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2 Strathmore Gardens. 1899. the — the three-score-day calendar. part tide of Germanic festival adoption of the Roman and the introduction of the of Christ's Nativity into a of the German It year. March. which till then had apparently been without events. . Glasgow. the belief. fourteenth By that time.PREFACE This book treats of the problems connected with the Germanic year Yule. ALEXANDER TILLE. Hillhead. custom. and legend up believes. come to have their Five chapters of the present book —but somewhat shortened —appear simultaneously in the Proceedings of the Glasgow Archmological Society. a in festivity. Author most of the fundamental features which go towards the making of modern Christmas had already centre in the 25th day of December. traces the revolution to brought the about by these century.


The Germanic Year,



The Beginning of the Anglo-German Year, The Feast
of Martinmas,





Martinmas, and the Tri-Partition of the Year,

V. VI.

Martinmas, and the Dual Division of the Year


Martinmas and Michaelmas,
Solstices and Equinoxes,


The Calends of January,
Tabula Fortunae,




The Nativity of


138 158

De Mensibus Anglorum,

Nativity, Christes M^ss,

and Christmas,


The Scandinavian Year,
Scandinavian Offering Tides,
Scandinavian Yule,





200 214






oldest descriptive remark

on the mode


which the Germanics divided





hundred years

found in the

Germania of Tacitus, which,
runs thus




name of that the Germans

a.d. 98, and They do not divide the year into so many seasons as we do. spring, and summer have a name and a meaning among them autumn they know as little as its gifts." ^ It plainly means probability,

was written

of the


century of our


divided their year into

three seasons, the

names of which cannot, of

course, have exactly corre-

sponded to the Latin terms, htems,
of a year.



each covering a quarter

This statement has been assailed from various



various reasons, even Jacob


expressing his belief that

was based

on some misconception by Tacitus.^
to the


understood Tacitus to refer solely
that the

meaning of the words, and remarked


did not use


Germania, chap, xxvi., " Unde annum quoque ipsum non
et ver et aestas intellectum et


totidem digerunt species



vocabula habent


autumni perinde nomen



^Deutsche Mythologie,

p. 717.


as is generally admitted. it. 74. things is which were at that time unknown to scarcely tenable. Leipzig. In course of time. takes their year the view that the Germanics. The tri-partition of the Germanic year is an unshakable fact. spring. midwinter. though harvest. ^ Uber die deutsche Jahrteilung. on a closer study of partition of the year. the Germans. however. just like English harvest. and after-math. 1848.^ Professor Weinhold. quartered according to solstices and equinoxes. his This fact is even admitted by Professor Weinhold of Berlin in division of the year.^ himself lived to collect part of and to admit that he had been Another scholar has told us that he knows better than Tacitus. i. which German word he meant to correspond with Latin spring. But such a view For Tacitus speaks explanatory and decidedly of the seasons as such.. mid- ^ Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. but for the gathering of the fruit. lent spring . there concedes so much as to acknowledge that those law courts were originally held at the beginning of winter. p. Vol. It has been preserved for a very long time on legal ground. 1862. and about later midsummer : whilst the beginning of winter.3 YULE AND CHRISTMAS name of atitumnus for the harvest of grain. midwinter. for (German Lenz). Easter. vintage." But that word seems to have meant the act of reaping the ripe ripeness. fruits. and in the case of autumnus. . at the nonexistence of which the Romans might wonder. p. with the meaning " time of fruits. book on the German who. The three three seasons answer to the three not-ordered law courts. just like the Romans. on the whole. the annual legal meetings which were fixed by tradition and not called by special royal ordinance. Kiel. it originally. he makes an Germanic rather melancholy observation. in spring. Grimm wrong. of later growth. 8. L. and that the ancient Germans had the word grain herbst.e. their and and not the time of influence our was later used to denote the period of bringing in the little Considerations of that kind can as as judgment V on Tacitus' report can the fact that we are unable to say exactly ver. extensive the questions connected with the material has been discovered which undoubtedly goes to support Tacitus. and Friihling are.

1891. 3 and February. Jahreszeitefi. the basis of the tri-partition being a division of the year into winter. autumn.THE GERMANIC YEAR summer him . ^ ^ * Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters. II. Professor Others agree with in this proposition. p. 90. Fr'dnkische Keichs- und Gerichtsverfassung. Grotefend. of 817. spring. and Pentecost. p. 1862. . In Anglo-Saxon times the the tri-partition of the year was preserved in mode of paying the wages of female servants. 338. at and not as a creation of a new least jurisdiction.. 2. Sohm. echtendage. of course. echteitdinge. ordains "/« anno tria solummodo generalia plactda"^ which. p.^ courts is The of the early existence of three that it German annual law for so generally admitted is an exception any authority to disagree. ^ . and that the examples of four assemblies are both rarer and later than those of three. country. a measure of beans for the mid- lent dinner (Sunday Jnvocavit). which was held three terms in The terms vary. or John's day). Kiel. and whey ' on siimera ' (corresponding ^ C/l>er die deutsche Jahrteilung. Easter. 194. and summer. 19. So Pfannenschmid. the not-ordered law court of the the year. though with a general prevalence of midwinter (or beginning of winter). Easter. fact This usage lived on till the fifteenth century. can only be taken as a codification of existing law. Zeiirechnung." The capitulary of Louis the Pious. 18. cation in and there finds principal appli- the so-called dreidinge. * 1898. says : ^ *' The of the year has its been preserved almost exclusively in juridical relations. and midsummer (also the Twelve-nights. May. who received a sheep for the feast at the beginning of winter. pp. took the place of those termsWeinhold gives ^ proofs for the several cases. 1878. And even those who disagree have to account for a number of important indisputable facts. Hannover und Leipzig.^ believing that there were four Germanic law assemblies annually. at or eiting. " 1407 in unsen geheygeden gerichten to Luneborch drie des jares to den eddagen " (Centralarchiv zu Oldenburg). finds it extremely strange that far more frequently only three such assemblies are enumerated. Germanische Erntefeste. St. So the greatest German authority on chronology. tri-partition Grotefend. 398.

sester fabae ad quadragesimalem convictum. Dheowan wifmen viii. Be Gat-hyrde. id est. syster beana to Isengten-sufle. 436. Eallum gehte-mannum gebyredh Mid- winter feorm. 438. 2 Male servants also received three such gifts a year [Ibid. lignum plaustri in terra uberi. niht sefter emnihtes dsege. which is about July lo. Christmas and Easter.^ gift It not only appears from the value of the gifts mentioned that the for the winter feast was the largest. pund comes to mete. p. and Eastor-feorm sulh-aecer. Sceap- hyrdes riht is that he hsebbe twelf nihta dhingan to Middan-wintra. i. as the old Germanic. gytfeorm for yrdhe msedh-med hreac-mete. arandum. agnum de juventute hornotina. while the third had.. . hweges odhdhe syringe ealne sumor"). on sumere [in some !] dheode gebyredh winter-feorm. but besides the enumeration of the three terms begins with that term. id est. ovis vel III. pondia companagium. 438. and hserfest-handful. pening. l. i. year began with it. firma Paschalis. and fela dhinga de ic getellan ne mgeig. June 9). firma pratorum et firma precum ad congregandas segetes. "Rectitude Ancillae denarios. i "In quibusdam hreaccroppum. belflis. Gat-hyrde gebyredh his heorde meolc ofer Martinus msesse dseig. quorum hoc viaticum sit. id est. timpani vellus. I.. noctium in Natali Domini. shifted to the ante equinoctium... 9 " Pastoris ovium rectum est. geogedhe. I. aet wudu-lade wsen-treow. noctibus : for these had. and his heorde meolc Vll.4 to YULE AND CHRISTMAS Old Icelandic ^ at sumri^ i. peningas to winter-sufle. tota estate . and I." ^ Thorpe's Ancient Laws. in the same direction. Easter-feorm. caput et alia plurima fuerint a pluribus. I. The : dinners given to the farm servants varied considerably about 1030. 436.^ In the thirteenth century three terms existed in some districts of Eng- Uni ancillae Vlll. and i. et an tea pars sua mesgui. : macholi . In terra nemorosa. I.. sceap odhdhe 11 1. 7: "Omnibus ehtemannis jure competit Natalis firma. 440. firma ad fenandorum macoli summitas. though two of the terms two Christian festivals.. ad hiemale : annonae ad victum. just as the payment of goatherds is [Ibid. cuppam plenam mesgui de siringia. in the eleventh century.e. et capricum anniculum. carruce acra. Vli. set corn-lade hreac-copp. gif he his heorde wel begymedh partly at "). . bel-flys. I. hwseig on sumera odhdhe l. Dhis is dheah myngung manna biwiste and eal that ic ser beforan ymberehte "). i. being held partly at the two Christian festivals. and i. et Paschalis sulhsecer. id locis datur firma Natalis Domini. et lac gregis sui. et gutfirma ad et est... et l. The payment of shepherds' wages is regulated not so much by an old tri-partition of the year as by the development of sheep during the year [Ibid. In estate suum hweig vel i. to-eacan heora nyd-rihte "). 9 " Caprarius convenit lac gregis sui post festum Sancti Martini. et i. si bene custodiat gregem suum . et quod supra diximus .. et blede. and so late as in the eleventh century the economic. Christmas and Easter. 7. ut habeat dingiam xii. ben-form for ripe. moved onwards to August. et manipulus Augusti in augmentum jure debiti recti . denaiium Be Wifmonna Metsunge. ticcen of geares : lamb of geares and blede fulle geogodhe. other times et et [Ibid. et macolum faciendum.. and ser dham his dsel hwasges.

. Archbishop Frederick I.^ . notwithstanding that words from the same root. but exists in no other Aryan language. haf. ut dicunt. With the word summer it is not much different. means snow or storm (Greek x^'-H-^^. 103'' "In hoc manerio sunt 8 virgatae servilis conditionis. the derivation from wind being excluded on philological grounds. which covers both the law courts and the terms of payment from the twelfth century: on Jan. x^V*"')) so that we have Latin Greek Old Bulgarian and Zend zima. Stifter der Abtei Gerresheim. 1869. p. Der des selige Gerrich. ^Nasse. : the word winter appears in no Aryan languages using for the language except the all other Aryan denomination of the coldest season of the year a word from a root ghitn ighiem) which hiems. though formed by means of other suffixes and having a similar or the same significance. where the etymological parallels of hiems and ver are given. Sanskrit hhnanta. THE GERMANIC YEAR land. . dabit ad quemlibet : trium terminorum \2^ pro omni servitio. It appears in all Germanic languages as the name of the warmer half of the year. 1877. 1878. even more Germanic. We know of no root from which winter might be derived. p. . fol. ancient names of three ancient seasons cannot be given nay. year . si censat. Whilst no other Aryan language possesses the same terms denoting a period of all about a hundred and eighty days. year. 187. 51. Urbarium of the Monastery of Worcester of the thirteenth century. the Germanic languages have is in common two words winter and summer. Schrader. pp. etymology cannot be adduced an ancient tri-partition of the Germanic year . as well warranted as the tri-partition of the economic year itself. 1106." ^Kessel. summer Armenian amarn. Bonn. Zend hama. compare O. Diisseldorf. such as Sanskrit samd. etymology decidedly points to a dual division. 9. ^On the dual division of the original Aryan Berlin. summer Cymric ham. therefore. summer.^ We have. However in favour of well established these facts are. Zeitteilung indogermanischen Volkes. are found in several of them. To give at least one instance. . of Cologne fixed at 14 solidi the fee to be paid to the provost of Gerresheim on each of the three annual law-days. II ss. Uber mittelalterliche Feldgemeinschaft in England. quarum quaelibet. to accept this as a fact. Die aelteste Habel.^ 5 On German ground it is the very same. no third season-name to join Nay. whilst there them.

he says "Ih wall6ta sumaro enti wintro sehstic ur lante. Ewald sums up his investigations as to the division of the Oriental year as follows:^ Africa. Zeitteihmg itidogermanischen Volkes. 3rd. des 1881. 456. Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittel- alters.. although the was taken over by the Aryans very they early. p. I. according to all evidence. if she has a child. compare Uhland's Volkslieder. pp. should be "a cow in summer and an ox in winter". 249. p. " cu on sumera.... p. even at evolved time before divided self-dependent tribes which idioms of their own. 62. in the Old-High-German Hildebrandslied. p. it of Egyptian perhaps origin.^ and summer. the four months of each of these seasons ^Braune.^ im ruwen und im bloten.. Grimm.D. especially in legal language. by Thorpe). 858 mentions two brothers.. . . Gall document of aelteste Wintar and Suniar (O. is and. 455.. shillings. the terms were used rise iin und im love.": 6 - YULE AND CHRISTMAS When Hildebrand. ed. and the very fact that etymology is as to the tri-partition It goes a long way to prove that the tri-partition so. XV. Die Altertiimer des Volkes Israel. Deutsche RechtsaltertUmer III.^ and stro and bi grase. "^ 77. Ibid.. 31.: "wintres ond sumeres. London. as far as we can into see. 1878. A St. ^ : On the combats between Max Mliller's attempts to show me to be rather bold. 130. "People in those countries of Asia and had at first three equal seasons. III. describes his thirty years' wanderings. 126."^ Anglo-Saxon legal language having the same phrase. Halle. Berlin. 1840. Ibid. in addition to vi. 18). A. These to that were fixed in the most ancient Egyptian almanac. III. 256. and according fact in the hieroglyphic writings. in Greek legends a great number of similar traits seem to "^Ancient xxxviii. 223. also that a ceorl's close ought to be fenced winter These there is two names do not stand alone as the supports of a dual division was extremely familiar a number of other phrases which show that the dual division of the year to the Germanic mind. Althochdeutsches Lesebuch." ^ Ibid. Die Habel. who died. 258. Schrader. 126. I. oxan on wintra. So the laws of Ine provide that the wife of a ceorl given. 190. Prof. To bi denote the whole : course of a year. ^ '^ Laws and Institutes of England (ed. Winter and Summer. Grotefend..^ Etymology shows that the dual division of the year was fails of Aryan home growth certainly is it . of foreign extraction. 77.^ .

Berlin. the second. summer. but in must also of have once been prevalent this is Syriac and Arabic well as countries. principle. and expressly says that the three roots used for denoting sun in the Aryan languages contain no element referring in any way to time or partition of time. . avoid the presupposition that the early Aryans based He did so with full consciousness their partition of the year on a knowledge of the stars. in The proof first the fact that. The Greeks had ca/a. etc. of the days each. Schrader. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache."^ About the seems Indian year Grimm remarks summer . frequently two subsequent months are distinguished as the of the and second is same 'tide. as is This habit became law in it shown by Kalidasa's Ritusanhara. p."^ of the solar year. that was the case pretty These very same three-score-day Eastern and Western. raining . and Hornung. and haps Rheda. t^ "In earliest antiquity the year to have been divided into three parts only. is 1848.. Lida. spring. spring to the oldest grisckma. according commentator of the Veda: grischma. Hlyda (Anglo-Saxon).. Hreda (Anglo-Saxon). that the origin of the tribe months dates from no earlier period than the time when and remarks the Aryan had split into several peoples. hema?ita.. like the Orientals general. ancient India. six seasons. Ilabel. only effect when months. ^ Ibid. Jiuleis (Gothic).The GERMANIC VEAR being very simply counted as earliest 7 the first. Oepos. whilst as regards the moon he attributes to her merely a secondary rank in that respect. I. seems ^ ^ Lepsius. 456. But. •O. winter and elsewhere xei[jLu>v. further step duration of about three-score Ewald. at least same time calculated by means early. time . Horowunc (German). vasanta. are at the is true. 32. after the passage just quoted. The distinction it between a first and second month according the such seasons has. the Indians distinguishing either . 1878. goes on to say:^ "A was to divide each of the three seasons into halves and so count six seasons. 134. p. Chronologic der Aegypter. or. raining time . winter. or even tides are found among the Germanics. But the strange fact that for the no satisfactory Germanic Aryan etymology can be given oldest names of Germanic per- three-score-day tides. p. subdivided their three large seasons into six smaller. in summer. 24). as we know. in the Syriac as the Arabic almanac. and sarad. varscha. 72. Schrader the first to (O.' and that tide after which they are called evidently to in a season. Die aelteste Zeitteilung des indogermanischen Volkes." The early Aryans. I. pp.

^ which can scarcely be ascribed to chance. whilst our small horning succeeds large horn. as brachot-houwot. a usage to which the intercalary month was sometimes added under month may have led.) According to Slavic order. find the second of two months presented and a sporkel followed by a sporkelsin and an ougest by an ogstin. iios. January and February are even much later singled out as the large and the small horn. When the meaning Roman quarters of common heading of two subsequent months was forgotten. Thus.8 YULE AND CHRISTMAS to point to the probability that these names. however. September. " I put in round brackets what seems of the to me to be wrong in Grimm's argument. a the same name. among the Anglo-Saxons. 64. in Middle-High-German. and IovXlo<s is found to denote the time from Dec. tovAaios. threefold herbstmonat). and a double oiigest. December. there appeared a double /td/ia for the pair June-July. and third years had become popular. 23 in old Cyprus. which was December.. and gorephan. Fr." says he. Aryan is tribes. precede the other. Hermann. Thus. ephan. bound together geola. Likewise we find serpan. and were borrowed from Oriental language. or some other nations. nay.^ "on the connection of two (or even three) subsequent to months through the same name. p. which elsewhere also appears or the two resatlle-mois. lovXirjos. I. together with the six three-score-day tides which formed the course of a year. here and there we as the wife of the first. there appears a double (a a double wintermonat. similar is Something found in the Celtic midu and ?nichrundu for November and June and July. summer. among the the Slavs a small and a large traven. (The Liineburg Wenden also made a first wintermonat. a small and a large where the small precedes the large one. 22 to Jan. This probability is enhanced by the fact that Gothic Jiuleis in the forms lAaios. like the institutions they denote. including the "Stress to be laid. Uber Griechische Monatskunde. the small cerwen preceded the large lerwenec. main summer. 1844. ^ 1848. have their origin beyond the world of the Aryan family of languages and Egyptian and Syriac. of important facts several It is Jacob Grimm's merit to have gathered a number which show the same habit to have prevailed among Germanics. Gottingen. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. . which connection seems be a 2 relic of an original partition of the whole of the year into six (or four) parts. for ^ K.

and the coupling which proceeds from them. light one. "2 Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. and mddhava. spring. cloudy sky). mead or honey. the iirg/ia. style June and July by the cognate names nutibe and nunutibe. ^ In Mahabharata the six Indian seasons vasanta. the warm one. contains the months shukra. 1878. hemanta. grtsma. Schrader. sultry tide. ongest and ougsiin . . the gipsies. grischma. and through the division of the Indian year into six seasons. Jews did year still their adar. the and s/iukhi. p. its a veadar or other adar. Jtiadhu and mddhava to analogous cerwen sporkel and sporkelsin. each of which embraces two months. I. honey sweet. must be acknowledged." Further on six ^ he says. This coupling in my eyes a testimony of great age. farad. and fi^ira are represented as six aelleste Zeiiteilung des men who play at golden and silver dice (O. The relation of the names taj>as and tapasja. varsa. contains the have cognate names. "A connection between our month-names and the always of two subsequent months. most of which vasanta. Habel. is nabhas and nabhasia. p. dscheviadi el avvel and dschemadi I. and tapasja. contains the months sahas. which immediately proceeds from it. el accher. summer. winter. gosti and to gostobieste. whilst in the Persian is and Jewish calendar this coupling has been But quite apparent in the division of the Indian year into six parts. the raining tide. which were fixed for the aditjas. Die indogerntanischen Volkes. IlocreiSewv after (The Attic calendar as the in the leap year after added another the first. and a khamm and lost. warmth. Indian seasons. cloud (Latin nubes. Berlin. months madhu.. sarad. and in Albanese and yoo-To^teo-re for is August and November we have the same thing. is justified in a way that must be welcome to us. 22).: THE GERMANIC YEAR Even yoo-Ti 9 (I. dew tide. and sahasja. and the Sanskrit names given here seem be more popular than the learned ones. months nabhas. the shining one . hemania. sahas and sahasja. The it Syriac year shows a theschrin and II. stsira. viz.) The Arabic : lunar shows months connected in six regular pairs rebi el avvel and rebi el accher. ^ 113. dsulkade and dsulhedsche. and cerwenec. strength. varscha. and nabhasja. contains the months iapas. whose month-names are given by Pott 116). the strong one . II. cloudy one. the division of the Germanic year into three seasons. contains the months ischa and the nourishing one. contains the Slavic nebo.

17. '^Ibid. Item a festo baculi usque Gertrudis sunt 9 ebdomade. I. although then be deter- mining seasons." ^ " Urbarium of the Monastery of 8=*." R. et sunt 9 ebdomade. Die deutschen Monatnamen. quod to me." Grimm. dem sniie. Neither eight weeks nor nine weeks exactly covering these alternately taken. the unprinted material leaf The passage was communicated referring to the Rhine-country Bonn. took one of the three ends of the seasons. like all and Tirol. by ancient Gerweeks manic three-scoreday tides or half seasons. e. ^Ibid. 673.. in der brache. 13. 'Neocorus. sat. . 679. 419. March tides. and May 12. in der zwibrache. as of old.. in der laubrtse. July 12.. Diisseldorf. item a Lamberti usque Martini sunt octo ebdomade.° Others are im brdchet. the starting-point people then. of it. winter began. and on July 12 later summer. quod est octava epiphanie. II. im hanffluchet^^ ze afterhahne und in houwe. p.lo YULE AND CHRISTMAS Grimm indicates in a general way the facts that point to an early sixhis partition of the Germanic the year.. 426. im wimmot. day so it much material to bearing upon point has that is necessary enumerate the most important items On the Nether-Rhine the division of the year into six tides or periods of sixty days each Avas till known to so late as as the fourteenth antiquated it was thought compared with the new Romano-Christian way of century. III. Such erne. 75.'^ in der bonenar/ie. item a Martini usque ad festum baculi. Halle. 1862.. 2. scilicet 52 ebdomadas. 8=^. Armin Tille of secundum antiquum modum computandi scilicet a festo Margarete (ubi usque Lamberti sunt 9 ebdomade. in der herbstsat^ in der im houwet. As 11. and yet neither amount to three nor to four months. No. item a festo Pancracii usque servicium potest poni per certos terminos infra dictos. p. Victor. by Dr. eight weeks and nine were On November n.^ haberschnitt. item a festo Gertrudis usque ad festum Pancracii sunt 8 ebdomade. are. 17. incipit) annus Margarete sunt novem ebdomade ^ et faciunt simul unum annum. although in German legal and documents there occur quite numerous denominations which clearly cover a longer time than a month. St. and and habererndte. RechtsalterlUmer.g.. on March 17 early summer. in the State. covering August and September. 'Weinhold.^ It is rather to say what were the names of these GermarRic literary three-score-day tides. counting from then to September November January 13. 1869. Deutsche Jahrteilung. 546. laubbrost.. But since accumulated. under "Stift Xanten.Archive. difficult therefore. Weinhold. Deutsche I. It runs: "Item notandum. and Xanten.

p. and that laubbrost and laubrtse under our eyes become.. time . '^Grotefend. Gothic frd. 315. but was formed is new. Greek Trput). something like Beside these words English expres- sions also. I Sam.. lang. it not it to mention the not the common of an Germanic. II.* '•'• sense. Anglo-Saxon lengten. and in English by spring (cp. and that that im bracket and im houwet dite older than brdchmonat . hcumat and im ivimmot are older than states that. 2. lengten) i. The term adopted to correspond to autumnus manic. 26.^ old This makes rather likely that was name three-score-day tide. Die Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters. Zeitrechnung. ^ I. which. langiz. summer's spring"). 4.. Latin two other words which later were used to correspond to ver and autumnus. explains in howman edder in der howame (Weinhold. St. pp. It is Old-High- ^Grotefend. however. by being taken in a narrower month-names. ^If Neocorus. Ibid. "about the spring of the day".. perhaps the connected with long. 13). also confined to Western Ger- although its root is common Aryan property. 79. covers a longer time than August. cannot be traced beyond the Western Germanic. ^ Since the fifteenth century it has been in German supplanted by the term Friihling (from friih. ix.^ It To these and herbst (harvest) in their. 35. like fall. German Dutch lente. however. Halle. medieval senses are to be added. can be z2iS\tdi Jacobstag im augstP- It was out of such words that the Germanic month-names were formed era. forming out days a term for the lenzo. I. Shakespeare. 1891. I. lencten. hotil d winter'^ are to be placed. so that July 25. backend. according to his belief. 1869. For ver the Western Germanics took a of it root. iv. is So Professor Weinhold^ seems to be of opinion that in der erne older than the month-name erntmanot.THE GERMANIC YEAR sometimes even including the time from July 25 to August lenz (lent. in der to windumemanot sat : and he expressly snite and in dem have given origin sdtmdn and schnitmonat. Die deutschen Monainainen. and perhaps. it follows that he regarded the term hmvarne as still more popular than the newly formed word howman. lenzin Middle-HighEnglish lent). when grow longer (Old-High-German lenze. 87. in the second half-millennium of our after the Roman calendar had become popular among the Germanics. 2 Henry IV. * early . the latter being on German ground frequently replaced by augst (August). which. "since the middle . A. James's day.S.

42. *Moritz Heyne. Dutch herfst. Grotefend. tide it of threeis They are the more striking since. 1856. the two subsequent Roman months among first Germanics are fre- quently called by the the second the latter same name. German hcerfest. 371-383. "* '^Weinhold. second. Berlin. months as first. Weinhold. July. though for another His June. 1885. and third augst or hej-bst admits of several explanaThe Roman quarter of a year having taken the place of the old third. and month of that designation whilst some Germanic three tides names of the same kind called are of very great age. among the Germanics had no three subsequent . Altnordisches Leben. in for two cases. In English the Germanic word of a season was completely superseded by Romance autumn. Paderborn und MUnster. double-month. ^ Yet more important than these rather vague terms are several others which can be proved to have exactly covered a Germanic score VULE AND CHRISTMAS herbist. herbest. which is the name for August. or Naubaimbair. Ulfilas. it may seem probable that the leap year had also forming an intercalary month for the leap year. I. English and belongs to Latin carpei'e. August. and third Lida covering to a large extent the same ground as the July. 226. Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters. Anglo-Saxon pluck. is found just in that season.. also has such a tripling in the case of the Lida for month. pp. namen. since the tripling of the month-name of the season of autumn. which. Middle-High-German harvest. which in the hai-vest in the later sense Middle Ages appeared as aust. Beda viz. to and Greek Kapiro^. * Scandinavian haust or host is probably to be derived from August. fruit. the being called the former. and September. it was but tions. called the three herbste or augste. purpose. simply Roman month-names so that which are used denoting a tide of two months. and Haustmoaner is herbst as denoting in two months September and October is very common the Middle latter Ages. and has not been understood by Professor Weinhold. according to Tacitus. pp. name. which simply meant harvest. it That do with the origination of the series of three months bearing the same name. advanced to the meaning This is the more likely. p. and the der In a Gothic calendariiim of the sixth century* November. The naming of There appears even a dritt herbst for November. Sumarmoaner. so that the former month andere herbst? called der erste herbst. to . there natural that all the three months forming it should have received a common name is no doubt that in this way herbst. was August which was doubled may be inferred from Northic tvtmdnadhr. of six The Scandinavian summer the months is divided into j^ Vaarmoaner. Deutsche Monat15. 84. .

343. 43. but Hornung Horn or son of Horn) is found among the list ot German month-names composed by Charlemagne. . the terms cerra Geola states for which. chap. 42. a fact which leads us beyond Roman quarters of years into Germanic thirds of years. Deutsche Monatnanien. however. p. Weinhold. I German three-score-day tide. Codex Germ. rule. 15.^ It it being the only is name in the list which is not a compound As a of mdnoth. No. 730. Middle Germany up to this day January is called in der grosse Horn. 43).. and pp. ^ Tegernseer Kalender . 191. Compare on Horn. 32. bound to be of ancient German origin. Zeitrechnung. which borrowed kinds of things small from the dialects spoken Saxony . p.^ der erst herbst is September." Codex Germanicus Monacensis. Zellweger. all {i. homer and and der herbst. 1891. xv. 42. 32. Yule and Lida. I.THE GERMANIC YEAR is 13 called . ^ 93> 398. Codex Germanicus Monacensis. 45. where a long list of cases is given. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Die deutschen A/o}iatnat?ien." Giess. Grazer Kalender. "der ander herbst. 32. Codex Germ.^ further shows a state of things a little advanced when. 93. 84). Weinhold. 349. iVovujti Glossariwn. The herbst forms occurring elsewhere are Hornung. xxix. . " der erst heribst. 86.. 730. Diefenbach.* under October. Both names together occur Leipzig. and brought down to us by his biographer Eginhart. I. 700. Christian Wolf's Mathematical Dictionary. in 1742. November is sometimes called der dritt herbistmanot {Ibid. 1407. in the same place Beda ceftera that the Anglo-Saxons called June and July oerra Lida and in Lida respectively. and December der vierd herbistmonad ox letst herbistmotieth (Grotefend. 85. 771 Klingenberger Kronik. 42.e. Zeitrechnung des deutschen Miltelalters should be incHned to see in as in * Horn the name of an old und der Neuzeit. p. Weinhold. . Deutsche Monatnamen. I. 978 " . 730. 700. ^Grotefend. pp. Weinhold.. 41. Codex Germ. as is frequently the case. 398. 480. Novum Glossaritim. Monac. a. 349. ^Diefenbach. MS. and ceftera Geola were used . Diefenbach. Monac. fruma in Jiuleis. Ibid.^ frequently It But November also appears as der under as though more der drit herbst^ September also being called Uberherbst.^ horn. Huber. just p. Monac. Horning. Grazer Kalender . Unserfrauen * Grimm.. Vita Caroli Magni. p.. Novum Glossariwn. note.. der erste and der undere herbst are replaced by der erste and der andere herbstmonat ^ f likewise there are numerous examples ^ for November De Tempormn Ratione. list which presupposes that December was called *aftuma of Germanic liuleis Beda's month-names ^ it is stated that the Anglo-Saxons called December and January together Gtu/i. February der kleine Horn. 32. later. chap.

. Ibid. Giessen MS. and December being called der ander winter (and even January being is named manot des hindrosten winters) . Tubingen. October (Cimbr. . p. Glossarium it is Tegernseer Fischbuchlein) . is mentioned which has this peculiarity Grimm.^ so November calls also called der erst winternianeid. In the Diocese so that even the term occurs dulttag in I. . 32 . 84. i. In the xiii. 15. 1806. and June der ander may the same holds good for der erst augst. ^ See Weinhold. almanacs 1848.D. About some Alemannic I. where a whole group of old Bavarian Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. 398. 8. 978 der erst awst. A. p. ^Grotefend. ^ Muglen bei Kovachich. 62. in which Roman month-names •. 4 . p.. meaning September. Grotefend. Kalender. thirds of years. p. Tegernseer Fischbuch {der ander august)). 14. Zeitrechnung.^ March and April das for the ackermonat and das ander ackermonat to these cases two others are to be added. Weinhold. 50. 496) der ander ougst is September (Grimm. Geschichte der gefiirsteten Grafschaft Tirol. In some Bavarian almanacs August and September are called der erste and der andere augst (Diefenbach. I. pp. September. 93.d. Novum Glossarium. 208. p. 192 f I. . Section i. where also an instance 1536. p. 61. and on Alemannic and Swabian ground (Weinhold. according to a Cassel manuscript of A. Zeitrechnung. IX. There is quite an abundance of instances which May is called der erst may. . Part . Novum Glossarium. August is called erster Aux. . . Weinhold. Die deutschen Monatnamen. Germania. 7CX3. . der andere auste. 15 Codex Germanicus Monacensis. I. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache.. * I. VIII. 68. 34. ''Weinhold. Novum ..D. 13.. hills between Brenta and Drau. Novum Glossarium. 1857. 3384. Mone. 62.. Detitsche Monatnaftien. I41). .. Anzeiger. 978. a form in which it also appears in some Roman documents of Rhaetia (Hormayr. 85. and Swabian almanacs. Sept. meaning August. given of February being called der letzte wintermonat a. 34 . Ruber's /Calender. and September dnderts Aux.. Zeitrechnung. p. Grotefend. Diefenbach. Deutsche Monatnamen. Deutsche Monatnamen.14 YULE AND CHRISTMAS being called der erst winter.. Weinhold.. so Latino-germanicutn. comuni there are even three Agester. 1445. p. Ulm. "^ Ibid. 848.^ lest and December d&r ander winternianeid^ or der wintermond. in den tzweyen augsten.^ dem efsten herbsltnanode. Diefenbach. Geschichte der 34 Among the German communities of Valsugan and on the deutschen Sprache. 32 whilst der ander augst may be August (Codex Germanicus Monacensis. Diefenbach. or September (Megenberg. 85). Worterbuch. and der ander : augst. Gmund's Grazer Kalender. Pilgram . meaning August. which again points to four winter months or Germanic * Pfeiffer. der erst awgst. is ^ Ibid.'^ are used in same purposes. 1 290. Codex Germanicus Monacensis. 4). p. 32). Grimm.. a Tegernsee calendar^ . 107.'^ erst On Bavarian ground. p. Deutsche Monatnamen. 1848. Francofurti. Giessen MS. comp. Der erste august means August in Tegernseer Fischbuch .

. Strobel. uuistmuent. Schmeller-Frommann. Zeitrechnung. Leipzig. Beitrdge zur deutschen Literattir und Literatur- geschichte.. 1891. p. ^"Grotefend. Sette communi Schtneller-Frommann. Paris. Dankrotsheim. . 14. i. and September Haberougst} or August aux. Grotefend. the small augest. THE GERMANIC YEAR of Constanz August is is 15 called ougst. augstmdnd. Diefenbach. Codex Germanicus Monacensis. L. 66. The units of which ^ ^ Ehinger Spitalbtuh... 54 . fact Not only is itself. Kbditz. 558 (Schmeller. Niirnberg. Weinhold. 187 1. and September Augstin. Ibid. it Roman calendar so far as to force upon the three-score-day must needs have been most deeply rooted and firmly estabHshed among it the Germanic tribes in East and West. uustmuent.^ September So Konrad von Dankrotsheim Numenbuch ^ names August and September ougst and On the other hand. Leipzig. 109 ss. Grimm Grotefend.^ Sometimes called der erste augst. the compound oegstin. I^.^ on the whole Ougstine. Zeitrechnung des Mittelalters. Owestin. Deutsche Monatnamen. Hermann von Fritslar (Myst. Bayrisches Wdrterbuch. Weinhold. i.. so that we have good it reason for claiming as a relic of a pre-Roman Germanic usage. Novum Glossarium. Augstin.e. 14. p. ^ ** 14. If it it was able to influence the tide. Worterbtich. Oegstin. Leben des heiligen Ludwig. I. * p. . 195) I. July is auwestin. No. and September under oegsten. 16. Herbistouwistinne'^ in his means September f nay. North and South. ^ I.^ uugst. 39. owestexclusively. August is called augest. 14. Zeitrechnung.. 771. small August. 61 . there even appears and the word Huberougst. explained the term wrongly as the wife of August. 32 . Grotefend. and August der under Though Augstine for and Aygsien appear a few times as meaning August. 1851.. p.^*' mun mean August There to is nothing whatever in the Roman calendar which can be said have been suggestive of that strange custom. Koditz. Ehinger Spitalbuch Weinhold. Baselland) .. 40. 40. I. . Dasypodius 488d (1537). ^ Codex Germanicus Monacetisis. 54 (1453. Ougstin.'^ or called erster aux. Hannover. the six-fold division of the Germanic year a most important also furnishes us with in but the means of reconciling the seeming contradiction. Deutsche Monatnamen. 7008.. 1827. Germanic Museum. Leben des heiligen Ludwig. * 14. Dankrotsheim 54). Zeitrechnung. ^ Grotefend. . Ougsten.e. Strassburg. Ouwestin. Bayrisches Zeitrechnung. according to which the Germanics at the same time had a dual division and a tri-partition of the year. I.

parts And the economic year was no no reason naturally divided into three — the rest of the plough. their and it is apparent that of these tides either two could each time be grouped together to form thirds. later in life — in early times by hunting and keeping on by as cultivation of meadows. The centre of animal activity. and compelled them to work by leaving them. p. two equal parts of four months less on an average. Weinhold^ says the dual is division of the Germanic year was dislodged by a tri-partition. the cultivation to and reaping of the refuge in grass.6 1 YULE AND CHRISTMAS' year consisted were sixths. Deutsche [ahrteihmg. and would thus most seriously If Professor interfere with the unity of the three-score-day tide. fates of families. . p. can be said of a dislodgment of one mode by the other that for a long prehistoric period both existed peacefully alongside each of history. means of subsistence among them. At the same time Germanic year consist of one- the simple fact of sixths being the units constituent of the excludes any quartering of the year. country they emigrated fills. 1862. Economic conditions have at all times weighed much as heavier than strivings. hopes. he for so little entirely in error. which naturally leads to a division of the rest of the year into each. and dreams of men. 7. at all times determined the and races. to win food and to get on cattle. since a quarter would sixth and a half. or thrSe could be grouped together each time to form halves. the alternative of perishing. was in pre-Roman Germanic as it is now. tribes. Then now for the endless generation of the human beings and the endless competition which two factors have nations. There the most decided season. and finally by agri- culture in addition. unwilling to do so. and the harvest. ^Weinhold. as well of the times. 1862. fancies. pressed if upon individuals. other. 7. ^ Deutsche Jahrteilung. the winter. a period of exactly four months. and appear thus had at the dawn The Oriental tri-partition of the itself in year would probably not have so deeply rooted it the Germanic mind not been supported by the economic and climatic conditions of the to.^ There is take speculations about symbols and the religious opinions of the early Germanics to explain their division of the year.

Die aelteste Zeitteilungdes indogermaniscken Volkes. xi. reckoning the following is did not count vigilia by days as the part of the or eve as day. 12. however. a not exclusively Germanic. Nee dierum numerum. ^ 131. sic condicunt . dies dierum. diebus. chap. mane semper usque ad mane servabat. ^ is summer which followed it as. Deutsche Jahrieilung. : Ratione. . quare populus Israel. sic constituunt.. tamen omnia sicut et nos hodie vespere consummarit dicente legislatore A vespera usque ad vesperam celebrabitis sabbata vestra. II. "ante brumas and between day and summer.: qui diei ordinem iuxta Moysi traditionem a " Merito autem quaeritur. 12. THE BEGINNING OF THE ANGLO-GERMAN YEAR. nam agendis rebus hoc auspicatissimum initium credunt." On the parallels between night and winter "per quinquaginta brumas". but by nights. Both Caesar and Tacitus tell us that the Germans Romans did.. Hannover. and living among us. chap. 1 and 89 1. 13.^ still This habit lived on unbroken through the Middle Ages. I. 202. It was taken over by the early Church. Astronotnicon.'Be:x\m. counting the winter and the custom which.^ good an authority the In same way the Germanics reckoned by winters instead of by summers. as we know by so as the Venerable Beda. 1878. given from law literature by Weinhold. " et Tacitus. . Habel. De Temporum sua. notes II. Book VI. pp. year. B Schx&dex. chap. xviii. triginta. sed noctium computant . as regards festivals at least. " ut nos. ut " Coeunt nisi quid fortuitum Germania. Later instances are 2. 3. nox ducere diem videtur. 44SS. certis cum aut inchoatur luna aut impletur . see O. so that we count by fortnights instead of by fourteen days. under Nacht. and speak of the Twelve-nights of Christ- mas-time. vespere incipiens. festa facimus. sed noctium finiunt natales et mensium noctem dies subsequatur..^ The Saxon Chronicle " Spatia omnis temporis non numero et annorum initia observant. : Caesar. and Martialis. v. : subitum incidit. and 1898. from documents by Grotefend. Zeilrechnung des deutschen Mittelaliers.CHAPTER II. Belluvi Gallicum." ^Manilius.

But when exactly was actual winter sets the Germanic in New Year? On an average. riscode xxxi. it in Germany about the middle of November. gear . when swine.^ winter which is is generally the term so. of the Saxon Chronicle uuintra. p. ceases to be possible to leave to seek their cattle. other used thus. 2) begins: "thy geare the wses agan fram . is such as at dawn of history the Germanics certainly were. earlier. wintra heold xxxi. synonyms ("and he .^ exactly covered the Roman liuleis. We saw above that the Germanics year. gear 2). the unities of two tides I call and the unities of three tides I call half-years. of three scores of days I call tides. vii. Grundriss zur Geschichte der angelsdchsischen Literatur. The version belongs to the second half of the ninth Leipzig. and not in the middle of its as did the Roman year with dogmatic and unpractical way of dividing time. century (R.. wintra. in order to determine whether it did not. therefore. after ^The Germanic periods seasons." (ed. xvii. . it is by no means exclusively terms. like louprise in the Alemannic dialects." p. § 509). 4. speculation. own food . winter . when is it begins to freeze and when snowfalls become very frequent. . . sheep. and horses on the pasture grounds .l8 YULE AND CHRISTMAS Though it abounds with examples of that usage. November being called fruma unlikely that the beginning of the more than year should have interfered with any ^The Parker MS. begin we need other means than mere economic in prehistoric times six three-score-day tides. There the no doubt that for purely nomadic cattle-keeping this tribes. ^Weinhold. ricsode xvii. pp. being employed in the same sense. by Earle in " Two of the Saxon Cristes Chronicles Parallel" Oxford. Weinhold. took over the Oriental which was divided into Now the oldest such tide we know of among Germanics was It the liuleis tide among It is the Goths of the sixth century. 12 and 19. VIII.). gear oldest part of the .^ Thus there can be no doubt that the Germanic year began with the beginit. heold Ibid. acennesse cccc. all the term which compels them to change beginning of a their in summer most habits. . November and December. 1865. months. 1885. . Deutsche Jahrteilung. . . and in the second paragraph gear and winter . may.. just as the Bavarians counted autumns {Lex Baiuvariorurn. perhaps. hsefde thset rice xvi. and heold . Wlilker. wintra and are used as xciiii. . . later be regarded as certain that the Germanic winter did not begin at than mid-November. 19. ning of winter. and therefore marks the It new season But the incisive way. Ibid.

Among is the Goths of the sixth century fruma and November were Andrew's day apparently absolutely identical. 1869. THE BEGINNING OF THE ANGLO-GERMAN YEAR such three-score-day tide . as appears from —which how- marked down that the in that calendar as Frtima lUdeis 31 — and from some other saints' days. is All we are allowed to conclude from the fact. Die deutschen Monainamen. naming the Roman months by the home-made names of those tides Germanic from which approximately covered them. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. . case. at towards the end of August. sixth Goths of the century had taken over the Roman calendar. the the —the beginning of out of beginning of September is practically the question. 1848. fairly covered two subsequent Roman months. Had ancient Germanic tides exactly. we should have to expect that the same would be the case with the German month-names which sprung up months. Germanic three-score-day not but This assumption each of the six is sup- ported by a great number of singular facts. 75. and August rosenmant to ^ "^ Grimm. 19 it therefore the conclusion will be allowed that rather began with the beginning of one. It would be an astounding incident rare chance could indeed if that it. Weinhold.. p. Halle. and January . so that only November i remains as a possible beginning.^ : who We find a wavering names between . p. i or September i to have been the beginning of the Germanic of a But September bearing Germany entirely the character summer month. and April hartmonat between November. 2..^ we have every reason to assume something tides. It by no means follows this fact that each of the Germanic pre-Roman three-score-day tides exactly covered two Roman months. December. I for the denomination of the quote a witness be" Roman yond of the But the contrary cite Professor is the case. liuleis St. had been the and only an extremely account for Knowing that the Indian months began shortly after the middle of the similar for the Roman months. To says : suspicion. the heat frequently being the greatest in the whole course of the year. I. Germanic year —nay. ever. lasemdnt means December and January hornung means January and j February hundeman is found to be applied to June. July. several months ackermonat wavers between March . either Thus we should have in to assume November year.

which means neither more nor . All this points to the conclusion that a Germanic three-score-day tide began originally about the middle of November. the ancient Germanic three-score-day to tides extended from about the it middle of one Roman month that.g. made to cover the time from November 15 to December When. and sommermonat containing the constituent vol ber. to happen. and that. to November. November. with equal right. slachtmcin to October. This argument must needs lead us liuleis tide to the conclusion that the Germanic . the middle of the second next. the term November was some places used it from October 15 to November 15. and December . than that each month-name could be used for two months of transition at so during the period could scarcely be avoided that for the time e. the characteristic held good. whilst on others was. later. was bound to happen at the time when the Roman month-names were less taken over. (ful) June and July : the names occur for September. Decem- January. and January" —a list which could easily be increased. extended originally from about mid-November to mid-January to for had it extended from mid-October tide mid-December. and that they were merely formed for the purpose of replacing the Latin names. of it could not fail even in neighbouring places. scttmant September and October. that the Goths called liuleis the time from Finding. In consequence that. November i to i December and the Anglo-Saxons called Geola the time from December we can scarcely help assuming that liuleis originally covered a period from about November 15 to January 15. If. at the taking over of the Roman calendar. It is now generally admitted that the Germanic month-names are a very late product. among the Goths that name was shifted a fortnight back. some- and sometimes the second was called by the one Latin name. and that the beginning of it was at the same time . then. so as to create an to January 31. the Latin name was replaced by a German word. as we 31. and February. do. they were applied to the interval between the middles of two consecutive Roman it months. and not between November-December and December-January.20 YULE AND CHRISTMAS to June and July. December. incongruence of a whole Roman month. and among the Anglo-Saxons a fortnight forward. 1 5. we should have to expect a wavering of the Yule between October-November and November-December. and wolfmonat appears denoting November. times the first two consecutive Roman months.

The their idea of the Germanic year beginning about Martinmas is not new. but with a few vague remarks. about a century ago.: THE BEGINNING OF THE ANGLO-GERMAN YEAR the beginning of the Germanic year. Victor. ^Graesse." R. 512 inter christianos astic!. : " Stift Xanten. 178. Jan. Sept. It is a new quarter of the year. No. and that. Germanische Erniefeste. under Caletidarii gentilis. 1862.^ in Martinmas coincides it the actual beginning ol which character is clearly marked by the popular rimes "Sanct Martin Feuer im Kamin "* and " Sanct Marten Miss Is der Winter wiss". Even Weinhold admits winter. Michael's true he does not even attempt prove that assertion historically." ^ " Suspicor vulgarem inter veteres Germanos anni adventum posterius certo modo mutatum fuisse in adventum domini sive initium anni ecclesip. 1018. and May 12. 1858. which for a long time began with the that Sunday with Martinmas. It never occurs to him that the Goths regarded if November and December the ist of as their liuleis tide. 21 This result is supported by the Rhenish St. jumps over the whole point which ought to have been the centre of his investigation. Diisseldorf. Fin Magnusen^ remarked. about the same time as the Romans began Day. their year was not begun at the November. air Only a man who has never maintain that in his life left his study fresh can winter began at the close of ^ Staatsarchiv. Martinmas being marked out as a term as close to the middle of November as possibly can be expected. which can scarcely be taken seriously. which the terms of the II. on the other hand. 13. he maintains that the Germans began their year i. p. Nov. Des deutschen Lattdmanns Practica. Dresden. 178.. ^Specimen p.^ 17.y p.e. Urbary of the fourteenth century from the Monastery of in Xanten. Kiel. 5. on September to 29. when another three-score-day took for its inception. Pfannenschmid. it was bound to commence on tide beginning of September. according to 8*\ leaf 8^.^ whilst. '^Ibid. St. March 17. six three-score-day tides are July 12. p. Uber die deutsche Jahrteilung. . that the Germanics began year about the Advent after tide.

and a summer of a little more than three months. p. a spring of not months. a winter of more than five months and a half! a spring of three months and nine a calculation which days and a summer of three months and five days mean the middle of March. when Germany as a rule is ice-bound for another able to pasture month and a quences solstice ! — two He to three months before cattle are on the meadows? . be necessary to on Michaelmas. and was fixed by the Church on September 29." and summer at the summer that the is To do him no injustice in respect. Dresden. while the end of September did not introduc- become of importance tion of the as a dividing-point of the year until the Roman quartering of the year. 1858." the time when storks and swallows return in flocks and the grass begins grow green again.. summers two at and we have the other the junction-point of the mid-May.e. . quite three we should have a winter of full six months.2a YULE AND CHRISTMAS i ! September the Did Professor Weinhold half realize that spring began then at end of January. it will cast a glance over the whole of the for all the theoretical conclusions Germanic year. The truth is. new quarter began on October i. But perhaps one must not draw the consequences from these ill-considered assumptions. at last. arrived at the starting-point. a term dear to all who have ^Graesse. that a beginning of the Germanic winter about it the end of September is absolutely untenable. a spring extending from the middle of March to June 24.e. Des deutschen Landmanns Practica. and a summer extending from June 24 to the end of September (which seems to mean September 29). had not even the courage any to follow out the conse- but makes spring begin " in March. Having. that really took place about the middle of November. ! ! — certainly does all honour to the arithmetical attainments of our Germanic ! ancestors and their distinct sense of the equality of three thirds Would to one take the phrase "in March" as "in the end of March. 718. Counting by original to fix Germanic half-years. i. result. and to draw once and from that winters. under the reign of which a i.. I shall assume phrase " in March " (which implies thirty-one days to select from) to meant Then we have a winter extending from the end of September to the middle of March.

happiness of receiving house rents in Scotland.


