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Name ________Lucas Aiu______________________________ BIO 100A Online Home Lab Report: Part II Due by: 11:00 PM PST Directions:

1. Before attempting to perform a lab, read the lab's protocol in its entirety, look over the relevant supplemental materials, and gather all of the necessary materials. 2. Exercise caution and respect the safety of yourself and others at all times. 3. Keep notes as you perform experiments. 4. Use the lab reports to report your results. Do not divide this lab report into a separate form for each lab. 5. Type your answers, observations, and results in bold. 6. Save your report often as you fill it out, so as not to lose information. 7. Use the "Save As" option to save your file as a Word 97 or 2003 doc file. 8. Save your lab report with this file name: Last name, underscore, First Initial, underscore H2. Thus Charles Darwin would save his Unit 2 Home Lab Report as Darwin_C_H2. 9. Submit this report as a single document in the Dropbox under [Unit 2: Home Labs] before 11:00 PM PST on the final Saturday of the class.

Lab Report 5 Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to learn the difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms and their purposes. Also learn how certain seeds transport their water throughout the plant. Lab Observations: I observed that there are seeds present in a pine cone when a scale is broken off. Water flows upward on celery, pine needles are bundles together, I always thought they were single needles and not considered an actual leaf. The pine cone swells a little in water and turns darker in color. Lab Answers: 1. Anatomy of a pine. a) Place your open seed cone into a cup of tap water. b) Record: Time into water ____12 min Cone appearance: The cone is darker in color and seems to have absorbed water because it started to expand. c) Let the cone sit in the water for at least 30 minutes. d) Record: Time out of water __3 min_ Cone appearance: The cone is still darker in color and still puffy. A seed also fell out of the scale. 2. Vascular transport. a) Examine the top of the celery stalk. Record your observations: The top of the celery stalk is less firm and more pliable then the bottom, the colors are present at the top. The top of the stalk also has leaves and darker then the lower stalk. b) Make a cross-section cut where the celery stalk has not been split. Record your observations: It seems to have more water that was transported and stringy like fiber materials that look like sewing strings. 3. Answer the following questions about seed dispersal. a) Why is it important for a parent plant to disperse its seeds? Notice that this is not asking why reproduction is important. Parent plant seed dispersal is important because if seeds are not dispersed far enough from the parent plant, the seed may not have a good chance of survival because it may be blocked of sunlight because the parent plant is large. b) What do gymnosperms use to disperse seeds? What do angiosperms use? Angiosperms disperse seeds through their fruit or flowers so it can disperse its seeds through consumption and deposit of animals. Gymnosperms rely on the wind to blow the seeds away. c) Some gymnosperms, such as redwoods, release seeds only after a fire. Suggest a reason why this is done. I think that some gymnosperms release seeds only after a fire because the fire opens up the seeds through the heat and the CO2 that is released into the air.

d) Design an experiment that would test the hypothesis that you posed in c). I would design an experiment of a controlled burn to test if this process matures or ripens the seeds which are exposed only after a fire. 4. Which direction does xylem flow? What about phloem? Xylem flows up and Phloem flows down. 5. Use Figure 5.4 to answer this question. What is the function of: a) radicle? Radicle function is to bust out of the seed to locate water for the growth process. b) hypocotyl? Plant stem which everything else grows off of. c) epicotyl? Grows off of the stem.. Leaf Conclusion: In conclusion I learned that celerys water flows from the roots up (xylem). I observed how a pine cone protects its seeds within the scales. The pine needles that I observed were dry and brown and they are actually leaves, I have always considered pine needles as needles and not actual leaves. I learned that the celery retains water in the fibers of the stalk. The water allowed the pine cone scale to split and release a seed (I think there was supposed to be two). The dispersal of seeds vary with the angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Lab Report 6 Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to observe how plants absorb water at different rates in reference to the amount of salinity in the water and the difference in seed germination. The effects that the ecosystem has with the water resources. Lab Observations: The more salinity in the water forces the celery to dye or wilt because I would guess that the water from the celery is trying to supply its stalk the cleaner water. The cups with less salinity did not present any dying look to their leaves and seemed to continue to flourish. The leaves drew up the food coloring. Lab Answers: Lab 6A: Water transport and salinity 1. Examine the top of the celery stalks. Are there differences between the celery in the high salt and low salt water conditions? Record your observations. It seems that the high salt content is killing the celery. The celery in the low salt also seemed to be shriveling less and seems to be flourishing. 2. Record the distance (cm) traveled by the red dye in high salt conditions (S), the blue dye in high salt conditions (S), the red dye in low salt conditions (non-S) and the blue dye in low salt conditions (non-S). Table 6.1 Distance (cm) Red dye (S) Blue dye (S) Red dye (non-S) Blue dye (non-S) 3 3 3 3

