and as. . The seventh ascends a half step.110 list. W a whole step . i ^^^ from major or minor c 4th. i iln this i ^^ gs^44^ ^ is example. yet we believe it is avoid it. the third a half ^^Pj and the fifth a whole step . There is also a slight blemish in the resolution. and lead from e major or minor 'to g major. -^qS^ i f to From c major or minor we go d major. in part. by causing the dimin- ished seventh to resglve to the dominant seventh of the same funda- mental.

c to aj? minor. . . The seventh fifth a half step. the other tones sometimes a whole 1st. The seventh a whole the other tones a half step. The fifth seventh a half step. at other times a half step. The seventh a half step. c to major sequences. i from major or minor 3d. not usual to carry such successions steps. the seventh times a half step. ^f^^^ Upward. the leading note a whole step. the third a whole step. i from major or minor Lastly. through Nevertheless.Ill Second Alternative. as. the third and a half step as. =g c to f major or minor. to we can use the diminished seventh in passages They may enable as we did the dominant seventh. the fifth a whole step ^=te^ i ^^m m -t- m^ We go from major or minor 4th. and once a whole step step. the leading note and third a half step. . i2=?= E^ as. 104. when it is intended to reach some Exam- No. . the leading note and a half step . all it or us run upward and downward. J25»= ^^5fe cl'. beyond three or four chromaUc out with ple : These sequences are carried flat-tonic. ^^^^^ from major or minor 2d. c to d major. is the semitones of the scale. three All the tones descend. as. step. flats.

some sharp-tonic is No. example. to piano music. as. require. the parts ascend or descend we are enabled to ascertain the regularity of each at the succession of the semitones. \b' ^ Dovrawatd. 106. so that part. we are led to the key of/ major or minor. to 6 major or minor. ^ They may aimed at. 105. 104 Downward. 106. ^^^^^ In No. to a major or minor. to the key of i^ major or minor. first all. and in No. rate singers. to We are conscious of having omitted nothing that is the thorough training of the student.112 No. 107. Although the diminpractice is ished seventh leads to the tonic. ^ If all ^m by half Finally. belong particularly to the instrumental depart- ment . by only glancing is There necessary nothing more to be said on the subject of remote modulations. they first diminished sevenths. we have to remark. in order to . steps. In these sequences. 107 can be a. 105. i fe. in No.^ if be carried out with sharps. and. Upward i No. the by lowering the seventh a seventh of No. 107. in No. that the modulations arising from sequences of of If adapted to singing. last . last Thus. diminished seventh into the dominant of the same is fundamental which for easily effected. as they demand the greatest acumen in the sense of hearing. changed into the dominant of the keys minor or major ^m. yet the common to change the half step. to be tolerably brought about.

indeed. it. neglect result. i -^ -I Its: or 11^ . that so. is i equal to /U=5fe®^ "pThe Majob Third. ctt and dl? are considered that equal as to pitch. in accord. Thus. or harmony. the following changes take place The Minob Thied. these tones are d\>. Of Qourse. his compo- sitions. is. is The Diminished equal Foiieth. Enharmonic Modulations. Enharmoni. is they had obtained an exact difference in pitch between it Such is The enharmonic sounds garded . are called enharmonic. which are identical in pitch. -#=s 1 The DmiNisHED Thibd. remarkable advantages have been gained. The word enhar- monic is derived from the Greek. except in the high combinations of the stage music of the grand opera.113 keep firmly to the pitch of the half-step progressing parts. who. Sounds. they are but seldom employed in choruses. the meaning of which is. for is. According to these notions of enharmonic sounds. But here theorists have followed mathematicians. the province of the It composer to know well the ability of those who are to be entrusted with the care of performing. which* overlooked. to be disreis and by doing a small difference of pitch. make if but an unimportant differ- and proceed as the case here. so minute. as forming a uniform sound . The Majoe Second. enharmonikos.~% i cally -fe-^ 1^ is equal to — ^ry ^^ - The Extended Second. not identical . Mathematically. but placed on different degrees. fitting. in which all is the requisites of large performances are found abundantly. both in the theoretical and practical departments of music. although placed on two different degrees. when they find in an operation cjj is somewhat higher than to a fractional number so small as ence.

<*> i is equal to i =^s . is equal to or- pr Sixth. is -J^ The Extended Sixth. The Pebfeot Foceth. - equal to^^ or- i Fifth. is i I The Peefeot equal to -^- i The Majob Third. equal -i E^ The Minoe Seventh. The Extended Fifth. The Peefeot Fifth. 1 -JT The Diminished Fodbth. i The Shabp Fodeth. is equal to orHlt^h Fotteth. The Minos Sixth. is ^ The Diminished Sixth. is The Diminished equal to 1 Sixth. I ^ ^ -bs- The MijoE The Diminished Seventh.114 The Extended Thled. is P i I ^ ft* equal to ^= Wsi The Minoe ^ Sixth. The Peefeot is i i i i <* E^ IS* equal "$The Extended Fifth. The Diminibhed is i The Diminished Fifth. t is equal to ^Bk- * Fifth. I The Extended Thied. equal to I fe or- The Extended Foueth.

did not scruple to use iu his and most happily. Ladra. such inversion forms a new diminished seventh. in our opinion. The two streams from which enharmonic changes abundantly. and. becoming a diminished seventh. in the overture to La Gazza seems several other works. for doing so: first. tions of the diminished seventh the second. in the We have liliewise mentioned. The mischievous to set Italian have pur- posely mocked at the prohibition. Rossini. tended second. notwithstanding the rule which prohibits the use of the diminit. The Diminished Seventh. are the diminished and dominant sevenths. as an antiquated rule. had two reasons second. perhaps. i w- . in the enharmonic combina. the diminished seventh The first inversion. when now finish up what laying down the matter of remote modulations. the flow most < exclusion of the diminished third from harmony. the being changed into a minor third.115 Of first these enharmonic changes. The hence. treatise We have already. the most used are those of the exsixth. because the diminished third sometimes used enharmbnically. given a on this chord. the interval of the diminished third. and the third being changed into a minor seventh in the transformations of the extended sixth. and in to Maometto Secondo. it diminished seventh consists exclusively of minor thirds follows that every inversion contains an extended second and by changing alternately this second into a minor third. is frequently used Moreover. example. improperly banished from harmonic uses. So great an authority should be aside. We is above list. the extended sixth. sufficient. ished third in harmony. for different keys. A. because in practice. and changed into a major second its inversion. one of the greatest composers of the day. on page 108. so pleasing in melody. of the major and of the extended sixth . We shall has been partly done there. affording the composer the means of getting three Let us take.