Counting with Orientalto close the winter


thirds of years, or

Germanic seasons, we have

and begin the and begin the

summer at mid-March, and summer at mid-July. If this

to close the early


be the old Germanic

division of the year,



to be preserved in all kinds of recollections





in legal institutions, in

popular tradition, in folk-



rustic custom, in festivals


bonfires, and, last but not least, in

ecclesiastical habits which, as far as they

were created

after the fifth century

of our era, reflect an enormous

amount of Germanic


and thought.



term at which


legions in Gaul

and Germany withdrew





although not considerably.

As a


seems to have been before the middle of October, when
begins in those countries.

the rainy season

was the frequent


which prevented any

continuation of warfare, not the cold.

No Roman

general seems to have

been bold enough to



extend warlike operations





Caesar, for once, tried to keep his legions engaged in war beyond

the usual term,

he was compelled to





could no

longer sleep in the open field because of the rain.^


the other hand,

he did not


to retire into winter quarters too early;

and when he had



because no more work was to be done, he expressly mentioned

The Now, A.D. 14, Germanicus was fighting some German tribes. autumn came, and he withdrew into winter quarters. The winter was
imminent, but had not yet set




twenty-first legions


winter quarters at



which place was called


^Caesar, Bellum Gallicum, Lib. III., chap, xxix.:
paucis diebus confecto,


Incredibili celeritate



cum iam

pecus atque extrema impedimenta ab nostris tenerentur,

densiores silvas peterent, eiusmodi sunt tempestates consecutae, uti opus necessario

intermitteretur et continuatione


diutius sub pellibus milites contineri

non possent."


Gallicutn, Lib. I., chap.

"Caesar, una aestate duobus maximis

confectis, maturius paullo,

quam tempus

anni postulabat, in hiberna in Sequanos exercitum

^Tacitus, Annales, Lib.













when they mutinied.
fallen yet

In order to turn their minds to something
being far advanced, but apparently

Germanicus undertook


no snow having

and there being no

—another small military


crossed the frontier, and
to take.

invaded the enemy's

There were two ways
for scouts

chose the longer one, and hurried on;
festival night for

had informed him that a certain night was a

the Germans,

and gave occasion

gay banqueting.

In a beautiful clear

night he reached the village of the Marsi, and surprised

them completely
held at the begin-

during their feasting.^

This can only refer to a


ning of winter, before snow and frost had set
climate, can

which, in the


hardly have been


any other time than



of November.

In the second half Germanicus would have had to encounter

the most serious difficulties as to the weather, whilst to assume that the

had been


October would not leave


time for the with

drawing of the legions into winter quarters, the mutiny, and the warlike
expedition after held in the

So we have a

right to say that a




half of

the oldest

as far

back as


14, while the date

of the report of


certainly to




before a.d. 117, in which

year Tacitus died.

It is




historical record

and although

half a



was mentioned again,

we have no reason





mentioned again

Church had got proper hold







of the sixth



had become a great
his death,

saint of the

Church, and November

the date of

had been made

day of commemoration.


Tacitus, Annales, Lib. L, chap, xlv.:
(loco Vetera



unaetvicesimae legionum sexagesimum

apud lapidem



via cetera accelerantur

^Ibid., chap.
tores festam earn

" Delecta longiore

etenim attulerant explora-

Germanis noctem ac solemnibus epulis ludicram.

Caecina cum expeditis


modico intervallo ventumque ad vicos Marsorum, et circumdatae stratis etiam turn per cubilia propterque mensas, nullo metu, non antepositis Adeo cuncta incuria disiecta erant, neque belli timor ac ne pax quidem nisi






nox sideribus



languida et soluta inter temulentos,"




Martin was born in a.d. 336, and died

in 401.


the middle

of the sixth century there was definitely given as his

own day November

which had before been celebrated



in his

Martinmas ^

in early

France knows nothing of a popular celebration of
times was

held as the highest
lived, the




year wherever Western



lasting, in the sixth century, all night this


morning broke.

We know

from the terms
Beda, in


which the Synod of


578 forbade

celebration. ^

De Temporum

to a



November, saying

that in that month,

which they called Blot-monath or Offering-month, the heathen Germanics
devoted to their gods their
probably, was in chief view

which they intended to




589 the Council of Toledo interdicted


nightly feasting for

all saints'

and the Concilium Cabilonense

of 650 A.D. repeated the prohibition.^


very brilliant sketch of his



activity is given

by Heino Pfannenschmid,

Germanische Erntefeste, Hannover, 1878, pp. 193 ^Pfannenschmid, Ibid., p. 466, note 10.

with numerous notes, pp. 464


et inter

supradictas conditiones, pervigilias, quas in honore

domni Martini


prohibete," Acta

Conciliorum, Parisiis,


7 14,

Vol. HI., col. 444,

Synodus Autissiodorensis, A.D. 578, v. The supradictae conditiones can only be the contents of Canons iii. and iv., which run as follows: "iii. Non licet compensos in domibus

nee pervigilias in festivitatibus sanctorum facere


nee inter sentes, aut ad arbores

sacrivos, vel
et matriculae

ad fontes vota exsolvere


sed quicumque votum habuerit, in ecclesia vigilet,

ipsum votum, aut pauperibus reddat

nee seulptilia aut pede, aut homine lineo






ad auguria respicere, non ad
It is

caragios, nee



quas sanctorum vocant, vel quas de ligno, aut de pane faciunt,



sed quaecumque







nomine Domini

important to notice that the only two feasts which are mentioned by their

name by


Synod of Auxerre are the Calends of January and Martinmas, and from that the conclusion may be drawn that the heathen customs were more prominent at these two tides than at


De Temporum

Ratione, chap, xv.,

De Mensibus Anglorum:




immolationum, quia in ea pecora quae occisuri erant, Diis

vulgus per sanctorum

Acta Conciliorum,

Parisiis, 1714, Vol. III., col. 483,

Concilium Toletanutn, III., a.d.

589, xxiii.

" Exterminanda omnino

est irreligiosa



solemnitates agere consuevit

ut populi, qui debent offieia divina attendere, saltationibus

et turpibus invigilent canticis."

^Acta Conciliorum,

Parisiis, 1714, Vol. III., col. 950,

Concilium Cabilonense, A.D. 650, xix,:

" Malta quidem eveniunt, quae dum



corriguntur, saepius majora eonsurgunt.

Martin's Church. Martin.: faciat. had at Canterbury a potticus. Hilarium 7 14. 47: " Erat honorem sancti Martini antiquitus facta. v. ac etiam ab ipsius atriis vetare debeant et arcere. 1 diligenter prohibeant. dum aut orare debent. ut secundum canones 742. Qui licet apostolorum tempore non fuerit. replied to this letter mentioning Martin in almost equal terms. still exists. Concilium Germanicum. in qua regina.. quod per festivitates dedicationes basilicarum. Et si voluntarie noluerint emendare. ad ipsa solemnia confluentes chorus femineus turpia quidem obscena cantica decantare videntur. the blessed confessors in and Martinus were held the highest reputation in the Gaul of the sixth century. to dance in was then the habit to sing accompaniment ot them.^ Valde enim omnibus noscitur esse indecorum. " Defunctus veto est rex Aedilberct die XXiiii.D. aut disciplinae aculeum sustinere. sive incantationes. mea. orare consuerat. sive sortilegos... 1714. A. Historia Eccle- siastica gentis Anglorum. Epistola Sanctae Radegundis ad Episcopos. xxvi. chap. God. the holy cross. I. III. to Great of down in Roman origin Canterbury. dum adhuc Romani Brittanniam incolerent. Ibid. nee convivia in ecclesia praeparare quia scriptum est Vol. '^When the Roman missionaries under Augustine. Beda. III. vel porticibus ipsarum. sive phylacteria et auguria. in which King Aedilberct was buried ecclesia in v. II. faciunt.) St. after some medieval reconstructions. III. 445. vel divinos. sent by Pope Gregory Britain. qui defensor ecclesiae ejus est. ut sacerdotes loci talia a septis basilicarum. tamen apostolicam gratiam non effugit. Unde convenit. quas stulti homines juxta ecclesias ritu pagano ad ira- sub nomine sanctorum martyrum vel confessorum. Nam quod defuit in ordine. sive hostias immolatitias. quos Niedfyr vocant sive omnes. besides. quibus post Deum sorores meas tradidi defendendas. 371-72. domus vocabittir" Conciliorum.^ and in Great Britain things were not much different. adjuvante gravione. 370: confessores "Dei et et sanctae crucis.. '* Non licet in ecclesia : choros secularium. et aut martyrum. : Deum et sanctos suos .D. Vol. Martin spread very rapidly in the old Church. et beatae Mariae incurrat judicium: Martinum.. Parisiis. paganorum observationes Parisiis. p. Eccl. Hist. Synodus Autissiodorensis. mensis . et beatos A. vel puellarum : cantica exercere. chap. A.. settled states. ut populus sive profana sacrificia Dei paganias non sed omnes spurcitias abjiciat et respuat mortuorum. col. suppletum est in mercede. quae- cumque '*' sunt. cundiam provocantes sive illos sacrilegos ignes. " The Concilium Turonense. Parisiis. as Bede —a and is not the least interesting of the antiquities of Canterbury. THE FEAST OF MARTINMAS The After Hilarius 27 veneration of St. 1714. 578. Vol. col.. 1920-I. and the Virgin Mary. aut clericos psallentes audire.D. autem prope ipsam civitatem ad orientem Plummer. ed. ipsos habeat contradictores et persecutores. church which. aut excomIt municari debeant. and she was a Frankish princess. Oxford 1896." (Her name was Bercta. quam Christianam fuisse praediximus. they found there a St. Acta Conciliorum. : (Beda. saying ot God : " Beatum Martinum peregrina de stirpe ad inluminationem patriae dignatus est dirigere misericordia consulente." Acta Conciliorum. and in to banquet orationis in the same sacred Acta place." these days worldly love songs in the church. unusquisque episcopus in sua parochia solicitudinem gerat. Domus col. '* Decrevimus quoque." etc. col.. 567. ix.

. chap. I.. Isles Venantius Fortunatus. Capitul. under Festum S. p. ^ Boniface also speaks of " fundamenta in castello S. . 46. Martin's goose of which we know a silver one. IV. quam Willibrordus . cuius monasterio praeerat. 18. Hist. c. Maurus.. in Capitulis IValterii Aureliani. § 10: Mr. : the church of St. in Capitulari Ahytonis Episcopi.." Cf." . . in Capitulari Aquisgran. 259Ducange." and Historia Abbatum auctore Anonymo. 13.. ed. 163." after that saint (Beda.^ The popularity of St. Februarii ecclesiam est. Lib. pp. 391. 369 " Ab Agathone papa archicantore ecclesiae beati apostoli Petri et abbate : monasterii ed. Martin with the British ss. etc. and Beda. Hist. Martin was bound to increase from the fact that his day was placed at the greatest ancient Germanic festive tide. Glossariict?t. There was also a monastery called " Et abbas monasterii beati Martini. Martini: " Recensetur inter festa et in honore quae celebrari debent. VI. vv. ed. saying of him " Quem Hispanus. III. nomine et ecclesia insignem . c. c. Britannus amat. Martini consecravit {Monuvienta Moguntina. there is and banqueting. IV. 266. 189. .28 whilst in YULE AND CHRISTMAS Germany the cult of the same saint spread simultaneously with Christianity.. 621 {Monumenta Historica Germaniae. 256. and belongs to the year 1171. Eccl. . Beletus. p. Plummer. iam nunc Anglorum gens obtinet "). viii. Eccl. Venantius Fortunatus (born about 530 at Ceneta and having died as bishop of Poitiers after 600) bears striking testimony. ed. Vita S. Plummer. " Abbatemque monasterii torical Oxford 1296. c. Venerabilis Baedae Opera Historica... . Historia Abbatuin. If Martin called the drunken is no doubt about the the so-called is significance of that expression. A. c. in his edition of Bede's Histhe popularity of the cultus of St. beati in Martini Johanne .. atque in porticu sancti Martini intro beatonim apostolorum Petri et Pauli sepultus ubi et Bercta(e) regina condita St. Martin (Beda. Martini. Ninian and St. 4to series).. in Concilio Lugdunensi sub Inn. although the testimony it by which is warranted not contemporaneous.. and "corpusque eius ab amicis propter amorem St. Basiliensis. cuiusdam destructae a paganis ecclesiolae. Vol. Martini. p.D. A monk of Corvei.. Martin-geese. Ninian probably died earlier than St. Martin {Lives of St. Persa. xxxviii.. Ninian had a bishop seat.. sancti Martini episcopi "Cuius sedem episcopatus. 817. Councils : and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland^ I. Writitigs (Vol. for references illustrating the connection of St. 271-273).. Haddan and Stubbs. where see note . beati Martyni")... Kentigern. 1874. Jaffe). which was later on celebrated through the name and post XX. § 6. II. 43) says: ) "To Martin (who died between 397 and 401 in Britain. we know feasting of no other so much as we do about Martinmas is as a time of saint. in Lib. Forbes.. et iv. Plummer.") unum annos acceptae fidei. et eam proprio labore a funda- mento construxit 260. and however scarce is our information about medieval popular festivals. xxvii. III. : Turonis delatum atque honorifice sepultum est". . xvi. nor there any about The is oldest St. Traiecto repperit.

•In a document of Count Friedrich zu Moers (A. 308 . at Augsburg.^ Public bonfires on Martinmas can be proved for that reason have existed as early as 1448.. 1772. Georg Joachim Marks." speculators about the connection between St. Geschichte vovt Martini. p. Martin's day is just the time of the year when geese are fat. manifeste populis audientibus dixit : cantum hunc celebrem de Martino ego Theutoniae promulgavi.THE FEAST OF MARTINMAS 29 who..^ St.! ^q[\^ th^t in 11 71 Othelricus of Svalenburg. Hamburg und Giistrow. II. where baskets fire. pro fratemitate (obtulit). Ibid. because he was a member of the the gave monks as a present a silver goose. a house was burnt ^ Leibnitz. Martin's Perhaps it has also to do with St. /ntrodmtio. 505. ^ Annales Corbejenses in Leibnitz's festo S. . Scriptores. was repudiated by the clergy as indecent. p. on the feast fraternity of Corvei. who in 1263 wrote his book on the bee contained in his treatise Bonum universale de apibus: "Quod autem obscoena carmina finguntur a daemonibus et perditorum mentibus immittuntur. Altdeutsches Worterbuch^ Comp. 20. Scriptores. and a story was popular according to friend of his demon had boasted it that he and a composed and promulgated to over a large territory. Scriptores. Compare also D.. 229. in 12 16. spirit. Martin's fires that. 71.'^ and are again mentioned about the end of the sixteenth century in Fischart's (+1590) Gargantua. in the middle of the fifteenth century. . when in 1557. Grotefend. Zeitrechnung. 28 " Anserem assatum In\ntat anni Martini per omnes fere domos. II. Germanische Emtefeste. I. Martini 308: "Othelricus de Svalenberg aigenteum anserem in in festo S. Wallraf. beats all enim anseres pingues habentur. 3 The state. p. p.. are stated to have been burnt in the St. Old Leibnitz. qui in Nivella urbe Brabantiae puellam nobilem anno domini 12 16 prosequebatur. a that song. gift of St Martin. when Martinmas was called Funkentag. which. by the simple declaration This was of even that St. compiled the Annals of that monastery. Erat cum collega meo composui ille et per diversas terras Galliae et autem cantus turpissimus et plenus luxuriosis plausibus." J. story It is is told by Thomas Cantipratensis. like almost all songs in use at It Germanic offering tides. Koln. " Pfannenschmid. and domestic animals were difficult to feed during winter time. Martin and geese.. 23). was then ascribed to some evil which. Gernianische : Emtefeste.Abend und Martins-Mann. Pfannenschmid. tempus : turn greater moment in fonner centuries. p. This was probably in comMartin known through pensation for a payment of some annual duty on Martinmas. . 505. Pfannenschmid. II. In the thirteenth century there was a song on large parts of Gaul and Germany. . p. quidam daemon nequissimus. 1878. p. mensis inferunt Gennani. when the accumulation of food was attended with considerable difficulties.

believing him. The farmer. About 1230 an Austrian poet represents peasants drinking to the praise and and memory century jhis of St. Gesammtaienteuer. ' und Tubingen. Germanische Emtefeste. singing " Stoockt vyer. II. A of knight. Geschichtevom Martini. This happened on October was called Martinsnacht apparently because in olden times . Utrecht. 1263: "Dem guoten sant Martine ze lobe und zu minnen. Duke Otto had gone to Harzburg. which he had taken from the Count of Wernigerode. it Nevertheless had been held on November '^ 11. pretending to be St. thief breaks into the farmer's stable. when surprised by the owner.. 30 YULE AND CHRISTMAS down. and." Stuttgart ^Hagen. MarttnsnachtA St. 1772. with the result that in the morning he finds his stable empty. 10. Kleine Gedichte.^ is A joke connected with the Martinmas of the thirteenth preserved to us in the poem St. 1369 we have a description of a celebration of Martinmas. A A rich farmer people have got drunk in honour of Martin.^ According to a seventeenth century source. possessor of Liebenburg. by surprise of the town of Alfeld. A. 50. goes on with his banquet. mackt vyer: Sinte Marten konit hier Met syne bloote arnien Hy sonde hem geerne warmen.Abend und Marlinsmann.D. from 1353. Reimann." . p. ^Der Grimm's Worierbuch. p. Marks. Gisbertus Voetius. 20. The monastery a quantity of wine drink it — of Eilenrostorf received every year. Deutsche Volksfeste. Martin. the Bishop of Hildesheim ^Birlinger. 132. on fires. von Schwichelt.^ What it received before that date not known. half for the mass and half for the convent who were to is in vigilia sancti Martini. No. Martin. Hamburg. 448. lit in Holland the boys.: . p. the festivity That was equally familiar to monasteries is apparent from some documents. IV. 222 . 167. I. p. 284 . V. a report expressly remarks that the young fellows when feasting and holding Martinmas had neglected it. 1659. 1850. Strieker.^ the eve of Martinmas. shakes off his clothes. asked Duke Otto Gottingen to spend Martinmas with him. at the same time compelling.. that feasting Aus Schwaben. Selectae Disputationes Theologicae. Pfannenschmid.

writes in Der deutschen "Die Leute pflegen zum Gedachtniss S. and from Olorinus Variscus and his writing on St. kaufft er jnen Wein vnd Medt. des wolden de van Schwichgelde nyn Gelt vore hebben. Scriptores Br. dar spysen se one myt alle sinen Volke. so behalten die eltesten und die weisen das prustpain. written about 1455 (^<i annum 1375). Oeconomicum (1591).^ : were used for prophecy about the middle of the in his Sebastian Franck (1500-1545) says St. Ibid. which tore each other to pieces. Martens. vermag ers. essen. vnd loben S. unde was St. The meat was divided among the people. trincken. 500 . and Uralte Sachsen Chronic by Caspar Abel. unde wolde darmidde driven in dat Lant to Getting. morgens fru und schawen dan das nach Darnach so urtailen si dan den winter wie si alien umbstenden. und sind so vest des gelauben.. de worden so derna der Borch Goddes Friint. Pfannenschmid. their then they also tap new wines which they have kept so St. Nation Heldenbuch singen". Martini in Deutschland mit : . Martin's far. do dreyff he sin Roffqueck in dat Lant to Getting.. and on the following day presented his host with the castle of Harzburg. physician-in-ordinary to verboten kunst. in his BucA aller der zatiberei (1455) says: "Als man zu sant Martinstag oder nacht die gans geessen hat. until they are drunk. H. des Morgens wolde he de Koste betalen. Martin. the best bits being given to the authorities. Unblessed is the house which has not a goose to eat that night." Odo = November 13. Martin's geese. und genss Oswald von Wolkenstein (1367-1445) sings: I'ss Ott^'^ and bones of Martin's geese fifteenth century. III. Martin's banquet. of Bale (1522-1595). **'Nach dem kompt S." to which he adds a description of a game : " In Franconia at that day people enclosed in a circuit or circle two boars. Pfannenschmid. unde dem Quecke. On Martinmas eve he arrived with his army before Liebenburg. and was invited for St. unde ereden sine Gnaden darmidde. He accepted the invitation. Hartlieb. Calendarium fifty years later that habit was still in use. ungelaubens Duke Albrecht Oi Bavaria. as we know from J. unde aller "^ werlde vyent. da jsset ein jeder Haussvater mit seinem Ilaussgesinde eine Ganss.^ Trinckh martein wein. unde spisede dar sine Borghe midde. 385. p. unde gaff do denen Schwichgelde vor de Woldad de Hartesborch to erve unde to egen. in Leibnitz's Germanische Erntefeste. er sol warm hab. so legerde he sick under der Levenborch."* ^ Bodonis Chronicon pict." trucken oder nass.Avend. Heinrich Panthaleon.THE FEAST OF MARTINMAS to provide the castle of 31 Harzburg with food. Weltbuch of the Francs "Firstly they praise Martin with good wine and geese. das darauf verwetten werden kalt ir gut und A hundred and Golems. und und lassen das trucken werden bis vorn hinden und in der mitt. ^Dr. Martin mit voll seyn.: "HertogOtto de bose to Getting halde eyn grot hop des Quecks uth Holt-Lande van der Wulfesborch.

117. Des deutschen Landmanns Practica. have many things to tell about Martinmas and its geese.. same century says. the times when people St. Richtet ihr hierauf eure beharrliche Andacht. und mit den Nachbaren und dem Hausgesinde mit Sanct Martino der p. — I. II." On Martinmas gaieties a mass of material is contained in Mussard. 1593. . Frische Liedlein. Aepfeln und Kastanien p. Jahrhunderts iibel " Und weil heute der Tag Martini gefallet. p. 1554. from Agricola. Forster. versteht und weiss nicht. sonderlich .. gleich als wenn aller Dinge Ueberflusi Armen Patron vorhanden say. and Martin. then people roast geese. als will ich zu einer Martinsgans bitten. Nicht aber wie die Aberglaubischen. St. G. "We Germans think Shrove Tuesday. frohlich zu sein. Marks. II. Lib. 1511-1563). No. zu fullen und zu einem lieblichen Schmack zu geben. Burkhard. Simrock. Antiquitates Stptentrionales . ^ Scheible. um diese Martinszeit. Joannes Boemus Aubanus. should be gay and banquet more than at other seasons of the year: on Burkhard's eve for the sake of the the new must . 52. Und wird allda der Most zu Wein. in the frohlichem Gemlith St. Delineatio frateniitatum Calendarum. fol. und ist und bleibet selbst eine Gans. p.. Calvor.: 32 YULE AND CHRISTMAS writer of the A St.Abend und Martinsmann. Es isset Mancher eine Gans nach der andern. sondern was wir bei einer Gans christlich zu lernen haben. p.." Ibid. Ceremoniae Ecclesiasticae. Lorichius. . De Omnitan Gentium Kitibus. on Martinmas perhaps fat for sake of the ^ new wine. Ritual EccL. II ^ Scheible. 1772. Regnum Papistkum. Schaltjahr. On that night. Dresden. Hamburg. 187. Keisler. Pirnische Chronick in Meiuken. p. I. all the world rejoicing. Geschichte vom Martini. von kiinftiger Winterwitterung aus dem Brustbein weissagen. 194: "Ganse geben Speis. p. . even when coming from Protestant pulpits. sie Drum ihnen auch der Martinstag sehr gefahrlich Verstandige Koche wissen mit gutem Beifusz." xiv. Germanische Erntefesie.. Aberglatiben. was Gott und die Natur uns an derselben zu studiren gegeben."^ On the eve of Martinmas the devil had free play. anzeigen. ist.^ The popular rime says " Auff Martini schlacht man feiste Schwein. 1520. Blumberg. die Martensganss zu essen.." Sermons of the seventeenth century. : Schaltjahr. Parts. 1858. 500-1. ^Grasse. nach jetzt erzahltem heidnischem Gebrauch. Ix. 27. daran es die Ganse leider dieselbe haben. . . IV. 155. Atis einer protestantischen Martinspredigt des 17. and Pasch. Martensnacht zu begehen. Pentecost. Martinslteder. Jod. . Pfannenschmid. and many items of later dates. II. 5. und anatomieren und zutheilen. 1540. pp. 95. 362. where other proofs for similar festivities are given from Thomas Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmaier of Straubingen. P. Nlirnberg.

and raged about in an indescribable fashion. p. gift in where such festivities existed till after 1750. 1605. e.^ Rhine country. the persons soller in 1750. who took part were sixty-one. de anno 1708) . They dined at two tables. to a young fellow. So on February it 4. and June 1649. in old Frankfurt-on-the-Main.^ In the seventeenth century the police began to become an important factor in the development." THE FEAST OF MARTINMAS shape of a 33 man dressed in a long wolf-skin coat.. . for sale. so that all the persons possessed had to be brought to the high altar of the church for protection.^ being given as a return for the duties paid at that term. was forbidden to bake Mertins hornichen to the other Martin's festivities at many places. 2 "Die libel practicirten Martins. at the banqueting {Hofessen) on Sunday 102). 462. of popular 22. p. p.. 2 The same happened Yet some lived on for a in the considerable time as quasi legal institutions.g. Germanische Erntefesie. 324 (ed. he appeared in 1594 at Spandau. or rather suppression. 123. Schreckliche Zeitung. Sckaltjakr. Archiviibersicht. 224 . in ^Al Oberaussem. also Schiller's Glossar. comp. at a tisch auffm and a specktisch ifn haus (Armin Tille. after Martinmas. ^Scheible.oder Herbsttriinke " (" Wurzburger Heibstinstruction Werndii Tractatus vom Zehntrechte. p. Brandenburg. usages. Pfannenschmid. IV.

" whilst it adds the above sentence from D "and leoht-gesceotu thriwa on geare. and church-scot by Martinmass ("serest sulh-oelmessan xv. and ciric-sceat be Martinus-maessan "). wintra.. iii. Ciric- sceattas sin agifene be Sancte Martines mgessan. odhre sidhe to gang-dagum. A. A. of the tenth century. niht onufan Estron. 690 (688-693): "Be Ciric-sceattum. 967) it the was enjoined that plough-alms were to be given xv. and of earth-fruits by All Saints. 121. 201 (v. Peter's mass. 215. and a tithe of young by Pentecost . Parisiis. 967. Vol. HI. i. ca. a small folio of the middle of the eleventh century. Ciric-sceat mon sceal agifan to tham healme In and ^ to tham heordhe the semon on bidh to middum a. Corpus Christi. Oxford.CHAPTER IV. Church-scot had to be paid then. col." Acta Conciliorum.D. thriddan sidhe on Ealra Halgena msesse sefen. 18) . MARTINMAS. Leges " Quisque fetuum decimas omnes ante Ecclesiasticae Regis Edgari.. He who failed do so was to forfeit and render the church-scot twelve-fold." "^ Ibid. D. X. 1871. and has the following sentence immediately preceding to the quoted AngloSaxon text ". a large octavo MS. and ge&gudhe teodhunge be Pentecosten. and odhre sidhe on candel-msesse sefen. 657-8.^ ^ Haddan and Stubbs.. after serest thonne bidh msest folces gegaderod the following: .. England (London). Ixi. days after Easter .and riht is that man thisses mynegige to Eastrum. 460.D. In Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Institutes of (ca. Councils and Laws of King Ine of Wessex." 1840.d. II. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR. Martinmas is the earliest term occurring in the Anglo-Saxon Laws. and Rome-"feoh" by St. Bodleana. VI. so early as the seventh century/ though the church to which it was to be paid was that of the place at which a to man stayed in the beginning of the calendar year. and Rom-fe6h be Petres-maessan. : "Be ciric-sceatte. This is the reading of MS. and eordh-westma be Omnium Sanctorum. 217. HI. : canons enacted under King Edgar thriddan sidhe to middan-sumera.^ sixty shillings. on Easter-sefen. Junius.. : . 1714. has Ealra Hdlgena jnisssan instead of Omnium Sanctorum. about Ecclesiastical Documents.

also three times a year the candle money has to be . per Ibid. : "Jura Deo debita unusquisque annuatim recte pendito Paschate : aratri scilicet eleemosynam decimaquinta nocte a fetuum seu novellorum gregum decimas.D. {Ibid. preserved Henry the First (1100-1135). quae Anglice 'ciric-sceatt' England {X^x^Aoxi) 1840." to be paid at Peter "All Saints. 524. Concilia by von et Ritter." and Paul. quos Romam ad sanctum Petrum debetis. 1734. Census Romae debitus [quem denarium sancti Petri vocant] and festum qui cyrick sancti Petri sceat ad vincula ad (alias Missam sancti Petri) persolvatur : et ecclesiae census. Cnut's letter is also printed in the Acta Coftciliorum. Epistola Canuti Regis ad Anglorwn 1031 : "Omnium debita. 204. and the firstlings of the seeds at Martinmas xii. I.D.D. undecies persolvat abbati de Perscora. 1714. et terrae frugum ad aequinoctium. sive ex villis. This institute is angelsdchsischen Kirche. but probably a good deal longer. VI. xi. I. 1847. 846.^ It is like many other Germanic institutes also found in Pentecosten persolvito terrae quidem fructuum decimas ante aequinoctium pendito ipsas " Et autem seminum primitias sub festum divi Martini reddito. xi. iii. as late as the reign of It was. I. proceres. Vol. where the terms enumerated are: "a is fortnight after Easter. . sint persoluta: scilicet eleemosyna pro aratris.. col. p. pp." whilst. 908.. col.MARTINMAS. sint liberse. Luminarium census ter quotannis penditor". xvi. Ibid. ed. p. VI. 899. 302. London..Vaiism. hidis. ad festum omnium Sanctorum. A. Ancient Laws and in festivitate Sancti Martini primitiae degit. et in festivitate sancti Martini primitiae quae Anglice Curcset nominatur. et dies fractus et in festivitate Sancti Martini ipse. p. XL. et. sive ex urbibus. et decimae animalium ipso anno procreatorum. ad ecclesiam sub cujus parochia quisque degit. Altertiimer der Compare David Wilkins. et undecies persolvat. et terrae fructuum. Thorpe. xii. plenam forisfacturam quam 1009) x.. 1032). ad Pentecosten . 56.. "at Pasch. 104: " Et seminarum ad ecclesiam sub cujus parochia quisque " De nominatur") {Ibid. scilicet si de unaquaque hida ubi francus si homo manet unam fuerit. commented upon by Lingard. xvii. in the notes).. col... § 4): "Qui cyric- sceattum tenebit ultra festum Sancti Martini. xix . 21 Institutes of : cirisceato de Perscora dicit vicecomitatus." Ibid. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR This term lived on a considerable time.): paid {Ibid. Missam Martini. : judicialis liber dicit. summam annonse. 1 col. and Pfannen- schmid." 520 {Leges Regis Henrici Primi. Parisiis. Germanische Erntefeste." terms {Acta Conciliortim. Breslau. plures habet hidas. . 899. qui retinuerit det ipsam summam. quod ilia ecclesia de Perscora debet habere ipsum cirisceattum de omnibus ccc. 59. col. 35 at any rate. 659. reddat et eum episcopo. et reddat forisfacturam abbati de Westminstre quia sua terra est" I." 776 {Concilium Aenhamense. col. Bye and bye Easter creaps into the number of these 1714.. solidos. besides. Peter's penny "Pentecost. et. Magnae Britanniae Hiberniae. A mention of this institute occurs in Cnut's letter from Rome (Thorpe. A.. Leges Ecclesiasticae Canuti Regis. xiii. appellatur. Thorpe's Ancient Laws. I.. 909. et denarii.). regi 1. quae secundum legem antiquam debemus. : : : et omne ciricsceattum ad festum sancti Martini. seminum. omnis decimatio juventutis reddita sit ad Pentecosten." "at All Saints." and "at Mary's Purification". Ancient Laws. col. et mediante Augusto decimae frugum. Also Heming. A.

which were due three times a beginning of winter. set gares cepinge and on sefrice styde.. 1899. made Then was also paid an instalment of the wages of female year..e. Otho. Huntingdon (Manuscript of century xil. in pascha. Madriti in Castelia Potthast. where falling- obtained all through the Middle Ages. to laengten-sufle. (1275. Ancient Laws. There the church tax due at it Martinmas was even called Martin's penny. 15 (Ducange-Henschel. p. Majorinum Coin. his Writ of Privileges to the Abbey of Ramsey. 257): "and ealle dha gyltes dha belimpedh to mine kinehelme inne lol and inne Easteme and inne dha hali wuca set Gangdagas on ealle thingan al swa ic he6 meseolf ahe. comp. B. pp." John Earle.. ad quadragesimalem convictum and on sumera." H. auctore lohanne Diacono Glossary. dicitur quae vulgariter ^Norrenberg. not over politely. Girmanische der Pfarreien des 23.. ( + 1 1 30). ' : ' other old customs. ab omni telonii exactione liberi sint. A * Thorpe. . 466. Geschichte Dekanates Miinchen Gladbach. among Wallace in aestate. A similar shifting of terms is to be observed in England in the at eleventh century. xiv. Notes and Queries. Oxford. 1888. Cottoniana. IV." . at mid-Lent. I. 344-345.^ the beginning of Church-scot was not the only payment to be winter. Old Martinmas Day (23 Rag Dinner.Book to the Land. qui dicitur Mertyns pennynge. p. be wsetere and be lande habeant et omnes forisfacturas quae pertinent ad regiam coronam meam in natali dominico. and tolfreo ofer ealle Engleland. in omnibus rebus sicut ipse habeo. a change which seems have taken place in the thirteenth or in the beginning of the fourteenth century. February 4. i. viz. Martiniega. whither the Goths apparently had carried it and in Germany. 1878. et in sancta ebdomada rogationum.^ Spain. "Rectitude Ancillae : ad hiemale companagium. at the servants. et per totam Angliam infra ciuitatem et extra. retain that of having a social gathering on November). 276. quendam virum ex eius curia ad colligendam exactionem regiam. Pfannenschmid. No. f. 304): "Accidit. . which is. 436-7. and at the beginning of later summer. and to winter-sufle.^ In Germany Martinmas was legally recognised as a general term for paying Ij ^ Vita Sancti Isidori Agricolae. Wegweiser. The name refers who are changing masters at Martinmas." A similar state of things survived up to the present time. certissime advenisse.D. is A. widhinne burhe and widhiitan. St. CO.Charters and other Saxonic Docutnents. in tempore hiemis sub mense Decembri Erntefeste. No.^ when to the payment of had been shifted to Christmas... designated the Pack to the fact that the indoor menservants about the farms. 1889. 24: Among the revenues of the church at Giesenkirchen ^ named: "denarium. Eadward (1042-1066)." Hand. 766). 85. p. Hedger The agricultural labourers in some of the North Derbyshire villages. in a note on Pack Rag Feast by R. gather together their belongings for removal from one house to another. in omni foro et annuls nundinis et in omnibus omnino locis per aquam et terram. 1845. Dec.36 YULE AND CHRISTMAS it. 1324. Ninth Series.

" Sachsenspiegel. 49.23-28.Abend und Martins-Mann. aut bis in anno. 95. Landrecht. 1297.. aut per festivitates martyrum. 1318. 736 . I. The same was the case Wiirtemberg monasteries. sibi defendat. Georg Joachim Mark's Geschichte vom Martini-Abend und Martins-Mann. 1S93. p. HI. I. p. ^ 'Ltyitr. Cotuiliujji Bracarense. and in the ninth century it was in general use. or. p... by Wittmann. and pp. to w^hich are to be added those mentioned in E. : Emtefeste. Germanische Emtefeste. it fails to answer. 81. The story is firequently related in modern times. but it is certain that in 1567 it was called an old habit. That book is devoted to the question of the origin of the custom of the so-called Martinsviann at LUbeck. Preface. which. Pfannenschmid. Pfriindenordnung of the Monastery of Geisenfeld.^ are ^ In thirteenth century ordinances about leases. Leipzig. aut semel. from the thirteenth century. 58. Art. 222. The origin of the habit is unknown. 26.. of Germanic As a gift in return for the duties paid —a kind New Year's in gift — the Town Council of Liibeck received some deer. Book H.^ We know of such gifts to the clergy on saints' days from about the middle of the sixth century." Ample evidence on Martinmas as a term I have given in my Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht. am S. 1772. contains on pp.. Westphalen's Monumenta Inediia. 291-296.. confuse the legal recognition of an existing status with the introduction of it. verzehent man mit einem hune. Deutsche Volksfeste. apud unum clericorum fideliter colligatur . and Pfannenschmid. aut offertur. that on Martinmas the Town Council of the Imperial city of Liibeck sent a barrel of old Rheinweinmost to the Court of Schwerin. p. PP. There the prelate was under obligation .D. Hamburg. Hamburg. 28S . Middle Germany. quid ex collatione fidelium. " leclichen hof und vourt unde sunderlich hus verzendet man mit eyme by Weiske. et omnes clericos dividatur nam non modica ex ipsa inaequalitate discordia generatur. " Item placuit. 352. " Jeglichen hoff. 27 a chapter (13). p. Part IV. : Acta Coiuiliorum. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR \ 37 duties about the time of Charlemagne. 48. e. Martinstag sind allerhand pfleg und zins verdient. A. 204. 205 hune § 5 .. 1856. Mitlelhochdeutsches Ergdnzungsworterbuch. Nicolaus von Werle. ut Parisiis. col. 341. pp. 1772. si unusquisque in sua septimana quod oblatum fuerit. by Reimann. p. ^ ^ Anton. si Vol. ed. odder wiiste hofstadt vnd sonderlich as another version has it : heuser. by per commemorationem defunctorum constituto tempore.. I. Martinstag.. Geschichte der Landwirtschaft. 1294. Miinchen. p. Pfannenschmid. 1460. 1 7 14. however. and mentions there documents of a.g.MARTINMAS. p. mentioned that two generations earlier Graf Heinrich of Schwerin concluded a bargain with Archbishop Engelbrecht of Koln to the effect that the archbishop had to send him annually at Martinmas fifteen harradas or barrels of wine. Von der Zahlungsfrist auf Martini. 223. H. geese or fowls mentioned which are delivered at Martinmas. gave the town of Waren exemtionem ab angariis et petitionibus omnibus under the condition that the citizens every year at Martinmas would send him on a cart quantitatem seminum . ed. J." Ibid.d. GertJianische ze sente Mertinstage. Mark's Geschichte vom Martini. inter : Germanische Emtefeste. Ibid." "An St. by Mark . ^ xxi.

. Das festliche Jahr. fur 3 Ibid. the terms were the last days within which the duties had to be paid. Reinsberg-Uiiringsfeld. han wir ussgeben und bezalt unserm gnedigen herren dem Sigmund die gewonliche des rijchs sture von sant Mertinstag izunt vergangen keiser die im . Wine was also given at 684 . iG* : " Hartmude an fizscher porten synen jarlon 31b. p. they became the days on which the payment had to be made. ^Grimm. Jena." ^ 607. Rechenbuch. keiser mynner 3iss. 3SS.^ for the whole of the a. wie das rothbuchlein und die rechnung in belt. at Erfurt. '^Frankfurt Kechenbuch.D. M. and a quarter (Nork. 1358-59.. Regu" Uff sanct Martins abent sal lations for the Kiichenmeister (the highest economic official) er wein. fol. but when the taxes were paid in money. sines halben jarlons bezalet unde ged sin jar uz unde an i uff sand Mertinsdaig pliget man yme eyn schriber jar zuo gebin 61b. under " Einzelinge Innemen:" "Item 2951b. Ztir Geschichte des Eigentums in den deutschen Stddten. the fact that. fol. 1435." Ibid. 1853. 1253 money payments Martinmas. each old man and each vk^oman half a pint." apostolorum Gultsmede lb. and appointments same period.^ As early as a. 14 ss. and even the baby p. year of taxation were year for which or the made at In medieval Frankfurt M. han wir enphangen von Johan Heller. about 1494 (Michelsen. und geng lb.d. in the cradle. but the in \ beginning of the economic evident from the Middle Ages. for the to Martinmas. 6 achteil kornes unde rog .* and so to give the Martin's wine to all people of his place. 141b. Sunday previous. 93*: " Sabbato ipso die l divisionis zu Bonemesse penning lones unde 2 achtel dem wechter uff dem thorne komes unde ist da midde unde 22^. is like other terms. : ^ Arnold. the officials were appointed ran from Martinmas to Martinmas. 1374. 26.\\i. male and female servants. Der Maimer Hof zu Erfurt am Ausgange des Mittelalters (1494). accounts run from Martinmas were made of taxation. uff weihenachten opffergelt und uff das neue jhor zum neuen jhor geben. und auch christsemeln wie sich gehurth geben. 340). KechtsaltertUmer. fol. which is also understood to cover a year As long as the duties were paid in natural products. 39% under "Einzelinge ussgeben:" "i 100 lb. im spitale zum heiligen geiste als der uns rechnunge getan hat von dem jare das Martini anno 74 ussgangen ist. 1 862. der sol sin zolles halp. Deutsche stete reht hat. Basel. Martinmas at the court of the Archbishop of Mayence. Festkalender. p. sines an des suntags vor sant Mertinsdag." Actum sabbato post dominicam Esto mihi anno 1475.^ So did the period of imperial taxation. Oeringen. III. 1253: " Swer dirre und sol daz jar alles fri Frankfurt a. A. 68. i. geben ze sante Mertins naht achte heller..") and about 1520 at Wiirzburg. sin jar fol. p.38 YULE AND CHRISTMAS That Martinmas was not merely a term year. as Martin Boemus tells us. In the provostship of Hellingen each holder of a tenure received a pint.. 1474.

does not pay his citizen money." " " MARTINMAS.'^ i. p. all through the fourteenth century. hell. the amount of corn and wine duty. Ibid. .2 requisite maintaining the owner and his till servants from the date of paying the taxes Martinmas was free from Martinmas being the a. which Sf. ^ Ibid. according to which once a year judgment was held. so mochte man sie uff in zun juden uff sinen schaden nemen . during interrupted. 485.e.D. A. near Boppard. who lived see lives St. agricultural work was was counted from Martinmas till Petri ad catJiedram (Feb.^ On the other hand. 370. I. for during that time. Ob.^ That on the banks of the Rhine Martinmas twelfth century also was considered as the beginning of the economic year evident from a document of a. of Hirzenach. 1149. the inhabitants of the villages which are under the protectorate of the city have to give "eyme schultheizsen eynen schilling phennige vnd ein hun uff Ibid. A. biirger of Frankfurt M. tancil. last term for paying the duties. in 1297. p. wo he det nit entede. 1474) " eyn : komenden drj' jare zu heben und zu sant Mertins dag schirst kommend p. Leipzig. "sal geben zuschen hie vnd sant Mertins dag neist kommet 10 lb. were required to have a household within the in the is ramparts of the city.D. p. p. Zwei mittelalterliche Steuerordnungen in Kleinere Beitrdge zur Geschichte iglich der nehst von Dozenten der Leipziger Hochschule.... 39. I. p.. Vol. the Ffahla. 1383. and the day of after Martinmas.d. 19'': "6ss. 150 The duties are to be raised (a.d.^ In the thirteenth century the winter.. M." ^Karl Blicher. the taxation year beginning with Martinmas. 22). Bevdlkerung von Frankfurt a.. "Und sal . I. Annalen fUr Rheinische Geschichtskunde. p.. it proclaimed the day at the beginning of that year economic.. Heinrich vom Rijne und andere des rades frunde umb siner sunderlichen begerunge willen zu Pressburg zuvor bezalten und ussrichten uff sine quer^ Bedebuch of Frankfurt a.T>. dem schultheiszen sin recht uff sant Mertins dag. of A. M.. 354." * Karl Biicher...^ as they are now in Scotland.. anetzufahen. from the Citizettbook of 1378. von siner swieger seligen wegen. 1476. und 4ss. Die Bevdlkerung von Frankfurt ^ a. 1894. p. I. 263. Ibid. the taxes were raised November all or December.. 486. . die nach sant Mertins dage von dodes wegen abegegangen ist. . 1372. I.^ In the medieval Frankfurt in M. but not for those who died for before because their did not cover the whole of the taxation year. all officials In medieval Tirol Martinmas began the business year for which Walther Swarzenberg.. LXII. ^Biicher. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR it 39 to came that the tax had to be paid for all people it. Martin's day. He who sant Martins dag". 139. '' M.

p. of Burgeis. 1607. 7. churches. "^ I. 200.D. 237. and crop year on Martinmas With the this finally marked by the changing of end of the old agricultural and crop year a new one began. Tiroler IVeisiiimer. ' Aus dent Leckrain.D. II.. A. 1630. parishes paid.* When drawing conclusions from his firmly believes discussion of popular Martinmas. .^ and for which duties and interests were paid. 293. als hernach folgt unzt auf Martini zu verrichten schuldig sein : . : dienst. .. 351. 168.D. 79." umb dieselben zins desselben jars ledig wurd und A long list of other cases is given in the apparatus to my Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht.'^ all So other sorts ." Ibid. . A. 193. Martinmas began the rustic winter in Tirol so late as the and seventeenth centuries.40 YULE AND CHRISTMAS If anybody's were elected. ... Hannover. Vintschgau soil.D. Upper an sanct Martins des heiligen bischofs tag zu gwalthabern und dreierern furgenomen. and accounts handed duties in kind at Martinmas. of Latsch. Martins Lieder. which might have been hard for many a one.D. auch am kassuntag. . A. p. . 1727. p.. who Germanic year began with the winter most solstice.. 1416... A.D. ' into money. erwolt und " Ein feldsaltner erkiest warden. that the Heino Pfannenschmid. of Glurns. Germanische Erntefeste. p. though the harvest had been reaped and turned sayings. Birlinger.d.. jarlich .d.. * ^ Nork. Engadine Sollen drei erbare verstendige mannspersonen .. A. is This also shown by the fact that leases end about Martinmas. when the rent has to be paid. III. p. A. Ibid. " Ibid. II. xv. Then new lease year begins both in Germany and England new servants are hired. ^Zingerle.. he needed to pay no duties that Besides. Martin's day. 104. Und ob dann ainer verprent oder verprunne vor sand Martins tag.. 1440. " Der messner allhier hat auch jahrlich am st Martinstag " vor der ganzen gemeinde stehen und um solches amt bitten .. A. a bad man. p. . 173. Vintschgau " : Ibid. p. IV.'^ of accounts are and money made up and are paid to monasteries. 1427. of Nassereit . 683. of Kortsch. p. III. of Partschins . and Simrock. A. p.. In France Martinmas was considered the beginning of winter and Torminz. p. A. a.3 fifteenth St. p. 132. wo es kann. 1614. 65.. 1878. III. II. p. wo nit doch neyst darnach angenomen und seinen ^Zingerle. p.. III. 143 i. 33.D.. 1303 II.. Tiroler Weistiiiner. III. Leoprechting.^ property was burnt before year.' and ' Martin in. Festkalender. . p. 258. p. und soil auch jahrlich 1674. . arrives at the result^ "that Martinmas forms the conclusion of the peasant agricultural year. II. 310. a. '* : 1580. Ibid. is church The conclusion of the old agricultural servants. . payments are made. derselb sol los sein. ^ Ibid.D.. is To this refer the Martin is a severe man. Aus Schwaben.D. Vintschgau urlaub.

^"Nork. Schwartz. But in as. Miilhause. the began with the eve.^" solstices Even Grotefend (who has to confess" that been completely led astray by Weinhold's theories.^ About Martinmas. Urreligion. 41 Martin explaining the latter fact high esteem and reverence in which that Saint was also the time about held. with the beginning of winter at Martinmas. In the Hannover. 683. Altmdrkisckes IVorterbuch. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR and of the new year. H.^ Havel country it a short time ago. The Church Ordinance Hoya of 1573* fixed Martinmas as the officials in date for the elders of the church to lay the accounts before the presence of the minister.. Pfannenschmid gives a long list of facts in support of Martinmas being an old term. even a new era was computed from on the was computed from Christ's death. Rochholz. elder Gebrduche. was so male farm servants changed.^ Also the lease year began Martinmas Germany and England. 132. p. ^ p. IVorterbuch.. to which Pfannenschmid' added in other provinces of that was also the case in Lower Saxony and of Germany. at Now in they change at Christmas. Germanische Erntefeste. ^ Germanische Erntefeste. . " Martinstag ist bei der Zweiteilung des Jahres provinciell als I. H. Aus Schwabeti. Volksfeste. Norddeutsche Sagen. ^^ p. and in his time still Montanus^ noted left bank of the Rhine. Festkalender. p. Wandelkirchen. according to which the Germanic year was divided by and equinoxes) has among the country folk in various districts Martinmas means the beginning of winter. After the time of Gregory of Martin's death. ^Schambach.^ Elsewhere female farm servants changed. where a dual division of the year prevails. Simrock. the legend of as a proof of the St. Birlinger. 19). Mythologie. 511. 15. 1 Anfang des Winters gebrauchlich " (Zeitrechnung. 401 ." ^ where. the and that agricultural year closed with Martinmas. Pfannenschmid. H. 131. Tours... ^Richter. ^ Pfannenschmid. their places at Male and female farm servants changed at Seelze near Martinmas. 511. so for the ancient As the day Germans the new year could begin beginning of the year. just as an era that formerly everylease year St. 308. 574. p. p. 14. ^Waldmann. 55..MARTINMAS. ^Kuhn und ^Ibid. 359. Eichsf ^Danneil. I. 132.^ and till in other regions all servants did. Germanische Erntefeste. Germany Martinmas must have been considered in a certain respect. 511.