3. From Question 2 above, did the dyes travel at the same rate? What can you conclude about the effect of salinity on water transport in celery from this experiment? Propose a biological or physical explanation for your conclusion. It seems that the water traveled the same distance to change the color of the leaves. One of my celery were missing leaves, but I can conclude from the other 3, that the leaves probably would have changed like the 3. The salinity effects the water transport in the celery because it goes into a survival mode to transport the water throughout the entire vegetable. The bottom of the stalk remains

firm so I conclude that the water is transferring back to the bottom.

Lab 6B: Seed germination and environmental conditions 4. Observe the radish seed and sprout. Are radishes monocots or dicots? How can you tell? Radishes are Dicots because the roots are developed by the radical. 5. Describe the results of your experiment in Table 6.2. How many sprouted seeds were present in each group per day? Include any other relevant observations, such as appearance, color, etc. Include any alternative treatments or conditions. Table 6.2. Seed germination. Initial date (Day 0): __27 Jan 2012__ Record # sprouts, appearance, etc. per day. Saline solution Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: 0% ("0" cup) 3.1% ("1/32" cup) 6.3% ("1/16 cup) 12.5% ("1/8" cup) 25% ("1/4" cup) 50% ("1/2" cup) Alternative: Alternative: 0 0 0 0 0 0, looks milky starting to crack starting to crack No change No change No Change No Change 5 sprouted 1 sprouted Cracked open Starting to crack Starting to crack No Change

Day 4: 3 more sprouted 2 more sprouted, 3 Sprouted seeds 2 sprouted No real change No Change

6. From your results in Table 6.2, draw a conclusion about the effect of salinity on sprouting success. Include conclusions drawn from alternative treatments or conditions. The seeds with the highest salt did not sprout at all and the seeds were milky looking or covered in salt. The lower the salt content in water, the higher the chance of the seed germinating and growing. I did not conduct any alternate treatments. I did the 6 stated in the lab manual.

Conclusion: After this experiment I can conclude that the salt content in water has a drastic effect on seed germination as I observed with the radish seeds. I actually planted the sprouted seeds in the back yard to see how they will grow. The celery soaks up the water through the leaves but water is transported back down to the stalks when the salt content is high.

Lab Report 7 Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to witness the difference between the fungi and animals pertaining to how they both digest organic matter from outside of their bodys or lack thereof. Lab Observations: In this lab I observed the differences in fungi and the anatomy of a Portobello mushroom. The mushrooms have gills that look like fins in a jet engine. I observed the threads of the mushroom as I cut through it. Snails and worms are both slimy however, they move in different ways, the worm inches its way a long by compressing and stretching itself. Lab Answers: Lab 7A: Fungi 1. List four ways that Fungi are similar to plants. 1) Multicellular 2) Cell walls 3) Eukaryotes (genetic material in nucleus) 4) Asexual reproduction 2. List four differences between Fungi and plants. 1) Plants photosynthesis 2) Fungi has no chlorophyll 3) Plants reproduce through seeds or their pollen 4) fungi break down biomass 3. List four differences between Fungi and animals. 1) Animals have a vascular system 2) fungi are both aerobic and anaerobic/ animals are ONLY aerobic 3) cell walls present in fungi 4) Fungi absorbs nutrients from host, animals eat their nutrients 4. List four ways that Fungi are similar to animals. 1) Both have amino acids 2) heterotrophs 3) Both produce Digestive Enzymes 4) MultiCellular 5. Which two groups are most closely related evolutionarily (explain your answer): a) Plants and animals, b) Plants and fungi, Both have Eukaryotes and Cell walls. c) Fungi and Animals. Both have amino acids and produce Digestive enzymes 6. List four facts that you learned about Fungi, but did not know before. 1) Produce Digestive Enzymes