^i 'I iEE ^^ inversion. No. i^ fet I i '^1 I ^ l^:: ^ UMi=^te^-4^ = i 5 ^ r ? 'si ° g S e 1 I The second ^ by the change of both g^ diminished seventh. we gain the ^ .^ e. becomes a new seventh. 108. as every diminished able to become a dominant seventh. and of i into cl*. the we are subsequently enabled to enter upon key of elf major. Eb Major. W^:: and enables us seventh is to modulate into c minor . by lowering the leading tone a half step. C Minor. and.116 by the change of ^ into a^. i?=^^ I @fe JS -I :g= -m: a 'i • g~ r r r-^ — s— '—•--(a '' . into oj?.

to f% minor or major. 109. fct =?== :S--3r^ i%=F y= f . and sub- sequently to the parallel key. a| major. or to the No. 110. ^^ Trrr ige J:^ 1 ^^ i n ^ I G[j ^ - ^ S-l Major. E i I m ^^ ^m A Ma]or. Eb Minor.117 which affords us the modulation to e^ minor or major. ^ major. I I fe The id=^^=^i^ir^'=T^ f^ ^5 t-F^I i third inversion. No. is enharmonically by which we get the way open major parallel key.

118
F^ Major.

i^

ite
^=

w
iS

«

a^i^ ^ *s^

A ^ jipT^y^
ss

- s^

It

is

not always necessary to realize the enharmonic change.
often understands
it,

The composer very
modulation in view
;

and reaches directly the
to

but then

it

is

necessary

give the seventh a

certain length, especially in the quick motions, that the hearer

may

comprehend the modulation

;

as.

No. 111.
MOBZEATO.

119

encumbered with

accidentals.
;

This

is

particularly the

case in

passages, or sequences

as,

No. 112.

i^^^^^fc
m^
At
b^,

?

ks-

the fourth measure, the dominant triad ought to have been

followed by the chord, gif major, with eight sharps, which would have involved us in an infinity of signatures. Instead of this, we

have cnharmonically changed the above chord, d^

(at

A)

into

e\>,

g,

which has brought us

into

keys with

less signatures.

ber of signatures, as in Nos. 109, 110.

Sometimes, however, the enharmonic changes increase the numIn general, the enharmonic
If the composer

modulations must carry a meaning with them.

wishes
sharps

to

give his
assist

may

duce an opposite

work a more lively character, the keys with him in carrying out such a design. Flats proeffect, by imparting a gloomy tint to the harto

mony.

Let us now pass

B.

The Dominant Seventh.

changes,
seventh.
that

In the synoptical table (previously given) of the enharmonic we have seen that the extended sixth becomes a minor

On

the other hand,

we have been

informed, on page 73,
a major third and a

the

extended

sixth carries with

itself

which constitute the dominant perfect fifth wherefore, the change-^of the dominant seventh into the ; seventh Of course, when thus extended sixth, comes in quite naturally.
^just

the

same

intervals

chani^ed, the dominant seventh follows the rules already laid
(pp.

down

73 and 74) concerning

this sixth.

This again affords us many
use those of the relative

interesting modulations, if

we
key,

consider that, besides the dominant

seventh of the principal

we may

ones, and change them enharmonically.

120
In the following examples, the enharmonic note
is

according to the directions given above, No. Ill, on page 118

No. 113.
From C
to

B

Minor.

^?3=^i

^
or

w I
From C Major to B
Major.

I

i

ft^

pW%.^=4t

u

1
From G
to

m

i

A^ Magor.

i^

-o-e-

#^^ 3==£
^

^ ^^
From C

S m
I

?

to

E

Miyor.

i
9i=f^

D

Vr-h^ I =^P

I

M^
Ij

J
J

l

~^

121

At A,
d,
e{|,

the dominant seventh represents the extended sixth, which resolves into the perfect cadence of minor h. the

g,

h,

At B,

same change has taken

place, with this exception only,

that the extended sixth (minor seventh) resolves into the perfect

cadence of h major.

At C,

the

harmony goes
which,

to the relative

key, a minor, of which the
into the extended sixth,
ek,
all, c,

dominant seventh changes enharmonically
yfe, aV, ck, d,
at the fourth--

measure, changes into

followed by the dominant seventh of a]? minor.

At D, the harmony turns
ically
its

to _/ major, which, changed enharmondominant seventh, closes with the major key, e major, with

four sharps.

Now,
sixth,
it

since the dominant seventh can be changed into an extended
follows that the latter also is capable of becoming, in
its

turn, a dominant seventh.

In

this case, the sixth

degree of the pre-

ceding key becomes the dominant of the following

No. 114.

i:

122

m i4 I f
r

^i=i
'T

i
zoa

-fTi"

§5tt

E*^
its

i

At
oally,

the seventh measure, the extended sixth, after being heard in

the preceding measure, in

regular treatment, changes enharmonid|?

and brings suddenly the harmony into the key of

major.

This,
effect.

when

properly done,

is

susceptible of producing a very good
to

These few examples are enough

give an exact and

sufficient notion of the

above chords, so far as they

may

be used in

performing enharmonic modulations.

They

are capable of produc-

ing a great variety of effective modulations^ in the hands of an able

musician.
shall

We

need not dwell any longer on
called

this subject,

and we

now touch what may be

C.

Arbitkary Enharmonic Modulations.
such modulations as are not performed by the two
note
to

We

call so

preceding chords, but merely depend on any other chord, or even

on any sharp or
so as to enable

flat

which may present

itself to the

composer,
Fre-

him

carry out an enharmonic change.

quently, he takes this note,
time,

makes
best

it

stationary a certain length of
to his

and then changes
afford

it,

according

fancy.
to

Cadences and

half-cadences

the

opportunities

accomplish such

modulations.