Martin's goose to the next is properly regarded as a complete year. The explanation of that phrase.. trink Wein ad circulum anni. name Rome-feoh on it ground showed the this in foreign origin and purpose of only too clearly. the so-called not-ordered law courts.. or with winter. 1262. mid-March. in Schiram terminandum modernis autem temporibus pro uno et : eodemque habentur apud homines hundredi. Codice veteri. given there by The time from one St. IV. It in some phrases still used as identical Instead of: with year. Martin's goose. ^A sub curious interpretation of the entirely. per tria. according of the year. even when one or two of them disappear. Peter's mass. variationem locorum et idiomatis. atque e nunc primum typis editus. . II. wrong. eo quod erat tertia pars provinciae quia vero super eos dominabantur. trithingreves vocabantur. sciendum quod aliae potestates erant . vel plura hundredi solebant Trithinga vocari id est. been forgotten given by Fleta seu Commentarius Juris Anglicani seu circa annos abhinc CCCXL. § 23: " Ue tritingis. and mid-July). p. chap. Anonymo conscriptus. "a man eat has lived through many years. autore ipso aliquantulwn recentiori. was by a perfectly voluntary act that the payment was fixed at St.42 In YULE AND CHRISTMAS German folk-belief there is still is a faint recollection of Martinmas being the old Germanic New Year. is i. Lib. Keeping mind. Rudolf Hildebrand. wapentakia appellantur.^ " Iss The old hexameter. wakentakia. in comitatum differebatur quod in Trithingis non potuit diffiniri. It is to a dual division or a tri-partition a fact of great weight that they adhere to these terms. 1647." . Its Thus it has nothing to do with ancient British Germanic institutions. course. is word Trithinga. Londini. ah sic Edwardo Re^e primo 134. et Trithinga. we cannot fail to see that the ordinary taxes as well as duties like light-scot ^Grimm's Wdrterbuch. sicque quod Anglici vocant hundredos. et vel quatuor. when people of regular drank good luck new annual of Beside the legal institution termly duties It stands that assemblies. jam." the folk say : The man has helped to many a St. there existed was shown before that among the Germanics sometimes three (originally held at mid(originally held at November.." also alludes to Martinmas as the to a beginning of the year. Ixi. The only of it foreign impost It imposed by the Church upon her believers was the Peter's penny. quibus differebantur causae quae non in wapentakes poterint diffiniri in Schiram. super wapentakia quae tritinga dicebantur. as the phrase went previously.^ sometimes two mid-November and mid-May). Ganss Martini. which shows that its meaning had nuncupatus.

the term used being to losngten-sufle and ad quadragesi- ^Thorpe's Ancient Laws. xii. . under King Ethelred: " iv. that is. and leoht-gescot gelaeste man to Candel-maessan." : UNIVERSITY Of MARTINMAS. oththe huru be Ealra Halgena msessan. aerest on Easteron Ealra Halgena maessan eall I. xii. "^Ibid. and eordh-wsestma be emnihte.. : s^hwilce xvii. d6 oftor sethe wille. and eft on geare. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR had to be paid three times a the several districts.. 306: "xi. gelsest "ix. and sethe that nelle gelaestan sylle thar-t6-eacan. 436-7. And gelaeste man Codes gerihta georne sulh-selmessan xv. 434-35 " Et det suum cyric-sceatum in festo Sancti Martini (and sylle his cyric-sceat : to Martinus maessan ")." {Here the equinox was probably substituted for the older All-Hallows "x. 342 (also under King Ethelred): be Pentecosten be wite.. decimam suam.. And gelaeste man Codes niht ofer gerihta. and light-scot thrice in the year. And Rom-fe6h Seminum. Ealra Halgena maessan. quando melius stetit hoc sicut aratrum peragrabit decimam acram. And leoht-gescot thriwa on geare". I. teodhunge be Pentecosten. x. ut omnis homo. in the resolutions passed geare the Council of georne. to 43 little year.) : selmesse huru fiftene niht ofer Eastran. super dilectionem Dei et et omnium sanctorum. and at Ibid. De Primitiis De Nummo Romano. I. thrtwa De Pecunia Pro Lucernis. 318... peninga. and eordh-wsestma be Ealra Halgena mgessan.. Sulhaelmessan gebyredh that man gelaeste be wite aeghwilce geare. det cyricsceattum rectam ... niht on ufan Eastran. And gelaest man Codes gerihta aeghwylce geare rihtlice georne. of by All-hallows' Peter's for mass). sicut in diebus antecessorum nostrorum stetit.. that Enham is. and le6ht-gescot thriwa on geare". 'Thorpe's Ancient Laws. and Rom-feoh be Petres msessan. niht beodh agan ofer Easter-tid. p." The same is ordained in the Laws of King Cnut. EEghwylce geare. 338. Ibid. : "xvi. 1017-1042 (Ibid.^ one of the days of payment them being Candlemas. And Rom-fe6h be Petres msessan. gelaeste for gilde hine mid twelffealdan. sulhterm. that is. thonne XV. rihtlice sulh-aslmessan huru XX.. leoht-gesceot. Eastron And : ge6godhe teodhunge be Pentecosten. and geogudhe ix. And ciric-sceat gelaeste man be Martinus-maessan. and eordh-waestma be Ealra Halgena msessan xviii. 366 " viii. I. xxx. And Rom-fe6h gelaeste man seghwilce geare be Petres maessan. and geogodhe teodhunge be Pentecosten. and ciric-sceat t6 Martinus msessan xix. p. p. Singularum Personarum). 2). days earth fruits after Under King Ethelred (991-10 16) plough-alms were Easter.^ In the Rectitudo Ancillae^ mid-Lent is named as the second of the three terms of the year. and eft to thaem Sanctan Mariam claensunge eal swa" (Feb. xi. swa mycel. I. est. Ibid. and tham cyninge cxx. and mass (and Rome-feoh by St. aet And aefen healf-penig-wurdh wexes aelcere hide. {Rectitudines I. Et praecipimus. scillingas. And cyric-sceat to Martines maessan. And si selc geogudhe teodhung I. though their exact terms vary a in be paid xv. and gilde tham cyninge cxx. and a tithe of young by Pentecost. and sethe that ne scillingas. and eordh-waestma be be Petres maessan.

Archive. No. St. Zeitrechnung des deutschen Miitelalters. was easily replaced by the Rogation Days. it it two had originally fallen on October 24 and February quite inexplicable would be how the term could have moved away from i. but that solstice had any earlier early relation to a summer which It fell is about three weeks festivals must be most emphatically gainsaid. In Flanders Day (March Sommer at tag/^ Just as the mid-May term.D.44 YULE AND CHRISTMAS convictum. ^Deutsche Rechtsaltertumer. Diisseldorf. III. winter being in both called Martinmas. p.^ fifteenth century call simply mitte merzenf whilst. malem Tirol The fourteenth century Rhenish Urbary of spring St. "Grotefend. almost all so significant. But to that date the shifted in festival of the beginning of late or it summer at mid-July had been legal the tenth eleventh century.! gives Gertrudis Day (March 17) as the it term. to two centuries beginning Gertrudis of summer was reckoned cases 17) is begin on April 23. for the very simple reason that. which halved the year beginning Martinmas. 22. 245. and afterwards by Pentecost. IV. Tiroler Weistumer. represented one side of them. There is no doubt the autumn Thing and the spring Thing were the most important. 821 ss. Victor. 8% leaf 8*. true the which appear in medieval poetry are almost all celebrated either at Pentecost or ze einer sunnenwenden (about June 24).. while the summer Thing could not be time of war. Stift Xanten. I. last to A festival about the middle of July it I should be the deny to Ger- manics. at Burgeis.* the St. p. a become detrimental to a mid-Lent The earliest date on which Easter distant from could fall was March date three only a week March 15. whilst the term in many places remained where is had been. Grimm that has shown ^ that the old Germanic offering-tides coincided with the Thing tides. 33. A. Xanten.. ze einer sunnenwenden foreign. ^A. ^Zingerle. at Partschins.. and had June 24 been an old Germanic date (so that the other 24). so the date Were it otherwise. Slavs. in men able to bear arms were away. 745. ^Zingerle. and Celts. 1431. .D. 1630. Tiroler Weistiimer. and with ^ State. or rather to a mid-March term. which was equally out of keeping with October under " with Christmas." R. itself is As the expression foreign. so the nearness of the Christian festival of Easter could scarcely fail to term. to mid-July. 65. 178. nay. whilst documents of the later.

Taalk. It there appears as St. . 134 Grotefend.^ So in At other places July 1 7 appears Swabia children and gilds received gifts the year.^ just as in Germany a Roman had quarter of a year was taken as identical with spring. and he 1546. and counted from February 22 to May 25. Swabia. Victor.. Zeiirecknung. Annalen des historischen Vereins fiir den Niederrkein.^ It In 1461 it was still taken and was the occasion of a local fair like that was still regarded also as one summer term in the Tirol of the divided the time of pasture into two halves. Aus Schwaben. but even as the beginning of a as the joyous day."* In the Netherlands the old season of four months. there is no any trace of sun-worship whatever in Germanic showing and in the Scandinavian North as fact of the existence of a midsummer it Thing is as well vouched Old Norse history. H. the summer Thing was held between June 9 and 14. 367 and 387). Grimm. 116). 8% leaf 8*. religion. LXV. In Germany." R. nederl.MARTINMAS. new — It is also the day of old bonfires in Villingen. ' and Mone. p. Xanten. 49: "de Mey beginnet sunte Urbans daghe" (Grotefend. 88". in ^ Holtzmann.^ That that popular summer festival originally nothing to te do with a solstice appears from the fact that even July 25 was called midzomer (1419) or na midden-somere (1351).. p. No. was till very late called May. Nos. Docs.. 42 (Town-Archive of Kempen. ^ I. Tirol. II. the festival at the beginning of later 15. Vol. and put them sixteenth century. 1 18. 87. bought oxen after that term. in sunte Peters daghe. 1 45 Besides. Quellensammhmg. IX. 1873.. Zeiirecknung. not only as the beginning of a new season.. Quite in accordance with the fact that the Scandinavian year began between October 9 and 14. festival. fell one month summer must have been held about July (St. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR Easter.^ July 12 Margaret's day) was marked. *Ibid.. under ^Birlinger. ~" I. 2 State-Archive. without the slightest trace of a relation to a sun-cult. latter of wine.. Jacob's day.. Dusseldorf. in XIX.. I. Tijdschrift v.^ as corresponding to Christmas. where the terms of both the beginning of winter and of the beginning of early summer later. . It who. Zeiirecknung. de summer ^Grotefend. In the Rhenish Urbary of St. ^ Baltische Studien. and had a Gbiblbt between February 9 and 14. 1 16. 591. PP- 127 and 173. Deutsche Mythologie. Leipzig. at Laatsch. *' Stifc Xanten. Germanische AltertUmer. from March 15 to July 15.

103. after Easter. had to pay to the community Saxon four Bernese pounds for each pair. a century later (in 1647). I. and all the old cows. expression corresponding Old Icelandic at sumri. p. to cause all the old and feeble oxen with bad teeth to be drafted out. it Midsummer was is a later Anglo-Saxon term recognized by law : " A sheep shall go with fleece until Midsummer.* still But later.. three times a year. 146: "odh midne sumor.." occasionally the regular law a doom in Laws. men all who know of their business later. 2 In the neighbouring community of Schleiss (Zingerle. so the worst shall then be worth a better. June 15. or King Ine's let the fleece be paid for with two pence. artificial division late in the Middle Ages. : Day. I. French Seneschaucie of the thirteenth after St. Thorpe.^ till of the year — Martinmas. .. and the young avers that will not grow to good. John's century*' ordains The anonymous Anglo"The bailiff" ought. meaning a day about mid-July. 194: "ond thses sie to thsem dseg thser beheafdunges Seint lohannes thaes fulhteres. June 9 to to 14). p. p.^ whilst. 1890. Vol. 97. London.e. ^Thorpe's Ancient Laws. because of the disease May. as well as with the ploughing of the traces of an old tri-partition have come down to us.. courts and assemblies were held St. was called midsummer. In connection with fields. more than an of the year carried in on by life.2 In the Anglo- Ancillae^ this term to called on sumera or in aestate (an i." I. good pasture And he ought. Vol. More than once is the day of the beheading of John the Baptist (August 29) fixed as the term at which the bishops and reeves are to adjudge the king's commands to The tri-partition all whom it behoveth. When its it had been shifted June 24. is Vitus Day. Tiroler Weistiimer. and the weak and the them in barren. mid-March. Thorpe's Ancient Laws.. 89). Laws of King Athelstan. Ancient Laws. by Elizabeth Lamond in Walter of Henley's Husbandry. and ^Zingerle. * '^ 436-7. to cause all the sheep in his charge to be inspected by that is." ^Ed. III. and for then sheep die and perish by the disease. mid-July—was.. p. in conditions affecting pasture It was deeply rooted economic and and agriculture. the term had been shifted to Rectitiido St. III. I. Tiroler Weistiimer. tradition without apparent reason. — to wit. the keeping of domestic animals. p..46 YULE AND CHRISTMAS on the common pasture ground of the community. and put to fatten.

is have presently mended and are let them be sold after can one do well. p. let all In the same century elsewhere the day of testing the health of wethers was October 28. 1647. Redditus Prioratus Wigomiae Anno Incarnationis Domini MCCXL. for the worst should be killed on that day. et vocatur . 1865 . et necesse . * benherthe. opere. all them be sold with and when the best the wool. and Illustrations by William Hale Hale. Lib. and many of the worst. Sumptibus Societatis Camdensis. two of the middling. and them be put good pasture fat. nisi terra sicca fuerit. Ixxix. or let by proof of the eye or of the wool. p. excepto I. 14'': " Praeterea arabit ad yvemagium. 167.. until Hockday from (Thursday after and then replaced. and let all the rest of the draft beasts which cannot be sold then be sold before Martinmas.^ is Almost the same way of . by Elizabeth Lamond. 14'': "Praeterea arabit et herciabit die ad yvemagium et Prior inveniet semen. ovileque * Registrum : sive Liber Irrotularius bene reparatum. a part was to be sold by true Easter). men good security. infra domum oves expedit noctanter custodire. tramesium.MARTINMAS. si p.'* ^"E 2 tote le remeignant de creim ke ne put estre uendu adonkes seit vendu deuant la seint martin. which separates from the skin. and Warectum. denoting a third of a year found in connection with sheep-keeping their nights Martinmas to Pasch sheep were to spend In agricultural life in under shelter. ed. Tratmesium. " Inter festa autem sancti Martini et Paschae. And let again. et ad Wigorniensis warrectum. with an Introduction. which seem to have occupied the latter half of each of the old three seasons. so Lammas." Consuetudinarius Prioratus Beatae Mariae et Londini. London.. chap. AND THE TRI-PARTITION OF THE YEAR that are found so.. in his Husbandry^ down that two of the best wethers. per unum diem.' " Ibid. They then continued to determine the ploughing times. 1890. at Michaelmas. let all the old in and weak be drafted out before to fatten. Notes. tempusque serenum. for mutton flesh after more sought and sold then than the August. sheep be drafted out.^ the middle of the thirteenth century the three terms were known in low Latinity as Hibernagium. 47 best." la seynt Walter of Henley's Husbandry."^ And the third time. to the butchers. p. laid it Walter of Henley. IL. by the sure proof of as killing two or three of the and as many of the middling. and two of If they were found not to be sound. London." 7 : Fleta seu Commetitarius Juris Anglicani. 33 symon e seyn lude facet tuer deus de meylurs e deus de myuueyns e deus de : "A pyres e si vos trouet ke eus ne seyent la mye seyens fetes vendre vne partye a lele genz par bone surte iekes a ^ § hokeday e done fetes releuer autres.

\<^ quarterium avenae et facit III" aniras scilicet ad yvernagium ad tratmesium et ad Warectum die ad tramesium. arat . p." etc.. et debent Thac et Thol et pannagium et gersummationem prolis et hujusmodi.." . Quaelibet etiam debet x'^''"^ summagia apud Wygorniam et terram arare sicut sibi avenae. scilicet xviil. praeterea arabit uno uno die warectabit.48 fuerit quaelibet herciabit YULE AND CPIRISTMAS pro opere. Ibid. et : ' et iii^= Benrip.. donee perventum fuerit ad carueas. iS*" "Nova assisa de In hoc manerio sunt xxvil." " Et dat auxilium. dimidiae virgatae Quarum quaelibet ad vilenagio de Mora. scilicet semel ad yvernagium et ad tratmesium et ad warectum et debent sarclare et metere et intassare una cum cottariorum operibus et aliorum in autumpno totum bladum de dominico. firmam posita reddit ad quemlibet terminum ll°^ solidos et in Purificatione I quarter. denarios Et in Purificatione dimidiam Ibid. p. ut supra.

xvii. Scotortan. which covers the years 1359 to 1379.. at thus being shown to have been the more important term. MARTINMAS. Leipzig Dissertation. lists I.. Vol. edited by John Stuart and George Burnett. Even accounts "for appears four years ending Martinmas.^ the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland ^ almost In accounts of provosts of burghs are " dated Whitsunday and Martinmas. xi. just as in the contents D ... ^ 1 Rotuli Scaccarii Regum x. 49. AND THE DUAL DIVISION OF THE YEAR. raised almost regularly through The all holders petitioned the Count to reduce these two taxes to one. xv. In reality these taxes had. 1878. long of accounts. p. while the dates of the custumars' accounts vary considerably. ^"^^ is commented upon by Hossler. as is shown by the Fiirstenberg Urbaria. 1331 Martinmas considerably oftener than Whitsunday. Edinburgh. Freiburg B.^ ^ The application of the small-holders is printed by i. III. In that year the peasants of his district reproached the Count raised of Fiirstenberg for having increased the taxes. 1895.. xxiii. xii. Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Bauernkrieges in Siidwestdeutschlattd. In Germany mid-May and Martinmas appear as the two half-yearly terms as late as 1525. the twice a year as same being then May tax and autumn tax. been the whole of the fifteenth century.. ^On pages viii. which should be paid at Martinmas. of Vol. CHAPTER V.. to xx..1 359.. which not only half a year but a whole year ended. beginning and ending at those days.. deutschen Baiiernkrieges aus Obersckioaben. Akten zur Geschichte des 1877. occur. are enumerated. Whitsunday and Martinmas are also the two main terms occurring in accounts. to xxv. Baumann. In the second volume. 264.

"de termino phrases of Vol. No.. Second Division." ^ H. . Vol." Ahrens. 212. Hannover. 73 twice). 417: comniunitas de Flemmis sicut de jure et ex antiquo est anno quolibet non debeant conveniri in foro temporali et juri parere homines et s. Diplomata. perhaps with a slight alteration of the existing usage. the most prevailed and there were important of them was held in the middle of March. As late as 1281 the community of Fleims. Laws of King Athelstan. "And we ordain that every 'burh' be repaired xiv. 72. " de termino Pentecostes ultimo preterito " (pp. 94. in the secular territory of Trient. . 13: "xilll. are: "de Sancti Martini" (p. iii. sub judicio esse. reserved to itself the right of keeping two placita — the one in May and the other in November. No. p. 72." . 72. in in ipsi nisi bis in civilibus et . V. (p. 1872. Zeitrechntmg... and replace by meetings held according to festivals. 73) .^ it It took a very long time to uproot this institution. " Allegando. Calendarum Maji." accuser. Athelstan. Hampson. days over Rogation Days. p. 73 twice).5° In England ( 1 YULE AND CHRISTMAS this state of things was codified by Edward the Confessor Whilst 042-1 066). without any kind of Ibid. '^Pontes Keriwi Austriacarum. " de terminis Pentecostes Martini" (pp.' until Rogation days and be it after that as it was before. 281) . Grotefend. Roman quarters of years and Christian high Legal institutions were not the only form in which the Germanic terms survived. "de eodem termino Pentecostes" (pp. L. when such meetings. Laws of King Gang-dagas.^ As regards the Franks^ it has been finally proved that their great annual assembly took place in the middle of May. The is et Sancti ^ In capite spring term appearing probably with most frequency in other connections the Rogation Days. Uber Namen und Zeit des campus Martins der alien Franken. or Rogation mid-May Days as a rule appear as the old legal term. Thorpe's Ancient Laws. Very early the Christian Church in Gaul was compelled to make considerable concessions to the Germanic mode of dividing the year. p. quod observatum. 72. termino heati Martini ultimo preterito" p. "odh Gong-dagas. Edward ordained that the great assembly of his people was to take place on May i. . Can three the name of this assembly Campus Martins the tri-partition (to be translated May-field) suggest that previously. wite. which covers the time from 1379-1406. niht ofer "And every man ' that will may make : 'bot' for every theft with the . 73) "de duobus terminis huius compoti. I. 20*. videlicet Pentecostes et Sancti Martini" (pp. 222. videlicet ad placitum in festo Martini et in placito Majo.. II.. 621 twice." I. which. II. 206. The most frequent 475). and thus has nothing to do with Afars = Ziu} This institution extended all over German soil as far as to the Italian frontier.

"De in litania.D. Concilium Gerundense.D. . A. Because of a suspicion too great a that the might try to ignore this new institution. In 511 a.^ That so that the latter were held between November i and November 9." ^Acta Conciliorum. sequens septimana..'. sabbatum." : et ancillae ab omni opere relaxentur. Concilium Aurelianense. col. between 517 and weeks subsequent and to the Calends of ^Acta Conciliorum. the corresponding tide of the year in November. in incipiantur. II. A. intercesserit. id est. at Two so closely corresponding^ their Church celebrations were held cannot fail these tides. deinceps ab omnibus ecclesiis. 1011-12. I. 517.d. A. 1714. at which six bishops its The Synod of Gerunda and fasts of June 8. Vol. threatening them with punishment pliance with the non-com- command made of the Church. II. ut in prima hebdomada noni mensis. II. quo quo triduo omnes abstineant. 567. 517. col. Ascensionem Domini ab omnibus ecclesiis placuit celebrari festivitate ita ut pi-aemissum triduanum jejunium in Dominicae Ascensionis solvatur : per quod magis plebs universa conveniat: Canon xxviii. AND THE DUAL DIVISION OF THE YEAR about the year 500 the two terms of a. : 1714. in Item secundae ut si litaniae faciendae sunt Kalendis Novembris. hoc est. Vol. this was a permanent institution appears from Canon VI..D. quae prima in ipso mense illuxerit. 1043. a quinta Quibus tamen diebus a 355. col." : MARTINMAS..." ^Acta Conciliorum. seu parochiis celebrentur.* liberation and decreed a three days' from clergy to all work for servants of both sexes. Parisiis. litanias ante Canon xxvii.. III. iisdem diebus Dominica alia et hebdomada. Concilium Lugdunense. Parisiis.d.. triduum ser\i ecclesiae suscipiant disciplinam. secundum prions abstinentiae observantiam. 51 found expression in processions and litanies at mid-May and mid-November. secundum arbitrium episcopi utanlur. 511. uoba. place in the date of the praying processions to further in concessions being the Germanic celebration. the Council of Orleans instituted the so-called Rogations before the Ascension day. feria ea tamen conditione servata. ii. a quinta feria usque iii. litaniae. . per hoc triduum abstinentia celebretur. and one archbishop were litanies present. Vol. " Rogationes. of the second Synod of Lyon in 567. "Placuit enim universis fratribus. a special in case of canon was added. sabbato vespere missi facta finiantur. that relationship to appear. \A. ordained in second and third canons that to Pentecost should be held in the November respectively. sicut ante Ascensionem Domini sancti patres fieri decreverunt. carnibus et a vino abstinendum decrevimus.^ from which we also learn that. et quadragesimalibus cibis "Clerici vero qui ad hoc opus sanctum adesse contempserint. ante diem Dominicam. as concession the Germanic field processions about mid-May. ut expleta solemnitate Pentecostes. Bye and bye some change took round the or fields.

. ^ ^ 465. ''Lib. vYwA. Eccard. T. 464. ecclesiastical statute. No. Tom. X. and among them those of Tours.^ For. SBinterim. Operum St. Gennanische Erntefeste. First the monks only. Denkwurdigkeiten.2 in the Liber Sacramentorum Martin is I.^ probably written by Caesarius of who died in 542. Martin's day till From new the bishopric of Tours the habit of keeping an Adventterritory of the seems then to have spread over the whole fast-tide referred to Church. p. from St. L. xxxi. to the days preceding Ascension day. "^ Pfannenschmid.. a daily ^ About no7ius mens = Nov ember. Specilegium veterum Scriptorum.*' and by no means of a prevailing custom or an '^ According to Gregory of Tours. it was Bishop Perpetuus of Tours (who died as Bishop of Toulouse in 506) who ordained burial for his diocese a fast Christmas.^ fasting-tide 517 there existed forty itself. and . Gregory the Great it (590-604) a great but it was only Pope (649-654) who made the Church festival. implied almost no alteration.. Co?nmenlarius de Rebus Franciae.^ tide of three days a week. even there it is only the question of a general preparation for Christmas. comp. the 567 Church had returned Germanic to the older date of the spring litany. 8" A depositione domini Martini usque ad Natale domini. from Martinmas Christmas nor even Martinmas Martin of Tours had died in 401. but he was not made St. which apparently almost coincided with the ancient to May term. 1 15 et 1 16. I.52 YULE AND CHRISTMAS A. 164. according to his own words. nova edit.. Ibid..D. who died in 595. Martin till long I." . In the second Synod of Tours in 567 (where nine bishops were gathered. or fasting-tide beginning with it. His feast appears first in a Sacra- mentarium by Pope Gelasius of (492-496). with the consent of King Charibert. chap. possible that the praying procession was instituted as a preparation for Martinmas. and Paris). V. 7 The autumn days' litany was then ordained In to be held before November neither a —which after. Pfannenschmid. the first certain traces of an Advent-tide are found in Aries. Rouen. some Yet homilies. V. p.. Wandalbert. 131. 515. In Appendix Augustianus. II.^ So the excuse as has been not St.. 3 d' Archery. Martyrologium in p. Atigustini. suggested by a man so ingenious as Heino Pfannenschmid. Gennanische Erntefeste.

quam Romani ex instituto Bonifacij papae celebrant. the fast-tide. The period Finally. In 694 the seventeenth Council of Toledo far extended the " Ut a litanies. and made applicable to laymen also.* all Gaul by the authority of the Emperor. and England. Nouemb. and was attended by twenty-one bishops from various provinces of the Church. et sacrificia quadragesimali debeant ordine celebrari " {Ada Condliorum.MARTINMAS. 514." and it was ordained that a com- memoration of them should be observed during the Kalends of November. et sexta sabbali jejunetur. 835: "Monente Gregorio papa et omnibus episcopis assentientibus Ludouicus imperator statuit ut in Gallia et Germania festiuitas omnium sanctorum in Calen. The first testimony as to a general celebration of an Advent-tide was decreed for is an ordinance on in fasting for laymen given by the first Synod of Macon. of In 1022 was even decreed that from the beginning Advent till Epiphany nobody was to marry. of fast as well as its strictness varied. 835). Vol.. Martin's day till Christmas every Monday. Italy. secunda. Guntram. whole fortnight preceding Christmas was declared a continuous and the week preceding Christmas a time void of it any legal process. 1714. which all then had been devoted to the service of Roman gods. 640. p. Parisiis. About in the year 608 the Pantheon of Rome. and of Saints. celebraretur. III. Ertitefeste. Wednesday. considerably. 565. Hefele. Chronicon ab antio 381 ad 1113.^ In the beginning of the seventh century the Calends of November received a new ecclesiastical until significance. among others by the bishops of Lyon. and Bourges. quarta. 564. runs as " From is St. Vienne.d. follows : Its Canon IX. 451). ' De Divitto Officio. '^ Pfannenschmid. AND THE DUAL DIVISION OF THE YEAR fast 53 monks during December up till Christmas day. was by Boniface IV. which so had been held twice a year — in May ' feria sancti Martini usque ad Natale Domini. under a. Germanische Alcuin.^ This feast was received through Louis the Pious (a. sixth century Rome took over that forty-day century it and in the seventh it was kept over Spain. however. * Sigeberti Gemblacensis. IV.. dedicated all honour of "the holy Mother of God." . a period bye and bye extended to forty days. which was called 581 by the Frankish king."^ fast-tide all At the end of the preceding Christmas. and Friday to be a day of fast. col. Sens. in 836.d. In at Germany was ordained by the Synods of Aix-la-Chapelle and Erfurt in 932.

et reliquiis sanctorum ejus coram portatis. Vol. col. IV. Vol." III. " De diebus Rogationum.D. 1815. et jurisjurandi ideo secundum evangelistam. nisi infirmitas impedierit. et epulis majoribus sed magis cum timore et tremore.. atque salvatione populi. Acta Conciliorum. 858. uti mos est plurimis. " Placuit nobis.. indulgentiam. vel negligentibus. a. llerardi Turonensis Capitula. xvi. cinere et Ibid. 1714. et indulgentia totius peccati. die septimo Kalendarum Maiaium [this date must mean May 7]. a clero : omnique populo his diebus cum magna reverentia agantur id est. : " Quamquam priscorum patrum sit per totum annum. their celebration given by the Council of Cloveshou. 1395. " De Letania Romana vil. col. id est. : 1714. 836. vel imperitis id est. Galliarum provincias. II. III. et missarum celebratione venerentur non admixtis vanitatibus... Concilium Toletanicm. et a cunctorum fidelium cordibus expulsione diaboli. in cunctis duodecim mensibus.. juxta morem Romanum. ut litania maior observanda a cunctis Christianis diebus tribus. xxxiii. Conciliutn Aquisgratiense.D..^ regulations were In the ninth and tenth centuries these more than once repeated by Councils and Synods. : II. 1714. exhomologeses votis gliscentibus celebrentur afflictionem Dominus "^ perspexerit. Kalendas Maii illam celebralionem. . ne intretis in tentationem in commune decernimus. 747. horseraces.^ If proof were requisite that the Rogation Days took the place of a most 747. vi.54 YULE AND CHRISTMAS in and November —over the whole twelve months of the year. and extensive dinners were named as the characteristics of that tide.D. ut reverenter ac studiose absque turpibus ut rememoretur. institutio.d. : Parisiis." Ibid. nee pretiosis vestibus induti. in ludis. secundum consuetudinem nostrae ecclesiae non omittendam. "Sextodecimo condixerunt capitulo. Parisiis. xciv. Vol. nostraeque aeternae redemptionis. pro statu ecclesiae pro incolumitate principis nostri. et ut deinceps per totum annum. col. cilicio induti.^ ^ Acta Conciliorum. : : : . et saevientis : diaboli incitamenta ab animis omnium procul efficiat. A. V. rogationes.. a. Co7tcilium Cloveshoviae. inolevit oberrandi consuetudo. et equorum cursibus. it would be supplied by the descriptfon of II. litaniarum vota decreverit persolvendum. statuentes qui ait : Vigilate et orate. " xcv. quia cooperante humani generis adversario. 1014-5. at the same time specifying the reasons for the change. A. dies ante ascensionem Domini in coelos cum jejunio usque ad horam nonam. per universas Hispaniae Dei. et delictis quatenus dum generalem omnipotens omnibus miseratus indulgeat. IV. sicut legendo reperimus. nee tamen specialiter sanxerit pro quibus causis idipsum peragendum : tamen. x. secundum morem priorum nostrorum. per singulorum mensium cursum. Vol. sit A.. 456. delictis humiliter exorat col.'XN\\.d. et sicut sancti patres nostri instituerunt. Et item quoque. sed discalceati. col. Vol." Acta Conciliorum. 813. vil. : . non equitando. Concilium Moguntiacuin. in the important Germanic festival. ut litaniae. Kalendis Maii... canons of which games. 1956. juxta ritum Romanae ecclesiae quae et litania major apud earn vocatur. : : signo passionis Christi.. ^ omnis populus genu flectendo divinam pro Parisiis." ''Do Litania quoque maiore atque de Rogationibus ventilatum est sed communi consensu ab omnibus electum atque decretum. multa transgressio .

D. sicut in Rogationibus ante Ascensionem III. Concilium Veronense. so took over the meetings wont it to be held at those terms. 852. under the name of jocis et verbis celebrentur. excommunicationi debitae subjacebit.D. " Ut litania majore jejunium.." . col. VI.^ In Great Britain the Rogation Days were. die Kalendarum Novembrium unum conveniant. col. Concilium Toletanum. Ut medio Maio omnes presbyteri ad synodum Novembris omnes abbates ad concilium conveniant. A. : 1714. A. Domini exerceatur.. aut ad Suessiones. semel in priorum auctoritate canonum. 1995. uti in Martiis Kalendis inter ipsos episcopos convenit. AND THE DUAL DIVISION OF THE YEAR Just as the 55 Church sanctified the older Germanic celebration of mid-May it and raid-November by special litanies. i. 755 were these terms superseded by March i. at the Council of Toledo) was resolved that the Synods.D. Vol.. quod est Martiis Secunda synodus Kalendis Octobris. 1714. Syttodus Autissiodorensis." in 681." A. " Praecipit bis haec in sancta et veneranda synodus. consulta itineris in longitudine. col.. Parisiis..^ Not before a." ^ Acta Conciliorum. '* Parisiis. 1714. stante A. Ut nullus in eis prandia. per diversa loca facere praesumat. Vol. vel actores fiscalium patrimoniorum.. Prima synodus mense primo." : "^ in civitatem veniant. 1725.D. 444. ^The decree was repeated Parisiis. 1 at another Council of Toledo Acta Conciliorum.d. in ejus praesentia. November for i was fixed meeting —a date more than a century. comessationes diversasque potiones Ibid. et Kalendis Acta 589. A. quae et anno praecipit congregari concilia. V. vii.* was decreed that every year priests should meet at mid-May and abbots it at November i). Vol." provinciarum annis singulis conveniant. Canon vii. iv. in autumnali tempore. III. Parisiis. presbytorum in metropoli civitate Remorum. xviii. : " Ut bis in anno synodus fiat. col.MARTINMAS. Parisiis. at the Synod of Auxerre. "Anno DCCCLii. col. III. ex decreto gloriosissimi domini nostri simul cum sacerdotali concilio.. were to observed ^ instead of meeting twice a year (on mid-May and November for that meet only once. : 7 14. 482. Vol. concilio." ^ Acta Conciliorutn. : anno locum quem metropolitanus elegerit episcopi congregentur judices vero locorum. col. 948.* i and October but even after the middle of the ninth century the annual meetings of the priests of the Church were held in the beginning of November. 681. Concilium ut Toletanutn. When (in 589. 391. 755.D.. In 578. Vol. aut alibi.. paupertate ecclesiarum Hispaniae. XII. Vol. episcopi singularum celebraturi unaquaque provincia Kalendis Novembribus concilium autem in praedictis Kalendis Novembribus pro celebratione synodi venire distulerit. : 1 7 14. Quisquis *^Acta Cottciliorum. ut in " Placuit huic venerando juxta priorum canonum instituta. Hincmari Archiepiscopi Remensis Novembris. i. conventu habito Capitula. III. Cottciliorum. Kalendis etc. Kalendis. i. III. 606.. : Concilium Engilenheimense. xii. ubicumque domnus rex jusserit.

and appear once more in 921 to gangdagum. and in 922 betweox gangdagum and middan sumera. p. and 1 135.. in iioi. In the Parker ms. foran to hlcefmassan lespectively). Even in these five-andtwenty weeks the wintry half of the year is clearly recognisable. ed. London.d. It seems to have been the term dividing the economic summer-tide. the entry of 913 a. Hlafmmssa appears in 917. the keeping clearly within the time which had to be assumed as tide.d. time. They are held to be fixed on Monday. by Elizabeth Lamond. is when the term is shifted back as far as October 18. in iioo. '^ I131. At the " Veet same time sheep were kept in houses between Martinmas and Easter [Ibid. 31 ke vos berbyz seyent en mesun entre la seynt martyn e pasche "). abbreviated as Gula Augusti. little Lammas appears in 921 {betwix hlafmcessan atid of later date in as early as 913 middum sumera) . there are also found the and niiddurn sumera. Then the Rogation Days appear in 1016. Grotefend. (E).^ In the other group of chronicles represented by the betweox gangdagum Laud MS. 13 "Custume est edreyt ke bestes des charues seyent a la creche entre la feste de seynt luc e la feste de la seyt croys en may par vint e cynk semeynes "). Zeitrechnung des deutschen is I. which is styled by Earle The Atmals of ALthelflccd. instead of July 15. has nothing to do or palate). in 1085.. in the same year in which Martinmas appears Rogation Days : 913). ^It a mere exception it thirteenth century : : . Gutnplete Completa . Martinmas and gangdagas appearing is hlafinassa. five-and-twenty weeks (Walter of Henley's Husbandry. where the current mistaken explanation of Gula Augusti also found. whilst the next two are lacking. for C and g are fiequently interchanged Mittelalters. which. whilst in the interpolation B and C. 78. of course. is the same. p.56 YULE AND CHRISTMAS Gangdagas^ as popular as on the cohtinent. 1132. varies from the Calends of November to mid-November. Tuesday. whilst ane dtcge icr sanctes Petres massan afene and on sanctes Pet res mcessa dccg are mentioned in 1048. the later Lammas is it is the first of August.^ at The term denoting thus once the beginning of the Germanic year.^ beginning of the old Germanic liuleis ^ The only similar term other than . and of the winter season. Luke (October 18) and the feast of the Holy Cross (on May 3). p. 1890. it occurs and 917 {thces foran to hlafmassan send. Sti Petri ad viiuiila (Augusti). comp. they being one of the great tides of the year by which people computed for the first time (a. frequently with gula (the throat . In the was in the south of England usual and right that plough beasts should be in the stall between the feast of St. and Wednesday of the Ascension week. (A) of the Saxon Chronicle. but merely a mutilation of vhuula.

in of which Martinmas appears. he instances seven cases.. the attempt has succeeded so places. for a long time Martinmas by far prevailed over Michaelmas. without giving a a transference j nay. 10. "^ Ibid. mentioned some documents.i is an older term and festival —a view not tenable for a moment.^ five he has to give the proof. JahreszeiUtt. that. Easter.. even when the Roman quartering had superseded the Germanic tri-partition of the year. 1891. 1862. ^ Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters. 89. I-Ciel. . as he easily might have For. If any to be gathered from these facts. Epiphany. 5. In Professor Weinhold's opinion Michaelmas than Martinmas seen himself. and when. are Michaelmas or Martinmas. even without attempting any proof of the assertion that they were found earlier at Michaelmas than at Martinmas..CHAPTER VI. p. John Baptist's Day . that up to this day Martinmas has of in many preserved its character as the popular beginning the winter. year. in the apparatus. I. 19. He further talks ^ of all kinds of usages and customs having been transferred from single historical instance of such Michaelmas to Martinmas. in the text of his book on the division of the in German legal he says that the four not-ordered law courts. and Michaelmas and generalisation is John Baptist's Day it only in is two. Grotefend* shares the view of a shifting of the beginning of winter from ^ Uber die deutsche Jahrteilung. p. eighteen hundred years of effort to force upon the Germanics the quartering of the year and a beginning of the winter on September 29. whilst no other occurs so often. p. MARTINMAS AND MICHAELMAS. after The fact is that. little. "^Ibid.

whilst Michaelmas as 1014 (also in ms. .58 YULE AND CHRISTMAS ri. and unparalleled by another book on cognate matter. 1099. bears the character of a celebration for the sake of the dead and of a festival in honour of an abundance 1 ^ Two of the Saxon Chronicles parallel. to Marlines mcsssan. 1 100. in the tenth century. Heino Pfannenschmid. so that it is quite irrelevant that under 759 appears a solitary to sancle Michaeles tyde. 1095. 1102. 492. iioi.D. so that October 14 and April 14 divide the year. *Ibid. 1097 (twice). Asserius. though written more than twenty years ago. and well) a shifting Scandinavia (as Weinhold and Grotefend know very by one full month has taken place. 1 129 (twice). whilst in May are the most ancient Germanic terms. '•They are 1066. has in venerabilis Martini festivitate as early as between 886 and 893. We have in ymb thces Marlines maessan.'^ whilst " it almost exclusively. 1021. of the Saxon Chronicle appears to have existed long before Michaelmas. In the Saxon Chronicle Martinmas appears in first in 913. p. This can only be a dating after a later fashion. 915.^ things are a little different. 1099. author of Germanische on everything connected with the festivities the first authority held in autumn on Germanic ground. 1086. Historka Britannica. 1865. ed. 1097. 193. I. 1 1 14.. in Christian times. but after 1066 the mentions of the the latter quickly outnumber those Martinmas 913 of the former. Michaelmas first 1014. 1098. De Rebus Gestis Ailfredi. whilst Michaelmas does not occur a single time in tlie Laud ms. 1 1 19. * Hannover. . appears again as late Then Martinmas is mentioned under 913. 1 126 (twice). HOC. 971 (B). His book. Its oldest part was written A. Afonutnenta 106. 1089. and that angels. by John Earle. Oxford. can be discovered By in the most thorough investigation he was led to the conclusion that only very slight traces of a thanksgiving for the corn harvest the later Michaelmas. is still the best on the subject. 1089. p. From Parker ms. in 921 foran .^ Nobody Ernlefeste* will is deny that Dr. C) but its occurrences become . September 29 to November beginning of reality the and adds to it an imaginary shifting of the summer from April or Easter to middle of November and the middle in the middle of of May. 1878. 1125. 1103. 1091. 1009. in 918 and gig foran ilcan geres to Marlines mcessan. very frequent after 1066.

. p. 1714. xii. c. did not suppose that any folklorist could be unfamiliar with the results of Dr.^ angel-festival to festival all was the Council of Mayence of 813 which added that 15 two others (on March gathered and on May Round this there from that time a number of habits and customs. III. ^ c. Glossariuin under "Est ilia dies. consequently. . Lib. Ducange. 169 . P- 175- . IV.. cliii. when the Anglo-Saxons paid the ^ When. endeavoured solely to supplement his arguments. 167. 1015. II. VII. Vol." The this expression Herbstfeier (autumn-festival) perhaps the only thing in it statement which might be improved upon should be : Festival of winter's beginning and summer's close.. col.^ or Fest der Engel. Parisiis. Cathiulphi Epistitla ad Carolum Magnum. S. festival compete with that of Martinmas. Martin. Historia Francontim. . it at Martinmas eve was forbidden by the Synod of was not before the ninth century that the Church made an attempt to give to the end of the third quarter of the Roman year a special angels importance by a festival — that of in St. Lib. St. Pfannenschmid. which point to the ancient heathen autumn-festival celebrated in November. But Professor Weinhold seems really to Otherwise he could no longer be in favour of Michaelmas as the Germanische Erntefeste. cap. even so late as the seventeenth century.^ Whilst Martinmas can be proved to have been a popular festival in 578. have clung round the festival held in honour of is .. own purposes.MARTINMAS AND MICHAELMAS 59 of customs. qua populus Christianus cum paganis pugnavit. inquit Honorius Augustod. Durandus. cxxix. Pfannenschmid's book. Had there it any Germanic about that time which the Church thought its while to absorb and use for ninth century have instituted that part of the year. et victoriam per S. Die Geschkhte der deutscheft Weihtmcht. in I 1893. it would long before the in some saint's day of special prominence at The payment of a tax or duty Michaelmas cannot fruit- be proved before the tenth century. Michaelis: p. although their popularity cannot. them and summing them up.. instead of restating have overlooked them. Michaelem Archangelum obtinuit . little of them inaugurated by certain Church practices. Pfannenschmid. 667. when the banqueting Auxerre. and." Acta Cotuiliorum. Michael and of the and guardian angels in general It — called Germany Engelweihe 2). dealing with this matter in my book. but becoming a more popular been worth with every century. Ibid. ^ II. Vol. Festum Beletus. ancient Germanic festival of winter's beginning..

Parisiis. dies Lunae. i.. Vol. pro prandio Domini in Festo : S. jejunet tribus diebus. London. jejunare possit : operetur siljimet idem comedere deberet. dies in cibo et potu. Barneby Domino de Lastres in Com. a goose for Michaelmas.. among other things as rent for part of his land. d. imam parcellam terrae de terris Dominicalibus. in the county of Hereford. IV. 1015 Pfannenschmid.*' ^ Lingard. (1461-1483).^ and emphasised by Charlexi. The fact marked the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries by the the landlords used to invite their tenants for Michaelmas. 165. 55. Erntefeste. In England the four ( Roman year was made popular by the quatembers or ember days were introduced by Gregory the Great in the Prankish + 604). et unam Aucam habilem. 2 Under King Edward IV. ^ Drake. p. ante festum Sancti Et omnis homo ad confessionem vadat." ^ Acta Conciliorum. jejunet in pane.. Shakespeare atid his Times. '^N. Fragmenta Antiquitatis . ut " De jejunio et feriatione trium omnis christianus." *"Doceant presbyteri populum quatuor legitima temporum jejunia observare. and Jocular Customs of some Manners.." Michaelis. " Et instituimus. 794 ii.^ are able to trace the We still way in which the quarterly division of the Church. VI.'^ empire in the Staluta Bonifacii. ^ Acta Cotuiliorum. by T[homas] B[lount]. et omnis diaconus et clericus triginta psalmos et apparetur tribus diebus peccatis : corrodium unuscujusque sine came dividatur hoc totum pauperibus. i. quo melius quod vult. chap. magne's Capitulare of 769. et aqua. et super hoc cantet omnis presbyter triginta Missas. p. col. Septembri et Decembri. Germanische fit Michaelis Archangeli. Michael's day/ and lease-rents seem not to have been paid rent day that is England in at Michaelmas prior to the fifteenth century. chapter whilst it and the Synod of Mayence of is is not earlier than about the year 1000 that a fast-tide brought into connection with Michaelmas. Et eat omnis presbyter cum populo suo ad processionem tribus diebus nudis pedibus. Leges Ecclesiasticae Aethelredi regis circa annum 1012 apud ILaba?n conditae. Hi sunt illi tres dies . hoc est mense Martio. et omnibus abrenunciet emendando et cessando. : . Reddend. Parisiis. p.6o tithe to the YULE AND CHRISTMAS Church on in St. Goose in Curiae et alia Servitia inde debita. Antient Tenures of Land. et herbis crudis. 8 "Johannes de la Hay cepit de Will. Heref. 813. inde per annum xx. et Et sit omnis servus liber ab opere illis tribus. Aus dem Englischen ilbersetzt von Ritter. qui aetatem habet. Altertiimer der angelsdchsischen Kirche. Junio. Paying a on Michaelmas day. 1714. a roast goose being the festive dish. 1714. 425. dierum ante festum Michaelis. Vol. Sectam for the Lord's dinner . et nudis pedibus ad ecclesiam . etc. etc. 1679. col. John de la Hay paid to William Barneby of Lastres. sicut .

v. Diem Ascensionis Domini pleniter celebrare.. octavas Domini. ca. Parisiis. 7 14. of the Laws of William the Conqueror: " De homines ad stretwarde invenientur a festo Sancti Michaelis. 462. 339: " Et reddatur sit. A. col. 479. A. 337. King Ethelred's Laws being the it. Purificationem sanctae Mariae. 1015.D.. Vol. viii. 454. time that Michaelmas appears alongside Martinmas is in the decrees of the Council of Mayence. Michael's day seems not to have taken root much before the end of the tenth century. quorum corpora ac debitae venerationes Walterii Aurelianensis Capitula. " Festos dies in anno celebrare sancimus. Ascensione Domini et Pentecoste.* Some- times both terms appear together. col. In 858 the list considerably differs from that prevalent before. about A. Remigii." . vel confessorum observare decrevimus. sancti Martini. (991-1016) in Thorpe's Ancient Laws. 'Thorpe. Missa sancti loannis Baptistae. Et illas festivitates martyrum. and in the concluding passage vii.. est. 793-4.. natalem sancti In Natali Domini dies quatuor. in p. Regis. usque ad festum Sancti Martini. p. IV. whilst the Rogation Days are.. Vol. quorum in unaquaque parochia sancta corpora requiescunt.. col." 1 "^Acta Conciliortitn. Ixi. xviii. 850. et eorum.i where also the birthday of John Baptist (June 24) and the day of Peter the ultimate quartering of the and Paul (June 29) appear to mark year according to solstices and equinoxes. ii. 1714. Epiphania.. sancti Andreae. : " De festivitatibus anni.). three great while so far only the kept. id Natali Domini. qualibet hida in hundredo iiii. I. diem Dominicum Paschae. dedicationem sancti Michaelis. sancti Martini. Purificatione sanctae Mariae. VI. : ut in Pascha.^ The mentions of Michaelmas became Martis et dies Mercurii proximi ante festum sancti Michaelis.d. I." MARTINMAS AND MICHAELMAS The first 6l in 813. et in locis singulis peraguntur.^ but even is then sometimes Michaelmas not in the list. Similiter etiam Dedicationem templi. first collection of institutes to contain an ordinance for keeping Apostle's days.D. besides the and Martinmas had been Church festivals of Christmas..D. xxxvi. cum omni honore et sobrietate venerari simili modo totam hebdomadam illam observari decrevimus.^ In England St. col. sancti loannis. pecunia eleemosinae hinc ad festum Sancti Michaelis. octavas Domini." etc. Concilium Moguntiacum.. Leges Ecclesiasticae Aethelredi a. si alicubi retro per plenam witam. 1714. Parisiis. Apostolorum Petri sancti ^ "^ et Pauli. atque omnium sanctorum. et Assumptione. Ibid. the Mary's days. 858. V. 1012. Hoc est. xxviii. I. Andreae. et Innocentium. Baptistae. Herardi Turonensis Capitula.. King Ethelred's Laws ii. and Pentecost. quae feriari debeant. (Acta Conciliorum." This ordinance bears the complete stamp of being a mere church invention. Easter. Parisiis. : Mf/a 813. Nativitatem sancti loannis Assumptionem sanctae Mariae. In natali apostolorum Petri et Pauli diem unum. sancti Michaelis. Item Pentecosten similiter Conciliortim. sancti Stephani. Vol. Ancient Laws. Epiphaniam Domini.