2) Absorbs their nutrients from a host 3) Aerobic and anaerobic 4) No Chlorophyll Lab 7B: Animalia 7. For the animals that you examined, briefly describe at least three unique or distinctive features for each animal. Snail slimy, hard shell, tentacles Earthworm- slimy, legless, has sperms and eggs 8. Compare and contrast the two animals. That is, describe at least four features of their body design that are similar, and at least four ways in which they differ. Similarities: The Snail and the worm have soft bodies, Hermaphrodites, Differences: The snail moves by a foot and the worm expands and contracts, earthworms live underground and snails above ground, worms eat the soil, worms are Gastropoda species, earthworm is an oligochaeta. Worm has a clitellum. Conclusion: In conclusion I learned that although the worms and snails are both hermaphrodites, the worm holds their eggs and uses another worms sperm to impregnate their own eggs, and vice versa. The differences and similarities between the fungi, plants, and animals were not that great and it seems that there is a similarity in most classifications of species.

Lab Report 8 Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to identify and learn about the human anatomy. Lab Observations: I observed that taking my heart rate at different arteries results in a slight difference of heart rate measurement. There is also an artery that connects to a muscle that is connected to a bone. Lab Answers: 1. Using Figure 8.1, find each of the listed bones on your body. Then, using Figures 8.2 and 8.3, write in a muscle that attaches to the bone and an artery that runs alongside the bone. Bone Cranium Clavicle Sternum Humerus Radius or Ulna Coxal bone Metacarpals Femur Tibia Fibula Metatarsals Peroneus Brevis rectus femoris femoral Muscle Frontalis Sternacleidomastoid Artery Ramus Frontalus Occipital

2. Record data for heart rate as measured from the carotid artery (see Figure 8.5). Table 8.1. Heart rate (carotid artery). A B (Resting) (Exercise 1) Check 1 (15 sec) 6 14 Check 2 (15 sec) 6 14 Check 3 (15 sec) 6 14 Check 4 (15 sec) 4 15 Sum of all checks 22 Heart rate (beats/min) 57 Heart rate (beats/min)

C (Exercise 2) 17 16 16 16 65 Heart rate (beats/min)

D (End Rest) 8 8 7 8 31 Heart rate (beats/min)

3. Record data for heart rate as measured from the radial artery (see Figure 8.6). Table 8.2. Heart rate (radial artery). A B (Resting) (Exercise 1) Check 1 (15 sec) 7 13 Check 2 (15 sec) 7 13 Check 3 (15 sec) 6 13 Check 4 (15 sec) 6 13 Sum of all checks 27 Heart rate (beats/min) 52 Heart rate (beats/min)

C (Exercise 2) 17 16 16 15 65 Heart rate (beats/min)

D (End Rest) 7 7 7 6 26 Heart rate (beats/min)

4. Discuss your investigation of heart rate, answering the following: a) How similar was Resting heart rate (beats/min), as measured on the carotid artery vs. the radial artery? The resting heart rate measured by the radial artery presented me with a much higher sum compared to Cartoid artery. b) After Exercise 1, did the data change between checks? How does the Exercise 1 heart rate (beats/min) differ from the Resting heart rate? With the carotid artery, the measurement did change and the rate increased compared to the resting heart rate. c) After Exercise 2, did the data change between checks? How does the Exercise 2 heart rate (beats/min) differ from the Resting and Exercise 1 heart rates? Exercise 2 had my heartrate increased by a fair amount. I think I am out of shape! d) Is End Rest heart rate (beats/min) similar to the original Resting heart rate? If not, describe your physical condition at the time of the End Rest heart rate. Measurement

with the carotid artery, my heart rate was slightly higher than the resting heart rate. With the radial artery, my heart rate was almost exact the same as the resting heart rate. Conclusion: I learned that I am definitely out of shape from huffing and puffing from that exercise! I can conclude that I did not have the same measurements of my heart rate between the two arteries and different intensities and or exercises correlates to the difference in heart rates.