No. 115.

m^^^^

-•—p-

-r-r-^

123

ffV^TY nff g?=yTr^=
-4-

$

^-J^M
is

5

The
first

first

period of this example closes with a half-cadence.

The
and,

part,:of the

remaining on

ajL finally gives

it

up

for &!?;
J!?,

at the

same

time, the whole

mass enters upon the chord,
transposed into
its

d,

f^.

Sometimes the whole chord enharmonic; as,
No. 116.

corresponding

pg^fe^^^i^^^i
J.

.Jz

1^:

Tr

§ffi
At
fflj?,

1^ ^^^- S5 s
Efe
;

£:

#

the end of the second measure, the three tones of the chord,

ffll',

eK take their corresponding enharmonics that is, the chord, eK becomes g^, J|}, dl^ the dominant triad of cjf after which, the harmony gets into the key of major a. Unisons may, in many instances, afibrd effective means of operac, c,
;

ting enharmonic changes.

The

composer, in such occurrences,

giving up

concern about harmony, takes hold, of some melodic design, and develops it with the enharmony, in full vocal or orchesall

tral blast.

Example

No. 117.

^^^^.^^^M 5^E i ^^^^^
'CJ

124

i^p^^WN^ £MXn
ig 1^
We

^.^^^^j<jS^
#=

^^^^^^^

i^—1---^— -

r-t-T-

have

stated,

on page 99, that after a
tonic,

final

cadence, or even

after a repose

on any
tonic
;

we can

take this tonic as the major

third of a

new

that

is,

modulate a major third below the

preceding key.

This modulation
to

may

sometimes require the cor-

responding enharmonic, in order
tures, or to impart

avoid an encumbrance of signa-

more variety

to the composition.

Example

:

No. 118.

I

^^h^^d
I,

-^-fi
I
I

I

I

»&

=j-r
I

'

'^

'

6

s

r'

5

r"

p

m 9^M
-rr

±^=^
J ^ ^^^
:^

E^
J
I

=w

^ ± ^^m ^^E^^
:i=i-

ji
§i

i
5

44i:^^J-i
•g
5 L
ig~

C

1

(

E

^I

125

As

it

results from this example,

to the preceding tonic again.

This

enharmony may lead us back is effected here by changing
e,

(ninth and tenth measures)
It

^,

of the tonic,
flat-tonic is

into

aK

its corresponding sharp one, which becomes the leading tone of the tonic, a half step higher. For instance, from a{» tonic (being mentally changed into gji) we can immediately go into major aj^ (three sharps), from dl? major to

happens very often that a ered, and mentally changed into
really

enharmonically consid-

tit]

(two sharps), and-so-forth.

An

example

will illustrate the sub-

ject.

This does very well in instrumental compositions.
piece
it

In a vocal

would be proper

to

keep the tonic stationary, which, enhar;

monically, becomes a sort of leading note

thus

^

No. 120.

^s

J..

:l

d.

±

A

126

m
singer

fc=d:

m m
never

4t"
_
2
6

Here, the three tones,

h^,

next

to the third
h.

measure, are really the

leading tone of the following key,

In such occurrences, the

who has
fails to

to perform'

such a part as that of the treble here,
ajt ; and then the partners up the chord, counting the tone of the
;

sing these three tones, as
fill

of the treble mentally

treble as the third of the

dominant triad of hh major

the whole

party doing so, that they
tive parts.

may

not mistake the pitch of their respec-

In the execution of enharmonic passages, good singers

realize in their singing the tone intended

by the composer.

The same modulation can
ways.
First, the flat tonic

be carried out in two other different

may

be made the third of a dominant

;

second, the fundamental of a diminished seventh.

But

in both cases

we

obtain the

same

tonic as in the

two foregoing examples.

The

following will give an illustration of both cases

No. 121.
In
God's word will
I re
- joice,

In

the

Lord's

I¥W^

i^
-^^

i

^=r^=;h=hf^i
=#^

S3 Eg

r
.

In

God's
I

word

will

^
'f

I""

I

re

-

joioe.

word will

comfort me,

In the Lord's word will

m

ft.t

I f==F=pr±^T=^PT
.i_i^_
fe

fti^

S^i =F^
-d-d-

sa jgpg^E^E^^f
the Lord's

lA^
?
comfort me.

-^z~f~w
In the Lord's

word will

127
comfort me,

In

God's word will
J'

1

-J-^^r-4 Si^i^ ^^^^ ^w —r^
i.fe^^J

m

|i

e^
word
will I

Jw

^^^^S ^
•-^ J

J^

_i

[|j

^v

comfort me, In

God's

word

will

I

re

-

joice,

In

the Lord's word

will I

com- fort

M^^^^ii
I
s

4:
com- fort

re

-

joice,

In

the Lord's word

will I

me,

In the Lord's word

will

I

com-fort

me.

^^m. S s^
-JU-.
J

J_J. ^^
s

^

^sJ

J

Ji i

J

=e^

i^E
com -fort me.
e{',

J

me,

In the Lord's word will I

At

the fourth

measure of

this

example, the
6t[,

tonic,

becomes the

third of

the
el'

dominant
to
et|.

triad,

d|,

/j|,

and the harmony
et",

passes from

The current

of chords leads "back again to

from which
into
g:}f,

it

turns to aV.

This tonic (thirteenth measure) changes
gj^,

the fundamental of the diminished seventh,

b^, d, f,

which brings the harmony from a^ to a minor. Finally, all the parts verge to e^and get the final cadence in the principal key.

The foregoing remarks, with the examples, have unfolded the whole matter of enharmonic modulations. For the practical use of them, we refer the student to the works of the great writers.

128

They

will give

him more information on the
heaped
piles of volumes

tions in general, than

subject, and modulaon harmony'

The

Pkdal-Point.

On

pages 217 and 218 of our author, the origin and object of the
It

Pedal-point have been fully unfolded.

remains now

to

say by

what proceeding we can procure a
is this
:

pedal-point.