A. been effected all over the realm governed by the Church. was only . Piper. at Probably the institution of a quartering term the division between it September and October would not have been so easy had not had a certain economic basis in an important change which took place contemporaneously. tres 877 the term intra which shows that menses appears in the Councils of Church." ^ "Op S. VI. col. 1465. . the in Carolingian age that the cultivation of meadows began produce of to develop and consequence of the vast increase in cattle. "^ Capitulare de Villis. on the meadows which were list the common legal property of the communities of Mais and Burgeis. Remigy dach (Oct. i. auf mitten meien^ ^ Acta i. Parisiis.^ The time which no pasture was possible extends there down Martanstag bis to the sixteenth century von St. Tiroler Weistiimer. ii. Martini 877. Halle. p. for their in Up to the third and fourth centuries of our era the Germanics had.62 YULE AND CHRISTMAS after the more frequent middle of the eleventh century. It livelihood.d.D. mach men die schwine uthschiitten" (a. winter. Beschreibungdes Markenrechts .d. 158.. 73. 1542. purposes of pasture continued to and it seems to have been not much before a.' quarters of years had become the unities to be reckoned with. 800 that term.D. Conciliorut?t. the continental Germanic tribes grew quickly in numbers. in Westphalen. 1763. pp.d. Freiherrvon Low. 99. A. the time when the quartering of the year according to Roman custom had From the a. i) in tho driven in den wolde twelff schwine vnd een beer vnd die Martin wieder vuith tho driven weer saecke die beer daer nicht mede en ist.. Speller Waldweistum Westphalia). 159. which shows that Martinmas was throughout the beginning of . by Charlemagne : " Ut poledros nostros missa sancti hiemale ad palatium omnimodis habeant. III. Heidelberg.. Synodus Ravennae habita. The pasture time did not end before the beginning of actual it After Martinmas it was no longer considered possible to let to pasture foals. A long of cases from Tirol documents. 72. iooo that agriculture took equal rank with pasture as a means of livelihood. 2 was not customary them be out For the same length of time swine were kept in the oak in forest in the Westphalia and Tirol of the fifteenth century. *Zingerle. Uber die Markgenossensehafteft. 1714. pp.d. 1829. 185. almost entirely depended upon pasture. at pasture after so that before a. for the But for several centuries the improved cultivation of meadows surpass agriculture in importance.

Abrahames garten der lieber herr sant Martein der sol heut meines vihes warten. acram. of Partschins. Deutsche Dichtung im Mittelalter. " Ich in treip heut aus in unser lieben frauen haus. ^Zingerle. 1893. . on April 23. documents of the fifteenth century considered the season of the year to be summer from mitte merzen to Martinmas. 243-5.D. Dresden...2 2 and Easter being denoted as no busy than the is It is in this latter state. et in II. Et jacebit a festo Sancti Martini usque ad Pascha ad faldani domini sui. 65. 434-435. quotiens ei pertinebit. is given in the apparatus to my Geschichte der dentschen VVeihnacht. 33. 11.D. A. it p. Leipzig. denarios de gablo. 1630.." Karl Godeke. Deutsche Mythologie." Here August in the Anglo-Saxon text corresponded by hcerfest. et ipse parabit semen domini sui in horreo. et Sancti foris moratur. non cogitur operari quamdiu equus Dare debet in festo Sancti Michaelis X. is Si plus indigeat herbagio. acras precum. 1431. dies pro septimanali operatione. . omni septimana festo eius Augusto HI. 291-3. ovem juvenem. dies. Et a termino quo primitus arabitur usque ad festum Sancti Martini arabit unaquaque septimana i. less the date at which the ploughing of the came and the time between February harvest-tide. in But soon enough of agriculture. whilst the sevenit teenth century began p. et ubi sunt onerosae et ubi sunt leviores aut mediae. of Burgeis. In quibusdam terris operatur opus septimanae. Si averiat. work sets in about two months though in Germany nowhere at the beginning of February. Ad haec 11 1. gallinas. Ad Pascha i. Hirtensegen from a fifteenth century MS. III. et sestarium ordei. sic opus sicut ei dicetur per anni spatium. and ended on Martinmas. p. TiroUr Weisiiimer. Whilst the real pasture time field does not begin much before mid-May. et a Candelarum ad usque Pascha III. A.MARTINMAS AND MICHAELMAS At least as regards the 63 beginning of winter. that a change contained. the earlier. I. : ^ 1 horpe's Ancient Laws. et denarios. et duas de herbagio.^ the Reciitudo Geburi treated the till season of winter as from Martinmas Easter. I'ibe pp. vel II. Ibid. Martini die xxiii. however. is addressed as and patron of cattle (Grimm. fields Martinmas being given as to an end. similar conditions ruled the Just as Tirol economic year of the Anglo-Saxons of the eleventh century. arabit proinde sicut ei permittatur. 1871.. Zingerle. : " Rectitudines Singularum Personarum Geburi consuetudines inveniuntur multimodae. autumn also a change was wrought by the spreading in the All grain and aftermath are stored bams towards winter. IV. the keeper As late as the fifteenth century the Herr sant Martein 1189)..

Apud quosdam debet omni die Lunae. and horses on the pasture kill all grounds till the actual winter came. who maintains that rooted in economic conditions. it So is Grotefend wrong {Zeitrechnung. et tribus diebus unaquaque septimana in Augusto. in the half of November. sheep. Martinmas was bound to decay in favour of Michaelmas. L. harvest. Mogk agrees with Heino PfannenMichaelmas is schmid. 54). and then at once to such of first those animals as could not be kept over the winter. dem Johannisopfer. swine. The term. festival at the beginning of of With the improvement which took place in in the cultivation meadows the Carolingian age.^ YULE AND CHRISTMAS In Anglo-Saxon time August was the month of late Except Professor Weinhold. I. '^"Auch auf deutschem Boden scheinen wir noch Uberreste dieser alten Sommer. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. odhdh Grimm wucan on hserfest ne dhearf he land-gafol syllan. 87). 432-33: " Recti tudines SinguCot-setle rectum est juxta quod in terra constitutum est. the existence of which the Germanics owe to the Romans. omni larum Personarum : die. which was apparently distinguished by the winter. though without anything Michaelmas." When Jacob explains evenmant (September) as meaning oats-month (from Latin havaia. L. From the quotations given there is apparent Evenmaend is confined to the Nether-Rhine up to Cologne. doch sind die Nachrichten auf diesem : Gebiete mit Vorsicht fiir altgermanischen Kult zu verwerten. III. In olden times it to raise the significance of had been the most economical course to leave cattle. for oats were is reaped before September. which of very late origin. metit pro diurnale opere. rather to be put beside even-naht (equinox). the quantity of hay produced annually ^This appears plainly from Thorpe's Ancient Laws.64 the end of September. But another economic force also with a tendency in it destructive of a Martinmas celebration. da sie in Kulturverhaltnissen . dagar 1848. that the term p.. which was bound to receive ever set in. author of Germanische Erntefestc. Menschen.und Herbstopfer zu haben jener in der Hagelfeier. operatur per totum Augustum. Apud quosdam." is in the text of this Rectitudo again hcerfest The word corresponding to August " Kote-setlan riht. per anni spatium. Thus. nobody doubts any longer the Professor origin of the harvest festivals. an dem es besonders gait. agriculture excelled pasture as a means of producing food. new stress. in the centuries which followed. p. Vieh und Erzeugnisse des Bodens vor bosen Geistern zu schiitzen. a great killing time for the domestic animals had begun. is he is probably wrong. be dham dhe : on lande On sumon selcre he sceal selce Mon-daege ofer geares iyrst his laforde wyrcan. operari domino suo.2 In the same degree as. and means the month of equinox on Frisian ground. et unam acram avenae Anglo-Saxon stent. dieser in den Erntefesten oder den Martinsschmausen.

). and sheep was from Martinmas till Christmas. swine. p. : quod quaque die oportebat eos emere animalia. qnos Angli vocant fleismangeres.)." MARTINMAS AND MICHAELMAS was increased. ut " Gafolswane. fercula. Cum autem dictum est. into Thus the great killing time slowly advanced further St. in Paul's Gnindriss der germanischen Fhilologie. Vol. 127. 436 437 habeat super-augmentum * "). though the exact time of killing the swine or is not stated in any Rectitude of the Anglo-Saxon period. x. £ . lunulas et oblatas de Linkinwiller. by Melchior Goldast of Haiminsfeld. '. where different fines are prescribed for taking forbidden mast. bis caseos. Leges Regis Edwardi Confessoris (1042-1066): " De Occisionibus Animalium contra natale. ut Stat. In multis locis det singulis annis xv. duos ciatos. luges et Consuetudines edite Quatuor Burgorum Regent Berewic titulo Rokisburg Edinburg et Strivelin. xxxix. de civitatibus et burgis. clamaverunt macecrarii.^ St. Andrew's day (November 30)^ or Nicolas day (December So late as the time of King David I. bis pisces. porcos ad occisionem. veteres et V. ^Thorpe. 133 (xlix. add nam in occisione animalium erat vita eorum]. Strassburg. et in vespera stuopum. et unum stuopum. for the impossibility to pasture and horses beyond Martinmas is much older than the Roman influence upon the Germanics is. and consequently once all it 65 at was no longer necessary to slaughter the domestic animals designed for food. according to the thickness of the fat of the swine.. There were rules laid Institutes down for the swine-herd. suam occisionem det secundum quod in patria statutum est. I. Francofurti. maximum leibonem. I. quod circa festum Sancti Martini emebant animalia [L. constitute ac confirmate per David. They could now in part be kept for some time in the stable. die wir hauptsachlich den Romern verdanken" {Mythologie. p. Andrew's feast is mentioned e.g. juvenes . Eodem festo dat Hospitarius X. Leges Burgorum Scocie. of Scotland (11 24-1 153) the usual time of slaughter for cattle. the varying thickness of their compare the As to the masting of swine and Lmws of King lite in Thorpe's Ancient Laru's and of England. Natale Domini. Rerum Alamannicarum Scriptores Aliquot Vetusti. instead : consueverant animalia in foro mercari] sine plegiis. pp. id est. however. 97. 1661. Galli: "Andreae Apostoli. quod non emerent animalia praeter pl^ios. sheep. pertinet. of each class had to be slaughtered every year : (Thorpe.. winter —to 5).. ad censum porcario. occidere et vendere [L. in Ephetnerides Monasterii S. and fattened whilst they did not move about very much. This argument does not. quas consuetudines justas mercatis emptis tamen in cum testibus et cognitione venditorum. I. 461. hold good for the Martinsschmduse cattle. 1891. bis ova. and these forty-four days were in legal language called "tyme ihre of slauchter. Aiuient Laws. scilicet bis et cames. minorem leibunculum. I.. how many swine I." fat. *A St."^ Almost contemporaneously a pig appeared as a duty 1 Wurzel haben. ipse autem Ancient Laws. et sapienter ad faciendas suas occisiones contra ductas non auferimus eis. Clamabant etiam cives et burgenses pro consuetudinibus suis.

^ Brand's Popular Antiquities'^ tell still Martlemas beef. Deutsche Rechtsaltertiimer.66 YULE AND CHRISTMAS meant that it to be paid at Christmas in Germany. 1 De Officio . "De Officio Carnificum carnes "Of Fleschewaris " Quha gude he that in the Burgh he sal sell eftir " Quicunque et porcinas et vendere voluerit wyl sell flesche vendat bonas carnes scilicet bovinas ovinas flesche beyff muttone and pork opynly in his till vendat secundum consideraville et the ordinans of gud men of the toune and al cionem proborum hominum eas in fenestra sua ut sint ponat sal sett his flesche it communes omniCarnifices that be sene communly wyndow men that bus emere volentibus vero will tharof And fleschewaris forsuth sal servient scilicet burgensibus tempore occisionis serve the burges in is a festo sancti Martini usque ad suis preparandis to say fra the fest of sayncte tyme of slauchter that Martyne natale Domini de carnibus preparentur quhil yhule of the flesche in thar lardyner to et conficiendis in lardariis Si vero carnes restituet ei be graythit and dycht ivil And he gif the male carnifex fleschewar graythis flesche sal restor dampnum Carnifices suum cuius erant animalia hym the scathis that aw the bestys And ser- dum serviunt burgensibus come- the fleschewaris quhilis thai serve thaim thai sal ete at thair dent ad mensam illorum scilicet cum burde wyth thair servientibus eorum Et habebunt pro uno marto obolum pro quinque ovibus obulum pro uno porco obulum " ^ vandis And thai sal hafe for a for cow or ane ox a halpeny and v shepe a halpeny and for a swyne a halpeny " Grimm.... In Scotland Martinmas was. of course. Vol. 537. 1 143. Baubach. under "Mart. after Northumberland a Mart). are formed into sausage links. to was be killed at once. etc. 12 panes. quem pascalem vocant. apportabit. whence the phrase mentioned by Serenius. for slaughter entrails of which." ''English and Swedish Dictionary." This was "commonly later time called Martlemas in ' England. Etytnological Dictionary of the Scottish Language.'"^ or of a little : " Two more of the poorer sort of rustic families at the time (called in join in purchasing a cow." at the beginning of Jamieson^ mentions that the Black Puddings were. porro in natale domini curiam visitabit. V.. etc. ^Jamieson. so late as 1800. the having been filled with a kind of pudding meat consisting of blood.i).D. 355- ^Jbid. 124 to 1423 1844. our LXIV. Carnificum (in : The Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland. A. Nykoping. p. suet. 1757. I. "Ipse villicus mansum cum omnibus iustitiis habebit." § 5 : *P. .^ which. Lower Alsace. A. 346) LXIV. etc. From their appearance they are called Black Puddings. boiled. 4 sextaria vini et unum porcum. little groats. "the term at which beeves are usually killed for winter. and sent about as presents.

being burgesses. 4). onions. the Lord in his righteous judgement. the bunch of grapes in the hand. 1566. 1591. And a gay time it was than. p. 68). "Get up and bar the door.(>'i Acts of Parliament. 2d. Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. 45-46. muttoun. probably unrivalled fourteenth century series of pations of the seasons. £'2. and a little oatmeal. and slaying mairts with their awin hands" {Chalmerlan Air.. pp. — that c. Laws and were v. the Lord. the representative of August.. s. lo). London.. Marie. A. killed. p. 1489. to the and salted for winter provision fifteenth nineteenth century in Scotland called a Mart = cow). holding in one hand a crutch and September which in the other a weed-hook. slaughter" (Bruce's Eleven Sermons.. edit. the rents — etc. 158." (_The Songs of Scotland chronologically arranged. leaf is cutting off with the latter the thick succulent stalk of a thistle. hous and nobill estate" (Acts of James IV.^ depicting the occu- While June is there described as the month of hunting with a hawk. 280. suet. {Statistical Account. 1890. 162 sheep. Ibid. an appendage of the Mart They cow or at least were made of blood. holding a handful in his right hand. and July as the time of mowing with a scythe. sterling. 4 There can be no doubt that this Celtic word Mart -covf was very early brought into connection with Martinmas.. under ' ' Mart. mak'. Fol. its symbol being a man it in a field of wheat. When our gudewife got puddings to And she boil'd them in the pan. ^ Described by James Fowler in the Transactions of the Cumberland and Westviorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. " He gives the war in following instances: "Of fleshers 39. to the honorabill 24. pepper. IV. 2nd ed.. or Mairt? The sculptured capitals of the choir-pillars of Carlisle Cathedral present a figures." 19s. Edin. which borders the opening and it is is denoted as the month of grain-harvest.). and cutting with a sickle in his left October is the tide of grape-harvest. are. sustentation of his c.^ A was ox which was from the (Gaelic fattened.MARTINMAS AND MICHAELMAS century. . with ease and prosperity: "As Marts of this warlde. Ferguson's Guide to Carlisle. left. Carlisle." from Herd's Collection). c. S. 1597. "In 1565. Skene. ^ The eighteenth century song says ' ' : It fell about the Martinmas time. "That handis of his Progenitouris and Father — martis. as they still 67 in Scotland. ^ Jamieson. hes appoynted them Jamieson. The same word is also used metaphorically to denote those for the fed for who are pampered a. which description is extracted in R.. 60 marts or fat beeves. — cum to our Souerane all pultrie.

d.68 the hooked knife in YULE AND CHRISTMAS the his right hand of the it vine-dresser. by his right hand. a man its with an axe grasped by the handle in both hands. 1396 "Ich haen Heynen Volrait gegen 55 m van den verken die zuo jair up vur kirsnacht wurden gegulden. in similar costume to the is first.^ In the Germany of the sixteenth century. On the Nether Rhine. a December was the principal month of slaughter. cuts dry branches down from them its and May the gay in month of young foliage and flowers. about Christmas. November and The emblem of November It is a man in boots. Instalment LIV. i alb um eier up dat huis. 1396. April. . Jan. 56 um spiskraut. February is nothing but the month of cold and wet weather March up the ground round still leafless trees. xix.. one its if of the swine having is to catch a falling acorn. 4. Unde . chap. 1892. p. to replenish his cups stands A digs jug wherewith on the ground at his left side. symbol being a woman holding each hand a ^^eur-de-fys-shsL^ted. " p. IX. under the ^ Annalen des Historischett Vereins fiir den Niederrhein. Nov.. (ed. 21. bunch of sprouting foliage. the killing time of swine was little later. takes from her the bunch in her hand.^ just as in England. about a. December which bring is in the domestic animals. its representative having three smooth left unbearded faces under one skull cap. hand and in and with the central face looking impassively forward. 1488): "De Decembre. raised. and presenting them to a young man. In hoc mense : : propter asperitatem frigoris sunt et ideo altilia et animalia domestica multae quietis et parvi motus. p. member of this capital on the eastern member of the next head raised as capital is seen a swine- herd in the midst of oak-leaves and acorns tending a herd of swine feeding. tunc temporis interficiuntur potissime et mactantur. No. . is with a crooked knife. wicker basket hanging at his shoulder. and the basket upon the ground by side denoting as such. doe man die verken affdeide . " i alb Book of Expenditure of Herr von Drachenfels. 12. plurimum impinguantur. and with it the back of about to fall on the forehead of an ox. 37. who. 1400." ^ Bartholomaeus Anglicus. December held fast it. 139S. sowing corn broadcast with his right hand out of a left side. suspended by a strap from his right Oak-leaves and acorns are on the bell of the western . 29. standing behind January the time of gay drinking. which is by horns by a man. drinking by the right and out of shallow cups held respectively in the right mouths the left.

Deutsche Opfergebrduche.. Sebastian Franck. With the same also we begin our dinners each day after other . p.: MARTINMAS AND MICHAELMAS 69 influence of agricultural progress. The Scott Library. Deutsche Rechtsaltertiiiner. . III. 131. October. Grimm. from "A Description of England. London. to St.^ thus reaching the shifted not earlier than the second half of January. the killing time of pigs extended to Epiphany. November. Aliter. consume November. 266. October mustum calcatis exprimit uvis Et serit hoc anno quae redeunte metat. killed afterwards). but chiefly in the Christmas time. . That the slaughter began in November is shown by the following passage " Of our tame boars we make brawn. ^ Lauterbach Document of 1589. bibit.. Ad pastum in silvam porcos compellit. a draught of malvesey. stabula hinc cogit adire pecus. p.^ To February to was when the cultivation of potatoes had become popular and productive enough keep especially swine through the greater part propter quod depingitur tanquam camifex qui cum securi percutit et mactat : porcum suum. Atque etiam cupide turbida musta Aliter. ^Montanus. " Frigoribus coelum magis intractabile reddit. which is a kind of meat not usually known to strangers. . bastard." by William Harrison J. ^ At the end of the sixteenth century the occupations of the time of October to January are described in the following way October. because is it is somewhat hard of .' . . Ligna vehit mactatque boves. and. I. 658).^ and shortly afterwards seventeenth century. or muscadel usually drank after it. (in Hollinshed' s edited by Lothorp Withington. et ipse Pinguibus interea vescitur anseribus. p. . Ulrich Jahn. Fumivall. digestion. With us it is accounted a great piece of service at the table from November until February be ended. probably. with Introduction by F." {Elizabethan England: Chronicles). Anthony's Day it (January ly). 369: a young pig which had not reached maturity was led round through the benches (and. spoliatque decore. Weltbuch. Autumnus quaecunque dedit. Ebria Martini festa et laetus ad ignem November agit. Et pinguem hybema glande trucido suem. p. Arboribus fructus adimit. 17.

Dresden. 306. new year. Haud avis. 1585. 307. numbered 400 and 303). celebrat cunabula Christi. and over Europe." (Grasse. shifting of YULE AND CHRISTMAS This movement was. which latter two are there wrongly Quibus Aetrologicae Scientiae Certitudo Contprobatur. torret. and put into parallel with Christmas. Christmas. Hoyaische Kirchenordnung von 1573. reseratque futurum. Eine Sau ich itzunder stechen sol. Et iugulat porcos. Michaelmas appears as a term for paying duties very frequently from the sixteenth century. ^ Des deutschen Landmanns Practica. more especially the prevalence of agriculture over cattle-keeping. where Michaelmas is called the vierte Hochfesttag. and Whitsunday. Gernianische Erntefeste. 118. Pfannenschmid.: 70 of the winter. In nive persequitur vestigia pressa ferarum. 32. thus clearly standing in relation to the Roman quartering of the year.. thus tended to destroy the ancient whilst favouring both a harvest Germanic mid-November festival held earlier in the year and the development of a festival about the middle of the German winter. II. p. Another same time says of December " Prassen will ich und leben wol. Januarius. piece from the praeteritum claudit. I. aqua. reckoned either as Christmas or on January so that Michaelall mas. p. . baud fera venanti deest ulla Decembri. Annum {Ranzovii Exempla.. Richter. wherever the in uprooting the ancient St. Pasch. iure vetat" Sed venam pp. Et pingues carnes editque suem. on legal ground. Kirchenordnungen. Easter.^ The economic celebration. evolution. Abluit et calida ^ - membra December tribula dura ferit. ferro tangere. John's Day came to be the four great terms Roman Calendar and the Roman Church succeeded Germanic tri-partition of the year. crepitantique assidet igni. December.. 304. Landesordnung des Herzogtums Preussen von 1525. Affert Solslitium. 355. accompanied by a a great number of duties and taxes at to the beginning of the i. 1858. 28). Quamvis ningat atrox et gelet usque vadum. Ibid. lanus vina bibit. Coloniae. A liter.

as has been shown already.CHAPTER SOLSTICES Jacob Grimm. AND EQUINOXES. Christian Church. he would have been led to a further examination of each. was by no fail means genuine and common Aryan did not to see how deep-rooted it was in the is legal. six-fold VII. yet he cultural. reconcilable with general. together with a quartering the of the year. that there no historical evidence whatever for of solstices and equinoxes among the Germanics in their pre. conclusions as to the Aryan year in division. And though he did not among the Germanics at the dawn of know that it had been borrowed from that it the Orient. had a perfect grasp of the division of the year found history. and economic conditions of our ancestors. that the quartering of of purely Roman origin. It a very strange fact that he should have thought a knowledge of two solstices and two equinoxes. and property. was Jacob Grimm's way regard our ancient ancestors as speculative philosophers who stood aloof from the . which of necessity must be drawn from a at six-fold Had year he been aware that these two ways of looking the course of the were mutually exclusive.Roman time. the history of the all and the year with history of agri- culture point to a three-fold partition of the It the beginning to about the middle of November. and probably ultimately from Egypt. not found elsewhere a celebration . that philology and folklore. as well as to the Germanics before their acquaintance with the the year is is Roman and is calendar. and then would have found that a cognizance of solstices and equinoxes must be denied to the early Aryans.

above his useful right of imitation. i. the proper relation of the two of observation sixteenth having been known is only since Copernicus. equal lacks The fixing of the date at which day and night are exactly entirely in economic interest and significance. that they. as they do in our own.^ The is observation of the change of cold in winter and heat in thing. that the man who years to after Grimm made in this all subject his his special study. nay. leaving only a very limited realm to a manifestation of personal likes and dislikes. That primitive people were bound to connect them by no means and it more than doubtful whether the next thing would be to observe so-called solstices and equinoxes. and devoted it. therefore. 1878. and 326 ss). true. since the is century. The observation of so-called ^ So even Heino Pfannenschmid seems to think when he explains his theory of the Germanic year in his otherwise excellent book on Germanische Erntefeste im heidnischen und christlichen Culttis (Hannover. to get from them. 16 ss. . pp. and who shaped their yearly course according to that it own fancies and their belief in gods. Jacob Grimm was walk a king in his kingdom of Germanic philology.e.72 Struggle their for YULE AND CHRISTMAS existence. not strange that stumbles worthy. solstices and rejoiced in quartering their year and celebrating imaginary and equinoxes. that they should altogether neglect in hints and It the material gathered by him which pointed the direction? looks like a joke in the history of Germanic antiquarian studies. in primeval times. he could not help indicating the way it to safely. and even where he stumbled on his royal road. If some peoples of lines antiquity sought to find a causal connection between the two things. that that realm gets smaller and smaller every step we go further back into the past. should have wasted energy in the attempt to prove that exactly the Germanics pre-Roman times had had nothing the same year as the Romans. that of the is summer the one movement of the rising-point of the sun on horizon another. that connection was hopelessly wrong. fixed all the more important features of daily and yearly life. and he failed to see is the economic conditions which. But what about those who followed they should think his his route? Was all. and certainly never affected the minds of primitive peoples..

a.d. 301. is extremely spring the rising-point of the sun visibly shifts from day to day. by merely translating the Latin terms. whilst popular tradition Nevertheless these innovations knew nothing of called these foreign-made goods.. It earlier than at their close contact with the (as with other Romans that the Germanics became acquainted stices Roman institutions) with sol- and equinoxes. the sol- and equinox^^. which divergence even now we can see that the Germanics had no ancient as common word they for them. 401. and they chose the But not simplest way that offered. and was not same degree away from March 21 and September 22.d. Solsticium ^ is in Latin. Nay. brought the ancient Germanics face to face with a task which may be philological. a. even took particular limitations with which the Latin expression solsticium was used. winter solstice making a December 18.d. 201.SOLSTICES solstices. a. at proof for their knowledge of a solar Germanics are concerned. shifts scarcely at all from the beginning of December beginning of to the middle of January. They were compelled to create new words for the new conceptions with which they were made familiar.^ although not with their true astronomical dates. tribes fulfilling all that task in the same way. a. on December A. actually and although he ordered the winter solstice stice to take place icember 25. fails to give any . He year with solstices and equinoxes. a. so that in 1501 was wicked enough to take place on December The in spring equinox and autumnal equinox apparently shared the delight shifted in the moving backward by eighteen hours a century. 23. on December 17. 21.d. on December 20. I. a. ioi.d. with a few late exceptions. used 118. Even the fix whom Caesar had at his disposal were not able to . they persistently and obstinately disobeyed point of taking place on — the i . 73 Whilst in autumn and it on the other hand. on. their wise to which men faithfully stuck for a millenium.D. and so 12. exclusively for the Kuhn's article in Zacher's Zeitschrift least so far as the fur deutsche Philologie. 801. is not to be taken seriously. but with the pseudo-equinoxes and solstices of the Julian calendar.d. on December 22. on December 19. on December it 601. 1868. and from the astronomers solstices June to the middle of July. such over the they had for winter and summer. and the summer on June 24. there arose considerable fror'i divergence in the expressions used. AND EQUINOXES difficult.

at least ^ "^ Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters. " vor disen sunwenden." Iwein. summer and the middle of it. "an sunwenden abend. IVigalois. i . sonnenbenttag. 114. all which apply to the summer solstice alone sunwende. 708." Nibelungen Not. sunnstede. 3. and (although he heads his paragraph In Sohticium brumale) gives examples solely of sohticium estivale.. 74 YULE AND CHRISTMAS solstice. exclusively to of brumalis. ." 1424." Tristan. another paragraph. sungiht^ sunstede." Ls. These terms do not occur So sunstede is over Germany. in is unable to give even a single instance from a medieval document solstice which a winter estivale. Wherever the word sunnewende occurs of the twelfth to the the Middle-High-German poetry is and thirteenth centuries there no doubt that it can apply summer is solstice solely. there no medieval word wintersonnwende or the in the corre- sponding term New-High-German being in of quite modern growth. ist p. are restricted to several dialects. "ze einen sunewenden. suniich.. that is. 4. 1891. sunn- benden. occurs. apply to the sunwende. and Lachmann's Nibelungen Not. 694. and sommertag. 2.^ poet or writer of prose thinks of adding any adjective sungicht to make that . four of Germany herself has evolved four for solstice. sonnabenden. 3. I. Ibid.. however. "zen nsehsten sunwenden. Sonnenwende is is turning of the sun walk of the sun and sunstede standing of the sun all — three but quite different things. "ze sunewenden. sunnewenttag. summer is solstice This amounts to the 25. 1352. and is used as the contrary The name for the shortest day of the year was simply bruma \dies\)^ (supposed to be a contraction of brevissima which also meant the words : whole of winter. alone. of that appears late the fact the adjective solsticialis even in Latin. 1754.^ without an additional qualification the who maintains summer solstice by sohticium in most cases. or fact. 2023.^ he quite properly remarks that the whole of the following expressions : sonnwenden.. known of December any of the days : about that having ever been called solstice in the is German language like. 678. Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters. summer from How that well aware the Roman mind was refers. 178. p. 3.. I. sungicht. 5987 "Santjohans sunewenden . 1717. 4. Grotefend. sungichten. 181. ^"Hiute Ibid. sunibentag." tac. exclusively Frisian. der ahte tac nach sunewenden. 4. nay. Nibelungenlied." . meant. 32. that no medieval instance it. No clear.

se haefdh otherne sunn-stede. 8.sj9. Grotefend maintains the same usage to have existed among the Frisians. modern Solsta^tl^ derivatives Sommersolkve^t and derivative But Swedish has with the the modern derivative Vintersolstand." I. they were How could have been otherwise. derived Vintersolhvers- Norwegian.-. we have there to do with Saturday instead Grotefend. 61^/y/[)i/«r witii . in an Anglo-Saxon : treatise on astjonomy based Treatises entirely on Beda's work. word for the same notion: Fnsiaii sumerdey. .. This being will tfee .. or -is throwing of the sun^ from' which" in" modern" "times festen. 178. p. and Icelandic' has ^J. Friesische Rechtsquellen. sometimes solstices. . ZeUrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters. De Ratione Temporum Thomas Wright.* community of speech bgtw^^ Angles' From this and Frisians was broken uplpprtTiiis^ is the more > likely. * sunna ewenda bifara sente Liudgeris dei" (Richthofen. I. another. Zeitrechnung. thus appearing to be an Anglo-Frisian term. nobody wondeni^jfe^^^he -several Northern Germanic tribes evolved almost each a nam&^|>^'eir own. but beforeMhe..j^ jyvith..^ whilst in Frisian (March 17) and winter day (September and English ^ It is found. modern In German is the word sonnwende (solstice). and English.g.. 169). thoughVflever us§d for winter usfec^- solstice. the Vintersolhverv. Zeitrechnung. pp.. I. '"^^ p. ./'. ^Grotefend. e.nd So/kver." Groiekn^. 189: "A but I should be rather inclined to think that of equinox. for equinox^ so that Germany can boast of having three which s. hiems is winter. settled in the several parts of the summer solstice^ juntil after they had north! Thus Danish hjj^s Solhverv.she certainly deserves on account of her ancient three seasons.. ^"Sonnwende der ander in der vasten.te of matters among it the Western Germanics. since not^ acquainted^ wwith. 189 1. as-^FrisianTTaiid English have in common. London. 9: suincM^se haefdh sunn-stede. 181.. Anglo-Norman.. English summer night-f' whilst sommertag for solstice is sporadic in German. 178. Ibid. the. >.^ we may conclude that the Germanics became acquainted with the Roman summer solstice at a time when the Western Germanics had already separated into German* and Anglo-Frisians.^ In FlarMjBrs the equinoxes are called summer day 21). Vetrarsblstodur. I. 1891. Popular " Aestas is on Scieiue written during the Middle Ages in Anglo-Saxon. 1 891." has So^kve^ a. likewise.SOLSTICES as far as the continent is AND EQUINOXES it 75 concerned. mdcccxli. for also occurs in Anglo-Saxon. Historical Society of Science Publication.

everything There was once a theory current according cult. 1048.S. as regards Germanic tribes. daz ebennaht belouhtet ir sunne unde ' Mliller und Zarncke. ^ At any before rate never was a popular date or an early century that the equinox is is term. Zeitrechnung. Popular lencten-tid. 2. Mittelhochdeutsches Worterbuch. 1898. and the shifting of the rising- point of the sun on the horizon. Leipzig. . Oxford. Ibid. pp." John Earle. Friesische Kechtsquellen." Mone. " Equinoxium. If we knew nothing about the actual division of the Germanic year. in dem merzen an dem funf und zweinzigisten tage so luot er zwelfstunt unde sam ofte in der naht. Frisian and English evolve a than German common term for equinox. chronik. and jafnncetti." Karajan. davon bekennet man sint. Two is of the Saxon Saxon Chronicles Parallel. which stamp of manufacture. II. But. 179. ^Thomas Wright. 109. It is the fifteenth it used for dating documents. ^"1402 als equenoxium was umme sunte Gregorius dge nten" (Magdeburger Sc happen194. seo hsefdh Treatises . "Ver is emnihte autumnus is hserfest. evenniht or emnihie. earlier modern their origin. 9. 8. 82. Glossen. 390-392. Laud MS. Zeitrechnung. and even then supplemented by other things. Modern Danish ^cEVudogn. on Science. is summer day means summer translation In Middle-High-German the very rare literal of equinox {ebennaht) and very not late. pp.^ Among the Northern Germanics the term is exceedingly rare and very late. 1863. 180. facts.^ Frisian evennaht." lbid. waet ir wint. so that it it almost seems to have been borrowed from Frisian. on the authority of these philological the ancient Germanics did not base their be safe to assume that tides seasons and on solstices and equinoxes. it would. . such as the rising of the sun. Richthofen. Grotefend. Modern has Icelandic has Jafn-dcegur and jafn-dcegri." Diefenbach. 301." Chronicle. 1841. 304).^ bears the The complicated artificial little expression is Tag und of quite Nachtgletche. . equal days jaftidoegri.76 YULE AND CHRISTMAS solstice. "to hserfestes emnihte.. " Ebennahtec. 54. VI IL.\ " aequinoctium ewennachtig. custom —was traced back to an alleged sun worship or observations of the events visible in the sky. the hsefdh odhre emnihte. 26 L. ebennachtig. Modern Norwegian has jevndogn. Grotefend.. London. that theory is so little applicable as to make it quite certain that among our ^ ' Der onager. A. the hiding of the sun behind clouds.. I. 249. E. to which —myth. * 1865.. "Letera evennaht" the September equinox.. equinoxialis obent-nehtig.

suffixes though (Gothic coming from the same Gothic were formed with different . III. London. fem. p. who in the Middle Ages immigrated to Scandinavia. Besides. i887. and sunna. and most seriously affected the Anglican Church. sunno. and replaced their names by German terms which corresponded there was not even a exactly to the Roman directly terms.d. ." What stress was ' * by the Middle Ages on the coincidence of Christmas and the winter solstice is evident fact that the keeping up of that coincidence is given as the reason for the Bracton's Note Book. masc. German sol. which. Germanic tribes even had different root. juxta sententiam omnium Orientalium. name being times *Tiwaz (Greek Zevs. different Nay. named *Thonaraz. English sun. It is in connection with this controversy that we get our first information about our ancestors' ability to Ceolfrid's Letter find the term of the spring equinox. * Wodanaz. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. probably in the first century of our era. 289: Aequinoctium autem. to whom in common Germanic another was added. the Germans took over from the Romans the Phoenician week of seven days. by F. his As to deities. whilst North Germany still later produced a third..^ shows that about that time the capacity to ^ Haddan and Stubbs. AND EQUINOXES 77 We have not only absolutely no traces of sun worship among the Germanic nations. sauil. At any rate we may affirm that at the was one goddess. ed.. written circa a. ut etiam ipsi horologica inspectione probamus.. 196): "Sed hoc fit propter quandam necessitatem ad evitandam laid from the illud inconveniens. Latin Dies-piter). the so because violent discussions about the proper time for holding Easter were going on for several centuries. called Frija. 301 (fol. neut. fem. Sonne. words for sun. Oxford. god to take the place of Saturnus. Vol.. but even in historical times the sun has been of different gender in different Germanic languages. Whilst the summer solstice was probably taken over from to popular Roman tradition. sol). et maxima Aegyptiorum. 710. on Easter and the Tonsure. time when. et quia si possit . Anglo-Saxon Old Scandinavian the Germanics seem to have originally had one god only. there but never won the adoration of the High-German tribes. the equinoxes seem to the have become familiar the clerical Germanic mind through more bearing the spring equinox had on the fixing of Easter. duodecimo kalendarium Aprilium die pro venire consuevit. qui prae ceteris doctoribus calculandi palmam tenent.. quod esset intemperies hiemalis in signis aestivalibus. III. Maitland. SOLSTICES ancestors the sun was no deity. 1871. institution of the leap year. masc. W.

and two of the terms of ^ the three-fold partition that on almost the same days." : •jS YULE AND CHRISTMAS the date of the equinoxes by observation had been attained in fix Great Britain. stand out in the very ancient high tides. After having wrongly fixed the terms of the dual division of the year at the end of September and of March. in Ilenrici hieme. seo hsefdh is emnihte emnihte ^ sestas sumor.D. et etiam ^ ita contingeret intemperies hiemalis in signis aestivalibus. Christmas and the of John Baptist. 9. Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages. which are halved by solstices and equinoxes. se hsefdh otherne sunnstede. sestas. 9. which entirely The Anglo-Saxon treatise of took place. summer and winter." p. Johannis Bapt. Londini. . however. is and winter. but broke entirely through the system of actual seasons). p. . German year as Through the standing still of the sun. he proceeds their to declare the Germanics halved two seasons. De in Essoniis. that is is 1841. according to ecclesiastical denomination. ea ratione propter necessitatem ad illud inconveniens vitandum ne festum Natalis Domini celebretur aestate et Nativitas Sancti Johannis Baptistae in hieme. " Feower tida synd ge-tealde on Ver is lencten-tid. according to the opinion of that time. De ' ' Legibus Consuetudinibus Angliae. In his fanciful way he sets down the following bold guesses feast ^ : " Midwinter and midsummer. sumor. SSQ*" Ille vero dies excrescens qui non est computabilis. based on Beda's Z>e Temporum Ratione'^ and four on Roman which views. fol. autumnus. London. Lib. by Thomas Wright. hiems winter. were no longer seasons. which." This passage was in et probability written before A. stopped in turning round to a contingere quod new Natale Domini celebraretur in aestate all et Nativitas B. calls the Roman a quarters of the year. . the hsefdh odhre . hcerfest. 1256 2. ver. tide. 1640. that is was probably not before the eleventh century this astronomy. Professor Weinhold goes on talking about if Germanic solstices and equinoxes as nothing in the world were a fact better established. ed. though several centuries elapsed solstices after their first acquaintance with them before equinoxes and solar were accepted as terms quartering a It year of 365 days and a quarter. hiems. quod contingere posset infra quingentos vel sexcentos annos.. absolutely like the Romans. V. synd. de Bracton. se hsefdh sunn-stede autumnus ^ hserfest. Historical Society of Science. of by its very name compound with shown to be not an old term. lencten-tid. Notwithstanding all these facts. pp. lencten-tid. Deutsche Jahrteilung. Ibid. 8. .. at four seasons (which. 9: anum geare. and thus arrived.

^ for centuries before they Nay. according to his belief. he has But he still deduces from the facts that the Scandinavians divided their year by October 9 to sumarndti). . has not a single time been shown to have been applied to December 25 : its use is absolutely restricted to June 24. ^Compare my own book ^ Geschichte der deutschen 14. without being in the least disturbed by the fact that such a thing never existed. There even the P. p. louwmcent for January. just as the word solsticium was among the Romans. of which he talks a further on." which. "divided the most ancient German year." Yet there is not a neither shadow of had a historical evidence for these fancies. of which the Germanics knew absolutely nothing. p." and refers that adjective to the "rest of the sun. i. little The Dode- Twelve-nights. vailed during those tides. are simply the kahemeron of the old Church. 4. explains them as lind and lau. or solstice. ^Weinhold. and that 14 and April 9 to 14 {vetrnatt and the Germans are shown to have had the Roman i. seasons."* ^ In his Weihnacht-Spiele und Lieder aus Siiddeutschland und Schlesien there is even a chapter headed in the index as "The Germanico-heathen still celebration of the winter solstice. The later whom he^ lays much stress. pp. ss.. 1875. 1893. goddesses Ostara and Hreda. on given up himself.e.. the people felt 79 themselves driven to solemn rest and the service Divination and prophecy prethe of the deity of the sky which led the sun.282. 6. 15. according to popular belief. p. one of which began about October the conclusion that equi- noxes. Weihnacht. ^ Deutsche Jahrteilung. which existed there appeared among any Germanic tribe. one may well be doubtful whether that serves to strengthen the position of his own hypothesis. The Germanics festival about Christmas nor about the day of John Baptist. Deutsche Jahrteilung. all through the Middle Ages the term Sonnenwende. Leipzig. took place about midwinter and midsummer. and with their mysterious thrill interrupted noisy joy which wreathed round heathen sacrifices. *Wien. Ibid. trans- forms these meanings to "resting." in which he gives a more enraptur- ing delineation of that alleged Germanic festival. 1862. for If Wein- hold^ places the Anglo-Saxon word lidha June and July alongside the Dutch lauwe.SOLSTICES AND EQUINOXES journey.

That the Christmas do have a close relation to the sun that the Christmas tree that yule has etymologically to to with wheel'. so far as meant to apply to pre- Christian times. all. but a bear. pp. Twelve-nights of the Germanics fires ^ The holy is almost touching. 1884. that the solstice that the.'^ devotes to the offerings about the time of the in contain. may be called and certainly represents a much more tradition. or Berchta that the boar {bar) led it or Hera. in pages which Professor Weinhold's bet Dr. these properly be held on Christmas eve. . list of other most surprising fancies can be learned from thirty-six So the whole of the Jahn. critical attitude on the part of its author than any of the attempts of Professor Weinhold to deal with the problems of German popular ^^' ^ Given Wien. that was not the central figure of the pro: but probably merely accidental and we have a hundred other description given of the products of unscientific imagination. which.8o YULE AND CHRISTMAS had been called Jul. 253-289. error occurs. . Martinmas to Easter should on the Twelve-nights. or Gode. Ulrich his book Die deutschen Opfergebrduche they are Ackerbau und winter solstice. that a number of the customs in use from or. and Fricke. great is be derived from Wodan. nothing but unhistorical speculations. disciple. useful. and an extensive that book. 1875. winter solstice that that time was the beginning of the Germanic We village learn was devoted to Wodan. or Holda. Viehzucht. P- ^ Breslau. at least. in various respects. year. about through the was not a boar at cession. accompanied by another. and would have been better omitted from that book.

chap." F . the Phoenicio-Roman week. taking over alphabet of Egyptian rapid succession the it Roman capital origin to turn into their runes. first This intercalary period of apparently about thirty days was the thing to interfere with the congruity of the German year. but about the middle of summer and at intervals which we do not know. De Temporum nisi Ratione. which. had known only for tides of sixty days. Germania. who expressly testifies to the existence of an intercalary month among the ancient Angles.. incidit. ^ although they did not add this mensis Mercidonius every second year between February 23 and 24. : "Coeunt . the ancient Roman leap year with its intercalary month. THE CALENDS OF JANUARY. So it continued for at least three-quarters of a ^We know "^ this from Beda. as bringing good or bad luck Tacitus ^ keeps that usage quite distinct from the Germanic division of the year. xi. and a variety of other things. xv.CHAPTER VIII. number of Germanic tribes. through ^ commerce and from them in came into close contact with the Romans. the pre-Julian i. but had not taken account of lunar periods the purpose of dividing time. quid fortuitum et subitum cum aut inchoatur luna aut impletur nam agendis rebus hoc auspicatissimum initium credunt. so far. certis diebus. however conscientiously to the affairs of they might observe them daily life. chap. In the first century before Christ a war. some astronomical They took over the institution of calendar with its beginning of the year on March wisdom.

into a month and a second liuleis month. at a very early date. deponatur '^ sin autem laicus. of the sections in order to tides. Similarly. 24-28. a ready-made theory of probably Egyptian origin. without any addition. continued to mean a tide of sixty days. for which they received. a third month was appended. whilst the words about Lida. to which. III. "Qui quibusdam ante suas fecerit. instead of tides of about days necessarily led to a breaking-up of the latter into two parts of equal length. most of these names being taken from life. A.. which formed the course of a year. Parisiis. and from the the coasts of the Adriatic. names were taken over and bye and bye replaced by new German moon. however. pp. which were formed by means of a word probably identical with Germanic It is." 82 millennium. disputed with good reason.D. supra quos etiam antiqua quadam consuetudine Solent. in noviluniis a col. the relation is of the root of moon to Sanskrit ma. began about the middle Roman months made little difificult. etc. 706. the Lida tide Lida month and a second Lida month. Lida in in intercalary years. . 1686. Die deutscken Monatnamen. for which new names were things a The fact that the six Germanic of the tides. Old Saxon monadh). The word manodh was added clearly out for to each mark them from the old three-score-day the names of which were used liuleis first forming the new compounds. of the year. Weinhold. tides Only gradually self-dependent names were developed which were denoted months. Yet the Roman monthterms. to measure (Greek /xerpov). So the old liuleis tide of sixty days at the beginning of winter was divided into a first summer Liuleis. segregetur. Halle. Quisquis ergo tale quid quidem clericus. two of which formed a Germanic season of a long hundred of for these half- days.. especially during the time of transition from prevalent pasture to '^ Acta Conciliorum. mdnodh (Gothic menoths. si demos accenduntur rogos.^ and remained an ever giving.^ sixty YULE AND CHRISTMAS The introduction of Roman months required. Vol. 1869. Ixv. economic the Baltic which naturally varied considerably between the coasts of British Isles down to new source of name- and the south of France. salire inepte ac delire sit iubemus deinceps : cessare. The moon Germanics in particular. Concilium Quinisextum sive officinas et in Trullo. doubtful whether Latin mensis is exactly of the same derivation. among the Aryans and among the anything but the medium for dividing the course was. : 1 714.

and on the coasts of the Mediterranean fifty it in general. as long as hundreds of thousands of Roman armies. for individual tribes. of attainment a system which would embrace them which all.. historians. rhetoricians.. scientists. Egypt. and its in the suite of every-day experience there with poets. territory The several hundreds of Germanic month-names found on Germanic to from the sixth century down variations of meaning. fighting all over the world then Roman imperial throne as long as invading and Vandilian invaders no to the north of Africa without losing contact with those Germanic tribes which remained northward of the Alps practically limit to the entry of — there was terri- Roman knowledge into Germanic tory. philosophers. and beyond the channel into the British Isles. in which the noble science of well as grammar and the quadrivium were taught thoroughly. the present time. visiting Italy. Within the hundred and years which followed. and more than once disposing of Goths went down to Italy .C. began the B. Roman legions and Roman administration carried over the Rhine into Germany.THE CALENDS OF JANUARY prevalent agriculture. with their innumerable make impossible 707. In the year of later Rome forty-five years before the date from^^ the Christian era was counted. In the suite of the new calendar which. />. and so the it about a thousand years. province entirely Romanized. came Roman learning and physicians. circumstances which led the development of one and the same even for series of for all Germanic tribes. the task of the Germanics to receive and receive ever mental gifts from the civilization of empire they destroyed. the Julian calendar began to reign in Italy and Gaul. or each of the principal groups of them nay. Among the Germanics there was no self-dependent scholarship that could those finest successfully compete became. to 83 names for these The inexhaustible variety of new half-tides made impossible home-made month-names . the trivium as All along the Rhine there flourished Roman rhetoric schools in consider- able number. with for products of a higher civilization. year with the Calends of January (at which date. after Julius Caesar. Greece. subsequently to 153 . there flourished large as long as As long as Gaul remained a Roman down the banks of the Rhine Germans served the in Roman towns. known. Asia Minor.