The

proceeding

harmony above the sustained tonp should be considered Viewed thus, it must have a regular base as if it were to be performed without the assisting pedal. This is required, because the parts above contrast by their motion to the stillness of the immovable tone below.
the
as an independent whole.

Now, from what source
if used, the

shall the chords be

drawn ?

From
by

those

keys that are nearest related to the pedal, avoiding those in which,

common
and
last

tone would have to be altered, either

eleva-

tion or depression.

Usually, the sustained tone

is

the fundamental

of the

first

chord of the harmony.

The

following

is

a

sample of a pedal-construction

No. 122.

^A^^ ^ r^TTfTf^-^Ai^^
^=^Ti

g£E
5

4

'.

5

5

-

i
t

irh^
-

E^
F5b=t

j=j^^d=j=d^.129 . No. the pedal-point will add to the voice building a stronger link and support. still Now.i=M^=j=^ i ^f=n=ffTTfv^r^~r~r-- . 123. 6 U ^ I i i ^: We -o 1 ^ TTa 1- f= I f- r —g=aP=f find here all the requisites of a correct harmony. the tenor fulfilling the part of the base.

which It is called the inward or middle pedal. and even in such a from the sustaining must be removed as far as possible and buried in the centre of the parts. the discords dash and nothing indemnifies us for these unpleasant intervals .130 i a * „9 8 „9 )i »i »5 i ^ »l =«i==» i^ :^ I I s s z ^ The to the pedal may also be properly placed on the tonic. just laid and submits no same rules which have been down for that of the dominant. the outer pedal. remoteness of the sustained tone mitigates the harshness of the tones foreign to the pedal closely against each other. . Enough has been said on this subject to require further explanation. which not the case with the In the latter. The reason of this is obvious. unless they are . as. intended to express a design of the composer case. The inward pedal commonly stands upon the dominant . to another kind of sustained tone. so. with few excepis an essential part of the chords. but in the former. they tone. Let us now come tions. they must be avoided. . ought to be.

i ^ ~© — 7 r » •—r-3^ --^-^ PLAQAL CADENUB. i -/-. which is laid on the subdominant.-^-^ I » —» ih ^=± In the following. 124. .131 No. from the very beginning to the by which we have is afforded to the pupil an instance of what is called a plagal cadence. we make the inward pedal partake of the chords conclusion. while the perfect cadence placed on the dominant.

the pedal point consists of a single note. 125. in consequence of the signature. to develop as. There a conclusion of the final cadence very common among composers. Nos. But the ib in No. which used by effec- the most able writers. is sometimes most successful and Sometimes. Here it is (at A) . In such an occurrence.132 At tlie the seventh measure of No. conclusion from the dominant We is call the attention of the student to this kind of cadence. f ^ m^^wrwn ^=?^ ^E ? i ^S44^^44m f We have said that 316. change these tonics into real dominants. and ^3 the inward pedal is 1—1 placed on the dominant. 306 and 308 of our author. may serve. is harmony leads from the suhdominant contrary to the perfect cadence. to a new It tonic or domi- which becomes the basis of a pedal a harmonic design . No. and tive. point. then. the to the tonic. of which to the tonic. f^ is in 318. which must be referred to the pedal-point on the tonio. seem to have the sustained tone upon the tonic. in spite of their ending upon the tonio. every step of the base leads nant. 126.

and the . but seldom motions.snj gi Such a cadence is T ^s in the like J nothing else than the dominant seventh stretching over comntionly to the tonic.133 No. made use of Andante and Andantino. 172. in the Allegro.^: fli g* This is . JAIN T e:* ^ ^n.

we would prefer to read thus JO. it it is sometimes made to ascend a step when must be resolved regularly. -2: i z^sz i . e. in the base. that such a resolution as given here by the author. The but (former seventh in the nonachord) should meet e a step below. but this for a negligence which must be removed from books calculated to musical instruction. The is student ought be taught according to the rules of the severest discipline.APPENDIX f H. which he must never be allowed to break. before difficulties he acknowledged to have mastered the highest 292. of the counterpoint. No. at c. d. altogether. This treatment of the diminished seventh is too loose. In the middle parts. is May be. occurs in the works of good composers .

the following suspensions are equally good No. it and the chord to stretches must and the suspending voice or instrument finally enter upon the proper tone of the chord. i. the discrepancy between cease. and is right. the dissonant tone to the exist in the preceding chord. the preparatory tone . Accordingly..APPENDIX Suspension First. 128. it is f ?=E= i TS- 1 r 3 %^ ^. and must be given must same voice or instrument which forms the suspension. the whole measure. 129. too. Second. s^=f= r is f fills r . longer than the suspension at E. subject to the following conditions i. i ^-S- ^ =j -J4^i-^ * f I . but never shorter it. the suspension here. may : be. i i At D. is I. But No. than the suspension tone. e.. equal to The latter sometimes fills the whole measure. — It must be resolved which it . Thieik —The preparatory tone can be It longer. e. —h must be prepared. all equal at F.

In distributed in the compound measures. A. EE Fourth... 1 2^ jn the accents the which the ternary are distributed division of quavers takes place. In this. peculiar to suspensions. i. d. the third is not. the first second and fourth are not. double time. i. of course. they disagree with the chords of the seventh. tone -^ ^ may measure. in which the dissonant tone can be placed anywhere in the Hence. P^^ W r i in 4- which the preparatory tone falls lies on the accented part. Andantino. and the resolution on the unacis cented part. J^. &c. and the suspension In the on the second beat. the first and third beats are accented. the second the the first and fourth not. as -6. the following sus- pension. e. The tones. 130. and the like. giatures. Adagio. in triple as time. and second beats are often accented.. the first beat is In the quadruple time. common accented. accented or unapcented part of the measure but the suspension must fall on the accented one.2. the minims are merely appog. -g-. such as Andante. the third quavers applies. Grave. as they are in the comcan be placed on quavers. first and second said quavers are accented. In and third are accented. as in 2 ^ the accents are divided.136 there is no suspension. No. mon quadruple time . the suspension When there are four of them in a measure. is wrong. is not. . but they are less used than the former. the second 2> and . Examples . in quick motions.. and so escapes the accent. is not. also. but in slow movements. (at the signs +) being shorter than the tones following them. In triple time. ^^^ &c.. e. What is of the to the crotchets in the compounds. e. A. which are quite equivalent to this. such and -S. the accents are same way with the simple ones. c. —The This preparatory tone be placed either on the . the compound.

150. Na 131. there not susnot pension.137 of suspension in compound time will be given on 161. ^ But the next •+^=^ 1 No. that there are instances of suspehsion resolving from below. may be replied. i. Then. The following an instance of the kind on Harmony. which imply . when there not discord. Hence. suspension from below. tions for suspension does not * lie in the fact that a tone of a chord stretches over into another. Fifth. This is the sequel of the preparation and resolution. 132. in which there any discord. necessarily a dissonance for dissonances alone is need preparation is is and resolution.p'lain to the notions now familiar to us. i ^^^^^^fe is an example of regular suspensions.—The suspension tone must form a dissonance with one of the tones of the suspension-chord. but in the discord itself. but "by referring them . • Reicha's Treatise . There are indeed passages which. seem to contain. pages. excludes forcibly step. 162. 163.. the following passage. will be is that they exclude i real suspensions. which is to peculiar dissonances. to which it is not indigenous. such suspensions it . at t"he first sight. such suspensions as It by an ascending e. The resolve rigorous application of the principle of resolution. and agrees with our direc. does not contain any suspension.

138 No. third. there is again a short tonic-pedal. ! 7 ? I ¥ first. 1 ^ ¥ ? i ^ 1 1 this. we have a short tonic pedal formed by the dominant seventh and uonachord major and minor. 135. have seldom indulged in . following their usual way of resolutions above the sustaining tonic in the base. i ^ i ^f r which represents exactly No. h forms an appoggiature so does the same tone beginning of the second measure. fci LJI I ^m at the fesHg beginning of the measure. ple could be changed. Here. 133. There is no suspension in At the beginning of the second. 134. 134. and fourth measures. they are inexplicable. no suspension can be found. that the great masters. as follows The above exam- ' No. No. As to the last. with dominant triad. atures. of the alto-part. =w= ii ia. again. i at the m first . ^ passages of ascending When dissonances cannot be traced either to the pedal or to the appoggi- We should remark here. in the treatment of voices.

And. is a free kind of style. of a chord is suspended. instrumental music object of the student. phonies. 137. A I -^ 6 J 8 I At A. that in their quartets. which admits of more liberty than the severe one which must now be the main Sixth. the suspended tone. ^ for there exists a succession of fifths ^ r r between the tenor part and the .139 discords resolving from below. for they neither correct nor miti- gate such successions. such dissonances are found now and then . except when it forms a ninth with as when the fundamental is suspended in the upper parts. 136. Moreover. if any. g s I the alto part (second measure) introduces the suspended tone simultaneously with the suspension-tone. the following harmony No. quintets. so as to form an irregular and harsh interval. No. the retarded interval simultaneously with the suspension tone. Seventh. even when the retarded interval should have a necessary and determined stepping upwards or downwards. or to grace-notes. —"When a tone it. few. (such as the leading note in the dominant seventh. It is true. though regular introduced simultaneously with the suspension. but these instances can be referred either to the pedal-point. But at B. gives a interval of a ninth. in any part whatever. it is never allowed to introduce. able : Hence. or the diminished triad and the seventh in all the chords of the seventh). Handel has not a single example Mozart and Haydn have very and symall of suspension resolving from below. it can never be introduced simultaneously with the suspension tone. —Suspensions fifths are wrong when they fall on a faulty is objection- successions of and octaves.

thus : No. we advise the pupil not to suspend it. With regard which when retarded gives no dissonance. which. to the fifth. this succession of fifths shows itself naked to the eye. not The harmony is more admissible it in the former case than in the latter. use till we became the with its Now we have to proceed farther. which are still succession of octaves. i 4^ *T ST g . Thus tions it we know only what suspension its is. but simply a chord of the sixth.1 JtJ-J rff "W at an example of wrong suspensions.terial im- The Employment of the Suspensions far in the Triads. if observed. and first in do so methodically. as worse with the suspensions at F. §1. as they arise from a can be seen E. and on what condiacquainted to depends. We call the attention of the student to these preliminary directions. we shall use the suspension. 1. many mistakes We now pass to in a matter which is of ma. We will have correct in the following No. which at is apparently disguised . 140. as in D. Every tone of a triad can be retarded by suspensions. having postponed nature. 139. by the suspension of the middle part C but if we leave out the suspensions. 138.140 treble. i Here also ^U—^ kh-« ff it No. unless sus- the suspension tone be introduced simultaneously with that pended at a distance of a ninth. will enable him to avoid a great portance. m there is Jf J . Uninveeted Triad.

it rarely allowed to omit the third of the suspension chord. 142 I In the second case. and ninth.141 When the third is suspended. it gives a chord consisting of a perfect fourth and fifth. First Inversion of the Triad. called No.•. it ^ 1 forms a chord consisting of a major second and perfect fourth. 143. as No. called No. fifth. 141. I 5 The fundamental can be suspended parts. or by the base itself. of the sixth gives a chord composed of the | . 144. i When is t is r 7 suspended in one of the. i 7^6 . the base introducing the in two ways : by the upper suspended fundamental simultane- ously with the suspension tone. In the first case it forms a chord consisting of a third. called f z i. called i i: No. § 2. as The third suspension and seventh. the fundamental upper parts.

147. or by the base in the itself. for the suspension would introduce a | chord instead of a real suspension. retarded by the base : itself. called | S & § 3. 146. it forms a chord composed of a second and fifth. mi:^^^^ r — f f The fifth suspension of the fourth forms a chord composed of a § 4 : and sixth called No. J45. No.142 The hase third is not suspended in this inversdon . it gives a chord composed of a ninth and sixth. The tone- may be suspended. either by the upper parts. TSP 1 Second Inversion of the Teiad. The suspension of the sixth in this inversion gives us a chord 2 5 composed of a fourth and seventh. when upper parts. . called No. called § * * ^ When the base-tone is No. 148.