* Suetonius. 161. chap. viii.C.D.^ given ^ During lost they were on the Capitol. were with great regularity observed in all the great towns along the Rhine. Bonn. since the Czechic . the whole annual course of the Gaul. 3. nay. and Honorius.. Fasti. in Augustus. Roman consuls had entered their Roman festivals passed by degrees to all. Seneca. 37. Germany. in Augustus. 95.84 the YULE AND CHRISTMAS offices). Deutsche Mythologie. but till is certain to have sprung from Calendae. chap. chap. 2. but CaHgula was so to a sense of shame.* requiring to being related that Augustus had had nocturnal present his vision that people should annually. according to the old significance of their winter festival. in Caligula. . xlii. ^"Cavam manum asses porrigentibus praebens. as far as east of the Bohemia. and a verb colendisare appearing in old sources of Bohemian law (Rossler. xci. and south of Great Britain. Kiel. p. log (Grimm. Leipzig. 33. called many centuries later their Christmas Kalledos.^ will be worth while to see of what kind the Roman customs were which could be transferred to Germany along with the institution of the Calends of January and the neighbouring gifts festivals. habit of New-Year's presents boni ominis causa B. Ixxxvii. ^ The Uber deutsche Jahrteilung. and to the Lithuanians north of them. 522). . 1862. p. p. my own "^ Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht. Russian Koljada) a fifteenth century source calling Bohemian Christmas processions calendisatiotus (Usener. 14. during the the Saturnalia. a name which has wrongly been brought into connection with Lithuanian Kalada. to the first three centuries of our era. Cakes and fruits were the principal (Martialis.^ Since even Professor Weinhold admits that the Roman calendar was it one of the three forces which shaped the medieval German calendar. where the quotations from Holleschau's treatise are given. is is first mentioned by Plautus i. even to the Slave tribes Germans. Prager Recht.) in his Stichus. v. Brumalia. It seems to still of these eatables. note to p. Compare Preller. and thence spread inner parts of Germany. 1889 Johannes von Holleschau's Treatise on Christmas). . Ivii. xiii. 1893. p. The Lithuanians. Compare . (+ 184 187. 6 . 2. There was first of all the custom of New-Year's or Strenae. Epistulae. Christlicher Festbranch.^.^ In imperial Rome the people and the Senate were expected it to present New-Year's a day. and Kalendae Januartae.). gifts to the emperors. chap. 140). xxxiv. 400 under the Emperors Arcadius in Tiberius. 24.. Their purpose gifts explained by Ovid. 287. p. word for Christmas is up to-day Koleda (Polish Kolenda. Roniische Mythologie. No. The custom have been under Augustus that money took the place prevailed about A. which he received with a hollow hand. above which. on a certain money reign him." Ibid. 4th ed. iii.

there was a whole of : festivals. xviii. that he was not far from the who said that anciently it was the month of December. For what was not wont to be done. locupletes cereis utebantur." to use the Scotch word. but now the Were you here. Lib. The new year's gift was called III. when the bosomwhen they were received with it both hands hollow. from December 17 to ^ Suetonius. ^dth their equality between rich slaves. gifts. quia candelis pauperes. to receive those which people all descriptions brought to him. I would willingly confer with you as to the plan of our conduct whether we should live in our usual way. every- where may you hear the sound of great preparations. in Caligula. and to in stand in order It the porch on of the Calends of January. of Scot. p." Festus Pompeius. larity. when the if greatest part of the city in a bustle. 29. chap.. to avoid singu. Glossarium. xlii. "Yule. Diet. XVI." ^ Ammianus Marcellinus.d. Epistulae. Loose reins are given to public dissipation. except in a tumult or during to the city. and poor. festival is some public calamity to the thrifty now done change for the sake of pleasure. so that Seneca ( + a. freemen and and their presents of all descriptions. Etym." IV. am disposed to think. but gifts. were certainly be and sober amidst a drunken crowd. .^ or in "goupins. Jamieson. Lang." they had recently These festivals were the Saturnalia. disgorging what swallowed. or seven days. 39) could write to his friend Lucilius " It is is now the month of December.^ But the celebration of the Calends of January was by no means the only festivity of that time of the year in ancient series Rome . " Utraque manu cavata. " Cereos Satumalibus muneri dabant humiliores potentioribus. truth year. I for transact- ing business. as real difference there were some between the days dedicated to Saturn and those Thus. was in accounted objectionable. Rosin.THE CALENDS OF JANUARY as to 85 publish of an edict expressly requiring such the palace. Lib. Kaletidaticum. Seneca.^ lasting from December 17 to December 19.^ was reckoned a handsome enough way of receiving fold of the cloak was expanded. or. AntiquUates. both take a better supper and throw off the toga. ^ * ^ . explains " Kalendaticum praestatio quae Januarii . It and from regard far better to Men * their dress. Hence rapine was proverbially expressed that manner. Ducange.

et septimontium. 220) could say: "By to us who are strangers to sabbaths and new moons. are frequented. The first character of Saturnalia. 1640. chap. and. and that. De Idolatria.. 757. ^ Tertullian. Rosin. day j of the unconquered sun. : appropinquante. So Tertullian ( + a. regarded as a perfect essence of heathendom. 29). who at this season used to receive branches of Tertullian says: a happy or fortunate tree from the grove of Streniae as favourable omens with respect to the alia. were therefore prohibited by the early church (V. videlicet die Lunae in pane aqua et in veslibus laneis jejunaverant. so wild together the Septi- March (and sometimes with hills montium. and the gifts of January. quos novit ditiores. . et brumae. | Kalendae Januariae was very wild and with the Matronalia of the of lascivious. they were. the feast of incorporation of the seven also celebrated in with the city of Rome. qui in vigilia sancti. A. called since that time occasionally Dies Invicti Solis. Brumalia." p. Petri apud West- monasterium. fixed by Caesar erroneously on December 25. 1249 (Matthaei Paris. These sweetmeats."^ Kalendis iiebat. under the year 1249). the noise are sent and there is i of the Strenae. quae vulgares nova dona novi anni superstitiose solent appellare. new year. Historia Major. I137. a quolibet exegit singulatim primitiva." 86 YULE AND CHRISTMAS ^ December Saturnalia 23. KaXaj'5t(c6»' in Justiniani edicto xiii. I All labour rested. are traced as far back as to The Strenae King Tatius. In another passage {De Idolatria. Matthew Paris goes on to say: Calends custom : "Veruntamen festo beati Aeduwardi. Siciliae Regis an. et carae cognationis honoraria exigenda omnia. apud Falconem Beneventantim. xiii. herbaticum. carnaticum. Antiquitates. O ! better faith . prout de more solet. quod est in vigilia Epiphaniae. ipsum festum magnifice celebrarent in ecclesia S.D." Compare also Tertullian's De Fuga in Persecutione." The king is Henry III. die Circumcisionis Dominicae.d. and thither. of the nations in their Christians. a civibus Londinensibus. Matronalia. December). olivas. xiv. called by the name of Strenae. Monachi Albanensis Angli. 315: "Angarias. chap. p. p. relevum. as late as the thirteenth century. London. the Saturnalia. Then followed the \ Brumalia. x. the alleged shortest day of the year. feasting. under the call lo Saturnalia! lo people gave themselves to a wild joy." In England. the custom of benevolences exacted by kings was connected with the Roman " Rex autem Regalis magnificentiae terminos impudenter transgrediens. chap. hither and Brumalia. once acceptable feasts God. own which adopts no solemnity of the Charta Rogerii terraticum. and of games and religions. vinum. which was by no means meant to be a compHment. ) "Saturn- strenae captandae. ut simul vocavit dominus Rex per literas suas copiosam Magnatum multitudinem et cum eo. kalendaticum. etc. by the fathers of the Christian Church.

"Ex Britannia. Vol. Vangi V. No. the adorning presents. The Britain when the Roman is legions were withdrawn from Great that not known. the lighting of candles and lamps. col. Aureli Antonini braneis Inscriptionibus Excerpta de Soc Sacrum Pro Salute Et Aug. ^ one devoted the "God The Calends of Unconquered Sun assumption that {Deus Invictus legions which further supports the general only celebrate these did not the January. Vol. Salvianus Trib. Conciliuin Turonense. The we great to mass of their Roman to inscriptions found there. Vardul Cum Con* Votum. It is Britain gives that ample evidence as sojourn not f astonishing among " these find Sol). Deo * * A Solo The Inscriptions." And eight years later: " Non liceat iniquas observationes agere Kalendarum." 116. taking Wz as the dative singular of solus.) ^ Ibid. xxii. " Enim vero quoniam cognovimus nonnuUos inveniri sequipedas erroris antiqui. : Parisiis. the j through the streets and singing of songs. 365.." (Risingham.. Roman fellow-missionaries of Christianity landed 592) they found there December 25 as a day marked in the ^ festive calendar. 399. neque lauro aut (Caput Ixxiii. circa A. however. Incolumitate Imp.M. P. " Silvano Invicto Sacrum C.d. Omnis haec obsevatior paganismi est. (Riechester or Rochester. L.. show. that Invictus was a rather general divine predicate.THE CALENDS OF JANUARY With the introduction of the Julian calendar Calends rights found entrance to the Germanics : 87 kinds of southern all the making of processions trees.^ up in women's garments. Coh. Caes. Coh. 75. viriditate arbonim cingere domos. qui Kalendas lanuarii colunt cum lanus homo gentilis fuerit rex quidem. 567. 103: "Deo Invicto Pii Soli Felic. M. 1714. of their houses with laurel and green dressing giving of men year. Caecilius Optatus Trib. Extruct 102. p. but the Brumalia as well. No." of the Capitula Martini Episcopi Bracensis.S..D. Alonutnenta Historica Britannica in the chapter. so that when Augustine and in Britain (a. which excludes the possibility of interpreting Inscription No.. and the erection of a table of fortune for the good luck of the new Half a century before the beginning of our era the first Roman legion had entered Great occupation by in Britain. Northumberland). " Deo Invicto Herculi Sacr. II.D." etc. III. masquerades in the hides of animals. * * *" . L. col. 103 as dedicated to the sole unconquered God. I. and a fortiori the exact date is Saturnalia. but there tradition no doubt Roman civilization and Roman his religious survived them there. and No. III. and not much later British soil was in constant Roman legions. 575. Aemil. at least Acta Concilioruvi. Northumberland). I. Tertius Veturius Micianus. : et otiis vacare gentilibus. A. sed Deus esse non potuit.

women went them actually publicly about wearing amulets round arms and sale. as the middle of the eighth century there existed a perfect unity of popular as to the Calends of January between sacramental usage them and the Romans. Dicunt quoque se ibi vidisse mulieres pagano ritu phylacteria et ligaturas in brachiis et in cruribus ligatas habere. declared in his answer to Boniface that he detested Christians should do.^ In the next year he brought the matter ^ Acta Concilionwi. and that legs.. homines Alamanni. Winfrid (Bonifacius). col.d. Franci. the " apostle of the Germans. And they told Boniface they had seen that every year on the eve of the after Calends of January. sibi scandalum vitae accipiunt. the German Calends being rites not only resembling the Roman ones absolutely. of course. Boioarii. nullum de domo sua vel ignem. as but. late As regards the continental Germanics. vel si juxta et "Quia Romanam urbem V. they by the excuse that they had seen similar things Peter's Church. he interdicted them from certain heathen customs. carnales aliquid 1880. et acclamationes ritu ilia gentilium. et cantationes sacrilegas celebrare. We com- know this from an incident of a. just as they refused to lend anything else to their neighbours during that time. et publice ad vendendum venales ad comparandum . et juxta ecclesiam sancti Petri. 17 14. close where these things were regarded as perfectly permissible. paganorum consuetudine c'horos ducere per plateas. et mensas et die vel nocte dapibus onerare. justified For when themselves to St. fire that people erected of fortune and kept a Calends from which they would not give anything away. plained of a strange fact which hindered his getting on better in the gospel in the souls of the Alamanni. Epistola Bonifacii Episcopi idiotae. which naturally paved the of Christ's Nativity on the same day. streets heathen custom. vel fieri viderint ex his peccatis : quae concessum a sacerdotibus esse putant et dum nobis improperium deputant. vel aliquid commodi vicino suo praestare velle. ad Zachariavi Papam (741-752): Bajuarii. 742. processions went through the songs singing unchristian tables and using heathen exclamations. at Rome. them.88 VULE AND CHRISTMAS way as for a celebration of the south of England. licitum lanuarii intrant. in die vel nocte quando Kalendae nos prohibemus. In that year. VI. and offered to others for The Pope could all not deny that such things happened in Rome. Parisiis. III." in a letter written to Pope Zacharias. vel ferramentum. sowing and Franci. Vol. Sicut affirmant se vidisse annis singulis in Romana urbe. but even felt to be identical with them by the people celebrating them.

Geschichte der deutschen Parisiis. 29. and custom did not permit anything to be taken away from a fire it. 1929. ix." Festus as presents." etc. vi. which promptly interdicted usages of that kind at the Calends of January and Brumalia} An interdiction which was for several centuries repeated and repeated again. not kept in pubhc all on the hearth of the home. '^ I. the letter by Bonifacius to Pope Zacharius (741-752) fire it appears according to Roman fire custom. III. Acta Conciliorum. Koegel. Concilium Romanum. " Ut nullus Kalendas Januarias et broma colere praesumpserit. col. The same custom witnessed by Martialis and Macrobius.. col. L. et The Letters are omnibus Christianis detestabile et perniciosum esse judicamus. .^ The Calends was an entirely private ." " De Kalendis vero Januariis. Epistola Bonifacii Episcopi ad Zachariam Papam. quae ." Compare R. where is said of the Calends of January: " Et nullum de domo suo vel ignem.. ^ Worms (Friedberg. 84. 301. Quae omnia eo quod ibi a carnalibus et insipientibus videntur. Geschichte A. 1880. THE CALENDS OF JANUARY before the 89 all Synod of Rome.D. it Vol. IIL. III. vel aliquid commodi vicino suo praestare velle. vel ferramentum. Lib. ritu " Observasti Calendas lanuarias paganorum . not a bonfire are bonfires in the open air.: : der deutschen Literattir. 1894. aut per vicos et plateas cantationes et choros ducere. nay. Acta Conciliorum. is Pompeius.. vel ceteris auguriis. p. "Cereos locupletes Saturnalibus muneri dabant humiliores potentioribus. 1714. vel in urbe Roma hoc nobis. gentili et more observari apud beatum Petrum apostolum." At the Saturnalia candles were given cereis utebantur. col. Koegel. dixisti et' incantationibus. so as to lead singers and choirs through the streets and open places? "^ after From that. whilst Germanic festive fires aliis offerre. quia candelis pauperes. 1892. and there probably be destructive. was in the form of a question taken over into all more important Penitentials of the Church. . . I. ^ 1894. p.. nobis hie To this the Pope impedimentum praedicationis et doctrinae faciunt. 743. Parisiis. ita ut per vicos et per plateas deutschen p. cantores et choros du ceres. affair. 28. reprinted in Epistolae Merowingici et Karolini aevi. though Koegel fails to recognize their proper bearings. Geschichte der detUschen Literattir bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters.) : phylacteriis.. improperium vel et replied {Ibid. 1714. 29). p.. quod maxima iniquitas est coram Deo anathema sit. even torches of wax.. and commented upon by Rudolf Koegel. vi. 1883. Aus Rud. the at the Calends of January was regarded as holy. Literattir." Penitentiary of Burchard von Bussbiichern. aut mensas cum dapibus in domibus praeparare. Vol. III. lived longer than the usages of which it was meant to The question was : " Didst thou observe the Calends of January heathen custom. Strassburg. vel aliis diversis observationibus. I. Berlin.

Sieg District. and that for that oldest cases of quasi public Christmas fires are found in 1577 and 1591. Thes offices nede do he schalle 393 Bryng in fyre on alhalawgh day. The cupborde in his warde schalle go. property of the Monastery of Maer near Neuss. 1986. they are of a perfectly private character. . * in aula. and grome also. can be seen from the following case Curtasye from the Sloane MS. dasz die nachparn. 1577. To condulmas euen. Wahlscheid. des leiden. etc. 349. " . trestuls. and But it not sure that there the fire is any special connection between this fire for warming the church-goers and of the Calends of How great is the danger of regarding as sacramental customs which merely spring : from the requirements of the season. old so zur metten und zur kirchen fire kommen. notturfftigen brandt : sonder schaden. They however. Wahlscheid. yche mele . muegen gehen umb sich bei dem christock zu wermen Schroteler. Herrlichkeit 1861. sich etwas wermen mogen. 350.d. to institute have become an January. good care was taken to have a good warm fire.. London. in The Baabees Book. chambur. He shalle delyuer hit ilke a dele. by Furnivall for the Early English Text Society. desgleichen Christnacht so lang helffen trecken. on the Miinchhof of ^ The are. hartholtz ein grot feur in brandt halten bist der Gottesdienst das die jenighe. dass ein in man auss Theys hoff an die kirch gahn magh und der selbe fruhe morgen stondt sail der scholtiss einen stock oder auss ist. 311 says of the Marshall: " 383 Gomon-vsshere. a. to kechyn. under the influence of the special conditions of early morning service. Archive of the Protestant Parish. and formes also. Article 32 of the Viersener Landrecht oi 1591. go There fire is YULE AND CHRISTMAS not a single case on record of a . p. "Item wan ein donner wetter in der ist soil der scholtis den kiister die klocken helffen trecken oder sein diener. The dosurs cortines to henge in halle. The Bake of ed. undt zu christmissen einen stock. und Stadt Viersen. kindled in the private houses of the sexton or provost. as the kenne. Document of April 23. servitude. wem solches gefellig. 1430-40. paragraph 5 " Zum funfften soil der opferman haben von dem vorschrieben munchhofif heixholtz. New Year's or Christmas fires held in the open air in ancient times when such that. towards the end of the twelfth century." is The new year's seems. 1868. I dar welle say Per quantum tempus armigeri habebunt liberatam et ignis ardebit So longe squiers lyueres shalle hafe.: . in the British Museum.. Koln. in are recorded.^ It can scarcely astonish anybody the coldest time of the year. pp. soil der halffman schuldig sein zu zu desz opffermans hausz. In halle fyre at make Borde. Vndur hym Tho grome ar thes two brenne I for fuelle that schalle In halle.

In churches. but appear on Epiphany as well. if hit is mon fires wille kraue. Besides. 19 alb. And And and p. or ellis his knafe But fyre shalle brenne in halle at mete To Cena domini that men hase ete Ther browgt schalle be a holyn kene. but a thorough proof would be requisite before such fires could be regarded as of Germanic origin." 1 from November i to November I to Maunday from November i to February 2. But that fire is at the same time denoted as the clergyman's private festive Christmas fire. e.d. was the the festive fire right of delivery to of a whole tree at Christmas eve. as can still be seen from church accounts. 1184) one of the privileges of the it manse of Ahlen. at the manse of Engelskirchen. 594. . und in der christnacht ein halff pont kleiner kertzen. . costen 4 alb. THE CALENDS OF JANUARY 91 purpose large pieces of wood were put on. they are by no means confined to Christmas. no doubt. p. ther-in that alle men kenne Iche messe a candelle fro alhalawghe day To Of So candelmesse.g. A daily candle they receive Had mention of these customs been made about Christmas-tide. . the number of candles used at Christmas was very great. 2nd ed. p. That sett shalle be in erber grene. 255.: " ." This fifteenth century book states that are to bum February 2. 6 heller.. long. of a."^ We know for from a Weistum that (a. . ther-to. Grimm. An old Bavarian manuscript contains the item : " Ignes qui fieri Solent in vigilia Epiphaniae.d. Deutsche Alythologie. whilst squires shall have a fire during their dinner from Thursday {Cetia Domini). as y the say 327 " 833 In chambur no Bot of wax lygt there shalle be brent.^ and in another Of grome of halle. that schalle be to alhalawgh day. Westphalia. yf ge take tent In hall? at soper schalle caldels brenne Of parys. II. DeutscJie Opfergebratuhe. they might easily have been supposed to be popular Christmas customs. . MUnstersche Beitrdge." Kindlinger. District of Wipperfurth. as I gou say. document 34.. : "^ When stating the privileges of his parsonage the clergyman " Et arborem in nativi- tate domini ad festivum ignem suum adducendum esse dicebat. of be skj'fted.. candel liueiay squiyers schalle haue. 1884. facit 4 guld. 1596-7: "In Anno 96 auff christmess funft' und ein fiidel pont wachfs zu kertzen gemacht vur jeder pont gegeben 22 alb. Rhine-country. in the hall Ulrich Jahn.

75 . 220. manentis in proxima villa. from Altdeutsche Blatter.^ "^ Grimm. de qua nee sibi nee aUis voluit subvenire. I. No. sed Godewini Quod ille audiens. agnoscens domina domus. Deutsche Kechtsaltertiimer. by a mere play of seeming chance. panem eis pro dedit ei. fecit uno die panem unum.. II. 90. if there fire was one. devulgatur quia in vicinio quod miser ille pecuniam suam demersisset. 6 hllr.Archive of Bingen on the Rhine. 302. circa vigilium Dominici Natalis. p. printed for the Percy Society. ipsamque imposuit. invenit truncum projectum. Idemque miser Stories finetenus pauper undique remansit.. of Riol and Velle on the Mosella. of Tavern on the Mosella. metallum intro latens liquescit.. so that a blacksmith could rejoice to get a Yule-log contrary to expectation. reclusit. Town. and room. cavavit magnum Quern quidem truncum marinae undae ante ostium dicti Godewini.' sibi. et in eo XL. although that it seems to point to the fact was by no means common.. nee est pecunia tua. London. trunco supponitur. Town accounts of a. 1501. exterius defunditur.d. 1842). the Scheffe to a Winnachtploech •. mane. dictusque faber de paupere fieret inopinate dives. truncum." * " Quidam in partibus de Winchelse sibi aggregavit pecuniam in cista. et recessit.. et nolens eam in alicujus commodum pervenire. Quod ut videns uxor dicti Godwini. avenam pro scripts of the thirteenth eis dedit et eum recepit. multumque gavisus pro habendo foco in in tanto festo. eum domum suam ignis traxit. A : Selection of Latin (from Manu- and fourteenth centuries a Contribution to the History of Fiction during the Middle Ages. Venientes itaque piscatores ad domum dicti Godwini. Quern prout fuerunt assueti. cogitans dictam pecuniam fuisse suam. dicentem fabri. 221. pp.92 YULE AND CHRISTMAS is Wetstum. Veniens igitur una die ut earn videret. hain wir geben zum Christbraden uff die christnacht den burgern und nachbern." Thomas Wright. appears from a story. Ibid. super Exiens itaque idem Godwinus litus in siccum projecerunt. ' Recedere. Intrante itaque et festi praedicti vigilia. dictum panem extrahunt et suis equis elargiri proponunt.^ 4 That the medieval festive fire at Christmas was a private affair. . which contains an allusion to the Yule-log. et ad locum foci gaudens apposuit. uno denario vendidit. but merely with a if fire for roasting in the kitchen. cogitavit ergo uxor dicti Godwini quod eidem misero in aliquo cautius subveniret. and that poor little people were not always able to have one of their own. solidos abscondens Quern infortunatus ille accipiens piscatoribus super litus obviavit. Sicque dominus praedictae pecuniae victum quaereret hostiatim. 11. vidit super eam quendam ^ ^ diabolum sedere nigerrimum. the roasting was not rather done over the public payments for a common There occur also common Christbraden of burghers. Vol. viri justi et innocentis.^ said to be entitled whilst a third Wetstum. truncum movet et abscondit. "Item 14 s. 264. either from the thirteenth or fourteenth it century. et in mare projecit. ignem subtrahit." "^ remarks: "Item ein bochg zu hawen vff Christabend vor den Christbraten so that \ we have no more meat to do with a of the festive fire.

of any historical foundation. sed * omnes collegit. Berlin. Neilson: imd Branch. No.. 7th series. 25. and in early English as wodlade. with a hatchet into the forest of the monastery as and cut much wood for boiling their forest Christmas soup as they needed.* have here to do with an old term servitude evident from the fact that some wood to in cases the servitude of driving a cart-load.^ appears not at Christmas ^ Die deutschen Opfergebrduche bet Ackerbau iind Viehztuht. Deiitscher Glanbe Geo. 1890." . 1826..THE CALENDS OF JANUARY On British soil 93 to an early instance of a Yule-clog or Yule-log has yet be given. 317. II. quia faber faciat sibe istius villae amicus meus est. 1867. 'Da mihi truncum istum. Ulrich Jahn's generalizations. the surprised women the of the Berne village Hetteswil are said to have and slain the knightly army of the Count of Coucy. But when it was found that the to boil too suffered too great damage. 1826. p. the very fact that the British version of the above story ^ makes the^ that blacksmith use the tree trunk as an anvil seems to indicate that the Yulelog is only a more modern intrusion into that story. On DecemAs a reward ber 27. and not vice versa. Thomas Wright. 258. ^ x. et volo ei dare truncum ut die operaet exinde incudem. is For the story fact the figure of the blacksmith anvil has kept in the German shows that the been replaced by the Yule-log. obstupuit faber. Cum autem faber quadam retur super truncum ilium et feriret. and Nay. 1884. 1375. 472.^ The privilege of cutting it wood is in the forest about Christmas appears *<^ also in Switzerland. and the That we yearly yield of which was spent for a meal called the fowl-soup. because the women used in tough Christmas fowl. Berner Neujahrsblatt. was still in the possession of the women is of Hetteswil. Prior of the monastery. 27. Breslau. 28 Notes and Queries. or several cart-loads. from St. Ti-uncagium. the privilege was changed to the effect that instead of the firewood they received a meadow. of a castle or landlord's dwelling. which. on John's day at Christmas. exilierunt denarii de trunco per quoddam foramen. Rochholz.' Et magister concessit. et consilio uxoris suae illos abscondit.^ according to which a pre-Christian winter-solstice fire would have to be supposed as a general custom. 3 The passage of the English story runs: "Dixit quidam puer ad magistrum ^ navis. A Selection of Latin Stories. p. . they received. the privilege to go. where connected with a local legend. known to medieval Latinity as truncagium. p. are void merely represent fantastic speculations.

made has the duty to models of 1603 and 1640. of which the former had been shifted to Christmas. No. Crefeld. as a dinner by his landlord. a complaint about the withdrawal of the Christmas allowance of wood of Novem- ber 17. Manuscript of about 17 12. and which had to be of a certain substantiality and duration. Acts. it was customary. but at YULE AND CHRISTMAS Christmas and May. whilst the old terms were Martinmas (or and mid-May So Rogation Days or Pentecost). fragment of a Weistum on ist the services to be rendered to the family of Liedberg. " Item auch das gantze amt nach advenant schuldig auf Christ- regulates the distribution messen die corstbrende dem haus Liedberg aufzufahren " {advenattt Is the document which among the several communities of the servitudes to be borne by the whole district).^ late as about 17 12 the wood for the Christmas it fire is mentioned. it an eighteenth century manuscript 10): which is copied the Archive of the family 1579. The meal he got free gift of the landlord. 4. rule. Beschreibung der Herrschaft und Stadt Gera. The Archive of the Protestant parish of Leuscheid. 1696. duration was. in the fifteenth century. paragraph 10. Rhine country. fixed by the time requisite for burning away a wet wheel on the open place. "dass ein jedweder kirspels eingesessener. but something to which the tenant had Its a claim. Rhine country. entertained to he was.^ As long district as the only instance known Kirspels fell on Biirgermeisteramt in 1683. it being a servitude of the holders to drive into the castle. so soil der grundherr . of in from the same original as of Luftelberg. under IV. 16. a district between is Bonn and is Euskirchen. contains the regulation that the community drive to the castle of Linn twelve cart-loads of wood every eight weeks " Item noch jahrligs drey Christ- und drey Meyfuhren beyfahren. 237. fire in the hall in which the meal took at various terms. liefferen der welcher ein gefahr unter henden hat. auff christmess umbtrent ein karrich hotz." ^ Biirgermeisteramt Liedberg. l8l6. holding paid his duties at the old terms. after Osterath. zu unterhaltung der hauss-steur an dass widem hauss unentgeltlich zu schuldig. contains. dass Christ-holtz. ^ In an unprinted document on the privileges of the family of Luftelberg in the Siirst." In the sixteenth cen- tury Christmas and Pentecost (instead of Martinmas and Pentecost) appear together in the same way (Klotz. p. According to it. decreed that the holders have to deliver their duties to the landlord on St. Kunibert's day (October "Wann solches geschehen.: 94 alone. Schatzregister des Osteraht. als namlich zu Weyhnachten und Pfingsten ordentlich einzubringen und zusammlen"). 3^. district Miinchen Gladbach. ^ When was not a the tenant of a small. the first " Zu gedenken das Opfer-Geld zu article of the Reussische Kirchenvisitation of 1533 is: Besserung des Pfarrers jahrlich auf zwo Tagzeit. in We know as in that custom to have been observed autumn ^ winter.

32. . the occasion of his birth was taken as an opportunity similar to those sister. wass vom tage zeitig iss.d. zweyerley brot vnd alles desjeniges. zweyerley wein zweyerley fleischs. wie von alters gebrauchlich. so solle der lehenher ein naefF sechs wochen vnd drey tag in ein mistphole legen laissen. week und brod. probability the holders had to deliver the wheels —of course simple tree sections^ their and the time requisite for burning them was made the duration of meal. dieselb nit rbdeln noch stochen. It was an old institute for the landlord to give his tenant a cart-load or wheelbarrow- load of wood at the birth of a child.— THE CALENDS OF JANUARY December good. Trond of a. welches und 6 wochen im wasser gelegen hat. It was the custom that the peculiarities of such dinners as were legal institutions should be prescribed exactly. or darentgegen schuldig sein den geschwornen ein frei the same name kost zugeben. but Speculative now this no longer holds image all mythologists found in its that wheel an In of the and regarded burning as a solstice-celebration. A. which children received at the birth of a baby brother or gifts In the beginning of the sixteenth century such child's-foot. But that from receiving an intrinsically Christian interpretation. III. carnes porcinas cum pipere et porcinas carnes assas. olera cum camibus bovinis. '* Uff sant stephans tage solle der lehenmann liefem vnd bezalen pfenningzins 616. abe der lehenher bedoecht." Another example of this custom was published by Grimm. vnd wannehe die verbrandt. 1523...^ to children were called in North Germany kindsvot. II. in order that they might not make them too thin. 693 vnd weissbroit. drei gericht von einem schwein. dan soil man dem lehenman guitlich thuin auff dem hofe. wein und bier. 615. p. as a kind of universal brother to for gifts mankind. so lang den geschwornen essen und trinken geben. dass der dauon keyner mehr erkandt mocht werden. so soil man ein rad an das feur legen. die geschwornen ihre zeit sitzen. Christ being regarded. Deutsches Wirtschaftsleben im Mittelalter. Urbary of the Stift St. Deutsche Rechtsaltertumer. little in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. there 95 was at least some possibility of connecting this habit with the Calends-log and later Christmas-log." 3 tag : Wann : ^ A broad cross section of a tree still often forms the Scottish peat barrow wheel.D. 26. p. 1274 (Bridal on the Mosella) "Item autumpno facto debent praedicti feodales habere servitium sive prSndium de tribus ferculis ab ecclesia sancti Trudonis. was das gewesen sei" (communicated to me by Dr. sun. soil der lehenman vffstehen. bis ein auswendiger mann komt und nicht erkennen mag. its The custom hinder it of Christmas rite fire no doubt has root in the fact Roman j/^ did not Calends of January of the same description. erbsen und pfeffer. Armin Tille of Bonn). ^ Franz Wessel's description of the Roman Catholic service at Stralsund. Compare Lamprecht. dass der lehenman zu lange seess.

I. over Christ's birth.96 being given to YULE AND CHRISTMAS the present of straw which in the cattle.. Vol. II. '^A. ° About these masquerades. i. pp. '^ * Althochdeutsche Glossen. while Miillenhoff. 132. thought it to refer to the Wild Huntsman....^ another Italian custom connected with the Calends of January its which found comparatively way through Gaul It is all to Great Britain and Germany. and one cart-load on the birth of a child. admits custom to be of Italian origin. 1894. 30. however. in the procession. or deer's hide. received Christmas a wheelbarrow-load of wood — on the birth of a boy a cart-load. explains in deru varentun truchti quite rightly as procession. Strassburg. ^Weistum of huch. No. 216. in liodersdza. VI. on cer- and wait for oracles. kinds of indecency under the protection of these great inclination for Even Rudolph Koegel. is in no way connected with the Twelve-nights. Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Altertum. Geschichie der deutschen Literatur. who. swine. 25. Vol. Upper Rhine. and translated in : cervtilo. i : "s6 dr6gen se garuen in de koppele efte sus in dadt se de windt sne rip efte sus de lucht beschinen konde.D. ^Koegel. Tubingen. Schlatt. in the at half of the fifteenth century.^ Germany comparatively late can be glossator when translating a There was a German custom to sit down on a cow's in inner hide. 26. de lucht.^ That this habit was unknown shown by a misunderstanding made by a passage relating to it. he thought referred to that custom. or tain nights on the roof of the house. the Kelner gave to the small holders Christmas three cart-loads of wood...e. Geschichte der deutschen Literatur. VI. note. dadt deelde men des morgen allem litth. order that they might take part it in the rejoicing Similarly was a custom at that." des raorgens kindesv6dt. the Dodekahemeron of the old Church. and ducks received that day. a. No. This was called liodorsaza.. 365. XII.d. Entstehungsgeschichte des Bauernkrieges in Siidwestdetitschland... . from Hippetsweiler. these Twelve-nights themselves being of Christian origin. Ibid. I. 1895. Ziir Fiirstaibergisches U^-kunden- 1877. and on the There is birth of a girl a wheelbarrow-load of wood. who has a this finding something Germanic everywhere. 1444. geese. whilst in vetula he interpreted in deru varentun truchti. Hofer in Bartsch's Germania. dadt hetede men schloch eine garue 2 efte 3 uth undt gaf den swinen koyen enten gensen dadsealle des kindesv6thes geneten scholdenn. Leipzig Dissertation. it When the glossator found the phrase in cervulo mentioned. p. 30. Hossler. the habit of walking about in the hides of calves and deer and doing masks.. 240. p. xviii. as Koegel assumes. ^ first The Gotteshausleiite of the monastery of Petershausen. at a cross road. at Hippetsweiler. 351. 17. though late. 1400.

false likenesses still worse. Vol. G . 1855. in cervulo aut vetula vadere . to give the Bearded faces are displayed by them. and yet ! women " "What is so insane as. others put on the heads of animals. some baptized Christians take on and monstrous faces. exultantes ut homines non essent. Christiania. For what reasonable Others dress man would believe that men in the possession of their senses should. turn themselves into the nature of animals? themselves up in the hides of their cattle. Munchen. parallels to the Brduche. 30. The Council of Auxerre. but commonly ascribed to Augustine. II.." pp. by Frid. 466-468: Alii Caspari's text says about the Calends of January. to resemble the goat or the stag. 179). gaudentes et Viri tunicis mulierum quid turpe est : ! induentes se feminas videri volunt. III. 1893. and have for a long time no relation to the Church festival of Christ's Nativity. who gives a large number of customs related and expressions used. that those their women's dresses. and effeminate ! who have been born men take on manhood by girls' dresses in an to abominable masquerade They who do not blush ! put their warlike arms into women's dresses they wish to be taken for dress. ed. Merffvingici. the heathens in those days dress them- up into indecent monsters. sed in ipsa die sic omnia beneficia tribuantur sicut et reliquis diebus" {Acta Conciliorum. by a disgraceful male sex the appearance of the female? as to spoil one's face terrified? and put What so insane on masks by which even demons might be and improper songs turn one's self into a What so insane as with indecent gestures to sing the praise of vices in shameless delight ? To wild beast. Et illud "In istis diebus miseri homines sumunt capita bestiarum. reports. Parisiis. by playing a stag." facere. by Caspari. How horrible is it. col. 444). Hannover. further.. Maassen. in order that man.THE CALENDS OF JANUARY which are till 97 very late associated with the Calends. I. The usual phrases are: "cervulum et vetulam cervulos aut vetulas ducere. p. Ceschichte der deutschen Literatur. rejoicing and exulting that they are turned into the shape of beast to such an extent that they no more appear to be human beings.^ " Reversing the order selves of things.." Koegel. Compare Friedrich Panzer. of which people should rather be ashamed and sad. § 24 cervolo facientes vestiuntur pellibus pecodum. written in Gaul the seventh or eighth century. 573-603 (in Concilia aevi " Non licet forbade : Kalendis Januarii vetolo aut cervolo facere vel streneas diabolicas observare. Bayerische Sagen und "Cervulum seu vitulam facere. 1714. These miserable men and. Vol. note. created ^Ed. the in we have various most important being the homily De Sacrilegiis. 1886.

. aut v. et vestiuntur § 19. 4: "Caraios et divinos praecantatores. Oxford. '" Qui observat vel "Si quis in Kalendas communicant. if know that he does not give to men but to demons. Isidorus. : quin etiam eas. iii. " Kalendas quae fit mensis die dicuntur. more paganorum. quae nomine fiunt. cap. the lascivious festival of the ladies of ancient Rome. ex fidelium universitate omnino toUi volumus sed et publicas : mulierum saltationes multam noxam exitiumque more antiquo et a vita afferentes . et qui in primo Martii conventum. honorat in. ignorantia vel vanitate. praecantatores.d. filecteria etiam diabolica vel herbas vel facino suis vel sibi impendere vel quinta si feria in paganam causam honorare. De Officio Ecclesiae. aut vetula vadit. lanuarii in cervulo divinos." etc. . p.. peniteat. do not permit your house. . limus. eomm. with the beginning i.^ ^A ^ list of other allusions to this custom is given in my Geschichte der deutschen IVeiknacht. ea quae ab insaniae impostura conveniente. I. in ferarum habitus se et pellibus pecudum. Toletanum. III.. 1683. uvam in torcularibus exprimentes. vel mulier veste viro Sed neque comicas. Januarii in cervulo et in vitula vadit. exercentes" (Acta Conciliorum. Christianorum alieno.. 706. qui falso apud Gentiles dii nominati sunt vel nomine virorum ac mulierum saltationes ac mysteria. "De Idolatria et Sacrilegio. . Ixii. statuentes. Concilium Quinisextum sivi in Trullo. shall Therefore. . Councils and Ecclesiastical viii. been shifted to January there and revived in ever-new glory and licentiousness ! In less eloquent speech the same habit was repeatedly forbidden by Councils and mentioned in Penitentials. amandamus et expel- ut nullus vir deinceps muliebri veste induatup. neque vinum in dolis effundentes. " Concilium .. had. vel tragicas personas induat . annos poeniteant . 424. et qui in Kalendas . invocent . neque execrandi Bacchi nomen. honore V. S. you do not want to participate in their sins."! that the stag or the It cow or any such portent come before if almost looks as the Matronalia of March i. lovis. Vol. § 24.d. adds a long iv. Glossarium. procedunt. quia hoc daemoniacum est " (seventh century). Parisiis. 732-766. est. et brumalia quae vocantur . 1714. III. feriam. quinque annos peniteat clericus. II. et somnia. Ancient Laws. vel herbas . under Cervula. x.). philacteria etiam diabolica. assumunt capita bestiarum. may become the Calends of January. qui vero taliter in ferinas species se transformant. xl. vel laicus kalendas lanuarii. 15 and 288." Haddan and Stubbs. when sacrifice of demons!" "Therefore he who gives to anyone of those miserable requirement in men any human sacrilegious it the in the rite they rather rage than play. 34 (xxvii. id est. Lib. Concilium . a." non. 1871. vel satyricas. Vol.98 to YULE AND CHRISTMAS be the likeness and image of God. list honore Jovis vel Kalendas Januarias secundum si laicus.. et vota. of the year through the Julian calendar. especially during the eighth century. a. Can. pp.. tres annos of instances : Ducange.). col. risum moveant .. The same appears in England: Thorpe.. Egbert's Penitential. si clericus annos poeniteat annos poeniteat. Documents.

39. xv. Decret. initio Epistolae ad Eahfridum 1610. De II. . Ixxix. Can. ii. inferarum se velint habitus commutari? pecudum. . qui vulgo Confratres. XIX. et in Capitulis. et in cervulo ducit. S. cap. Januariis Joannis Chrysostomi .. c. Officio. . id est. Augustinus.Maximi I Taurinensis. Abbas homines non esse videantur Epistolae Petri Damiani. superhumeralibus.: : THE CALENDS OF JANUARY 99 ^Vhen. multi faciunt. : ' Vita S.. Durandus. Martini Eduensis. cap. vetulas. Lib. vel castigate. xiv. they were at first probably a festive tide like others. St. inquit Sambucus. Glossarium. S. more vulgi cervus allusit : . c. Nullus in Kalendis Januarii nefanda et ridiculosa. Sermo de Tempore. 384. et omnem aliam Pontificalem indutos stolam. aut in vetula vadit. n. .. Eligii. ipsiusZachariaeadBonifaciumMogimtinum. But in the course Turonense. gaudentes et exultantes. et adhuc faciunt in Kalendis lanuarii in cervolo et vetula si fecisti. xv. . xv.. Lib. quod pagani fecerunt.-xxii. ita durissime : rem sacrilegam commisisse'. Glossarium. cap. Capitulare Gregorii.: 'Fecisti aliquid tale. Faustini Episcopi apud Bolandum. Alcuinus. Epistula ii. P. cap. c. the Calends of January became a festive tide among the Germanics. et ut putabatur. aut cervulos. occurrunt c. fine. Ducange. Cann. Sansonis Episcopi Dolensis.. forte I. cap. dignitatem videbantur capillorum comam circumplexam involvere atque reponere " (ita namque. Caesarii Arelatensis. Tertullianus De Idolatria.. Lib. Lib. I. qui etiam proprium Patriarcham adscribentes. Anonymus in Vita S. Ducange. without any special reference to the Can. new year. Episcopos constituere.." Under the influence of a Greek these wild enjoyments in the course of centuries became even an unholy ecclesiastical institution. . Ambrosii Sermo \\. cxv. . Asterii xl. vi. Vita S. Hugonis Abbatis S. viii. ut clericali more in rotundam tonsi viderentur) "et gradum quasi sacerdotalem per quaedam indusia et vestimenta sacerdotalia sumere.. Lib. . ' Faustinus Episcopus in Sermone in Kalettdas lanuarias vestiuntur pellibus ' Quis enim sapiens credere poterit inveniri Alii taliter aliquos sanae mentis. quod singulorum mensium Kalendis invicem convenirent. ' si se in ferinas species transformaverint. under Kalendae: Octava Synodus. . Isidorus. " Direct continuations of these turbae impudicae are the Calends guilds or Calends brethren. triginta dies in pane et aqua 'Sed poeniteas. cap. Greek version). v. Lib. under Ratione. xvii. iv. is wanting in the " Fuisse quosdam Laicos qui secundum diversam Imperatoriam xvi. LMdislai Regis Hungariae.. Attonis Episcopi Basilensis Capitula. ' quod Burchardus IVormaciensis. . ut eos poeniteat ' cervula exercere. under in Kalendae Lib. p. VI. Ecclesiae Officio. Concilium Turonense. sub. de Divino .. quotes a large number of other prohibitions of the Calends of January celebrations " Cottcilium Romamini sub Zacharia. Pacianus in Paraetusi ad Poenitentiam .. De . Halitgarius Cambrensis in Libra Poenitentiali. S. pro Bavaris. Fratres Calendarum. : " Sodalitates ad pias causas.' St. Cyprianus in Vita S. xiii. Strigon. alii assumunt capita bestiarum. xvii. St. cap. editionis . . through the Julian calendar. \aii. eum qui in adinventionibus risum moventibus Praelatus . a cervice usque ad capita contorquebant... xlvi. rite Laurentii Archiep. palliis." Kalendae. S. 215: 'Si adhuc agnoscatis aliquos illam sordidissimam turpitudinem de hinnula. Petri Chrysologi Sermo. xiv. tres annos poeniteat : : iain satis in exordio tractatus. P. II. circumamictos. Can. Aldhelmus. qui cervulum facientes. ut Malmesburiensis A. c. ii. sicut in principio anni. aut jotticos facial. Ambrosius in Psalmo xli. ait hoc loco Anastasius.' Si quis in Kalendis lanuarii. Ducange. . Glossarium.D. says : ex versione Anastasii (Canon xvi.

facta ordinatione in Ecclesia deinceps observanda. and Britain. a Lord of Misrule. et illudebant. 12 Martii. even to-day not quite extinct. 'Sunt nonnullae Ecclesiae. is the outcome of the marriage between the Calends of January and that Greek habit. Part IV. ' festa agentes post collectionem messium cum dominis suis pari conditione. or Boy-bishop. ex quo serio manum admovit Facultas Theologiae Parisiensis ann. In the shape of an Abbot of Unreason. qui ordo incertus est. under Kalendae: " Beletus : (vivebat in Ecclesia Ambianensi. et depositiones Episcoporum . Glossarium. Fiunt autem quatuor tripudia post Nativitatem Domini in Libra de Divinis Officiis. hocce ' quo Sacerdotes ac Clerici Archiepiscopum. electiones. missa ad id Epistola encyclica ad festo. So it could not Germanic usages having modo quidem et Princeps erat. quasi ab invicem et per invicem miserabiliter et praevaricatorie agentes et patientes tales autem actio nee apud gentes a saeculo unquam audita est. xvi. omnino abstineatur. a. ludum taxillorum ibidem exarabant.'" etc. ' ' ' : 'A festis vero follorum.' Verba is sunt citatae quam edidit Savaro. et per totam Ecclesiam currebant. quandoque non. quibusque divinis. quibus praecipit Odoni Episcopo Parisiensi et aliquot Canonicis eiusdem Ecclesiae.. ex corio veterum sotularium. under Kalendae. penitus abolerent quod dictus Episcopus aliique ad id nominati Commissarii executi sunt. ut Atque haec quidem libertas ideo dicta hoc mense servi et ancillae. in quibus usitatum est. in Theologorum consessu.d. foetido. et ex eo Gussanvilla. ofiFas pingues supra cornu altaris juxta celebrantem Missam comedebant. fierentque : communia ludere.' is Id est. invaluerat. thurificabant de fumo etc. a quibusdam perficitur in Circumcisione. damnatoque. videtur Ibid. Decembrica. et consecrationes. Glossarium. ut in caeteris." About the end of these festivities the following remark made by Ducange. monstruosi vultibus. et Pastores velut quadam libertate donarentur. minorum aetate et ordine." The boy bishop a comparatively late development . Can. chap. and is. Ixxii Levitarum scilicet.d. eumque 'Fatuorum' appellabant ' Divini ipsius Officii tempore larvati." etc. I182). hanc ludendi consuetudinem observent. to rival and. it lived on for centuries. a quibusdam vero in Epiphania. et insultabant.. to replace old Germanic that New Year towards the middle special of November. Sacerdotum. et in Ecclesia Parisiensi. quod olim apud ethnicos moris fuerit. Ducange. on. aut in vestibus mulierum. ita ut etiam sese est ad ludum pilae demittant. The later medieval ecclesiastical Festum Fatuorum or Hypodiaconorum similar types. in Choro cantilenas inhonestas cantabant. aut Episcopum. lUud etiam interdixit Conciliuvi Parisiense. Glossarium. aut : Papam ' creabant. Unde fit ut ille quandoque annumeretur inter sacros Ordines. also mentions: "Litterae Petri Capuani Cardinalis Legati in Francia.d. ubi baculus accipitur. a. baculus Episcopalis. in tamen laudabilius esse non Festum Hypodiaconorum. 121 2. under Kalendae: "At in Gallia videtur desiisse. pleno ipsi 1444. aut leonum. quanquam vero magnae Ecclesiae. saltabant. ut hocce festum quod ' Fatuorum appellabatur. Puerorum. chap. quae habetur apud Gusanvillam post Notas ad Petrum Blesensem. quod vocamus Stultorum. et Hypodiaconorum. Epistolae. id est.: lOO of time that side was later YULE AND CHRISTMAS bound the to come fail into the foreground. ut vel etiam Episcopi et Archiepiscopi in Coenobiis cum suis ludant subditis. vel histrionum. modo autem acute calumnias. 1198. choreas ducebant. promotiones. : ' ut est Remensis. in Great Ducange. Galliae Praesules. Ecclesia. a. cxx. vel in eius octavis.