149. The base-tone here is retarded only in the upper parts. forms a chord composed of a fourth. exert his own industry. that the student may. after them.143 This suspension can take place only in cadences or half-ca- preparation. and ninth. It called g *: It is ^^^ No. 150. Ff • V r r We shall now give some exercises on the employment of the suspensions in the triads and their inversions. In the other cases the preparation of the fourth excludes any suspension dences. No. in which the fourth does not need whatever. sixth.-^ I mr r I "• 4- r % ifcrp: . I _J_j i J i J^—Vi i I ite ^^ J - — i-—-i ^^ M -?^-+ 4-^^ (I f r -i.

e ^^^ r^ s ? I ^^^M ^^ rtf^ g «t n i"" i EiE ^ I fii J? i ^^* sj E^ f^^ -^T i I5t=i£: .^^^^^^ f ff r 144 E^^ I f f ~Lrf f -^ if ^ I is ~^ 9~P ^ i= I — »- --f=^ 6 ' ^ i_ J A J—r^ i^ f r r f 6 ^S I r r r r- 7 6 7 5 - -r Q I J jT^=bJ J | J r =i=^ • ^^^ 5 -r r rr p ^ffT I % £ -7- .

the student already- should trace every case of suspension to the directions given.5- u^^^^^ ^ i f T^=rr=^ ^ I 6 ^r 5- 5-^j. ^^ ^ § e 7 + 5 4 3 ^^ ^ iE f rrrp_i. ascertain to what particular direction each suspen- He should also be certain. 151. and sion belongs.145 No.| When reading over these exercises on suspensions. before ending his examina- (7) . 1 ^^d ^r J i:^r - * ££ g >l^ij d^ ^^ fTrf==trn^^=^ i g - ?- e a .

is ^^ * the one most usually employed in the domi- . 2. is proper to remove the suspension tone from the seventh in order to avoid the close dis- sonances of e. called a \ chord. is the dominant seventh. and seventh. called chord i This suspension nant seventh. the dominant seventh real suspension. is l But fitself. tone it is is. in which the suspensions are most usuall)' used. g. 150 there is a pedal- He must look back at the rules of the pedal. And what inversion In No.146 tion whether the suspension is used on the uninverted chord. The fundamental . and why? are there suspensions in this pedal ? will and where are they ? All these previous searches make his task of writing other exercises easier and more profit- able for him. suspension of the third gives a chord consisting of a fourth. Suspensions in the Dissonant Chords. as in the above example. suspension of the It is fifth gives a chord composed of a third. i The fifth. this The chord of class. point. f. Z and seventh. or on ? an inversion. ^ t ^ ^ it j- In the construction of this suspension. and know whether these be rightly applied. the suspension of the fundamental in sometimes used in the base and this is a The sixth. never retarded in the parts above the base that and the reason of such a suspension is nothing but the former nonachord ± i resolved to the seventh.

and even The and supension of the fundamental tone. does not require the same cautions . called 2 : P § 1. diminished and sixth. fifth. The suspension of it . can occur. (the primitive third of the chord) fifth. i should be avoided . Tgg- constructed as it is here. but with the following e. gives a chord composed of a second. fourth. Only two suspensions are possible in inversion of the dominant seventh. The the first first inversion of the dominant seventh consists of a third. cautions. Nevertheless. as the fundamental can not be suspended in the upper parts. for the reason assigned in the previous directions.the third takes place here but seldom. t First Inveksion. and more the ear. composed of a second. -S But if we remove i it M m. ^ for. this suspension the suspension tone would be hardly bearable. g. to the upper parts. called |: i This suspension satisfactory to is -r It si 1= ) f I more common than the foregoing. ^= ss4 I 3 T 5 5efiective. by the base.147 The suspension of the fundamental by the the base gives a chord fourth. and sixth. becomes satisfactory. The close dissonances f.

. called S i be attended to. and seventh. as the dissonances lie at a distance from each other. § 2. perfect fourth. suspension of the basS'tone can only be done by the upper It forms a chord of a third. This inversion of the sixth is is a f chord with a major sixth. The suspension It of very frequent use. if ever. is very seldom. ^^- For the arrangement of the parts. sixth. would be thus: P Two J= =t: I* 5 § 3. This inversion consists of a second. Third Inversion. augmented sixth. and major effective suspensions can be Used in this inversion-" the suspension of the sixth and of the augmented fourth. called 2 i—^ It is practicable.148 fof the aWaflgemetlt of its tones. and ninth. the directions given in § 1 must The suspension of the It base' tone by the base itself. j^— ^-. I a^ whatever may be the arrangement oLthe parts. used. and effective. Second iNtfiRSiON. forms a chord consisting of a third. The parts. perfect fourth. . fourth.

the All to the foregoing the directions are enough to enable in student use same will suspensions (as above) any seventh whatever. and seventh. called S and r that da^E^ All the suspensions which can be formed in the dominant seventh can likewise be used in the other sevenths. 152. I ^ H 'i f-T S6 . augmented fourth. We now give some exercises of the sus- pensions in the sevenths in general. with only this difference. sixth. ? : suspension of the fourth gives a chord consisting of a second. in the latter the fundamental can be retarded.149 The suspension of the sixth gives a chord consisting of a major second. we do not think it necessary to enter upon any particular explanation concerning these sevenths. -^^-^-^ \- J^J ist J I I ft ga m 'f^^' =iJ=x^ i i ^ J. both by the upper parts and by the base itself. No. So. called 2 i^ The fifth.

154. 153 ANOANTS. -r^- ^ I Is d= * i ^ •?•? ^5 urn^' T^- a^^ ^ss.150 AJ-ii ^ No. ^ E^ ^m ^ iE -J^^ -Jc:i ^^ !! . ni ^ m 2^ ^=^ £=5 ^F??c il5- ^^-^ atitf T Tt ^M '^^-S-T* ^=Srzi!i ^ ^^^^ m No.