Capittdare (circa A. 169. and probably of other (731-741). Anglic.^ in which. II. p." and "Item unus annulus pro Episcopo puerorum. where we find them in the eighth and in the eleventh centuries. ix. * Acta Conciliorum.^ But this habit all was not confined tides. Glossarium. 1714. magorum praestigia. this was called liodorsaza or sitting receiving an oracle. "Si quis maleficus aut malefica filium suum aut supra tectum aut in fornace pro sanitate febrium posuerit. under Kalendae." etc. Ducange. secundum paganam consuetudinem.D.. ann. probably appearing at at holy and certainly the time of the waning it. et observatio execranda. col. vel maleficiis sacrilego usu se defensare posse confidunt. I. Humanius tres annos judicaverunt. Vol. II. et col. Ut incantationes. ut et ibi futura tibi intelligeres ? " Burchard von Worms . Althochdeutsche Glossen. 763. et duo archys... III." . 1863. which was thought to correspond to Latin negromanticus. filiam .THE CALENDS OF JANUARY reference to the beginning of the year should bye to the loi and bye be transferred time Calends of January. quas error tradidit paganorum. as it was resorted to for the cure of fever III. unus in medio ad ferentiis. referred to as the god in whose honour the done.^ Vol. find out what good and bad things would be brought by the Others sat down at a cross road on a cow-hide.. in bivio sedisti supra taurinam cutem.. xxiii. whilst the person down for the purpose of who did so was called hleotharsdzzo (Keronic Glossary) or hleodarsizzeo (Hrabanic Glossary). fastidiationes. 1875. Parisiis. 1530. Judicia. 35. Vol. III." in Monast. *' Vol." p. from this group of customs. liodor- So say the sentences of Pope Gregory Janus is among saza is others.. seu etiam sortilegium. sive diversae observationes dierum Kalendarum.^ The passage evincing this Koegel for the his first satisfactorily explained in Geschichte der deutschen Literatur? At New Year's eve people girt with their swords sat down on the roofs of their houses to new year. Atis deutschen Bussbiickern. p. nor were oracles the only pur- pose of illnesses. Early documental evidence for it seems to be lacking entirely. 33. ^ modum Crucis cum lapidibus in circum- To a custom like that refers the following ^^Acta Conciliorum. III. 9. : Parisiis. vel ut frater in honore Jovis vel Beli aut lani. sicut maleficia. placuit secundum antiquam constitutionem sex annos poeniteant. 29. where we find : mitra parva cum petris pro Episcopo puerorum... to the Calends of January. Gregorii Papae III. 1714. prohibeantur. 365. I. ac divinantium 84: 2 '^ "Vel in Friedberg. As was men- tioned before.). vel quando luna obscuratur vel clamoribus suis. Gregorii Papae II. 215. 720). mentions an " Inventarium omamentorum Ecclesiae " Item una Eboracensis. honorare praesumpserit. of the moon.

et menses . the in the long run. Hincmari Remensis Capitula. 1400. VI. hoping in consequence. non quasi ad prandium ad tabulam est. Synodus Generalis Rodomi(c\xca. to But Adalbert. under Kalendae. et horarum effectiva potentia aliquid sperat in melius aut in deterius verti. Alsso.lo. because was too circumstantial do so at the beginning of every month.D. 207. quia inhonestum onerosum. et necessariam collationem.D. thinking that would be better to exercise ^ Acta Conciliorum. p.d. post peractum ibi divinum mysterium. faithfully They that.D. . Church. Vol. 1714.... a little is day to be strictly kept by the in Johannes von Holleschau treatise speaks in 1426 of calendisaiiones on Christmas called Largum Sero or Liberal Evenifig. send them good luck. modification of a which about a slight booklet written by a priest. xiii. XV. singing in Czechic song. et dies observat. Even the Church could Calends. " Ut quando et presbyteri col. quam lucrum ibi faciunt. as a. quod a Paganis inventum est. A. effective potency of the several hours. conquirunt. 1889. worshippers in order that he it might bring them luck. Usener.^ middle of the ninth At the Councils of Oxford. 63." A large number of quotations as to the monthly meetings of the clergy on the Calends are given by Ducange. and lead brought gifts to fortune and Therefore people themselves the image of Bel. and in order that the Christians might not also celebrate the beginning of the months according months to heathen custom. all their it whole month long he would life. : Parisiis. : Parisiis. V. changed this celebration of the beginnings of into a celebration of Christ's Nativity it and of the week following it. i. anathema sit. keep apart from the celebration of An ecclesiastical observance at the Calends existed at least in century.. 1222. 852. et per tales in convenientes pastellos se invicem gravent. Ibid. as were a tribute. and of Lyon. 1244. "Si quis in Kaleiidis lanuariis aliquid fecerit. proclaimed a general festive ^ Circumcisio Domini. A. ^ * Usener. resideant. Vol. Glossarium. Christlicher Festbratuh. regarding as his true St. p. Bonn.^ of the months. 72. col. A.* At the beginning of every visiting month a the Bohemians about the image of their god Bel. 1714. and of the not. 394. per Kalendas simul convenerint. Alsso even carried tells us more. et Saepe enim tarde ad ecclesias suas redeuntes majus damnum de reprehensione de gravedinc mutua contrahunt. the Calends of January were. et lunam.i YULE AND CHRISTMAS Other kinds of prophecy were by the observation of the moon. rejoiced the god thus the their houses. 878)." "^ Acta Conciliorum.

and not in the Calends. 17 14. viridifas never meaning leaves or branches. at which honour had once been bestowed upon Bel. and not "with green branches of trees". but time the Calends same time inform us it that up to St. et otiis vacare gentilibus." ^Viriditate arborum can only mean the same as viridibus arboribus. a date about the middle of the eighth that in winter he received branches of a happy or fortunate tree from the grove of Streniae as favourable that story is omens with respect to the new year. p. 63.^ forbade the observe dangerous Calends customs. Vol. Christlicher Festbrauch. The confusion in which the minds of both authors are fact best shown by the that they not only regard the Calends rites an imitation and distortion of Christmas at the caused by the devil. Aurelius Sym- ^ Usener. than beginning of months. because through that usage Christ was revered at his birthday. 575. 399. to revere). Bonn.d. 1889. Q.. : III. of the Sabinian king Tatius. He also is said to have altered the name and the sense of that celebration. darum.. . "^ Acta Conciliorum.C.^ —two statements which are mutually When faithful to the Chapters of Bishop Martin of Bracae. but referring simply to the colour. Capitula Martmi Episcopi " Non liceat iniquas observationes agere KalenBracensis (circa A.THE CALENDS OF JANUARY that habit in the time in 103 at the which Christ was born. is however.d. col. chap. trees. 575). Omnis haec observatio paganism! est. to It have been adorned with green and trees is New told. Adalbert's alone prevailed.^ and to adorn their houses round about with laurel and green this he rendered a very great service indeed to folklore. neque lauro aut viriditate arborum cingere domes. for seems to us. I do not know rites as what is it implies.D. exclusive. to given whom century by the legend B. and that was this Saint who transferred to Christmas the Calendisationes or Calends processions. Ixxiii. It is true told by a Roman writer of about 400 a. be the only prohibition of that Calends custom which has come down to and it is not until eight hundred years later that at we can show houses Year and Christmas.. to keep the heathen times of leisure. If this report does not imply that medieval Christmas in South Germany took the place of an older Calends celebration according to Roman usage. a. Parisiis. making of kalendisare colendisare (from colere.

cuius rei origo ad ipsum T. in the Paris edition of 1604. Octavium Constituta autem per Augustum Monarchia. nummum signatum a quae omnia simul strenas appellarunt refertur. gratia. trenam. Ep.. The Christian poet Metellus. in his Quirinales. ut equites ac reliquus populus ipsis etiam Imperatoribus Suetonius." Kalendis lanuarii conferrent : qua de re saepe loquitur The mention of Quintus Aurelius Symmachus : refers to his Epistolae. branches of trees for the sake of this good luck in the new year. of the Miscellanies which accompany the Epistles of Symmachus. videlicet caricas. under Ep. arboris gestans. X. qui verbenas arboris ex luco Strenuae anni novi auspices primus accepit. and cannot therefore be regarded as affording any evidence on that time." The verbenae felicis arboris mentioned part in Roman ceremonies. quo significatur alterum. Urbi quas latiae turn iuveni dedit Rex Titus Tatius prior. significans strenuis ominis boni viris istas deberi. remarks: invicem ominabantur teste. ob virtutem : atque ideo vobis huiusmodi insigne deberi quorum divinus animus magis testimonium vigilantiae here played an important Lib. quam omen expectat. strenam mos inolevit.. Genevae. veluti litera. Tatium regem religioso. auctoritate Tatii Regis. rebus auspicarentur : : ut dulces dies anni a dulcibus : et stipem. hie et lite solebant antiqui. : "Verbenas laurel. vocamus. accipimusque preces. has put into eloquent Terse the passage quoted above from Symmachus : " Strenae munere regio. " Ab exortu paene felicis urbis Martiae strenarum usus adolevit. Fausto temporis omine Ut ferret Ducibus strenua strenuis Annus gesta recentior. a numero. — Plures — — — — — Verbenas studio Patrum. a state of things twelve hundred years before thing certain from it But the one is that. the term included branches of and myrtles. there existed the habit of presenting to people. Illas nobilitas Caesaribus piis. A great number of instances are enumerated in the Lib. Lib. Symmacho quod is verbenas e luco Streniae Deae acceperit. Strenam. id est." veteri . felicis XXIX.D. C. v. tertiumque venturum similis commodi.' et Item munera mella. Ovidio tuis At cur laeta Et damus dicuntur verba Kalendis. lanuarii laetis precationibus faustum sibi 1620). Festas accipiens paupere munere praeterea nitent aureolae. alternis. Imperatores. X. xxviii. Compare Ammianus Marcellinus. praeposita S. Rex dignis Procerum dabat. chap. IV. Fr.. ' praeter Plinium et alios.: I04 YULE AND CHRISTMAS it machus. Olim Principibus probis lani principiis auspicio datae. Nomen indicio est viris strenuis haec convenire . Servant dona tamen notam —Solleres posteritas quas creat aureas. on the Calends of January. by A.^ It is again solely from custom that we learn the meaning of the adornment of houses with ^ Rosinus. sibi invicem mittebant boni ominis causa. coriotides.. D. in the time of the Roman empire. (ed. Antiquitatum Romanarum Corpus " Kalendas Absolutissimum. xxviii. inquit Festus." According to Servius. —A luco nomine Strenuae. Lib. olive. Dempster. quae datur die ut in loco.

Even evidence of this custom very scarce. according the night to which. Strassburg. likewise. and both mention that at Year's day the houses were adorned with green fir New 1^ branches. that in the yeere tiotable were. 64: *' Vnd wer nit ettwas nuwes hat Vnd vmb das nuw jor syngen gat. 1854. and of a Christian tenth century legend.THE CALENDS OF JANUARY laurel 105 and green trees in the sixth century. I read. garnished."^ In Germany the two fifteenth century witnesses for that usage come both from the Rhine country. Bayes." das Buch von der Omeissen. Leipzig. the first Christmas a usage which seems to have sprung out of the union of the houses with green habit of adorning and trees according to \ Roman Calends custom. 98^. ^ An 1 abridgegment of the don. 37 p. chap. i. floures. and garlandes. man nit ettwas schencken duot jar Der meynt das gantz Die Emeis Dis ist werd nit guot. The Conduits and Standards in the streetes Amongst the which. 1444. worke of Polidore Vergile. These things were put up as later good omens is for the luck of the year. 1516.. luy. through Polydore Vergil. who says : " Trimmyng of the Temples with hangynges. This legend can be proved to have been very popular in the Germany in of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. That in Italy it lived on we know at the end of the fifteenth century. in when the Saviour was born.^ In Strassburg tree appears. and whatsoeuer the season of the yeere aforded to be greene. were decked with Holm. In England the same custom must have been popular. at least in the fifteenth century. a hundred years branches later. all trees bloom and I \ bring forth fruits in the forest. OP THE OF ^ X J . "Against ^ the Feast of Christmas. by Thomas Langley. Des glichen zuo dem nuwen jor Wem And Geiler von Kaisersberg. Narrenschiff. 1494) 65. in Zarncke's edition. fol. as also their parish Churches. ss.. euery mans house. LonThis remark refers to festivals in general. even the form of trees or artificial trees. Grieninger. whiche decked their Idoles and houses with suche arraye. ^Sebastian Brant. it is also that. boughes. from Strassburg. 55 1) Book v. Vnd gryen tann riss steckt in syn huss Der meynt er leb das jor nit uss Als die Egyptier hieltten vor. was taken of the Heathen people.

p. sings : " When Rosemary and Bays. and into divers houses. 667. but with great labour quenched. io6 YULE AND CHRISTMAS lightning. . and toward the at the morning of Candlemas day. the poet's crown. nayled of Holme and all luy." ijohn Stow. and the in stones of the pauement about were cast the streets. Carew Haslitt."^ in his Gay. Summer a May-Pole. pp. and sacred And and from that time on there is a complete continuity of tradition as ivy. 1877. 149. decked with Holme and luy The Ladder serued for the decking of the May-Pole.. 150. by tempest of thunder and Pauls steeple was fiered." truncagium. and to stand in the Hall before the Serine. so that the people were sore aghast at the great Tempests. " In the edition of 1 598 Compare Ritson's Ancient Songs and Ballads. 113. and roofe : To this he adds the marginal note " Euery mans house of old time was decked with Holly and luy in the winter. especially at Christmas. which is also found in the servitude of woodlade or of the Hall. full the ground. 1598). 3rd ed. p. Box and Bay." With Laurel green. for disport of Christmas to the people.d. This undeniable correspondence between Christmas customs and May customs in later times. of tree Leaden Hall in Cornhill. before the principall house in the Parish or Street. re- gards the adornment of houses and churches by holly and mistletoe. Are bawl'd in frequent cries through all the town Then judge the festival of Christmas near. London. was torne up and cast downe by the malignant Spirit (as was thought). ' Christmas. the joyous period of the year! Now with bright Holly all the temples strow Mistletoe. says: "The Pole in the Hall might be vsed of old time (as then the custome was in On euery Parish) to be set up in the at the Feast of Christmas. 284. Trivia.: . 1618. is one of the conclusive proofs that Christmas has taken the place which had been held before by Martinmas. on the first of February at night. a fast in Standard being set up in the midst of the pauement. evergreen box and bay. London. speaking of a long pole preserved in Gisors or Gerrards Hall in the city. by the passage is found on p. Put in the Church on Christmas day. " Holly and There are the well-known fifteenth century carols about the contest between Holly and Ivy Ivy. Stow. The Survay of London (written a.

1 1 Rome. having been known in the early centuries of our era from Egypt to Isaiah forget Ixv. this In view in a certain sense replaced the alleged Germanic celebration solstice."^ Jerome + a. that the Germanics celebrated a festival of the dead about the darkest time of the year. fact. however." . et is Qui ponitis fortunae mensam et libatis super earn " " Vos autem qui dereliquistis nie which. 420). and assumed that there in had been about that time some celebration ancestors. the Septuagint translated as meaning obliti estis ^The meaning of the Hebrew montem sanctum meum. in of a winter which Professor Weinhold to and a few others tenable." that forget The English revised version of 1885 has: mensam "But ye : et impletis daemoni that forsake the Lord. When this view seemed Eugen Mogk yet thought it too festival be no longer Professor daring to deny that the Germanics had had any about the middle of the winter. among modern mythologists. et paratis fortunae potionem.CHAPTER IX. honour of the dead or first He took as the basis a of rite which. obliti estis version : . that prepare a drink offering unto that troop. in " Et vos qui dereliquistis dominum. says : " But ye are they that forsake the Lord. TABULA FORTUNAE. by Germanic gave one deserving because rise to the belief.d. : et montis sancti mei. at the sight no doubt. still believe. and that up mingled wine unto Destiny. that table for my holy mountain. ( and that furnish the that number. is has the appearance an offering to dead. fill my holy mountain. that prepare a table for Fortune. Among it the Roman tribes Calends-of-January there is customs which were taken over special attention. but in reality of Mediterranean origin.

1880: "Mensas ilia die vel nocte dapibus onerare. Augustine + A. et maxime in Aegypto. aut calendas januarias ritu Paganorum.d. Acta Conciliorum. aut per vicos et plateas cantores et choros duceres " .D. aut jotticos faciat. Quintus Tomus. a penalty the threatened to anyone who." ^§17: "Quicunque in calendas ianuarias mensas panibus et aliis cybis ornat. did not offer slain table of this kind. Concilium colere Romanum. Kalendas Januarias mensas cum dapibus in domibus praeparare. that. 743.D.. for the Calends of January. 430). who. ut aut novum annum. In the Sermo de is Sacrilegiis. ponant mensam poculum mulso mixtum vel praeteriti anni vel futuri fertilitatem auspicantes.'^ reference the latter simply mentions the custom. praeparares tempore.^ The wandering Pope Zacharias. people erect a table of eatables of various kind. Ian. col. ^ Aberglatlbe A. Basileae.^ and by Burchard von Worms + a. Hoc autem faciebant Israelitae. all This ghosts." Deereta." ^ Parisiis. was done by the Israelites. Vol. Acta Conciliorum. in order to try to find out the fertility either of the year past or the year to also come. 1714. and a cup mixed with mead. ^ " Est autem in cunctis urbibus. quam mensam tuam cum dapibus vel epulis antea vel post soleres facere. nefanda aut ridiculosa. Hieronymi. et 1929. et : est. refertam varii generis : neque mensas super noctem componat. 198*: "Fecisti ut mensam praeparares et tuos cibos et potum cum tribus cultellis supra in domo tua mensam poneres. aut cervulos. Reuchlin). . vetulas. III. omnium simulacrorum portenta venerantes et nequaquam altari victimas." Grimm. in domo tua p. 1548.. neque strenas aut bibitiones superfluas exerceat. ix.* by Boniface in his letter to jjj of A." * " Nullus in cal. et in Alexandria idololatriae vetus consuetudo : ut ultimo die anni et mensis eius qui extremus epulis. : Parisiis. 1537 (ed. Deutsche Mythologie. Commentarios in Prophetas Qiios Maiores Vacant Continet. the old custom of idolatry on full the last day of the year and of the last month. col. Coloniae. adorns tables with loaves and other dishes. 17 14. adoring the portents of the altar. with the consequence that the was interdicted Council of In his Rome first a. I.io8 his YULE AND CHRISTMAS Commentary all in to Isaiah. '' " Ut nullus broma praesumpserit. remarks : ^ " But there is in all towns. 193°: " Observasti A. eo ut vel aliquid plus faceres propter ita dico. Vol."^ ( animals at but brought their offerings to a ascribed to St. 1024). p.. and ut quaedam mulieres in quibusdam temporibus anni facere solent. and most of Egypt and Alexandria.5 which he testifies to that usage still existing both in it Rome at ( and among the Germans. 240. sed huiusce modi mensae liba fundebant. 742. to the north of that Table of Fortune can be traced through the mentions of it by St. III.D. but ^ Operum D.d. 743. Eligius (588-659).

282 " Multi credunt sacris noctibus inter natalem diem Christi et noctem Epiphaniae evenire ad ^ domos suas quasdam mulieres. where the custom was transferred to is Christmas eve. carnes. example in Bohemia. Breslau. Bonn." Grimm. . . prosperitatem domus negotiorum rerum temporalium. cohorte sua. and of is shifted to Epiphany century. in the Thesaurus Pauperum. p." On seeming offerings. ^ et diabolo tradidisti. Christlicher Festbrauch. In the fifteenth century. 1 \ . visitationem Perhtae cum et ut inde sint eis propitii ad similar statements about such ed. which shows a further evolution of fate. I.. .. 2nd ed. About the middle and drink on the the thirteenth Martin von Amberg. that it on Christmas eve people eat a large and lengthy We use for leaven to make ut si venissent ibi tres illae sorores. coenam dimittunt panem et caseum. : Below the dishes coins were fourth custom . cultellos et similia propter . He " The roll. Multi in domibus in lac. sacredness of that day. Usener. Deutsche Mythologie. ova. as the report shows which given in Presbyter Alsso's table. . Et ita potestatem tu dicis suam. become part and parcel of German folk -belief. 1893. . 270. in his of Epiphany Gewissensspiegel. 256: '^^ Percht mit der eisnen nastn an der Perchtnacht. 2nd ^Edited by H. Some of the ancient goddesses of the people have new holy to tide. ciphos. dico. and then the more distinct that belief grows. p. compare Schmeller. quas tulisti antiqua divinae posteritas pietati illas et antiqua stultitia Parcas nominavit.^ the old Egyptian like the and Italian custom from the eve of the Calends of January has. same purpose. quibus praeest noctibus praedictis post domina Perchta. become connected with the January 6. .^ and the poem "Von Berhten mit der langen nase"^ allude to a very similar custom. Deutsche Opfergebr'duche.. vinum et aquam et huiusmodi super mensas et coclearea. 434. Ulrich Jahn. ut eos complaceant . the Table of Fortune into an offering to the goddesses of The further we advance. Bayrisches Worterbuch. tells that people on the eve seems to put food table for Percht with the iron nose. discos. p. extending from December 25 to sacrifice. ut crederes quas sorores tibi posse aut hie aut in futuro prodesse. and are supposed it be honoured by that alleged for So is in other parts of the country." ^ My Geschichte der deutschen Weihncuht. 1S84. 1889. esse et nomen suum. PP* 4^ ^"^ Z^T' Codex Tegeniseeensis. to Christmas. reficerentur. Largum Sero for the of 1426. is.^ Money and would tells trinkets were built up on a people laid believing that thus they increase.: TABULA FORTUNAE in the I 09 second he adds an explanation.

*An dem geperchtentag den man haizet der zwelfte. I.. some regions the Christians put the rolls and knives on the tables and dishes. And it is rather a gross conception that those spirits. Zeitrechnung. is In other parts of the same region food left on the table for the Fersteln. as in the rest. At Vordernberg. by Usenet in his Christlicher Festbrauch. 14. 83. There Christmas a plough was put under the table. in which ge ^ "^ the collective prefix. bachtag. 283. 1889. are placed in the porch for Berschte. in order that they may not hurt people. p. Schmeller. 73. This custom lived on German soil till close to the present In Karnthen. Lexer in Wolf's Zeitschrift. should eat bodily food — being spirits. for. 51-58. and Grotefend. Ober-Steiermark. there will be a after all good year. derive from Berchta. IV. people have eaten the inner doors are some of locked. and a Frau Perthatisch was prepared. I. pp. 194. but in order that in the night the gods might of the heathens only.. Zeitrechnung." because the Christmas vacation begins. Bonn. 25 The items were collected by Ulrich 271. Bavarian Berchta seems to . 1884. Deutsche Opfergebrduche bei Ackerbau und Viehzucht. however. written 1468 and 1469. on the eve of Epiphany. not for the praise of the childhood of Christ. 2nd ed. which are demons.* Usener. ss. Weihnachtspiele. to the poor.^ That the Perchten represent a is plurality is evident from the form Geperchten. it. . p. to eat or to leave it — I am sorry to say that in that custom. however. or day preceding Christmas. 300. Grotefend. 100). Merkzettel fur die Beichte azis Kloster Scheyern. Bayrisches Worterbuch. p. whilst In the morning milk and bread have disappeared. ^M. permitting their family. I. comes and eats of it. p. 1889. and dishes and knives it beside them. Bonn. come and eat them. The same is the case with Bdchlboschen."^ Not much at later. the day on which children are "driven out of school.2 time. the devil has invented a great illusion in his in own favour. Christlicher Festbrauch. a very similar in the custom was observed Monastery of Scheyern near Pfaffenhofen. have one . belief and fair mind on that night put those on the if tables.. The B'dcheltag. milk and bread. ed. about the middle of the fifteenth century. Bayrisches Worterbuch. bread and a pie were put If she outside for Berchtl. Jahn. 271. Karl Weinhold. 1334. they choose. where more modern cases of the same custom are mentioned.. p.. which Schmeller-Fromman. is dies baculi episcopalis (compare the note on p. But that is a gross delusion who have many gods faithful Christians. Innicher it YULE AND CHRISTMAS Old and honourable people of orthodox large rolls tastier. Breslau. as I was told.

the former at least in the word Geperchtentag mentioned above. from " Epitome brevis ex sacris libris mosaicis de creatione coeli et terrae. \^'^. Wendische Volksagen und Gebrduche aus dem Spreewald.^ while here and there the Table of Fortune has been preserved the three kings more purely. H. Weinhold. be simply another it was "customary." Codex Germaniais W. Beitrdge zur deutschen Mythologie.Mannhardt.. of 1458. *Englien und Lahn. ^Praetorius. tafel der christlichen weisheit. among the peasants in the north of Europe. die an der Perchtnacht der Percht speiss opfernt und dem schretlein. from " Buch der zehen gebot. the former being now derived from Gothic bairgan. p.^ and knives were been shifted about a girl's laid on the In other regions the same custom has to St. Die am ersten jar monden Monacensis. bread table. VolkstUmliches H. 233 . 50.. p. inviting the three kings to be his guests. 25 . 523. Der Volksnmnd in der Mark Brandetiburg. I. Panzer. Saturnalia. in order that the poor souls. to make bread in the This they placed upon the table. 234. fol. at Christmas-time. 1663. might come and eat of the food. or the angels. 356. ^ A sixteenth century report shows the purely Christian evolution of this custom. rather and the holy three kings also get their piece. Beitrdge zur deutschen Mythologie. Newand both names appearing also as names of a whole the latter from host of inferior female deities. Peter. spriiche der lehrer. Hidden. and appears together with a prophecy future husband or a man's future wife. In the Saxony of the seventeenth century. before going to bed on the eve of Epiphany. Ulrich Jahn. von der Hagen's Germania. Berlin. p. 286. Frau Nolle. the latter frequently in die Holden. f. all On the members of the household. 349. 263. 1868. name for .. besides Christ. beside to hide . p. This table is by mythologists of the older generation taken as devoted to the ancestors (Wolff. In Rothenkirchen. and " Die am jahrsstag dez abentz einen tisch mit guter speyss setzen die nacht der schretlein. or Hollen. . 237. puts even now on his table a loaf and a jug of water.. the peasant. Deutsche Opfergebr'duche. p. Zeitschrift fiir Mythologie. 1567. 274.. Panzer.. 2. 2 Sebastian Franck." of 1458 . 3. p. 1880. the distribution of the Epiphany cake. Weihnachtspiele." In modern times the table remained set at Christmas eve in Silesia.TABULA FORTUNAE There are s'undry other fifteenth century cases ill on record.^ About the beginning of our century form of a boar-pig. Andrew's night. 262. H. ^ Schulenburg. des abentz ein tisch mit guter speiss seczen die nacht den schretelen. German verbergen. HL. the Virgin. Weltbuch. ^ "Also versUnden sich ouch. merely taking the place of Berchta. 123). Leipzig. 248. fol." Codex Germanicus MoJtacensis. Part I. to hide High-German verhehkn. Frankenwald. 64. . Old-High-German helan.* or has been preserved at Christmas eve as a completely set dinner table. p. with bacon and Saxonio-Thuringian Holda .

Acta Conciliorutn. and announcing this to the entire we subject to correction those who from ignorance do anything which after the not decent For because some are shown to bake a cake day of the holy birth of Christ our another. or rather commemoration of the her afterbirth. 1714. ad Hervarar Saga. years telling." ^ At the time when the Table of Fortune began an offering to certain it to be regarded as spirits. gave birth in the flesh to the ^Jamieson. year. : " Confessing that He who came into existence without seed of man. Word beyond underthat cannot be standing and speech. Brumalia.^ A. ^ " Non licet Kalendis lanuarii vetula. 1882. vel strenas diabolicas observare: sed in ipsa die sic omnia beneficia tribuantur. God and to divide the same amongst one immaculate under the pretext of honour to the afterbirth of the Virgin mother. III. and incongruous to the manners of their ancestors. and the appear There. . About 700 these Strenae had been transferred to Christmas. was born from the Virgin without flock. Vol. xiv.d. which we know from + a. a view to which the Council of TruUus of a. 706 took serious objection.112 Other dishes continued. 1 39. and Calends of January. is afterbirth. 578. De Idolatria. punishing priest. aut cervolo facere.D.. col. this is no honour to the Virgin —who. p. the rite with death in case of its being practised by a heretic and with excommunication It in the case of the its and blasphemer being a layman. that is. Tertullian ( The same as found rising of Strenae or sweet cakes. 865''. Vol. we decree For that henceforth nothing of the kind be done by the faithful.. the baking of them was observed for the sake wherefore the Church called them deviHsh.^ on the Saturnalia. before. Paisley. "^ Not. sicut et reliquis diebus. i. Synodus Autissiodorensis. p. 444. as a good omen. They called this kind of bread Julagalt. A. it the prophecy which had been connected with was disconnected from and evolved into a self-dependent custom. IV. they exposed leave it it as long as the feast totally To uncovered was reckoned a bad omen. after Verel.D. as in the south three hundred of fortune- which was regarded as a favourable omen for the new again in the sixth century in Gaul. YULE AND CHRISTMAS : and. declared in Canon Ixxix. 220). Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language.d. chap. and in were eaten in honour of the Virgin Mary." Parisiis.

s irapdivip. Great Britain secundum non confitetur proprie et secundum veritatem Dei genitricem sanctam semperque virginem et immaculatam Mariam. ^ Pope Martin Acta Conciliorum. segregatur. 1690. Documents Relating Beata Virgine. et earn sibi invicem impertiri. Councils 1871. Dignum plane Deo nascente mysterium. A. Koi iravrl Tip diopddffei KrjptjTTovres. Koi TajjTrjv dWi^Xois /MeTadiddpTes irpo<pda'€i TifiTJs Xoxe'w Tifii] t'^s dxpdvTOV irapOevo/jL-qTopos." "Absque sit. condemnatus sit. ov ydp ye tovto Ty Kud' r]/xa.^ Another instance occurs 649. of the Lateran Council of a. el 5e \ai/c6s. Stubbs. If therefore anybody shall will attempt to do so again.: (fxjjpadelrj. col.. if be excommunicated. ut juxta id nobis : quod scriptum viscera : novissimis temporibus Verbum Dei caro fieret. Ecclesiastical p. ex communibus et iis quae in nobis fiunt. and he At the time of the Council he be cleric of Trullus that question had occupied the most serious attention of the Church for several centuries. d<popi^ea6<>}. ac describere. Concilium Quinisextum sire in "0^'. under in I. quae supra mentem et sermonem." Oxford. et incorruptibiliter eam genuisse. he shall if die. col. sanctae Mariae Virginis genitricis sine aliqua confusione naturis ut qui ante tempora erat Filius Dei. honoris praetextu secundinarum impollutae Virginis matris. ut servaret partum sine corruptione. utpote ipsum Deum Verbum specialiter et veraciter. quod comprehendi non potest Verbum peperit came. in Vol. a fidelibus." TABULA FORTUNAE understood 113 — to define. and 146: "De Si quis sanctos patres H . qui propter ignorantiam aliquid faciunt quod non scilicet fiat decet. "^ . and describe her unutterable birthgiving births according to common and what happens in ourselves. II. correctioni subiicimus.^ passage in. deponatur : si vero laicus.d. : 1714." ^ Haddan and Ireland. statuimus. qui conceptum fecit esse sine semine : servans quod ex Patre to erat. III. opi^ofiev fj. ttJ virip vovv Koi /caret t6i> \byov rd dx'j'p^Tov TSKOijcrr) \6yov capKi. intra Parisiis. Trullo. In the Decrees of Pope Hormisdas (514-523) those problems are treated most thoroughly. ^kkhxevrov t6v in t^j vapOevov deiov rbKov 6fw\oiroi/j-vLip yovvres ws Ti /cat dairbpws (TvarAvra. eos. Parisiis. Vol. 6d€v eTreidrj Tives fxeTa ttjw Tjfiepav ttjs ay ias toO Qeov rjfjLuv yevvricrews ddKvvvrai dTJdev crefiidaXiv 'i\povTe%. nostri nativitatis Quare quoniam aliqui post sanctae Christi Dei diem similam coquere ostenduntur. ullis secundis ex Virgine partum esse confitentes ut qui sine semine constitutus idque toti gregi annuntiantes. agressus fuerit.. and III. virtute et virginitatem matris deitatis non solvens. " Proprium quoque unitis Filii Dei. Vol. ^ sit quidem clericus. et repraesentans quod ex matre suscepit. ut deinceps nihil tale Neque enim hoc honor est Virginis. Canon Ixxix. indissolubili permanente et post partum ejusdem virginitate. measure. in ultimis saeculorum absque semine concepisse ex Spiritu Sancto. Kadaipeiffdu. matris vulvam natus non aperiens..D. €k tQv KOLvdv T€ /cat Ta &<ppa(TTOV avT-rjs t6kov opl^eiv koX inroypd(j>eiv. metiri.7]5iv tolovtov virb tCov wicrTdv TeXeTcrdai. he be a layman. 706. qui a Deo Patre ante omnia saecula natus est. et habitaret in utrisque . et rts oSv dirb rod vvv wpaTTUv TOLOVTOV Ti Ixxix.. est. : Acta Conciliorum. el /teV /c\ijpt/c6s etrj. fieret filius hominis et nasceretur ex tempore hominis more. Si quis ergo deinceps hoc facere si inenarrabilem ejus partum definire. iii. 1714. 1014. toi>s i^ ayvolas irpdirovrds TUP ov deovTiov KadvTro^dWonev .

Breslau. 280. When luck. it and again next morning. so wirt es vberflussiMonastery of Florian ' : ' kleich reich. Coloniae. 680. 1548. is p. on the eve of December increased. Mythologie. 407. p. Colerus. 1st sein mynner das dy mass nicht ganz ist. Deutsche St. Wittenberg. where them in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. bear testimony of the same custom. was the announcement of a poor About 1800. ." In the sixteenth century J. inde prosperitatem tuae vitae eo "^ anno praevideres. the person for whom it was baked would it was supposed. a. If any one of these broke in the toasting. But it not true that the ^In the^Decreta of Burchard von Year's eve: Worms 1884. Leipzig. these find usages were also transferred thither. vnd lassent es sten vncz an den tag vnd messent herwider auf. Calendarium Oeconomicum et Ferpetuum. No. under "Yule. which had to be eaten This frequently consisted of cakes baked with eggs. it less than before.^ that mythologists It is no wonder who did not know is the passage from Jerome should have taken this custom for an offering to the dead or the chthonic deities of the Germanic tribes. called care- cakes. plentiful year if if it just the same. see another Yule. and took a great beginning of the When we the Church transferred the year from the Calends of January to Christmas. ( + 1024).^ they rose very high. Ist sy gancz so pestet es. loaves were baked it in the name of persons. Sattirnalia. in Scotland. had was was supposed to be an indication of a an average harvest was expected year. et spissi et alti fierent. Deutsche Opfergebrduche. special in Germany. Abe'rglaube F. bannock or cake was baked for every person in the house. in bed. p. 1591 . 43.114 YULE AND CHRISTMAS the canons of which were brought from Rome to Great Britain by John the Precentor. 284." MS. was considered a sign of rise. . the question fecisti put about ut si New bene of "Vel si panes praedicta nocte coquere tuo nomine: elevarentur. Ist sein aber mer. on Christmas morning. About the year 1000.d. A not.^ Another usage was to measure water into a pot 25." vii. and in the seventeenth century Praetorius. so chumpt es des jars in armiit. Ulrich Jahn. it prosperity in the new year. 1663. ^Jamieson. from an Austrian the Item an dem weihnachtabend noch an dem rauchen so messent die lewt 9 leffl wasser in ain hefen. one of the family used for to rise before the rest and prepare food them. p. 193". Deutsche Opfergebrduche. and when variety they did not was deemed prophetic of bad In the course of time these customs developed of forms. Ulrich Jahn. Grimm. and adopted by the Council of Hatfield. and If its quantity . Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language.

as far as they in appear in old Gaul and the farthest west of of a Germany. bis ieder brauchbaren v. Holda. artificial animals were placed in their stead. hingegen aber sind diese 2 stier in denen . wherever the Markgenossenschaft existed.^ the animal for their own herds had to pay extra for ^ Hans Meyer's Deutsches . The mummings and masquerading animals. because apparitions of in do not occur any larger percentage about the time of Christmas than at any other time of the year. extended from the sixteenth till about Christmas. since. found all over to The dressing up of artificial animals. for stud The domestic male animals which had been kept purposes to the close of the season were killed at the beginning of December — December 5 being. Originally the real animals destined to be killed were dressed up. use so that those who.^ all Plain statistics show that they appear with about equal frequency at the later popular belief of festival of the spirits seasons of the year. herdstier stollen. and more especially the Christmas rides of the wild huntsman and his host cannot be proved to be older than the sixteenth century. not being members of the community. only for the one bull. one stallion. . from Martinmas till mid-Lent confined — in olden days century to the time about Martinmas. down einen s. however. Perchta. 292. in ancient Tirol. observanz der eine pfarrer den schwilch zu deren mann st. The slaughtering of these animals was a kind of public affair. in favour of a Nor can Germanic Germany be adduced dead about the beginning of January.TABULA FORTUNAE 115 chthonic and wind-deities. the form general masquerade. as has been shown above. and one boar were kept whole community. 1800: "Hat der Stammser zehend alter und der Mathias Walch nach. by covering themselves with hides —although men in guise of Professor Mogk takes of in them shape old for a kind of artificial appearance of souls of the dead beast — are. 1898. did by preference hover about Christmas. to 2 This state of things survived in Tyrol . Volkstuvi. in part at least. as Professor Mogk thinks. und ein ieweilliger herr von Martini. Wodan. Leipzig. the day for killing the boar. mit dem rever kUevich am langets auflfahrt. und der andere von Martini an bis Peters tag dienen muss. of Roman is origin. probably of purely Germanic growth. and since then prolonged mid-Lent — is a slaughtering custom. wished to it. whilst bye and bye. p. which German soil.

Here be also Knecht Ruprecht simply a Knecht. who might popular as well named Knecht as alone. 1801. 551. The probable cause of the after combination his first is the rime of Knecht and Ruprecht. who has so long been thought a descendant of Wuotan Hruodperaht (Wodan had shining originally in glory) merely represents a type of a man servant." Zingerle and Inama-Sternegg.. was proved by myself in 1894. pp. A more extensive explanation of these economic gemeinds-alpen. 27-30 p. the characters representative of country nobility and peasantry respectively. that Mogk thinks. About the payment of non-members of the community. des " Handwerks der contrasted. * Die Zukunft. It is known to me is preserved at the Royal Library of in it printed in 1668. is fly-leaflet in quarto of the time about 1530. which belongs to the sixteenth century. Heft 12. Knecht Ruprecht. wollen Tuchmacherr Here also are master and servant is Here also every connection with Christmas is lacking. compare Vol. H. 182. 1894. 1893. frei zu sommern. so far as know. the only copy of which Berlin.ii6 YULE AND CHRISTMAS That Nicolaiis — familiar to English children as Santa Claus — is not a . and 297. he appears in a Christmas play a printed Niirnberg Christmas procession play. Spuler. Die Tirolischen Weistiimer. need scarcely be proved and Knecht Ruprecht (German Father Christmas). 234. The first is instance in which. and nothing whatever to do with Christmas. Fliess-Oberinnthal. as Dr. reprinted In a 1847 J. which called : Ein Gesprdch von den gemeinen Schwabacher Kasien. this For a whole century appearance Knecht Ruprecht has no relationship to any Christmas I customs. Kdmmerin. and has exactly much individuality of social rank and as little personal individuality as the Junker Hanns and the Bauer Michel. und ihretn Meister. III. ah diirch Bruder Heinrich. matters is contained in my Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht. Berlin. Hoffmann published. being called ^^ Knecht RuprechtJ" The conversation. a servant. . ghost of a dead person. Leipzig.^ In 1832 Vorzeit. in the third volume of his Schaltjahr. in which the servant has the name Ruprecht. in the Anzeiger ficr die Kunde der deutschen a conversation between master and servant. stands in no connection with Christmas customs. p. Scheible. II. . and he appears as the servant of wo sie wollen. : From he is these two cases his significance appears very clearly the popular type of a servant. Wintersonnenwende.

.. 80. to But the stage directions : call him Ruprecht^ and he himself says recht daran. : Christiattorum Larvas There seems to be an older Latin edition of this pamphlet natalitias Satuii Christi nomine commendaias post evolutam originem confodit stylo theologico conscientiosus Christi cultor Chresulder (ed. is difficult to how this can support the supposition that the Yule If Professor feast was a festival for the dead. so that argument as to the Scandinavian Yule be based upon that fact. sources which.^ Mogk explained the Voigtlandic ^ {Drechsuler) Curioser Bericht wegeti der schdndlichen Weynacht Larven. according to Maurer. —Ich Du thust Dein Knecht little —Der sie striegeln — Und zerprugebi. IL.TABULA FORTUNAE Holy Christ. so man insgenuin Heiligen Christ nennet. and Christ addresses him Acesto. the so-called drinking of Minne^ was confined to." in And in even giants are said to have taken part see Yule feasting. heratisgegeben Von MM. processions. Ruprecht^ plays. that as early as 1680 his appearance could be interdicted by law. ^ in the if later late it would be identical with "at Yule-tide. Miinchen. Bekehrung des norwegischen Stammes zuin Christentum. *Ibid. or even prevalently occurring on.. but not at midwinter. 1702. minne has the same stem with Latin memini and Greek iaiivi\aKU). 12°). ^ According to the Olafssaga ins Helga. however. Geister:' 1 ^' etliche Rupert oder verdammte Hitherto no proof has been given that the drinking in honour of the dead. 235.. —Dass Holy Christ about the children keine " Christe. far As an as I know. 1855-56. 1 126). Mythologie in Paul's Grundriss der gerMinnetrinken manischen Fhilologie. Sighvatr the Scald came late in winter to a farm in which alfabldt was celebrated (Mogk. have never seen." Through these printed Knecht Ruprecht as a character of Christmas procession plays became popular so quickly. Lipsiae anno 1677. — Will Du Bitt nhnmst an. alfablbt and disablbt^ offerings for elves and geniae never occur in the description of any early Scandinavian Yule festival. so that a minister could say about these popular Christmas that in the suite of Christ there went about. 117 The as list of characters calls him Kindleififresser. which ^ I. auctior cum apologia. Dressden und Leipzig. a hypothetical Germanic mid-winter festival. festival being a dead-festival cannot late in These offerings took place winter. and the term Rupert became identical with spirit from below. terminology. I. . or towards the end of winter.

zu obersten. uberster tag. * Acta Conciliorum. obroster tag. Grotefend. nee participare sancto altario permittant. " Sunt etiam qui sacratas in festivitate cathedrae domni Petri apostoli cibos mortuis et post missas redeuntes post corpus Domini. col. was held on February 21.c!aX. 398: sacrificare "Non liceat Christianis prandia ad defunctorum sepulchra deferre. ' p. ad gentilium revertuntur errores. ut quemcumque ad . Heft p. of the ^ name it " Unterirdischen" I as early as 1893 proved that to be erroneous that he.. perpetrare quae ad ecclesiae rationem non pertinent eos ab ecclesia sancta auctoritate repellant. 1891. et de re mortuorum " (about A. 1874. adopting instead the explanation suggested by Professor Weinhold. tarn pastores ad domos daemoni escas proprias." After the examples ol oberster ^' tag is I gave above. : Parisiis. p.* But therein they followed again the course of the Romans. qui gentilium observationes custodiunt. been supposed to be the period. A. Leipzig.. whose festival of the dead.D. Germ. 282: " Der Voigtlandische Name 'Unterden Mogk. 292. Contestamur illam solicitudinem hac fatuitate persistere viderint vel ad nescio quas petras. repeated the error that the ancient Germanics celebrated a dead festival year. Mythologie. Concilium Turonense II. tiber Mittag' die Zeit unmittelbar nach Mittag bedeuten. in quam presbyteros gerere. 137]) wie 'unter Mittag ' eigentlich die Zeit unmittelbar vor Mittag. need scarcely In state that Weinhold's explanation as Zwischenndchte" probably wrong Professor in Mogk 1898. Ibid. ). xxii. Nachte der Toten deutet.bis dann beide heisst Weihnachten lateinisch sub calendas januarias ( Beatus "^ 'um 100. Tille thun. designata loca gentilium. wie E. p. Zeitschrift des Vereins fur Volkskunde. IIL ). also. Mittag' heissen." The same habit seems referred to in caput Ixix." Il8 YULE AND CHRISTMAS Unterndchte as being the nights of the subterranean beings.D. offerunt. I. besides the Scandinavian customs just mentioned. So Rhenanus. 365. Rer. Hans Meyer's Deutsches Volkstum. ^"Nur wolle vogtlandischen man Namen I das nicht. oberstag. . et accipiunt.^ Whether there was a Germanic commemoration very that uncertain. the Ferialia.. der nichts als Zwischenvi. 1891.' I.. in his . Vol... . of the Capitula Martini Episcopi Bracarensis. and makes evident Professor Weinhold's carelessness review of my book. Lib.i. III. Mogk. we have express testimony from the sixth century that it was at February 22. and It is time a relic of true. aut arbores. Zeitrechnung des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. Vol. III. 11 26 (Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. durch den der Zwolften Unterndchte beweisen. am hailigen obersten. ^ Geschichte ndchte. 567. I. und ihm nach A. the darkest time of the but gave up his former explanation of Unterndchte. bedeutet nur Nachte vor dem Feste (vor Epiphanias ' ' [das oberster Tag heisst: Oberster tag. when the Germanics made offerings to their dead. 575).& bedeutet: die Nachte zwischen Weihnacht und Epiphanias. col.2 accuses me of following Mogk in his erroneous explanation. 1714. aut fontes. obrister tag. als der deutschen Weihnacht. festive tide for the dead is Shrovetide has it.

birth. it is shown that His father Joseph was such " And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary." The medieval Church noticed this incongruity. but to the new religion first which. and consequently of the ' same stock as he was. i6. the Brumaiia. of whom was bom Jesus. and got over it by decreeing that Mary had been a cousin of Joseph's.d. The year in which the two. CHRIST. was spreading in it all directions from They owe to Christianity. but without any success. who is called Christ. celebrated the at that date. November the date 17 and March 28 were contended little for. Clemens of — ' Alexandria was as able to gain authority for the former date as a writing it on Easter ascribed to Cyprian was to gain for the latter. 'The early Church did not regard Christ as a God from but merely as having become one when He was thirty years old. could not compete splendour with Their later fame and significance they owe not to ancient Rome. the matter apparently lacked interest for the Church. and when the Holy Distinct traces of Ghost descended upon that Him at the baptism in Jordan^ dogma are even preserved in the common text of the New Testament. for the purpose of proving that Christ : was a descendant of David.^ ^ Gospel according to St. as oTThe miraculous birth in the stable at Bethlehem. 354. Brumalia and Christianity. take place on December in 25. solstice to had ordered the winter Calends of January.• CHAPTER THE NATIVITY OF For centuries after Julius Caesar X. i. Alatthew. The historical date of Christ's birth is unknown \ and though some at fathers of the Church tried to find out by speculation what date He ought to have been born. since the Palestine. where. . were brought into contact by an energetic Roman early ^ -^H bishop was a. century of our era.