. 151. above. No. J ^ ! i< iJ ^ i -SF— U-^ ^ r-T r-r-r-rS p^^^^ ii If refer the pupil to the remarks under No. and satisfactory. (page 136.) Suspensions in the diminished seventh are not very common. he reads the exercise No. 4th. In the extended sixth.the sixth only is apt to be suspended : i it is ^^ J— t is *: !|* *- t Y This suspension Very commonly found. inversions. on the compound time. from which it is derived.^- iT We him — J— J . . to use that even more elegant chord with the suspension.151 J~j_4-J^-^-j_J-j-. We would induce him. and exhort also. save that of the leading tone. before to ascertain here the suspensions made in the sevenths and their inversions. This suspension can be used through it. the if Next the fifth may be successfully suspended. 153. 154. There to is an instance of it in the ninth measure all of No. to look at the previous direction. done with discernment. the third of the dominant seventh.

Hercf i we have two introducing a ^ ) I tones stretching over from one chord to another.152 3. 137. But the tone a. a . viz a seventh. suspensions in only one part of our have them in two parts simultaneously. a. suspensions ought not to be simultaneous that that suspension which introduces a new dissonance. a. itself to we discover two discords. a ninth. 3. prolonged to the following e. This suspension presents First. of the chord f.) Pages 135. J. 2. c. must be attended to. all the conditions required when a single suspen. c. Now we time. next to a. must resolve first Such is ^ 'A J i us with two different features. the same ninth. c. ISff. because only one dissonance can be had. when two occur simultaneously. (Directions 1. and g. rather an anticipation of the following sixth chord than a suspension tone . by its shortness. The second feature gives us likewise two discords. instead of new chord by resolving a. c. but the chord of the second vanishing gives us a new sonance. but no more than two can be used at the same far Thus we have used our will exercises. combined with another discord. 5. dis- g. 4. 6. a second. and d. sion is used As to the resolution. on to the beginning of the second chord . the opinion of Reicha. a. is. we must observe that the resolution of both . g. in his treatise on harmony. : The to ninth alone. the intended suspension. continues only the whole chord f. with a in the treble. g. instead of one we will have two suspensions meeting together. in other words. double suspensions in the In all the other instances there can be no double suspensions. can give room triads. 138. Of course. a. Double Suspensions.

I I EEEfc . the stretching a. that sevenths. Exercises 1^=^ on. Nay. spoils the suspension of the sixth chord by the base. 155.1—i-A. a. Double Suspensions. of the triad /. For this reason. than in those of four. J J- ~J i» J -J ! p V:^r^ ^- ^m ^^tSz^: ^ i -i^-j- i ^ 6 i ^TT—r— i2=5= ^ f m m I i ^ (7*) . double suspensions must be used moderately. is. second triad. in the chords of in the triads than in the With one suspension.153 over the base. No. far from giving anything striking or new suspensions are based on dissonances. a seventh has two dissonances. This is almost an over-burden of discords to the ear. contains three dissonances. to the c. it with a double suspension. This shows that real Double suspensions are more properly used three tones.

157. the resolation of the suspensions its while the chord into which the suspension finds way in existence. .154 No.Z^ % "^TTT I ^=J=4 4-h4 ^ . . 6 -7- 8 »- A New Feature of Resolution in the StrsPENSioNS. B i the/ (at A) of the J==^ treble ot^ht to resolre into e of the chord c. 156. we will have the resolution take place on a diflferent chord. g. In our preceding talces place is still exereises. e. \k ]. ^ §fe^ ll! _ 8 3 ^. in the following No. Now. 1 S ^^ rrTF^ 55_ 5 II 3 5 6 f^^^^^^g 5 _ 1^ 8 r r F f * li 3. Thus.

d. which prevents us from using such passages as these No. the triad . e. and steps more freely. b. like d. i- But with the supensions we can use the same succession. again. The chords do J not influence it. and h. 158. and d.155 and in the chord g. b.i=4 *f=^ afTords us a modulation into the parallel minor key. The same suspension i tion . . under the very same resolution-tone. c. d. f. in which the ninth occurs stripped of the sevenths. =i5 f f— &e. into the third inver(|). Both tones pursue but in meantime the chords c. in f 'r °c-^i I which the third is retarded by the perfect fourth. i in the |. e. the a. the e (at B) resolve into d of the their prescribed course . The its resolu- had to take place on g. a. suspension had to resolve on the dominant but the base. on account of the number of their tones. changes sion of the dominant seventh. f. Here. for it g. into the first inversion of the dom- This resolution of the suspension gives room to successions of ninths which are not practicable with the usual nonachords. have changed into is sufficient that the resolution is effected in the proper tone. manner should c. But the base changes course from the dominant triad of inant triad of a minor.

and vice versa.156 ^5 ^r-A S=-st i • * f ° r '. resolution of the sevenths can also progress from major to or extended sixths and from minor to major sixths. the resolution is performed on different chords throughout. F or 1 5-9 or — 9 &e. it s !* i-=d ¥=¥ ^ can take its results that the base .-i &a. which introduces every measure. f5 5 9 5 Here the resolution of the suspension was expected to take place on the sustaining-tone of the base. But by the progressing of the base. f '. By resolving the suspensions on a different chord. a third below at B. and again a third below. 6 -^. at C. i From 1^^ i^ r the above examples. a fifth below at A. we can obtain the following succession of sevenths -«=?=»• i The as: 'h-J J-tJ j^k rf minor . but with a different harmony.

and which should be noticed here. Secondly. Thus here ^^^^^^^ A B r r5 I " % « 3 At A. new chord find finds its way between suspension and At B. we even three tones between the suspension and its resolution. can be postponed by placing. ^^ -'p-^t ^^^^ ite m i '^ i? ^^ m^ m. for instance. the voice or part which contains the suspension can. Here. the suspension-tone can be permitted its to pass is. but not before the third of the resolution. 1= i ^ . by a cpntrary course. that the resolution resolution.157 way through every succession in which the resolution of the susits pension meets with proper tone. between the suspension and one or more chord-tones. the suspended e resolves correctly into d. pass through several tones of the chord. peculiarities There are still some which regard the resolution. immediately after the resolution. through one or more chord-tones before obtaining due. Firstly.