^ Western new opinion on the person of the Saviour. solstice the it it did not make them the beginnings of months. he celebrated. which is called "according to St. in the chronology of Furius Dionysius Filocalus (Usener. he was no doubt conscious of the ^Christ's birthday on fact that thereby he would get into his hands a December 25 is first mentioned Kl." . and the entiy "viii. Das Weihnachtsfest. the courage to draw the consequence from the new belief. Bonn. On God 354. where the year begins with December 25. Luk^r' Within little more than a century that new dogma conquered the have been a Church of Rome countries round the Mediterranean.d. 352-366) who had [y' January glory. as being important event in Christ's career. Whilst attaching all them and making them the measure of the duration of the year. as before. 267). It was the which made itself the advocate of this doctrine. The festival in commemoration appearance of the deification of Christ was Epiphany in the glory of it is. p. of the deification of Christ in the festival It was the Roman Bishop Liberius (a. When Bishop Liberius made his choice of a new birthday for the Redeemer. eight days) after winter solstice.^ The assumed days possible importance to of solstices and equinoxes were days with regard to which the Julian calendar had not been consistent.. year rather began seven days the (or. the first YULE AND CHRISTMAS Mark and St. as was counted then. the appearance of Christ in God-like but in the same year he celebrated a second birthday of the in Christ on December 25. John beginning with that story. natus Christus in Betleem Judeae. as it was called later. nor the winter Its beginning of the year. His Father having been God Himself. He was now held to God from birth. Along with Easter and Pentecost festivals. —the festival of Christ's God. The mere choice of well the day shows that the step which was taken had been considered beforehand. ianu. though it seems never to have reached the far East. named as one of the three greatest Church the third century there arose in the About the beginning of countries a . I20 the Gospels of St. and used henceforth all his authority to lead this new festival to victory throughout the whole Church. In the face of that view it could scarcely any longer appear proper to celebrate the of Epiphany on January memory 6. : 1889. and evolved the necessary basis for it in her own Gospel. in the early Church. 6.

in the long run. stood firmly on the basis of the Roman ^ system of the year. chap. and therefore being something strange Western world. quod ibi nativitatis ipsius memoria tantum solemnis habeatur hie vero vitae venturae et mysteria celebrentur. Das Weihnachtsfest. Historia Ecdesiastka. 26. a whole millennium. pp.^ Christmas from very first origins bore the mark of being a Roman creation. By it the commentary to the Law Book it of Alarich. has come. sicut tempus Dominicae nativitatis. in Nyssa of Cappadocia in It 382. 262.) " Ideo autem pascha non ad eundem redit anni diem. by jnaking itself the beginning of the to year instead of the Roman Calends of January. world to the Whilst Easter." : : . ^The Cotuilium Bracarense oi tjo\ ordains: "Siquis Natalem Christi secundum camera . Rome. though a reformed by a Pope himself. so not outshining splendour Easter and theirs. and in the course of time even managed to shake that very system. the new custom first of the Roman Church came to the East.^ legal authority took about a century and a half to win for . neither that. Whitsunday. Comparing Easter and Christmas. though without ever winning so that the doctrinaire and unpractical little Roman beginning the time at least of the year. 247. In Eastern Rome gained the same it much later. if was historical foundation attacked. In Constantinople the festival of Christ's birth on December 25 was celebrated in 379. excluding from ^Beda. he says {De Temporibus. the entire for 121 calendar Roman —an idea for which the Church fought a complete victory . ^Usener. Beda knew the bearing of that difference between the two festivals quite well. the Codex 'jfustinianus of 543 ordaining to be a On the other hand. Up in the time of the its Reformation its sanctity was never disputed.* III. gave rise to endless discussions about the proper date its of its celebration and to two different traditions. ^ all fasting as early as a. 25.THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST means of beating. wherever Christian civilisation But the now rules new festival conquered. 3. Christ's birthday became a day on which no law courts were allowed to be held. it among the Eastern Germanics. 561. 238. the Church tried to it make it a real day of worldly joy. et munera capiantur. position not dies nefastus..d. xv. which originated with in 506. it soon gained a position certainly equal to belief of Athanasius fWith the triumph won by the Peter at and the heirs of St. or did even more. having a basis beyond the-^ of the Roman calendar. in Antioch in 388.

in the sixth century passed the all Rhine. to fight Pasch and Pentecost. so that the perseits and spread somewhat cution of the Christians by Diocletian (284-305)^ threw this shadows over country as over others. Twelve-days — called on Germanic several centuries later. so that the Synod of Tours of 567 declared AioSeKa-q/xepov or it to be a tide festive tide of the Church under the name soil. it came . 348. et in Dominico quia Christum in vera hominis natura natum esse non credit. After having gained a new Rome. birthday. Although everything was done attempts were not lacking to build a bridge from the new day to the old one. Manichaeus. Marcion. it fought against heathen custom. Historia Ecclesiastica Geniis Anglorum. are eloquent documents on the various ways to put Christ's in which the Germanics and to demons attempted Church shame. convert the nations It —following Wherever in the footsteps of old Roman spread over Gaul and came to the Rhine. Christianity went out to civilisation. To Great Britain Christianity had come about 4»Ei-iQa from Asia Minor. time with higher splendour. although non bene honorat.— 122 YULE AND CHRISTMAS The new day of Christ's deification could only be successful in outshining X the old one if it was celebrated earlier than the old one and at the same in that direction. sicut Cerdon. III. jejunans in eodem die.." Acta Conciliorum. especially of those held in Gaul. Parisiis. sad honorare se simulat. chap. Celtic. in the course of the third century. col. as the main festivals of the new had a hard struggle with hard-headed Germanics. The Edicts their evil of the Councils of the Church. by proclaiming holy the twelve days between them. vi. and the Jutes it Christian tradition on British soil was not entirely interrupted. Saxons. and in the course of two other centuries won over almost the Western Germanics. ^ Beda. as the fourth century This was done as early by Ephraim the Syrian. the Twelve nights —and in the course of time becoming so popular that a thousand years later so for a relic great a mythologist as Professor Weinhold could mistake them centre at of ancient Germanic worship. and on the energetic ways in which the representatives of the right belief frustrated that audacious undertaking. 17 14. in whether Roman. or Germanic and pressing Christ's faith. et Priscillianus anathema sit. crossed the When some time later three heathen Germanic the tribes Channel — the Angles. and became bye and bye an ecclesiastical institution. : .

a Natalitio . Div.. 46). note " Quia ut saeculo et mundo moriuntur. whilst elsewhere the dies natalis of a saint : nascuntur" (Beleth. King Ethelbert of Kent. It tells of a manuscript by uninjured from Christmas to Easter: "Qui videlicet libellus. and if it honour of the one God took the shape of offering and feasting. with an Introduction on early Irish Church History. videlicet. 79.' y THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST seems not to have specially the Great sent the first 123 flourished. p. dicite ei. Columba which remained in the water Domini usque ad postea repertus" (Ibid.. Compare Fowler's book. Oxford. letter of Pope attached the principztl^ weight to the celebration of the proper that in sacred days^ however heathenish the customs might be of which only that what so far had been in celebration consisted. in the They were kindly The ancient December 25. and was supported by worldly dining and drinking..^ From the the famous Mellitus in Britain Pope Gregory the Great to the Abbot we know that. the story was told the same Venerabilis Of course. It was in 592 that Pope Gregory Roman if missionaries to Britain. cannot have had any celebration of Christ's nativity on So the first celebration of that festival. his fellow-missionaries. chap.) " Cum ergo Deus omnipotens vos ad reverentissimum virum fratrem nostrum Augustinum episcopum perduxerit. Epistolam ad Ecgberctum una cum Historia Abbaium. Tomus quid diu Prior. 124. received by . the evidence is lacking that Baedae Historiam Ecdesiasticam Gentis Anglonim. and a Glossary by J. this case life-time.d. 521-597) (Adamnani Vita S. consisted.e. is the day on which he died. T. ix. Clarendon Press. Notes. mecum de causa Anglorum cogitans tractavi . . it must be assumed. who was to be their bishop they should succeed.. Columba (a. two names it Natalitium Domini. knowledge of that in all probability. knows of Christmas as being one of the It great festivals of the Church. was bom into heaven. ita tunc caelo II. Historiam Abbaium. Columbae. Auctore critico : Anonymo ad fidem codicum historico instruxit Carolus 65 (chap. British Christian Church. xxx. p. was held in though we have no it Britain in 592 by Augustine and fact.. in way during Columba's 4). the word usually applied to the birthday of a saint being nativitas. 1894). . 1896. having sprung up second century from Asia 'Minor. p. manuscriptorum denuo recognovit commentario tarn quam Plummer. Fowler. and settled in Canterbury.^ ^Adamnan's Life of St.). so late as the end of the sixth century. edited from Dr. p. which belongs to the first half of the eighth century and to Ireland and lona. in If there was such a celebration. led by Augustine. quia fana idolorum . 2 Off. Paschalium consummationem dierum in aquis permanens Book i. Oxonii. the other being the Paschales dies (Ibid. a specially splendid mass. Reeves's Text. provided done honour of the heathen demons was now done of the heavens.

quae consuevit. Whilst up to about a. iam sacrificia ipsa col. Parisiis. quae supersunt Capita duo (511-558). in Quia. . est. tabemacula sibi circa easdem ponantur. multa sacrilegia in populo fieri. It was. praeciperet etsi . altaria construantur. ad loca. quae ex fanis commutatae . III. necesse est. at least. debeant . altogether. ut eis in suo sacrificio amitteient. ut dum gens ipsa eadem fana sua non videt destrui. eis sacrificiorum quae diabolo solebat exhibere. missionaries. cor mutantes. et religiosis conviviis sollemnitatem celebrent nee diabolo iam animalia immolent. Vol. duris mentibus simul ad interiora gaudia esse facilius valeant. after that date they start a struggle against heathen festivals and heterodox usages practised on the to have succeeded of the Church. quae in eis sunt. and to interdict them wherever they might occur. essent. se Sic Isiaelitico populo in usus. apparently. Regis Constitutio sive Constitutionis I. aliqua exterius gaudia reservantur. and new Church customs. non 334. in cultu proprio reservavit. Capitularia Regum unde Francorum." Childeberti Acta Conciliorum. de ramis arborum satietate faciant. aliud de sacrificio ut ipsa essent animalia. 550 they fight against the participation of Christians in heathen festivals. sunt.. quorum illic reliquiae ponuntur. non dubium sed tamen quia et summum locum ascendere gradibus vel passibus. et ad laudem Dei in esu donatori suo animalia occidant. debet eis etiam hac de re aliqua sollemnitas immutari . 1714. A second stage is it evolution festivals on Germanic ground that the first Church began to combat the very same native customs which to its had drawn new stage festivals. Nam qui omnia abscidere impossibile nititur. non autem saltibus elevatur. according to the letter Pope idola destrui in gente minime fiat. Aegypto Dominus quatinus quidem innotuit . afford Of that also the Edicts of the Church Councils abundant proof. eis et omnium de sua gratias referant consentire . animalia immolare aliud retinerent . familiarius concurrat. reliquiae fana eadem bene constructa sunt. or. destruantur aqua benedicta si in eisdem fanis aspergatur. ut die dedicationis.d. just for purpose that those festive days might be celebrated. Boretius. 2: "Ad nos querimonia processit. et Deum verum cognoscens ac adorans. seems to have been less successful. de corde errorem deponat. This second attempt. however. vel natalitii sanctorum martyrum. Et quia boves solent in sacrificio daemonum multos occidere. ut dum is. vero tamen Deo haec ^ et non idolis immolantes. obsequio veri ecclesias. quae ofiferre consueverant.. much more to slowly.^ Just as.124 YULE AND CHRISTMAS So Germanic and Roman customs were drawn to those the festivals by the Christian at least origin. easier to induce those Germanic tribes alter the days of their celebrations than of to practise new usages eadem . partly of Oriental heathen were introduced in order to belonging to of Christian compete with the native custpms in that originally other days of the year. sed ipsa. ut a cultu daemonum Dei debeant commutari .

Quicunque post commonitionem sacerdotum. the very used for festivals new religious community were constantly celebrations according to ancient heathen Germanic customs. ed.. pauperibus reddat: matriculae ipsum lineo votum. p. and v. " Non licet in ecclesia choros secularium vel puellarum cantica exercere nee convivia in ecclesia praeparare. nee pervigilias in festivitatibus sanctorum facere vel et nee inter sentes. col.. ed. 578. aut homine conditiones. scurrilitate. fieri nee v..^ and so late as the beginning of the ninth century the repetition of an interdict of that habit was thought expedient. xxi. Hannover. in Concilia cevi Merowingici.. 445. Frid. Canons iii.THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST Gregory to Mellitus. nee in Natali Domini. vel adveniente die omnia. sacrilegia ista perpetrare praesumpserit. in III. xix. " col. : ix. in Concilia cevi Merowingici. sanitatem." : Statuta Bonifacii. et populus per peccatum declinet ad mortem. sculptilia [sub tilia] aut pede. penitus praesumat. : " Canon sed aut Non . ad fontes vota exsolvere : quicumque votum habuerit. Maassen. i^o " Non licet in ecclesia vel puellarum cantica exercere nee convivia in ecclesia praeparare. quia scriptum domus mea domus 2 orationis vocabitur. decantare videantur. Cotuilium Autissiodorense. 212: "Valde omnibus nuscetur e«se decretum. chap." ^ Acta Conciliorum. chap. Vol. ne per dedicationes basilicarum et aut festivitates martyrum ad ipsa solemnia confluentes obscina turpea cantica. centum ictus flagellorum ut suscipiat iubemus si vero reliquis festivitatibus. : ingenuus aut honoratior fortasse persona in est. dum orare debent aut clericos psallentes audire cum choris foemineis. quas in honore domni Martini observant. turpia quidem. manducare]. Canon Omnino et inter supradictas pervigilias. nullatenus fieri permittimus. in vigilet. "Non in ilia vigilia paschae ante horam secundam noctis post vigilias perexplere. in [nee III. it 125 was the policy of the Church to change the places of heathen cult into places of worship of the God old of the Christians. licet compensos domibus ecclesia propriis. 444. etiam in ipis sacris diebus Pascha. districta inclusione digna. omnimodis prohibet. licet mediam noctem Jbid. licet Vol.^ Certainly Professor Koegel Deus laedatur. dansatrices per villas ambulare. choros saecularium est : Maassen. Noctes pervigiles cum ebrietate. vel canticis. nee in reliquis solemnitatibus." . Parisiis.. bibere A. : 1 7 14. aut ad arbores sacrivos. vel nostmm praeceptum. P- chap. quia nocte non iii. et Dominico. the to new have Christian churches are for expressly and more than once reported the Celtic been used celebrations after and Germanic manners.^ of the Nay. Hannover.D. Haec unde Deus agnoscitur laedi. Frid. Sunt hi autem valeat poenitentiam redigendi cruciatus : ut qui salubria et a mortis periculo revocantia audire verba corporis contemnunt. Canon xi. 1893. si servilis persona est." ' saltern eos ad desiderandam mentis reducere Council of Atitun (573-603). 1893." Council of Chalons-sur-Sadne (639-654). Natale Domini.

607 (Preuso-Theodorean Penitential). Kirchenhistorische Anecdota. !•> P. choros tenendo ac ducendo. Rudolph Koegel as late as 1894 maintained that Christmas and Easter were originally Germanic festivals {Geschichte der deutschen Literatur bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters. Christiania. 813) . 1871. 188. Easter. Ibid. Strassburg. Oxford. 376: 'Sunt quidam. qui fastis quibus ac sacris diebus atque sanctorum nataliciis non pro eorum desideriis advenire. . on the state of the Northumbrian 734 (Haddan and Stubbs. Christmas.. Boretius. 176. Benedictus Levita. (among the Saxons newly converted). the sixth century Sundays and the two greatest ^i Church — Christmas and Easter — at which processions after the in It is ancient Celtic and Germanic fashion apparently were very frequent Church had a certain liberty. in Leipzig. balando I.^ /Among these Church festivals used for popular festivals of the rejoicing were. Bishop of York. Scriptores. Domini et Epiphania et Pascha festivals sacrosanctis praesumant * mentions even. and Pentecost — or. III. Indiculus Superstitionum: De Sacrilegiis per ecclesias p. 96. IV. of oourse. 25.. ut hi qui inter religiosiores esse videntur. VI. by Wasserschleben. Wasserschleben. non vi^hich nisi was written a. which had appeared time. and Pentecost were absolutely fixed previous to a contact of the supreme authority in the ^ Geschichte der deutschen Literatur bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters. as the three of the mysteriis communicare Church most popular in his and Easter. advenire procurant. 1883.. Bussordnungen der abendldndischen Kirche. the to be admitted that. Regino von Priim.d. similitudinem paganorum peragendo.— 126 YULE AND CHRISTMAS that these days of saints is wrong when^ he expresses the opinion were just the ancient Germanic festive days on which people continued their old practice of worship.'" ^Beda's Church. Easter. p. 2 Professor Koegel. 1894. has put together a at Christian festive days : number of further evidences of heathen practices "Caspari. 179 (Council of Mayence. pp..28). p. in Monumenta Germaniae. Strassburg. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. sed et debent delectantur verba turpia decantando. Christmas. but that part of his book was printed before he had come to know my own Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht. although very the Gaul of the early sixth century. as they run in the Western countries from the middle of the fourth century."* the saints' days.. 323: "Quod videlicet genus religionis. p. Capitularia Regum Francorum. in Natali "). ac Deo devotae sanctificationis tam longe a cunctis pene nostrae provinciae laicis per incuriam docentium quasi prope peregrinum abest. anything like a decisive influence over Church but the three Epiphany. et maxime mulieres. p. 2. 1894. 1893. Epiphany. ed. Letter to Egbert. tribe got festivals. in fixing many of them had definitely been marked down before any Germanic affairs .

^ Advent-tide was to begin on ^" Episcopus Sanctonensis. to notice that there was later Advent-tide. to According to a be written by St. have done! it He overlooks the world of tradition. to Biblianus. singular It does not seem to have occurred anybody what a number of if and unexplainable coincidences would had fallen have to be assumed. Gaul. Augustine of Hipporegius." now Saintes in the Departement Charente-Inferieur. was one of the make Christmas an important of forty after the Another was the institution it.THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST Christian to 1 27 Church with the Germanics. it What a poor religion would it it require to have been had influenced them no more than he supposes tales. Com- pare Potthast. was of southern growth. The means establishment of the JDodekahemeron. Church another and which pretends which competed with that of Gaul. life and the experience of and the human popular heart. date having been decidedly fixed under Germanic influence. of beliefs. above. and that all efforts its which the institutions Church made in order to bring home to the Germanic mind were of no consequence. which the religion of the cross gave them as an entirely unearned present. Wegweiser. and has some feeling that he does a work when he ascribes to our heathen ancestors all those creations of fancy. purpose of understanding the relation between Martinmas and the in the early It autumnal equinox. Bishop the of Santonae. to the each of these festivals on a 'day sancrosanct ! Germanics before their contact with the Romano-Christian world Professor Weinhold Christianity to somewhat underrates the power and influence of on the Germanic nations. letter and began on the autumnal equinox. living about 450. of of customs. p. . Germanische Erntefeste. The for the Advent-tide. of a preparatory tide days which immediately preceded and which gained ground middle of the sixth century. Pfannenschmid. patriotic called into existence. spreading from Gaul over almost the whole Christian world. with its beginning at Martinmas. 514. Numidia. To ascribe to Germanic heathendom whatever Christianity only in the is among the Germanic nations in modern by _ times means nothing but to assume that the Germanics were touched most superficial way. that It is important. 634. or the twelve holy days from Christmas to to Epiphany whicK was mentioned feast. is of Gallic growth.

III.D. Parisiis. ix. Advent-tide. 1871. et sacrificia quadragesimali debeant ordine celebrari.. cannot have been written before the middle of the sixth century. Theodore's Penitential. cannot be proved to have existed. It is clearly a falsifi- cation intended to supersede the Germanic term Martinmas by the Italian term of the autumnal equinox. beginning with Martinmas. the festive days of the Church into true dies nefasti of Roman strictness. though only within the small area of Puritanism. To be sure it was long enough — the three fasting- tides together comprising. annos peniteat. seems seldom to have been exceeded. The Judseo-Christian and also Roman conception of sanctifying festive days to refer to by dropping every kind of work was understood every-day life— to business and law proceedings only was made drinking. 452. for the toil of — whilst every allowance all. an entire third of a year.^ The became an It ecclesiastical institution was the policy of the Church to impress on people's minds its three great festivals by making each of them a gay time of worldly joy. as they did. et Dominicis diebus.^ 1 " Ut a feria sancti Martini usque ad Natale domini. In the seventh century. secunda. xv. nisi 16: and Ecclesiastical Doctiments. however. Oxford. 179. and by rendering their gaiety the more 4 attractive by letting them be preceded by periods of strict fasting. but the very contrary. "Si cum matre quis fornicaverit. Vol. above truth. et sexta sabbati jejunetur. before which date an Advent-tide." Acta Conciliorum. III. beginning with Martinmas. 1714. quarta. of which the Germanics knew nothing. and stating that the its beginning of the holy tide with the it equinox was more than beginning with Martin's burial-day. and dropping the old of the Catholic Church almost completely. September that being the day of the autumnal equinox. enjoyment of various kinds. Councils ii. I. which were extended to forty days each. and. col. even the worst sinners who had to do penitence for fifteen years were allowed to break their fasting on Sundays.. a space of time which. it for eating and In was not before the time immediately following the Reformation that another view was taken which turned. in the latter half of the sixth century. A.128 YULE AND CHRISTMAS 24. 581. It was the day of the conception of John in being preserved only expressly fitting a manuscript of the eighth century. because that Baptist. Concilium Matisconense." ... making it a sin to enjoy one's self festivals in any way on a Sunday. ^Haddan and nunquam mutet Stubbs. saints' Nor were the days times of penitence or fasting.

Nennius. ii. III.." Ibid. Muratorius.. II. ii. Sinodus " Tribus quadragesimis . I. 577. ' * 113. 117 (a. I. 569).. 3 and 25. 590) .d." Ibid. L.. 577) etc. p. ^ 704 the Strathclyde Britains adopted the first Roman A. Bishop of Dominicae Nativitatis quae hac prima indictione plus quam decem milia Angli ab eodem [Augustino] nuntiati sunt fratre et III. as to which it is. X. uncertain whether the third was Epiphany for or Christmas. however.." "^ Haddan and Ireland. V. iv. II.. prout virtus ^The mention occurs again and again. p. or ^ feasts of the four Roman seasons of the yearJ Haddan and it Stubbs.. Ecclesiastica. Baedae et Hist. following therein vii.. p. Deo propitio. tribus ^ Ibid. 262. ex Additamentis ad Codicem Burchardi. Stubbs. " Eo anno dubietas Paschae fuit. p. About the Easter dispute. inclined to regard as spurious.. et duodecim millia hominum baptizati sunt cum eo. Councils : and : '^ Ibid. P. p. and is Ecclesiastical Documents Relating it to Great Britain and Oxford." Ibid.. Tur. Vol. Oxford. Eadguin vero in sequenti Pascha baptismum suscepit. 731).. in his Dissertatio de Jejuniis I Quatuor Temporum." I. "Tres quadragesimas.d.D.d.. who.. no. Councils III.. IV. ii.D.7S> " Placuit itaque.D.. 569). ut sanctum Pascha secundum Concil. Aurelian.. 114. Hist. permitted : Per quadragesimas superaddat aliquid. however.. 1871... : ..." Documents. Easter. Greg. . Vol. "Tres quadragesimas.. Letter by Gregorius to Eulogius. and II. Baedae Historica Ecclesiastica.d. Ibid... Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland^ Oxford. 616 and 627." THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST As first 129 far as I am aware. : " Quadragesimam .^ Between 597 and A.. "In solemnitate autem coepiscopo nostro baptizati. 28: " Dominicum paschae diem.. quadragesimis. 2 Whitsunday and Easter are a. is I. 15 : "Quo tempore plurima pars Scotorum in Hibernia. Oxford. : xvii. 26. 77 (A. p. Can. II.d. 570. 6. ii. rationabile Ecclesiastical tempus Domino donante suscepit. Aquilonalis Britanniae.d. ® nonnulla etiam de Brittonibus in Brittannia.^ the first mentioning of Christmas taking place in 598. 446. the first time mentioned between a.. Vol. 124 (a. the three Quadragestmae occur in Britain for the time shortly before a. 52 (after Mansi. Excerpta quaedam de Libra Davidis. 604 Gregory is said to have given the English a rule on the Ember Feasts. xi. : '' : 118 (a. III. 541. laterculum Victorii ab omnibus sacerdotibus uno tempore celebretur" (in Armorica). i." II. EccL. 124.^ The mention of them without any specify- ing remark presupposes a general establishment of the three great Church festivals.. compare Beda. p. 1871. I." ^Ibid. : Alexandria transacta est 12." " Quadragesimam duas quadragesimas.. in Praefaiio Gildae de Penitentia.* In Armorica the Easter is mentioned as early as A.. Ibid..d. Appendix: " Eanfled filia illius duodecimo die post Pentecosten baptismum accepit cum universis hominibus suis de viris et mulieribus cum ea. et ecclesiasticum Paschalis observantiae Haddan and Stubbs.D. V. 1873. chap. 1869. tres where to the penitent sinner admiserit. 17 (a.

182. hsese tholie his freotes Ibid.. annum peniteat si quis autem contempserit XLmani XL. King Ine's Laws. the same.. vigilia . scillingas to wite. ' Haec sunt jejunia. p." ^Haddan and annos peniteat. dies peniteat. aut vapulent. II . Domino dicente.. . xi. III. 196. se." . he frioh ..— I30 YULE AND CHRISTMAS rule That Gregory gave that of the eighth century. laborant sine Dominico die. Pentecosten . (2) Si quis autem in Dominica die pro negligentia jejunaverit.. Theodor.: "De moribus Graecorum et Romanorum. Si autem in XLma. Dominico ad tunc pro ecclesiam tantum... (3) Si pro Judaeus abominetur ab omnibus ecclesiis catholicis. Ibid.. 199.. Graeci vero dicta vespera capitis potest in est missa licet. Dei. eos Graeci prima vice arguunt. Laws of Wihtred (693-731). dies. 'Qui scandalizaverit unum de pusillis istis' et reliqua.D. (4) Si autem contempserit indictum jejunium in ecclesia et contra decreta seniorum fecerit sine diei jejunaverit.. sie ^Ibid. expleta et Domini. autumni et hiemis. "Gif theowmon wyrce on Sunnan-daeg be hyde [oththe hyd-gyldes]. id est. Oxford. As regards abstinence from work Sunday stood first.^ at least as regards chastity.. touching the Church (688-693. and se hlaford geselle xxx. III. " De his qui damnant Dominicam et indicta jejunia ecclesiae viii. 215. jejunium tertium in plena hebdomada ante autumnale aequinoctium jejunium quartum in plena hebdomada ante natale Domini. in curru pergunt nisi . VI. Gregorius genti Anglorum praedicari praecepit 449) : quatuor jejunia quatuor temporum anni . 9-11. et in consuetudine erit ei. tertia vice partem tertiam de rebus eorum.. manducant Romani. probably A. id est. XL." Ibid.^ p. III. tholie his Gif thonne se theowa butan his gewitnesse wyrce. exterminetur ab ecclesia.. (5) In die Romani dant servis suis vestimenta et ante Natale Domini hora nona. ed. p. . III.^ Of these periods the forty days preceding Pasch were reckoned the holiest. viii. No. xx. III. coenant. " {2) is Vir abstineat se ab uxore XL. secunda toUunt aliquid ab eis. si secundo. nee balneant necessitate seorsum in (2) Graeci in Dominica non scribunt publice (3) domu scribunt. diebus peniteant. sicut damnatione XLma. haec lavatio pedum. missa. [oththe sixtig scillhigas Gif thonne se frigea thy dsege wyrce butan his hlafordes and preost si twy-scildig] " ... neque (i) In Graeci et Romani navigant et equitant.. (2) : totam debet abstinere . aut si major festivitas fuerit. dies peniteat. sed consuetudo "^ Romanorum non : Dominica esse. . \^Ibid. Jejunium in feria sexta per totum annum nisi a Pascha usque ad Pentecosten. Sunt ' Jejunium primum in prima hebdomada Quadragesimae post . published in Cap. was at least believed in the English Church Prescriptions about the three fasting tides are very frequent.. 1871... 235. vel vii. ebdomadam Theodore's Penitential (668-690)." which prescription enlarged in another version by the addition "post Pentecosten una ebdomada" iii. si postea. aestatis. 693): his hlafordes hsese. XL." et in lexiva pedes lavare Ibid. veris. III. Wasserschleben. quae S. III. (i) Qui operantur die Dominico.. dies peniteat . jejunium secundum in hebdomada . III. . Comuils and Ecclesiastical Docu??ienis. 184. " Quis perjurium facit in ecclesia undecim i.. (8) Lavacrum xii. dies ante Pascha usque octavas : Paschae. 186. 56). panem non Graeci et ilia faciunt. (5) Si frequenter fecerit. Stubbs. 2: Qui vero necessitate coactus sit tres quadragesimas. Ibid.

D. fasting I. Christi 7 14. so long as he did not pass the limits allowed by the Church.. p. Oxford. especially as regards feasting at the proper times. 1871. 131 making the new their Germanic and the new Christian The Anglo-Saxons came had done to church dancing. 348. x. nisi ipse similiter faciat. ordained a celebration of Christmas. 732 and 766: " De Quarto Jejuni©: Quartum jejunium mense Novembrio a veteribus colebatur. . ^Thorpe. aut cantat. ab Episcopo aut presbytero aut clerico excommunicetur et. 1863. sive Ascensionis"). Haddan and Stubbs. et tunc plus non accipit quam decretum est a senioribus. as they at their traditional festivals. jejunans in anathema sit " ). Si Episcopus juberit. I. 1714. and there sang love-songs. col. II. Vol. 715-731) Capitulae. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. 725 {Acta Conciliorum. non nocet illi. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. nihil nocet.. III. neque in festivitatibus Dominicis Nativitatis. orationes in the amatorias. Vol. The same prohibition occurs as late as eodem die. juxta praeceptum Domini ad Jeremiam dicentis omnia verba. Die Bussordnungen der Abendldndischen in The same ^Haddan and p. Et factum est in mense nono. the Church was very excuse if liberal. 177. A." der Angelscuhsen. Dialc^ue of Egbert between a.." It was mentioned above that the Concilium longo tempore se abstinuerit. Gregorii Papae II. Oxford. Kirche. excommunicetur. 412. 95-96. Kunstmann. 177 : Liber Primus De Crapula et Ebrietate. III.D. probably written by Willibrord (690-693). sed honorare se simulat. Oxford.^ Otherwise. Die Lateinischen P'dnitentialbiicher and Wasserschleben.. 1871. III. propter resurrect ionis dominicae sacramentum. Domini aut in Pascha aut pro alicujus Sanctorum commemoratione faciebat. : Judicium dementis.d. quae locutus sum adversus praedicaverunt jejunium in Tolle volumen libri. aut saltat. iii. : "Si quis secundum camem non bene honorat. p. 561. et in consuetudine non aut pro gaudio in Natale Bracarense.d. (a. 1 on that day {Acta Conciliorum. 433. . of the ecclesiastical The state observance of Christmas among the people about Beda's time can be seen from several Penitentials contem- poraneous or almost contemporaneous. so that this it kind of thing had to be forbidden in England as had to be on the Continent. 1 87 1. III. : aut Apparitionis. dum paenitentiam non agit. Theodore's Penitential (a. 227...' Hac ergo : ' Israel et . expressly forbidding any Parisiis. 20 "Si quis in quacunque festivitate ad ecclesiam veniens pallat foris. " Ut dominicis diebus doceantur non licere omnino jejunare. Vol. et scribe in eo Judam.. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. Stubbs. Ancient Laws. et in Dominico about A. the Church had considerable difficulty in Christians see a difference between their old festivals. "(4) Si vero pro infirmitate aut quia erit ei multum bibere vel manducare.d. 668-690) regarded it as an a man ate too freely at Christmas.. col. conspectu Domini omni populo in Jerusalem. Natalem . Parisiis. III.^ ^ Haddan and Stubbs.2 THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST Nevertheless.

et in monasteriis. aqua jejunandus est." Ibid. ut supra notatum Et sextam feriam jejunet pane et aqua. et se fletibus et carnalis concupiscentiae consortio duodecim diebus cum quarta et sexta in sepulcro. a temporibus Vitaliani papae. non solum quarta et sexta et in plebibus. a vino. id sextam feriam. Ascensione Domini. ubi ante plures dies et continentia carnis et jejunia exhibenda sunt. piscem. sed etiam laici quasi legitima tenebatur. illius post Pentecosten in quadraginta dies. pane el aqua observet. Si habere non potest. et cervisiam bibat sed sobrie. Just as the forty days' fast preceding the Nativity was bound auctoritate Divinarum Scripturarum ecclesia catholica morem obtinet. et elemosinarum largitionibus. eligat unaquaque hebdomada. utatur In his supradictis diebus charitatem cum ceteris eodem following et cibo et potu quo sed tamen ebrietatem. aut pomis. et habetur. sabbato quarto. cervisiam bibat et in . . propter passionem Praeter haec namque II. Deo gratias. tertiam ante niissam Sancti et Joannis. et qui in illo Omnium Sanctorum. et sabbato. propter quod * * * * ipso die jacuit et plerique jejunaverunt. quatenus puriores Dominicae communionis perceptionem in Natale Domini perciperent. medone. et in si vult. mellita et abstineat. et tres quadragesimas ante Natale Domini unam. 65. ventris ingluviem semper in omnibus caveat. et tunc de pane et leguminibus siccis sed coctis. et olera. anni unius. Quod et gens Anglorum semper feria." Opei-um-. talis esse debet in quintam et sabbatum. Christi. et ab omni pingui pisce se Manducet autem minutos pisciculos. Michaelis. id est secundam reficiatur feriam sicco quartam est. diebus Dominicis. jejunet ad vesperam. et et sanctorum duodecim Apostolorum. tria Capitula Fragmenta Theodori 66: "Jejunia legitima et sunt in anno praeterea quadraginta ante Natale Domini. et orationibus. festivitate. et legumina. comedat. id . tribus quadragesimis jejunet est. illos quatuor dies et in Epiphania unum diem usque ad octavum diem Sancti illius . et vigiliis. isto " Poenitentia anni unius. Thorpe's Ancient Laws.. et in Natali Domini et in Pascha. et in Sancti faciat illi. constituta jejunia feria.. aut ex his tribus. et . sed juges xii.132 YULE AND CHRISTMAS Unwise regulations do not always attain the purpose for which they are to lead to made. ante Natale. qui in Tres dies. ut unusquisque fidelis praeparet se ad communionem corporis et sanguinis Christi cum devotione sumendam. ut duos dies. . Celebris id est. oleribus crudis unum est. quasi legitimum jejunium exercuisse perhibetur.. a caseo et ovis. episcopatu Christianis. cibo. si habere potest. in de sicco cibo comedat. et poma. non solum clerici in monasteriis. id est feriam tantum unius generis . et utatur. Et in tertium jejunet diem. et jejunium atque observationem in mense celebrat decimo. Et in his duos dies ad nonam in hebdomada." has to do the ' : ' In the second year the sinner of the same kind talis esse Poenitentia istius anni in debet. et et Pentecostes quatuor dies et in festo Sancti Johannis Baptistae. cum conjugibus et familiis suis ad confessores suos his pervenirent. II. propter advenientem venerabilem solemn itatem Domini nostri Jesu Christi . illius qui pane et aqua jejunandus pane et est. Theodori Dorobernensis Archiepiscopi ut inolevit in ecclesia Anglorum consuetudo. a carne et sagimine. et Sancti Remigii. secundam ante Pascha. et sabbato. Sanctae Mariae. dies in jejuniis. elemosinarum largitione mundarent. cervisia. Poenitentia unaquaque hebdomada. in plena ebdomada ante et Natale Domini consuevit. ordine observari debet. et Sancti Martini. et et Nam haec.

. II. 731-34). Excerptiones xxxviii. Qui autem in Quadragesima ante Pascha cognoscit mulierem suam. 68: "De illis qui jejunare in non possunt. Oxford. dies ante Pentecosten.. : Beda's Penitential. aut ante Natale Domini. et alias ante Natale Domini. II. et contineat se quadraginta dies ante natale Domini quartam et sextam feriam. et in Pascha usque ad octabas. dies poeniteat. ne XL. assidue oret. dies ante Natalem Domini. § 4. non vult a sua conjuge abstinere. abstineant se in iii. et in Pentecoste quatuor illos dies . et Pentecosten. Ecgberti Confessionale. ne Vll. solidos reddat. xxi... xvii. 12.. non communicaverint.. et non vult abstinere. III. pro uno anno. seu ante Natale Domini. Arch. et feria illi. I. viginti quem in et pane et Qui vero psalmos non novit.. aqua jejunare debet. ejus. tres primos annos tres dies in hebdomada. et quarta. et in Sabbato. feria quarta et sexta.. and Stubbs. et quatuordecim noctes ante missam Sancti Johannis. Domini.. : II. Si per ebrietatem vel aliqua oausa accident. . et reliqua ut supra. Qui vero in Quadragesima post Pentecosten. et et nesciunt quomodo poenitentiam unius anni. et jejunare non potest. Dominum. det pauperibus in eleemosynam ferias duos solidos. § 3. nee vii. catholici esse non credantur... Ancient Laws." "Uxoratus vel Pascha et omni dominica" (Haddan 1871. quidquid ori suo sit. redimere possint. vel XXVI. Deum 83. "Vir ser cum uxore ne coeat XL. quae legitimae sunt. sine consuetudine.. Councils Ecclesiastical Documents. et VI.. noctes abstineant se antequam communicent. Quadragesimas. et quadraginta dies ante Natale praeparatur in cibo. et omnem Dominicam and noctem. dies poeniteat. In istis quadragesimis. quadraginta dies ante festivitatem Sancti (et Johannis Baptistae ante festivitatem aliquid tribus remanserit. Liber Poenitentialis. et in Ascensione Homini. nihta aer aer Eastron. annum poeniteat. Wer ne haeme mid his wife XL." ^Thorpe. postea adimpleat. Ibid. XL. Qui in matrimonio sunt. XL." Ibid. 149. Capitula : : pauperibus dividat. omnes si sextas jejunet in pane et aqua. pretii sit." 81. ut oratio is apud II. et Pascha. eleemosynam eleemosynae restricted. et sexta quadraginta dies ante Pascha j viginti ante missam Sancti lohannis. et in Pascha usque ad septimum diem. II. vel in vel cujuscumque illius generis pretii illud aestimet in et quanti vel et esse possit et et medietatem roget distribuat ejus. Ecgberti. nee XL.. acceptabiles sint. § i. id est. vel suum pretium reddat ad ecclesias. viginti ante Natale Domini quatuor vero reliquos annos. id quadraginta dies ante Pascha. nihtum middan-wintra. feria secunda. "De Observatione Conjugatoram. dies ante Pascha. so the injunctions about the sexual relations for the same tide. Sinodus Agatensis " Seculares qui in Natale Domini. quem jejunare debent pane aqua. . et in Natali Domini.. postquam communicent." Christmas .i forty days were bound to have reactionary consequences in the holy et in Dominicis diebus. et iii. vel Ibid. 329." Thorpe's Ancient Laws." et The penitence for incest a little more Fragmenta Theodori: "Ut septem annos agant poenitentiam. et in Dominica nocte. THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST 133 gluttony at the festival. et in missa Sancti loannis Baptistae. et in Epiphania unum diem. Thorpe's Ancient Laws. pauperibus. et tres quadra- gesimas. II. nihtum Pentecosten. et I. est. potu. Uxoratus contineat se quadraginta dies ante Pascha et Pentecosten. Ex Fragmentis Theodori: " De temporibus quibus se continere debent conjugati ab uxoribus. Ebor. 103.

1838. fasting Councils and Ecclesiastical xiii. ). 3. looo." " of our Lord.". was suspended. 131. Mercia: . 135: "Secundo anno licebit homini [poenitentiam agenti] levare poenitentiam suam a Nativitate Domini ad Epiphaniam. . 127). King of Kent: "Actum anno Dominicae Incarnationis. apparently thought of rivalling the Calends of January by its newly-fixed birthday of Christ on December 25 to January 6. by the Council of Chelsea. p." in the Even so late as about A. or even the whole time from at which. Canons of Aelfric. pp. etc. p. 134. the time from Christ's Nativity till a week after Christ's Epiphany is excepted from Friday fasting." " of the Incarnation." as that. As to the introduction of the Dionysian computation. buton fram Eastron odh Pentecosten. Quapropter ego Oshere Rex. gebyrd-tide odh twelftan dseg. 10. xii.".. The Chronology of History. DCCLXXXi. II. 362: "And faeste aelc man twelf monadh selcne Frige-daeg.. itself. et a Paschate ad Pentecosten . Dccxc". the second King of Kent "Actum [anno] Dominicae Incarnationis. first and into France and England ** in the seventh. from the middle of the fourth century. Sir Harris gives some more instances from the eighth century..^ The Venerable Beda uses throughout this year —the year it of Grace. Oxford. London. was a festive and gay time. II : "De Documents." " of the Nativity. Egbert's Penitential. 429. . in penitenia non computantur. DCCLXXXVlli. On tham odhrum geare man mot lihtan his dsedbdte fram Drihtnes Haddan and Stubbs. p. qui supra scripti sunt. i. That new era was introduced into Italy in the sixth century. obs. from a charter of Ethelbert. The Chronology of History.. King of the West Saxons " Scripta : est hoc charta anno Dominicae Incarnationis. and from the charter of Egbert. Eighth Series. II. which Christ was supposed to be born. and eft fram middan-wintra odh seofon niht ofer twelftan daeg "). 421 Ninth Series. day of January the 753rd year of the it building of Rome. Vol. dccclxv.134 YULE AND CHRISTMAS the first Mn cance half of the sixth century Christmas received a new signifi- for the It Church by the foundation of a began on the in first new in era through Dionysius Exiguus. 132. and fram Eastron odh Pentecosten ").D.. even for sinners. was decreed that all bishops should date their acts from the year of the incarnation of our Saviour. etc. 1871. ^"Regnante in perpetuum ac gubernante Domino nostro Salvatore secula universa. Ancient Laws. Indictione sexta revoluta. A. id est ab Incarnatione Christi sexcentesimo octuagesimo. King of "Actum anno Dominicae Incarnationis. ^ Sir Harris Nicolas. 4. Ecgbert's Confessional and Penitential ordains this expressly (Thorpe's Aiuient Laws. natale Domini usque in Epiphaniam et illos praedictos dies. see Notes and Queries.^ Although the Church had. Anno recapitulationis Dionisi. the instance occurring in England belonging to the year 680.D. etc. III. 732-766. from a charter of Offa. although is is now generally admitted that that date wrong either by three or by five years. is styled in later centuries it —although it was so late as 816." {Textus Koffensis. just as the time between Easter and Pentecost (Thorpe. from the charter of Ethelbert.. "(Sir Harris Nicolas.

. app.d. 89. and the West of Germany gave the Church ample (569). 205.. taking March -25 instead. XL. The Council of Tours ( Bishop Caesarius of Aries it.. incipere possunt. 22. March 25 competing with January The earliest documentary evidence of the beginning of the year But even centuries at Christ- mas has been ^Mansi. I. Praktisches Handbuch der historischen Chronologie. in calendis lanuarii id est in octava natalis domini. consuunt et omne opus quodcumque . Zeitrechnung. later the Roman Coll. III. in his . 803. ed. Under and (1294-1303) December 25 was introduced i." Germany is the country which laid most stress on ^Grotefend.^ again.. I. c. "Civilis vulgaris et lunaris annus in calendis lanuarii 1025). Bibl. the biographer of King Conrad II. maintained through the whole of the fourteenth century. . 395). 1027. excluded from documents relative to them likewise. ( + 1039): "Inchoante anno Nativitatis Christi. rAs the economic year began civic year Martinmas the commenced on January its i all through the Middle Ages. in documents and accounts. ]aSk.. . IX. Rex Chuonradus iu Iporegia civitate natalem Domini celebravit. the struggle 135 was by no means fought through energetically or even consistently. which in France and Great Britain belong to New Year. ScriptoreSf V. Opera Augustini. xlii. "^ '^ stated to be of a. Zeitrechnung. style. 233. Benedict.. purall posely ignored that offices and.. p. qui ea sancta nocte nent. I. ..'^ century and Bonifacius the Church + 755)^ fought against But in the seventh made the very same day a church festival —a commemoration at day of the circumcisio domini. Bemold. The popular customs connected with the Calends of Gaul. The Papal Bonifacius Office used the beginning of the year at Christmas up till the middle of the tenth century.. having in it its hand almost the secular of princes. 1027. ^Grotefend. and is quite in keeping with that fact that even now "^ in Germany a great number of customs are connected with Christmas.. 265. In the fifteenth a new change set in. in the writing of Wipo.^ although letters the Church. Epistula. iii.THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST December January in 25. it Christmas as the beginning of the year. diabolo instigante propter novum annum the and an addition to a Canon of Pope Zacharias of 743 about incipiunt " same subject runs: "Vel aliquid plus novi facere propter novum annum. ^Grotefend. 'sive ( in his Chronicon [Momuiienta Gerinaniae. faciunt Burchard of Worms + Decretalia: " Fecisti quod quidam filant.! grounds of objection to the whole institution of that Pagan beginning of the year. Momitnenta Germaniae. says : 22. innovatur".* ( + 542). Scriptores. Italy. and publications. then VIII. V." Brinkmeier.'^ Cotu. Zeitrechmmg des deutschen Mittelalters^ 1891.

7. ^For the details.^ so that was dated on within the Church two styles rivalled each other: the Annunciation style and the Nativity style. who created the festival of the Nativity of Christ. and that style won considerable ground under the name of the Annunciation style. came in that the incarnation of Christ had begun with His con- ception.. The 25th December of the year o having a new era. 41. 43). . two hundred years later. London. had not thought of replacing altogether by it the Calends of January.^ The confusion thus arising was detrimental styles.. ^ Perhaps even Bishop Liberius. for both of which the name of both Incarnation style can be proved to have to been used. it was because endeavours were soon divided..136 YULE AND CHRISTMAS that Church used Roman beginning of the year for secular business. 22. Minutes of the Synod of Gnesen of 12^"]: "Annum autem a tempore circumcisionis domini.^ in If the its Church was not successful been made the beginning of achieving its purpose. for almost all matters in any way connected with be well the Church.. Zeitrechnung. It had been so transferred in Scotland in 1600 {Ibid. Dionysius Exiguus founded a new era on the year of Christ's birth. 23. it was only the logical con- ^ Grotefend. The Chronology of History. from which day the opening of the year was transferred to January i as late as 1753. p. it was by no means strange that But soon the consideration really that date also should begin the several years. Zeitrechnung.. December 25 was beginning of —however in it numerous may Britain as the as exceptions — the the year Great on the Continent. and sixteenth at last fatal to which in the i. 7. intelligimus computandum". Zeitrechnung. Church purposes. But when. prout tenet ecclesia. p. I. which March 25th of the year o.^ course of the century were completely beaten by January Never- theless through the whole Middle Ages. see in Grotefend's Zeitrechnung. which pra9tice was not followed by 1 than the fourteenth century. "Sir Harris Nicolas." "Grotefend. In the British Isles as was not before the of the earlier twelfth century that ecclesiastical March 25 was taken the commencement civilians year. 1838. Solaris secundum Romanorum traditionem et ecclesiae dei consuetudinem a calendis lanuarii sumit initium. and the festival of the annual recurrence of the date of that fact grew a more and more important ecclesiastical institution. I. Gervasius of Canterbury ( + 1208) : "Annus I. I. ^Grotefend.

and Germanic popular traditiopC . it became the most prominent day of the whole to the year. and soon it could no longer be imagined that there had ever been a time when it was equally to unknown Roman calendar. so that. for the clergyman of the seventh and eighth centuries. a fact by which Christ's Nativity again rose in importance. to the Christian religion.THE NATIVITY OF CHRIST 137 sequence that the year should come to be reckoned to begin with December 25 instead of January i.

the largest part was christianized and in one of monasteries there lived and studied a youth of not yet twenty. who was famous for his learning and the wide circle of his interests. : The chapter is headed De Mensibus Anglo- rum. he was estranged from the popular beh'ef and customs of his paratively little home for early enough less. and was could have been as good a Christian life believer as any Roman who spent his whole in the immediate neigh- bourhood of the holy See. probably. and showing an amount of classical and astronomical learning which is astounding. of a creed which led The passage bearing on our question is chapter xv. and brought up under the special care of Abbot Benedict. to the extinction of all Germanic calendar and ancient Germanic his life which Although he lived his life in a Northern English monastery. solely of facts gathered from various Latin and Greek treatises on similar subjects. BEDA. Christianity had come its to Britain. he was in almost as close contact with Greco-Roman learning as any Goth had ever been. Put into a monastery at the age of seven. and to whom we owe some was devoted. and to care relics them the the was taught to regard them as the unmistakably to eternal damnation. in his work De Temporum Ratione. to know commore he followers its about them. DE MENSIBUS ANGLORUM. extended from a.— CHAPTER XI.d. a book consisting. whose life. 673 to 735. most important statements about the ancient religion. ^ A of CENTURY it after Roman . and runs thus "But the peoples of the ancient Angles (for it does not seem to me . with the exception of that one chapter. the greatest genius of the early Anglic Church. Beda.

which preted as the month of Pasch. May. And their first month. their year from the eighth day before the Calends of January [Dec. winter and winter took to interpret full its Vuinter-fylleth. this moon. Vinter-fylleth November. they divided. Blot-vionath. October. they affixed the supernumerary month to the summer. so that then three months were called that year same time by having name of Lida. in the main. But when there occurred an Embolism. I take the trouble what the meaning of the names of the other months of the Angles. which is they offered to their gods. on which we now celebrate is And they then called that night. And when there was a common year. September. three months in each of the other Again. Thri-mylchi . Sol-monath -. with to winter. name from the moon. i. which the winter times began. re- and the January. to whom they sacrificed in it. December. as I it. which the Latins call called Giuii: \ is then February. Eostur-monath . those six months in which longer than the nights to be given to summer. DE MENSIBUS suitable to relate the yearly ANGLORUM silent 139 about custom of other nations and to be their that of my own nation) counted months after the moon's course. which i. because one of them precedes and the other follows in it Sol-monath can be called the month of cakes. whence the ceive their latter. BEDA. Rhed-monath called after their goddess is Rheda. was called Thri-lidi. the whole year into two seasons. because from the full name being composed of moon of that month if Neither is it out of the way.. and on that account four summer months. Eostur-monath.e. but the usual the seasons. at the a year of thirteen lunar months. Lida-.. now sacrosanct to us. Hence. night of mothers. . Haleg-monath Giuli. in the . they gave to each of the single seasons three months. April. according to the habit of the Hebrews and Greeks. is with the same name by which January called. among other things.e. Giuli get their names from the turning round of the sun towards the increasing of the day. is course. by a native word Modranicht. Vueod-monath . The months it. June. month Monath. was once called from their goddess now internamed .. suppose. the moon being called by them Mona. They began 25]. Lida August. Rhed-monath July. the other they called the month. same way. into that of winter and that of the days are six summer . because of the ceremonies which they performed in keeping watch all night. the birthday of the Lord. of beginning. March. namely.

quas in ea pervigiles agebant. because in kill. superfluum mensem sestati apponebant. 56. Vuinter-fylleth Vintirfyllithl . SolMaius. mensis Monath appellatur [apellatur Monath\ eorum mensis. Sec. partiebant : sex illos menses quibus longiores noctibus dies sunt aestati tribuendo.— 140 Eostre. Item [Iterum] principaliter annum totum in duo tempora. Blot-tnonath the month of immolation. because in each of the two months there is a genial serenity of the air is and the sea usually navigated. Blod-monath {Blotmonath'\ December. Primusque Si quidem apud eos luna Mona. et meae reticere) juxta cursum lunse suos menses computavere unde et a luna Hebrseorum et Grsecorum more nomen accipiunt. ThriMartius. quo hyemalia tempora incipiebant. 57. Lida Julius similiter Lida: deviations or additions are given in brackets. I. Scientific Tracts and Appendix. London. Leipzig. Giuli. once upon the nation of fertility Germany from which calm or Angles entered Britain. ubi nunc vocatur. XIII. mylchi [Thrimilci]: Junius. habens iv.. 1853. Eostur-monath monath Vueod-monath Augustus. et sestatis disest. Cum vero Embolismus. et ob id annus ille [ ] \thrilidus\ cognominabatur. from Jacob Grimm's Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. good Jesus. because these abound of worship. Veod-monath month of is tares. Antiqui autem Anglorum populi (neque enim mihi congruum videtur. the it Thri-milchi was thus called. Rhed-monath [Hredmonath'] Aprilis. 1843. Deinde Februarius. ternes ut semper temporum cseterorum. dicitur Giuli. Et ipsam noctem nunc nobis sacrosanctam. Lida is is called navigable. animals were in a time. matrum noctem appellabant [ ] ob causam Et quotiescunque communis ut suspicamur ceremoniarum. aliarum gentium annalem observantiam dicere. fylleth may be called by very is Haleg-monath a newly-made the month name it winter-full-moon. Thri-lidi ita ut tunc tres menses simul Lida nomine vocarentur. The pp. to YULE AND CHRISTMAS whom in it they celebrated festivals. because the domestic milked three times a day. who. menses sestatis. ternos menses lunares singulis anni temporibus dabant. November. Unde et mensem. Vuinter- much at that time.. hoc mensium lunarium annus occurreret. vocabulo Modranicht ^Modranehtl. Ed. tunc gentili natale Dominicum celebramus. or of For such was. quem Latini Januarium vocant. hast granted unto us to bring the sacrifices of praise I"^ Thee 1 Giles's edition of The Complete Works of the Venerable Bede. they devoted to their gods their to cattle which they intended to Thanks Thee. hyemis videlicet. The italics are mine " De Mensibus Anglorum. calling the joys of a new festivity we now name the by the wonted name of it an ancient observance. Haleg-monath Vuinter-fylleth [ Vintirfyllith'] Veodmonath"] October. turning us away from these vanities. of Britain. eodem quo Januarius nomine Incipiebant autem annum ab octavo Calendarum Januariarum die. but with the addition of the deviations from it in Grimm's text. : : : : : i September. who says expressly that he used several texts for forming his own. Vol.. [ : : : : : esset annus. id est. VI. sex reliquos [ hyemi. After time of Pasch.