as a general thing. uncertain. and even destroy No. of the preceding exis correctly resolved into the next tone. base. I ^^=^ 1s>-^= ^^^^^ ^m it -fT &e. 159. may be proper sometimes some othe/ intermediate one.158 The dtnple suspension of the treble at A. C. It to suppress the resolution-tone. is allowed to step from one The This is tone to another. 160. and to avoid confusion arising from an encui^brance of chord-tones. t-:^ But. as much as possible. and we ought to avoid doing this as the chord-tones. D. but immediately after the resolution the voice passes through several tones of the chord. ^^ ^ ^i^Ti ^ r^ ' s ' "li " i . as here No. is not correct to suppress the resolution. oflen necessary in order to preserve the certainty of time. we should take care lest it. also. especially in every suspenthe But in doing so. left which must never be sion. we change character of the suspension. B. As to we are always allowed to cancel as many of them we think proper.

and I At A. the fundamental of I 1. without destroying the suspension. the slurred minims might be changed into quavers. which | at A. by its move with suspensions decided motion. before moving through the chord-tones. 161. The upper it parts slurs in the meantime. - i m^ character of suspension. suspension. too. e. example. strikes g. the base. is preserves.159 We and have here a : g. into changed (at is C) from the primitive the the l 5 and (at D) the suspension destroyed. i ^_ IP g- -S)~TSr • ^F^ mpE^^i^i^-r^t^ 3 m I u &e. before •strongly the movement. at B. c. thus No. that the suspension consists in dissonance. It might likewise be modified its and yet preserve as here . so as to receive words. But now No. passing through the chord-tones d. it strikes c. the fundamental of I . the 6 at B. according to the rule previously given. i ^ I is f iy^^ the character of the suspension t -. b. 162. In the above. The for slur. marks character of the the base. c. g. - — • is not essential to the suspension.

163. This has a good effect. 162. some of the wind the instrument parts would have to restore the suspension with the slur. be from No. 160. and though. in the No. in the sus- pensions are equally maintained entire. if there were an orchestra.160 No. still as genuine in it as in the preced- ing ones. This serves to show the student that a musical idea can its be developed and varied in the form. However No. and yet remain the same. 163. as to harmony. . and \he latter from No. though the accompanying parts the suspension is differ materially. M sf^gr^l^=^=^= ^^^ I sr^^~^^^ ^ ^tg different -"^ &0. ^^ But in the last case. the measure is changed. 163 may all.

Exercises on Suspensions in General.161 No. I iilz F ^— -f- ^ I nr^P^ l i=3z £^H' J^.i^^^ i -rmjr 6 9 ^ ^Se^ 6 9 5 ^^^^iii lyJi 1 T -*T-' jS-'Q s^m 5 G a feEE^. 5 4 + 5 7 .^.T?f 1^ ^ i J=^^=S5g^i=rf^ itE tz *r&fc—1- . 164.

165.iLL J-i-^ g " I . 166. =^^- ^ 1-^3 T &5 i 7 i I l± |« s P-^^-f^^^ ^^S^^"^^ iS^^^i^^^^^ -I—I^^-s^i No.162 ^m No. I j_i j f-r^rrr.^rTTr^ . f^ E5=i: 1= r t- -I- . -J-i^J J-rJ I Ie J ^ I ^-y-^-<=- fTFT^^ -^1 -•=4-12- 3^ §5 i.

ceeding renders the whole composition easier for the performers. that each beat should be carefully marked and distinct. and more because We insist upon this point. . This pro intelligible to the hearers. that when one or two parts stretch other parts over from one beat to another. particular attention has been paid.163 P k4^ -^ ^r^rfx^^' iS^^ 3^S^^=§ ^E± 2^3 ^^^^^ In the foregoing exercises on suspensions. it is of the highest moment. especially in compound measure. one or even two of the move up or down to the sustaining tones.

it is impossible to discover The tones itt. and preserve the same character. the one on figuring of this melody being the equiva- the other on The lent to this p^^^f^^m^ since the appoggiature takes diately succeeds tion it. dji. tt s F?= --ft l. and being transposed from the the base. its time from the note which imme- Now the melody does not undergo any alteratreble to by being reversed. and at the be- ginning of the third.APPENDIX No tone J. djf form evidently an appoggiature. Suspension can be found in at the begijining this Beethoven's fragment. do not form any suspension whatever.-^ m For the eye. for the ear. as well as any suspension._p±.. cjf and cj{. To make it plain. we will restore this melodic design to the treble part. the same ornaments still remain in the base. melody adorned with appoggiatures or grace-notes be reversed and sent to the base. of the second measure. from which it has been detached by Beethoven. To show the difference which exists between a real suspension . The If a cjf.

nothing such can be found in Beethoven's example quoted by our author. we will avail ourselves of a quotation from Mozart. . If the student wish to study a beautiful specimen of suspensions in the base. manner fe - '^^^f^^'^i ^ &c. we refer him to the An- dante introduction of Grluck's admirable overture to IpJiigenie en Aulide. in his opera. above quoted.165 in the base. arising from melodic designs.. passing from one part into another in a masterly manner. and the fragment of Beethoven. —whereas. &c. 9^~J What It is r =^ a diiference between Beethoven's and Mozart's passage impossible to mistake the suspension in the melodic design entrusted by Mozart to the part of the base. in this Mozart introduces a duet between Suzanna and Figaro. in which the great German master indulges in suspensions. We iind in it all the requisites of a suspension — preparation. the Nozze di Figaro. resolution.

and arising from the retained a of the preceding chords. the pedal-framing. which This e is a fundamental law in matters of suspension. any suspension is it is to be found Beethoven's cannot be a fragment. placed on the tenor. But this e suspension. h. is whose fundamental. The part immediately above the pedal according to the principles of it. a. does not form here any suspension it . b. our author ing e is K. Accordingly. The sustain- simply a ped'al-point on the dominant of the tonic is. e. here. is the seventh of the mentioned if seventh. since is comes in suddenly without preparation. (beginning of the second to the seventh of the second degree of major h. tones of a. f^. This seventh rea. the tone which begins the second measure. . the regular base of the parts oVer though the sustaining tone discharges now and then the same office towards the upper parts. gj(^. a. a mere grace-note. solves into the dominant triad. The measure) belong.APPENDIX Beethoven. The only suspended in this tone. the e of the treble part. In his attempt to give an explanation of this quotation from falls into an evident mistake.

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