nominatur Eostur-nionalh. hyeme et plenilunio. TriTalis milchi \trimilc{\ dicebatur quod tribus vicibus in eo per diem pecora mulgebantur. remarkable he divides his statement into two facts. which certainly have their as mind Beda's. but cannot in : any is He opens that part with the remark is " Neither out of the way if I take the trouble to interpret what the meaning of the names of the other months of the Angles. quia videlicet a plenilunio ejusdem Nee ab re est. consueto antiquee observationis vocabulo gaudia novse solemnitatis vocantes. alius subsequitur. bone Jesu. Vuinter-fylleth \VintirfyUith'\ potest dici composito novo nomine hyemeplenilunium [hiemiplenium].BEDA. speaks of the ancient Angles. examination. coming from so dis- Beda. qui nunc Paschalis mensis interpretatur. composito nomine ab mensis hyems sortiretur initium. Diis suis Blot-monath mensis immolationum. et cui in illo festa celebrabant. is not easy to take up the proper attitude towards tinguished a scholar as There it is no doubt that. quia unus eorum prsecedit. whilst feature of his report is some things he : may have seen Another parts. erat enim quondam Anglorum. Vueod-monath [FeodmonalA] mensis zizaniorum quod ea tempestate maxime abundent. sive navigabilis [navigabilis eo quod] quod in utroque [utroque illo mense] mense et blanda sit serenitas aurarum. One thing. it own. si et csetera mensium eorum quid significent nomina [eorum nomina quid significent] interpretari curemus. quas in eo Diis suis offerebant Rhed-monath ^HredmonatK\ a Dea illorum Kheda [//reda]. in the In the first he simply gives what he regards as plain his second he gives explanations or speculations of value as the opinions of so great a case count for more. vel Germanise de qua in Britanniam natio intravit Lida dicitur blandus." nos ab his vanis avertens. had the views and customs he ascribes it on the other hand. Menses Giuli a conversione solis in auctum diei. quia [quod] vovebant. quondam a Dea illorum quae Eostre vocabatur. deserves is most careful consideration and first sight. however. is clear at to When Beda But. but simply inferred their views from what he knew about the Angles of his own time. Gratias [gratia] tibi. older than he was. either from direct observation or from hearsay. nomina accipiunt. nomen habuit a cujus nomine nunc Paschale tempus cogno: : : . ubertas Britannise. there to have no reason doubt that he believed them to them. Solmonath dici potest mensis placentarum. cui in illo sacrificabant. is quite plain that he could not have any direct information about their beliefs and rites. Haleg-nionath mensis sacrorum." appellabant. So all the allowance that can be things he relates in his early childhood from people made is that he heard the who were considerably himself. and it. tibi sacrificia laudis offerre . et navigari soleant sequora. minant. DE MENSIBUS This is ANGLORUM it 141 a very strange record indeed. qui donasti. in ea pecora quae occisuri erant.

taken place. but that two other three-score-day tides have to stand between them. though. as in inserted. so as to cover December and January. but of a three-score-day tide. among the Goths. so that 15 to January 15. but only three-score-day a could not insert at all. the Angles havings no months. Julian When Beda. the pre- calendar. however. That exactly four months are between Giuli and Lida shows that no confusion has to us. the middle of the the This latter we have solved already by showing that the old Germanic three.142 YULE AND CHRISTMAS There is no doubt that Beda's record contains it facts of great antiquity. had a for common name June and to July. have been in use two hundred years tribe among Italy the Goths. Lida. liuleis then meant November and December. the basis of which was the to moon and earlier months. but. would as have inserted a whole three-score-day tide later just the Scandinavians objected to the insertion of a single leap day. which they had used before they came into contact with the Roman Giuli pre-Julian calendar. according to the Gothic calendar of the Bobbio ms. liuleis covered approximately time from November and was. and there would have been one Lida and a half.score-day tides began about Roman months. this intro- therefore was called Thrilidi thirteenth month state of things cannot be old. whole month was and the and that the leap year the third Lida. Besides. but till waited the past leap days amounted to a week. is new and we ought to be grateful to Beda for preserving it. but must be the consequence of the For Lida was not at all the duction of the pre-Julian calendar. difficulty and not December and January. shifted a fortnight backwards so as to correspond to Roman November and December. and not three Lidas. tides.e. The most and one they had striking thing in is certainly the assertion that the Angles. an Eastern Germanic living as far distant as from the Western Germanic Angles. Giuli and Lida. December and January. then inserting a whole . a tells us that in a leap year. namely.. and among the Angles a fortnight forwards. which means that for still some extent preserved the old three-score-day tides of Oriental extraction. had they inserted anything every sixth year. even about his time. the name for the middle of summer. we know i. month in a leap year.. name of a month thirty among the ancient Angles. so that days added would have meant only half a Lida.

probably. and thus characterize themselves as being late formations. it we have Beda's own word such was "the fertility was not a fact at all. so that the year always began with the same week-day. Perhaps even of them were still in use among the country population of the north of England. Thursday. a name which shows a fact it very suspicious parallelism for Thrilidi. However important a that the for it must be a tribe consisting of herdsmen and hunters cattle that. ANGLORUM 143 at a time. However much we owe Beda names of three-score-day ourselves the fact that tides. part to the calculation of the Christian Easter-festival. which is not a month-name at but merely the name date from which the beginning of winter Besides. of Winter-fylleth. scholar No now would ascribe any considerable age to the Germanic month- . together with plete Gtuli and Lida. for the preservation of those two ancient complete proof that the not the old. beside Giuli and Lida. but only a legend. and some ingenuity and perseverance might have sufficed to gather them. can be milked three times a day. DE MENSIBUS week i. which. It is.BEDA. indeed. One of them to called Thrimilci. a legend of a golden age in the far-away past. this looks rather like a counter- was supposed to be reckoned. not. put upon the and right track towards an understanding of the ancient Germanic that he did not take all possible trouble to find out the names of the other four three-score-day tides. or winter moon.e. three hundred and sixty or three hundred it and In his time should have been possible to ascertain all something about them. by existence of two names three-score-day tides. the beginning of which in common Germanic times. the fact that the winter. or of of Angles entered Britain. of Britain. not old. in his time. formed a com- Germanic year sixty-six days. year.. at the ! same time the beginning of the began in the middle of the month The remaining six month-names are compounds of manoth. right to express our regret that for So we have a Beda was year. to and would amount was. The are is eight month-names which Beda mentions. not too difficult to see that. of." A of a when Germany from which the nation second month is said to bear the ingenious full name all. we cannot conceal from the very names of those two tides amount to a other eight month-names which Beda mentions are Gtuli and Lida.

because these abound of cakes much at that time. mcedmonath for July . How Sol-manoth (February) should come to mean month resources. there being no such word meaning anything like cake in any Germanic language. professes that there were only no be month-names taken as in common Germanic of ?). March comes dangerously near to Lida for June-July. holy-month. and means something like Professor Weinhold says " I explain ebsturmonad simply as spring-month. which occur in almost contemporaneous them. notwithstanding Beda's dea Eostre. as manoth Beda apparently knows the right being Bldtmanoth (November). who is said to have name March. midsumor for June . since even Professor Weinhold. If February and March. ^ sedr- monadh. to Eostre comes from a root auzro.e. ^ Hlyda for . D. he says. literature. the insertion of a leap month would almost take place on the same date as it did in the pre-Julian calendar.144 YULE AND CHRISTMAS fact names. times. the month of immolation. or month resting name probably on a Christian foundation. That Beda's ^ King Vihtraed's Laws. Hlyda healic Menologium. or hearfestmonath for September. called after a heathen Doubts given a also entertain as regards to his dea Hreda. Latin aurora and Greek : -qm." to their gods their cattle which they intended to of worship. very i. where it was inserted into February. As regards the etymology of the other four. was impracticable in the highest degree. the month in which the Angles "devoted kill. these or. which cognate spring. are amongst Nay.^ Of the six month-names composed with etymology of only two. When he has exhausted all he takes refuge in the assumption that the names he cannot explain are names of is imaginary goddesses. of tares. local Besides. they can of representative a purely denomination months. in it whom I I do not believe. nobody can say. so long as has not been proved that the principal feast of the Church could be goddess. they contain scarcely a single month-name which appears a second time in Anglo-Saxon. 696.. That August should be called Veod-manoth. were Lida. of course. who has overlooked the that the Germanics received the institution of months from the Romans.^ nor hlyd-monath^ or hlyda for March . ^ Martius rMhe. or originally January 15 to March 15. Neither Rugern (August which we know from an even older source. A. 37." is very and a very poor explanation indeed. which. "month doubtful. he makes vague guesses. a and Haleg-mAnoth (September).

from the Romans. if in Hreda and Eostre names as of two old three-score-day tides were preserved. yet began at the winter solstice. 1869. the solstice. They can be little explained as Giuli or Lida {Hlyda). Whilst Beda knows of a dual division of the Anglic year. that. '^Ibid. tion by is quartered and equinoxes. although that tri-partition a fact warranted as well as any from Instead. into which now and then (presumably every year of the Julian calendar. p. and at another place he states. the Anglic year did not begin at the fell real solstice (which a. which is quite out of the their question. of course. common Germanic when solstice language possessed not even a term for nay. just as under the reign of the Roman pre-Julian calendar. which had in Beda's time become limited to the time of a month. which was bound to be familiar to him on the ground of the tri-partition is existence of the two terms winter and summer together covering the whole course of a year. Nor is this According to Beda's description. : His words practically amount to the following proposition description. he knows nothing whatever of a and the legal institutions resting on it. and his remark on Giuli" I. from what he said before. he gives us a descrip- the early history of the Germanic tribes. p. 24. as. since we not only know the Germanics began year in with the beginning of winter addition." I I observe. the Western Germanics had got the term and it meaning of solstice. regard Beda's explanation of Ebstre-monad as bad guesses. which solstices of the Roman third year) a whole intercalary month had to be inserted. according to his it own was a lunar that it year. they never used all for the winter but solely for June 24. and not at the winter solstice. 206). Halle. a statement which is the more extraordinary. it is quite plain that he thought the Angles had a lunar year of 354 days. p. K . means was not a lunar that year. but that.'^ 145 etymology is shown by solmonad month of offering cakes.d. all. should not wonder.. been uttered before by Leo.^ " at least. 701 at four o'clock in the morning of December '^ Die deutschen Monatnamen. and do not believe in Hredmonad and any goddesses Hreda and Ebstre (which doubts have. 4.BEDA. Whilst the Anglic year. through the Middle Ages. DE MENSIBUS strength did not as the lie in ANGLORUM his explanation of •. This. as Rectitudines.

so that we may conclude from this that it was not called Giuli. as he chooses to call it. and that. i Further. in were product of a strange old elements under the influence of the pre-Julian Roman ^ I owe all calculations about the real dates of solstices to Prof.. after He says that the Angles called December and January Giuli. were used within the neighbourhood of Beda's home in his own or his parents' time nobody facts. what he thought the bearing of the understand the bulk of his Anglic shifting facts. or at least names similar to them.146 YULE AND CHRISTMAS 18)/ but on December 25. though he all may he was told. Hermann Jacobi of Bonn. So if Beda means to say. and that from it December and January received their names (a statement. And the he was bound to mis- because he mistook them for ancient they customs. "the turning round of the sun towards the increasing of the day. and not have expressed subject. however. But he apparently received from those sources merely and no theory with them. a statement contradictory to the other statement that the Anglic months were identical with the Roman tide months. as he goes on to say that the day of the alleged solstice (to which he ascribes in one sentence the name Giuli) was called modraniht. fixed for the solstice. because one of them precedes Giuli and the other follows. of whilst. i.e. the date which Julius Caesar had erroneously When he comes to speculations confessedly his own. . and by no means the as a warranted fact). Such a mass of mutually contradictory not have understood absolutely facts cannot be explained by being ascribed to Beda's inaccurate observation and expression. The theory he must have formed out of facts. or interpretation. things as carefully as he might have done on a Christian dogmatic That the names he gives. the value of his statements becomes still more doubtful. to we know 31. will dispute. which he himself gives merely as his own supposition. he may without any hesitation be said to be wrong more so. consequently. night — of mothers. tended from about November 25 to January so that the first ended at December 25." This can only mean that the Anglic Giuli ex24. reality. December 25 was by no means the middle of it. that Giuli was originally the name of the winter solstice. that the Gothic liuleis tide extended from that the November December and common Germanic liuleis probably extended from November 15 to January 15.

which had been made Christ's birthday. e. neither the Parker MS. venturing even that the suggestion that originally that day was called Giuli^ and December fact that. or to Nativited. he year in the middle of it. one above the other. gebhhel-dcBg. the more strange. and if we bear this in mind all the seeming difficulties are elucidated. Original Northern Jul. iul are the forms appearing in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. DE MENSIBUS calendar. is called Yule in the three centuries which followed Beda's up to the eleventh century.BEDA. end of the eleventh century Jol. time there were four distinct layers. there is except in the Anglo-Saxon version of in no case known which December 25 life. And even then there are few Either the MSS. suspected. suggestion he was wrong. and day of December. Gothic Jiuleis is not and has absolutely nothing to do with A. geohol. or the original is is not preserved. and as the day of Christ's birth. appears from the himself. Romans leap month and the conception of months he mistook these things for a genuine Anglic growth.^ with the popular meaning of December * identical. hveol. and by the attempts of the So in Beda's Church to make the supposed night of the winter solstice. Whilst the observation of new moons their theory and full moons among their the Germanics had nothing to do with of the course of the year. of the Saxoti Chronicle containing giiil. English . Beda thought it had. midwinter's mass. Geohel. This state of things to. the beginning of the year as well. gebl. both as the alleged day of the according to the Julian calendar. Whilst the Germanic the Angles made begin their solstices ^Vhilst the Germanics knew nothing of and equinoxes. which was solstice his theory the 25th bound to be dear to him.g. and January had got That in this their common name Beda from it. of too late date. Whilst they owed to the altogether. ANGLORUM 147 followed by the Julian calendar. year began at the beginning of winter. But invariably by the calendar term midwinter. December it 25 is is frequently referred called in the Saxon Chronicle. When towards the 25. gebhhol. a single Yule. Beda based put into the centre of all his theory of the Germanic year on them..e. nor the Laud ms. i. Old Northern hvel. are or interpolations are as cases which are not doubtful for one reason or another.. in the popular notions about the course of the year.S. There is no doubt that Old Northern j6l.

which is assumed to have covered the time from December 22 to January 23. in the Germanic languages. I.. it is not a month-name at all. gehhol. and had shifted to December 25 the date of an old February festival. Halle. Vol. however. geohhol (Kluge. Grimm. 1 Mogk (Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. and Max Miiller. p. is of Babylonian origin. to do there with a relic of the same Oriental six-fold division of the year as among the Germanics. 4.. K. to ss. because masquerades. Professor 1891. very bold etymological attempt the is But. is YULE AND CHRISTMAS it apparently due to Scandinavian influence. where that word had mean Christmas through Hakon. and which he. Gottingen. but perceive that. 1862. 1844. The sari and sossi of ancient Babylon. p.Some at the basis of all. are the custom then. we have. 311 Deriving with Kluge {Englische Studien. 136. Vol. as Grimm's follower. Perhaps that institution. pp. and Anglo. so that the alleged analog)' with the Cyprian name which is by no means proved to have had anything to do with the Roman month of July does not even hold good. Englische Studien^ IX. the sixty minutes of the hour and the sixty seconds of the minute being perfect parallels to the sixty days of the tide. New Ed.. I. Compare Notes and Queries.. received at a time we should in case have to assume that it had been when Goths. Hermann. where the Roman influence was strongest. Uber griechische Monatskunde. p. and were on Germanic soil limited to Gaul and to the extreme west of Germany. Perhaps. Deutsche Jahrteilung. I. but the name of an Oriental three-score-day tide. King of Norway.. Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. 107).. gehhol. and. '78 and 106. is June!) was transferred to the time of the winter solstice fails to He is assumes that the Germanics did the same. IX. p. Northern Ger- manics. 311) and Bugge {Arkiv for Nordisk Filologi.Frisians spoke one language.148 sets in. at the beginning of January These usages were a Roman Calends-ofJanuary custom.202 ss. jSl. with the same name for November and December. pp. HI. Scandinavians. apart from the fact that I regard the establishment of a relation between joculus and *jeh%vela as a : mummery and masquerade called Yule. which lived in the sixty shekels to the minazxidi the sixty ?ninas to the talent. are contained in them. IV.. which in the course of time had come to be celebrated come to between January 9 and 14. as was shown above. Old Northern j6l )• is Geola. who reigned from 940 to 963.S. p. He further overlooks the fact that. is The saros. boldly derives from the month of July.. Chipsfrom a German Workshop. with the view of celebrating it on the same wheel'. from an original Germanic *jehwela. A. 64. 125) finds this denomination as the "gay festival" appropriate. are missing just where that time maintaining that the name of the month of the summer ! solstice (which. In some cases it is not clear which month is meant. 1894. The form of the Greek name varies considerably. Ninth Series. as the name this found among Goths. 1848. and Anglo-Saxons. consequently.. Fr. 15. Strassburg. as I suggested before. Deutsche Monatnamen. . — — like the whole sexagesimal system of notation. for the Anglo-Saxon word corresponding p. Professor Weinhold adduces the Cyprian term 'loi^Xios. or sixty. especially in the shape of animals. 135). and declaring with Bugge the latter as identical with Latin joculus. 1869. though the whole argument is based upon it (Weinhold. and elsewhere. London.

that on Sunday. dagas to Eastron ond vii. "Be Maesse Daga : . ordained Easter. when he says Let us not sing the liulos to Ceres." Christmas was to be held for twelve teen. festival days (freols). at composed about 888. apparently a single month. London. vel in Pascha. De Materia et Miindo. . Eallra haligra weordhunge anne forgifen . . in quolibet II.. Ymbren-wican . Jamieson. 149 In England the new term tury. under "Yule" ' : says: "Didymus and Athenaeus hymn was in honour of Ceres. " Sethe staladh 6n Sunnan niht. ond iiii. that mentions of it in Scotland become whoever very frequent. in Ascensione Domini. 92. Oththe hie on senegum hiora hwilsticcum geearnian msegen. eorum volumus dupliciter emendandum St. Wodnesdagas on Dheowum monnum eallum sien tham the him leofost sie to sellanne seghwset thses the him senig mon for Godes noman geselle. 64. Aej/SaXiSas Teuxot^c* faXas ^etSej/ loi\ov% (preparing the salted flour she sang the pleasant luloi). . : Ancient Lmws. v. Vol. hserfeste tha fullan wican ser Seta Marian maessan ." . ond nil. p." and the same thing is intimated by Theodoret in his work..: "Qui furatur die Dominica. whilst Easter was held for four- Mary-mass was celebrated. The stole laws of King Alfred. Thorpe's Freolse Eallum frioum monnum thas dagas sien forgifene butan theowum mannum ond esne-wyrhtum Etymological Dictionary assert that the of the Scottish Language." ^Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Lnstitutes of England. a I. oththe on Gehhol oththe on Eastron oththe on thone Halgan Dunres dseg on Gang-dagas thara gehwelc we willadh sie twy-bote swa on Lencten-fsesten. should ^ be fined twice as much it as he who stole at other times. nor the ' Dithyrambos to Bacchos. DE MENSIBUS ANGLORUM day as that on which the Christians celebrated the birth of Christ. 1840. p. vel in Sancto die lovis. Still more uncertain to\i\o% : is the connection of Giuli with the name of a Greek Song or exclamation. set .. but the time about that day in so far as proclaimed holy by the Church. vel in sancto Natali. it so that is only in the fifteenth. . dagas on Gehhol ond thone dseg the Crist thone deofol oferswidhde ond Scs Gregorius gemynd-daeg .. sit. sicut in quadragesimali jejunio. .: BED A. shows a decided narrowing of the old term which once covered a tide. or at or on Holy Thursday. which would not be longer than twelve nights. or Christmas. but it does Lessons of Antiquity. . I. Here on Gehhol apparently does not was mean So it the day of Nativity." dseg . later. ofer ond an dseg ast See Petres tide and See Paules ond on in the harvest. and whole week before xliii. . 450 (Alfredi Legum Versio Antiqua) v. Thorpe's Ancient Laws. . for Christmas became popular in the twelfth cen- but in Scotland not before the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Vol. or on Rogation days. three-score-day and. or during Lent-fast. .ond.



mean December 25
alone, a sense which

not yet

does not seem to have

reached before the eleventh century.^
It is the

same thing with the


documentary evidence of





term also means the holy tide about Natale Domini.
the Confessor's writ of privileges to the

occurs in



of Ramsey, co. Huntingdon, ^


Unfortunately of the four manuscripts which contain Aelfred's laws, three are of the
century and one


of the






Museum, Nero EI

belonging to the end of the tenth century, and the Textus Roffensis to the twelfth century
(Wijlker, Grundriss zur Geschichte der angelsdchsischen Literatur, Leipzig, 1885, p. 399).


cautious one has to be in order not to take later expressions for

older ones, the

following example

may show,



later manuscripts replace

middan-winti-a by geolum

and Ares Dryhtnes



note added to Theodore's Book of Penitence {Liber
46, cap. xxxviii.,

Poenitentialis Theodori Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis Ecclesiae), ed. in Thorpe's Ancient


England, London, 1840, Vol. die ante Natale Domini hora nona expleta missa,
Institutes of



id est vigilia

Laws §14: "In ilia Domini, manducant Romani
customs of the

Grseci vero dicta vespere missa coenant," mentions the different


and Greek churches as regards fasting on Christmas eve, without giving any particulars about what is to be done. Whilst the Greeks eat not before six p.m., the Romans take food after three p.m.; and Ecbert's Confessional and Penitential (Cotifessionale et Poenitentiale Ecberti,

Archiepiscopi Eboracensis) ed. in Thorpe's Ancient

Laws and


of England, London, 1840, Vol. II., pp. 162, 163, gives details about the fast time before Christmas: " Legitima jejunia tria sunt in anno; unum pro omni populo, ut illud XL.
diebus ante Pascha,

cum decimam partem annuam



et illud

XL. diebus ante

Natale Domini,
post Pentecosten


totus populus pro se orant, et orationes legunt

et illud XL. diebus

swa that XL. nihta and that XL. nihta aer geolum thonne gebiddedh hine eall that werod fore and orationes rasdadh and that XL. nihta ofer Pentecosten." Instead of "geolum," which is the reading of O, Y has " middan-wintra," and Bx has "ures Dryhtnes zebyrd-tide," while X and Y add the following On tham serran dasge set geolum [Y, middan-wintra] aet n6ne sidhdhan msesse bydh gesungen. heo gereordiadh Romane. Grecas to sefenne. thonne aefen bidh gesungen and msesse thonne fSdh hi to mete." Of these O is a small folio MS. of Corpus Christi, C.C. 190 (L xil); Y is a small narrow volume of the eleventh century, Bodleiana, Laud, F
syndon on geare an
ofer eall folc


foran to Eastron


we thone teodhan

sceat thses geares lysad










A.D. belonging to the Bibliotheque des
to his custom,

a tenth century octavo MS., Corpus Christi, 265 (K 2) ; X is a MS. of about 1000 Dues de Bourgogne ; O, which Thorpe, contrary
has wisely abstained from dating, belongs to the twelfth century, and

said to have been given to Exeter Cathedral
'''John Earle,

by Bishop



Hand- Book

to the



other Saxonic Documents, Oxford,

1888, pp. 344, 345.



but preserved only in

15, a twelfth

be dated between

1042 and


century manuscript.^


Cottoniatia, Otho. B.,


XIV., f. 257 : "inne lol and inne Easteme and inne dha hali Gangdagas.," " in natali dominico, in pascha, et in sancta hebdomada rogationum."

In the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland for the years 1264 till 1359 {Rotuli Scaccarii Regum Scotorum, ed. by J. Stuart and G. Burnett, Vol. I., 1264-1359, Edinburgh, 1878), the word "Yule" never occurs; while in the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scot-

land from 1473


1498 (Compota Thesaurariorum

Regum Scotorum,


by Th. Dickson,

1473-1498, Edinburgh,


mentioned many times.

Even very much

Yule by no means referred to Christmas day exclusively, but to the whole season. The History and Chronicles of Scotland, written in Latin by Hector Boece, and translated by John Bellenden, Edinburgh, 1821, Vol. II., p. 340, Lib. XIII., chap. xiv. (under King Alexander II., A.D. 1222) " In the third yeir eftir, the Erie of Caithnes come to

king Alexander, quhen he wes sittand with his modir, on the Epiphany day, at his



desirit grace."

HoUinshead, in

his Scottish Chronicle, in

even says (under A.D. 1222):


which he followed Bellenden, King Alexander with his mother Eymingard were

on the 12th day in Christmas, otherwise called Yule," etc. Instances from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, of Yule as identical with Christmas,
at their



"Till Auld Meldrum thai yeid thair way,


thar with thair


logyt thai,

Before Yhule

ewyn a nycht but mar


thowsand, trow

weile thai war."

Barbour, IX., 204, MS. (+ A.D. 1375).


a Yhule-ewyn alsua

W)rttalis, that to the


suld ga

Ingland, that at Melros lay,
rycht stowtly in the way."

He met

Wyntown, VIII.,
spelling in the last quarter of the fifteenth century


39 (+ circa a.d. 1430).

Yule, Ywle, Yole, and


Compota Thesaurariorum Regum Scotorum, Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of land, ed. by Thomas Dickson, Vol. I., 1473- 1498, Edinburgh, 1877: Yule, p.




Yole, p. 239 ; Yowle, p. 245), and the term was used as identical with P. 17, "fra Pasche to Yule," from Easter to Christmas; p. 99, again Ywle, a

short time before Christmas; p. 239 gives quite a number of points of time, from "the VIII. day of November" and "Sanct Martinis day" to "Sanct Nicholas day" (on which

"tua Sanct Nicholas bischoppis" appear who receive "xxxvi. s."), "Sanct Androis day," and "Yole," the festival at which day is called "the Kingis Yole." We find there the

terms used:

"upone Yole day"; "Sonday


Yole," and


240) simply "eftir Yole."



"on "on

240 also occur "vpone Newger daye" and "on Vphaliday"; Candilmess day," "on Sanct Patrikis day," "agane Pasche,"
Pasche day" (twice); and

while p. 241 has

"before Pasche,"


"vpone Sanct James daye," "vpone Sanct



Beda's report contains another item which must be touched upon.



the ancient Angles

"began their year from the eighth day before

the Calends of January, on which

we now

celebrate the

birthday of the



they then called

that night,



sacrosanct to

by a native word, Modrantcht,
of the

night of mothers, as I suppose because

ceremonies which they performed in

keeping watch




the attitude one may take up towards Beda's etymologies


about the course of the year, there

no getting over the

of the

word modrantcht being applied

his time



a word which







night of mothers.

This word has been the centre of



and the object of a number of very divergent
thought of the mothers of Heimdallr, of





Scandinavian poetry

us; others thought of the mother of gods worshipped by a Germanic
according to Tacitus


others of a


belief in a newly-born sun.



these suggestions have lately been driven into the background by

another theory started by Professor Eugen


of Leipzig.



Beda's word to refer to the Matronae of Romano-Germanic inscriptions.

As a family name Yule (Yole) appears Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, Vol. IV., 1406-1436, pp. 411, 621, 675 and elsewhere. Item, In 1494 at the Royal Court of Scotland some timber was bought from Jonete Gule. for III.** burdis fra Jonete Gule III. li. XV. s. {Cotnpota Thesaurariorum Regum Scotorum,
Michaelis day," and "the vi. day of Nouember."
in the

Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, ed. by Thomas Dickson, Edinburgh, As late as 1636 datings occur like " decimo tertio die mensis Januarii 1877, p. 252).


lie twentie day of Yule" {Charters and other Documents relating to the City of Glasgow, A.D. 1175-1649, Part II., edited by Sir James D. Marwick, Glasgow, 1894,


386, "Charter by

King Charles

December 25

to the exclusion of

from A.D. 1535 is, e.g., of Edinburgh (A.D. 1528-1557), Edinburgh, 1871, p. 71: "It is statute and ordanit [be] the provest baillies and counsale that all nichtboures within this towne, merchandis and
craftismen, as thai ar of power,
till furnis cortise till pas and convoy the provest fra the awin hows after evin sang in the haly dayes of Yule, New Yeir day, and Vphaly day, vnder the payne of xviii. shillingis to be tane of thame that wanttis cortise, and at every deykin haif power till poynd his craft for the samyn." ^"Matrem deum venerantur Aestii; insigne superstitiorum formas aprorum gestant" (Germania, chap. xlv.).

I."). The cases in which Yule unmistakably means any adjoining days are very rare and veiy late. A case the following taken from Extracts from the Records of The Burgh









identifies with

Old Scandinavian



to a cult of the


about that time of the year.^

He, besides, takes Beda's name modra-nicht

as a collective singular denoting a

number of


a whole holy
souls of







female genii of



deceased, whilst

Beda decidedly speaks of a

single night only.




goes so


one may go

In classical literature even there


mention of

deities called the Mothers.

us^ that the town of

Engyon, of

was celebrated


appearance of goddesses


were called the Mothers.
rather frequently in
into close contact

Such Mothers, mostly three

number, appear


Germanic countries which had come

with the

Romans, while they

lacking entirely


Scandinavia and Iceland.^

Professor Mogk's opinion

untenable, because

^In his Mythologie

in Paul's

Grundriss der gervianischen FAilologie, Strassburg, 1891,



his Marcellus, chap. xx.


^Dr. CoUingwood Bruce, in his Handbook


Roman Wall: a




traversing the Barrier of the Lower Isthmus, 3rd edition, London, Longmans, 1885, says

"It may be well p. 155 s. good mothers whose name

also to

mention that the worship of the Deae Matres the was not lucky to mention, was much in vogue with the
with the Gothic portion of the


of a later age,


Roman community.
in the

Several statues of them have been found here
the previous page {155), are

two of



woodcuts on


preserved in the


of the

Newcastle Society of


figures usually occur in triplets."


201 another statue of one
represented by Dr.

of the Deae Matres

mentioned, which was found at Birdoswald, the Amboglanna of the

Romans, the twelfth

station of the
p. 202.

Roman Wall

of England.



Bruce in a woodcut on

while the head was presei^ved in

The body of the Museum

the figure was, in 1885, kept in a farmhouse,

of Newcastle.

Other examples are contained

Corpus Inscriptionutn Britannicarum, Vol. VII., Additamenta quarta,


No. 844, a stone of Camulodunum now kept in the Museum there. It has the inscription " Matribus Sulevis Similis Atti f(ilius) ci(vis) Cant(ius) v(otum) ](ibens) s(olvit)." Another












Domesticis vs m.


(found in St. Mary's Convent, Eburacum).





same group,


perhaps even

Nos. 980 and 992, 993, "(Mat?)ribus com1017

(munibus?) {p)ro salute de(curiae?) (A)ur(elii) Severi," because there
devoted, "Matribus Com(munibus) " (1032); 1054, "Matribus
of an altar having the inscription,
. . .


another stone

ntius," 1081

" Matribus



; apart which shows the

"Ma," "SA" may

be attributed to Mars as well as to the Matres.


the most important inscription



O(ptimo) M(aximo) Tarami Belatucabro

at which the married ladies of Hill to Rome the went to of Esquiline the temple of Lucina —celebrating festival matrimony. Fasti. Deabusq(ue) C(um) verius Trib(us) Coh(ortibus) Britonnficus) V(otum) III. and by no means Whilst he elsewhere clearly case refrains object of veneration. it may assume is certain that he has not properly read Beda's words. or having as their chief constituent something maternal or referring to the natural functions of mother- hood. the Calendae Feminarum. There is only one explanation tenable acter. could. Customs of that kind are certainly found in the Roman Matronalia and in the Calends-of-January customs on the banks of the Rhine. introduced by the words "as suppose" {ut suspicamur). so he ascribes the name modranicht to the states which were performed. a certain deity. S(olvit).'54 it YULE AND CHRISTMAS on the assumption that there rests once was a Germanic dead facts festival about the middle of winter. . is The the allusion he makes by way of explanation not to goddesses called The Mothers. but does not care inform the reader. and expressly gives his explanation as a supposition of his own. . when the beginning of the year was. by the Julian calendar. For at their the Egyptio-Roman "Table of Fortune. But it was shown above that the reality which seem basis to support is such an opinion do not in support it. ." ^Ovid. but baked. He who that in it dares to put that interpretation upon Beda's words these deities are referred to. shifted Mogvnto Dis . the tertium comparatio?iis. The Romans the the so-called celebrated. . on the first Matronalia.. Beda himself says that he does not know why I the Angles called that night modranicht. 179 ss. Deabus Matribus Deae Svriae Fortunae Fortis(simis) ceterisq(ue) I(ulius) Britannorum Ael(ianus). he in is this from it.^ it If that festival had been brought to Britain by Roman legions. simply remarking that the name modranicht probably due to certain ceremonies to of which he knows. : these ceremonies were of a maternal char- being either exercised by human mothers. or the he derives the name Solmanoth from the cake name Blotmanoth from to the ceremonies the immolation made. of March." and no But sacrifice to the dead. Movno . . as he speaks of a goddess Hreda or a goddess Eostre in just as same chapter.

which the were motherhood of the Virgin Mary and the not only peculiarities of Christ's birth made the object of veneration. the reserve only too well.d. mentioning the abominable disgrace of heathendom. 706." the above chapter headed the "Calends of January. Beda uses in this case would be explained And there were indeed such usages in the early Church. From the night of birth to the night of motherare only two small steps. it was of a forbidden by the Council of Trullus. have been transferred to that day. ceremonies which had evolved out of the Roman Calends usage of preparing into very close in and eating cakes with certain observances. or as happening even in a Christian Anglic community. If the custom he referred to was Christian. of every description pre- men wore But I so. Something similar. all hood and the night of mothers there night of the birth is of a child should be dedicated to mothers or to exist- motherhood only natural. 1886: " Et illud quid turpe est! mulierum induentes se feminas videri volunt. hides of stags. have been removed with Calends of 25. and. men all went about in women's dresses. DE MENSIBUS from March i ANGLORUM it 155 to the to January the i. when Christian birthday of Christ. vailing.BEDA. a peculiarity of the early at Church which again and again occurs and about which elaborate rules at Christmas eve and Pasch eve. Christiania. we can prove the because ence of such a exactly contemporaneous with Beda. the keeping watch all night. Had he done he would probably have used stronger language.^ do not think that Beda thought of things like these. by Caspari. a. And there certainly is something decidedly Christian in the report. These had got connection to motherhood. on December began to compete with the Calends of January. January. where on the Calends of January. In such celebrations human mothers no That the doubt took the leading part. by those who might read his record. cult. But over and above." Viri tunicis See the list of cases quoted in . but were expressed in visible symbols in the shape of cakes. or whilst women went licentiousness about in hides of hinds. indeed. producing a kind of obscene cult. ed. The development ^ Homilia De Sacrilegiis. or might be considered as Christian. existed. using that disguise as a means for kinds of sexual transgressions. seems to have taken place on the banks of the Rhine in Germany.

146. Councils and Oxford. 680.d. he did not see a growth upon the ^ Ada Conciliorum.^ as a heathen Beda was bound it to know custom and abominable custom. Quare quoniam Dei nostri nativitatis diem similam coquere ostenduntur.D." which was found lacking in the new religion. Ibid. or from own only as being contemhis soil poraneous. which to pure mind was so of the Church. 706. with eggs. and eat a cake in honour of the afterbirth of the im- maculate Virgin." II. whole matter had been thoroughly treated in A. also over Great Britain. III. had been brought to 649 under Pope Martin L.. Decrees of Pope Hormisdas (a. Haddan and Stubbs. correctioni subiicimus. so that the Church had again and again babies.156 cult of the Virgin in YULE AND CHRISTMAS Mary instead of that of her divine son. so that was quite senseless of people to bake.fifth of December one got up before the rest of the family and prepared food for them. where on the morning of the twenty. of that kind only from hearsay. even the confinement of the Virgin seems that to have been made the subject of imitation. A.. Concilium Quinisextum sive in Trullo. 706. Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland. That in a thing so wicked. early is clearly traceable the Councils of the Church. his Canon LXXIX.^ to declare that he was born quite unlike human it and above all. 2 It is Ecclesiastical p. Vol. at any rate the Council of Trullus. . 17 14. and canons of the Lateran Council of a. De Beata Virgine. : "Absque sit. »it col. Canon faciunt Ixxix. Vol. iii. eos. some way the confinement of the Virgin spread As late as 1800 a more characteristic form. Parisiis. 1690.). But. called Care-cakes. taking there even it prevailed in An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. III. under "Yule. this a strange chance that we are able to show that custom of representing in Scotland (Jamieson..D. Vol.d. col. having been interdicted and having in the been alluded to in the Decrees of Pope Hormisdas (514-523). which had to be eaten in bed. Seeking for ever-new objects of veneration and supplying the "eternal feminine.d. without an afterbirth. ullis secundis ex Virgine partum esse confitentes qui sine semine constitutus aliquid idque toti gregi annuntiantes. orientals and occidentals gave visible expression to all kinds of wild fancies about the act of Christ's birth. This frequently consisted of cakes baken . of course. quod non decet. which Great Britain by John the Precentor and adopted by the During Beda's own life-time the Council of Hatfield.. a. divide. qui propter ignorantiam aliqui post sanctae Christi sibi invicem impertiri.. et earn honoris scilicet praetextu secundinarum impollutae Virginis matris 1014. 514-523). of he could know customs experience." VII. but unsympathetic... 1871. Later.

DE MENSIBUS a relic ANGLORUM And it 157 of heathendom. to the He erred only in so far as he did not ascribe the Roman Calends of January.BEDA. he was not wrong therein. at which Strenae were in vogue. Church had fixed . we cannot wonder. but to an imaginary cult exercised by the Angles in the very night on which the Christ's birthday.

p. Stadtrecht." ^Kempen. holy. 220. And same word they used create a term for the ecclesiastical bearing of December night. "zu nehest bi winachten.. or for the plurality of four days wthnahten. As they had popular festivals the word hogetidi i..^ to myddtivynter^ on the whole. 48. "An der Kristisnacht d6 begunde he zu gene" {Myst." Ibid. still being found about 1460 in "Blind Harry's" The Wallace. oththe Greatanlea hsebbe. i. a day frequently chosen for state the reason late why William the Conit who won the battle of Hastings in autumn 1066. myn gelt to gheven in No... 13. "zu weinachten. e. 33. 478. 33. (Old-Saxon) or hochgezit (Middle-High-German).. I. 80. "zuo Wichennachten uf den ziestag." Ibid^. The term Chrystismess lived on for at least four v. "swer zu winachten singet vor den hiisern. which nobody will to be a purely ecclesiastical invention.." ms. 69. VH.^ denominations prevail." Biterolf. is I. To denote an individual day they used the word naht.. Miiller und Zarncke." MUnchner ^"Gegen Pass. Christ's birthday was ceremonies. disen winnahten Tank^ser. about 1442: " Hefft in myn hant ghetastet den ver hylghen daghen to myddewynter. 93". 94.^ After the year 800.. ic forboren Nu mine witan secgadh that ic hit to lange gefunden mid thsem witum the mid me wseron set end Exan-ceastre to middan-wintre.e. Wackernagel.e. And this apparently was queror. I. holy tide. gheloefflyke 2 i. Mittelhochdeutsches Wbrterbuch. wUh the they called the Ember-days (Quatembers) wichfasten. chose foran to middan wintra." Ibid. Town-Archive." Saalfelder Stadtrecht. or weichfasten. 58 ^. Literaturgeschichte. the high tide. 561 : " This Chrystismess Wallace rama)myt thar In Laynrik oft till sport he maid repayr. " l6o YULE AND CHRISTMAS Although in Germany —here and there at least —similar terms are found. "an der heiligen Christisnacht. i) . JeroscMn " Pf. "nach einen winachten tagen. "uf den hailgen tag zuo nachten. 301. kindli tag zuo wichen nachten. 259. : "^dhelstan cyng cydh that hit set hsebbe geahsod that ure fridh wyrse gehealden thonne me lyste. 94. H 2." K. 92. it etc. p. thus 25. With a derivation from later. iv. 46." ic Thorpe's Ancient Laws. quite for different The Germans formed their a number of Christian holy tides compounds with for word wuh. so they had word wihtidi (Old-Saxon).. deny to i.. gecweden haebbe waere. 47. tag nach wichen nachten.g. 5 . when the Pope on that date crowned Charlemagne Roman Emperor. note 9." centuries. "an dem zwelften Wtchen- "an der . D. forming Kristisnaht^ and wichnaht." Ziiricher Jahrbuch.

. Omnium Sanctorum (November 28). as often as he was in England at Whitsuntide at Westminster all the rich men over all he wore it at and then were England. et aliis episcopis coadjuvantibus." He has. 1053 In festivitate S.. in regem benedicitur. was crowned on the same steps day. archbishops and suffragan bishops. Florence of Worcester + A. 1065 Post festivitatem \^ i). Johannis Baptistae (June 918 Post Nativitatem S. Martini (November 11). under the year 1087. Martini (November 11). ab Aldredo Eboracensium archiepiscopo Chronicle tells. CHRISTES M^SS. ipsa Nativitatis die. at Easter . following dates according to the Saints' Calendar (Monumenta Historica Britannica. 259 (ad annum 1165): " Igitur in vigilia natalis Domini. 108) also mentions the court held by an English king. Vol. Edinburgh. post regis mortem. 917 Ante Nativitatem S.2 court for several days at Gloucester. which has to be regarded as the secular celebration of Christ's birthday in Great Britain. when he held Henry. Oxford. die videlicet XV. In nativitate Domini (December 25). atque the regali cathedra sublimatur.* ^Florence of Worcester. 1884. ^ There is a great number of other cases: The Historians of Scotland." : NATIVITY. He apparently introduced a court on December from 1085 the Laud ms. abbots and . Select Charters and Other Illustrations of English Constitutional History. ^The Saxon Winchester with him earls. . leo * justiciae. Kenelmi martiris (July 17).D. princeps pads. of the Saxon Chronicle In 1085. for a Christmas Day which opened new chapter festival of Britain. 1871. . 1029 Post festivitatem S. . 1052 In nocte festivitatis S. idem Willelmus. episcopo Sancti Andreae. for AND CHRISTMAS i6i a his coronation at Westminster^ in the history 25. at first Nativity. quae illo anno evenit. in his Chronicle. Chronica Gentis Scotorum. Johannis de Fordun. p. I. in Westmonasterio consecratus est honorifice.) " 696 Dies natalis beatissimae Caeciliae virginis (November 24). of William the Conqueror: "Thrice he wore his crown every year. Die sanctorum Innocentium (December L . 22). at Midwinter at Gloucester thegns and knights" (William Stubbs. Andreae (November 30). he knighted his son In 1165 the Scottish king. William the Lion. I. 1043 Ante festivitatem S. 24). 81). p. under 1066: "Willielmus . Johannis Baptistae (June 1021 Ante festivitatem S.^ The coronation ceremonies and courts at Christmas were other like towards something a popularising of the first of the English Church festival ( among 1 the wider circles people. under the year 1065. Thomae (December 18). a Ricardo amicus Dei. begins to state regularly where the king kept that festive time.

Quod audientes Ybernenses. In Nativitate vero Domini curiam suam." De Institutis Lundoniae. ut potuit. sicut et nos." l62 YULE AND CHRISTMAS At royal courts the Natale Domini had soon become a great day for royal pomp and splendour. non solum. et primum quae portae observabantur (under King Ethelred.^ become somewhat commoner. 3(X) " Et homines Imperatoris. Munch. et dare telonium suum et et in sancto Natali cirotecas . Nuncii vero redeuntes ad dominum suum narraverunt ei de situ Yberniae et amoenitate. verum etiam manducare mallem. calceamenta ejus portare. edited from the Manuscript Codex in the British Museum. The Chronicle of Man and the Stidreys. quae illo ab Aldredo Eboracensium archiepiscopo in anno feria secunda evenit. et decem libras et piperis.. ipse vero terram. praecipiens ei ut ea super humeros suos in die natalis Domini per medium domus suae portaret in conspectu nunciorum ejus. Westmonasterio conse- cratus est honorifice. the son of Olav and grandson of Harald Harfagr. Lundoniae tenuit. with the order to carry 1098 sent to King Murecard of Ireland that day through that his palace in the presence of his ambassadors. in Thorpe's Ancient Laws. de frugum fertilitate et aeris salubritate. aegre ferebant. Magnus vero haec audiens. King Murecard carried the shoes. Christiania. in his shoes. Post haec rex Eadwardus paulatim aegrotare coepit. inquit. A. quinque hominum. In Wales 1065 Epiphaniae Domini vigilia (January 5). regi Yberniae misit calceamenta sua. i860. et non et licebat aliquod forceapum facere burhmannis. than allow him to conquer a single province of Ireland. naves suas . duos caballinos tonellos aceto plenos. quam Magnus rex unam provinciam in Ybernia destrueret. Sed rex saniori consilio usus. in order to show he confessed himself to be a subject of King Magnus. et unum brunum. ab Ybernensibus erant. under Anno MXCViii. ipsa Nativitatis die. 6. p. Itaque praecepit classem congregare. and with historical " Murecardo notes by P. explorare volens circumvallatus.^ From the end of the tenth century. qui veniebant Praeter discarcatam lanam. On that day. . in et eis I. . quatinus ^ eat : intelligeret se et subjectum esse sunt nimis. Domini duos grisengos pannos. nihil cogitabat quam totam Yberniam sibi subjugare. totidem in Pascha de . Magno regi. diss[ol]utum unctum et tres porcos vivos licebat eis emere suis. Nativity banqueting must have as legal regulations begin to refer to it. interiit ^ cum incaute a navibus cum omnibus fere qui secum discessisset. any humiliation was felt That was apparently the reason why King twice as much as on any other. indignati quoque munera per eos Magno regi transmisit. Chronica Regum Manniae et Insularum. . Multa Itaque complevit praeceptum et nuncios honoravit. Magnus them on of Norway. at the same time declaring that he would rather King Magnus's shoes in addition. et foedus composuit. p. in navibus bonarum legum digni tenebantur. cum sexdecim navibus subito procedens. : 991-1016). in consequence. 1066 Willielmus .

Dubliniam terrae illius Principes ad Curiam videndam accessere quam plurimi. potationis. devastaverunt unum familiarem nepotem Hergualdi Berthutis nomine. in die Natiuitatis Domini apud Ystumguy". Erpoldi Lindenbrogii Scriptores Jierttm Germanicarum Septentrionalimn. et ^ medicum under totius patriae. under A." The same told by Giraldus Cambrensis. etc.." ^Haddan and Stubbs. Francofurti. et de uno dossero cum ovis v. Diueliniae. Ibid. however. Familia Catgucauni Regis Morcannuc." in 1171 "Rex Angliae : inde usque Diueline. gallina telon. M. et coram omni populo suo. et in manu Heruualdi Episcopi consolidata. p. 295 (a. Tertio vero cum adhuc in poculis ulularent. Smeremangestre. a Veteribus Scripta. die natalis In quo ipse cum regibus et principibus is Hybemiae festum solemne tenuit Domini. who died in 1072. sequestrata discretione sobrietatis et in tantum quod imperfecti et amissa vi Episcopi. xiiii. Quod tamen non parum displicuit Archiepiscopo [Adalberto + 1072]. 302. chap. Jo.. Hymnum levari cantate nobis. ibique fecit construi iuxta ecclesiam usque ad caput Andreae apostoli extra civitatem Martini. Lib.ESS.. dosseris cum gallinis I. 53: "In die itaque natalis Domini. pietatis. inchoari fecit Domine... who. qui simul aderant. magnaque recumbentium multitudo. visitavit Landauiam bono affectu. magna voce pronuncians : Converte Domine captivi- . mensam praecepit. I. et (ut dicitur de virga Aaron versa in draconem) animus illius familiae tardus ad sperandum bonum. et ditatus prae nimio gaudio tantae . que mangonant in caseo et butiro. diebus ante Natale Domini. cum Magnus Dux praesens adesset. details. Itaque innuens fratribus nostris. 776.." Rerum Anglicarum pars Scriptores post p. cepit baccare copia viri. London. Ubi et lautam Anglicanae mensae copiam vetustissimam quoque vemarum obsequium plurimum admirantes carne gruina. ut imponeret Antiphonam. 1596. in die Nativitatis Domini. the first AND CHRISTMAS 163 in Nativity feasting occurs between 1056 and 1064. palatium regium miro artificio.d. Oxford. Cambrica. was present. et septem diebus post Natale. Adami Bremensis Historia Ecclesiastica (Adam became Canonicus Bremensis in 1077). unum denarium. Anglica. Albertus Fabricius. virgis leuigatis ad modum patriae illius constructum. Populorum Hamburg!. S. I. et ibi sibi moram de fecit a festo S. chap. ova telonei. 1869. vesci ceperunt. 1056-1087): "Liber Landav. xxxii.. si veniant ad mercatum.D. Hibernica. Vol. [Henricus . Vicinoruvique ed. p.] " Imminente vero Dominici Natalis solemnitate. IV. Baedam Annalium. unum alium. praecepit Cantori. 1171 II. filii Mourici. 294: " Et firmata missis manibus super quatuor euangelia. 1706.^ in Ireland 1171. adds some 1603. festivitatis. iratus valde. venit Sustinuimus pacem et noji At vero laicis denuo perstrepentibus.2 On German festival ground the first great historical Nativity feasting appears about the middle of the eleventh century in the far-away North. praecipui. Normannica." Veteres diversi. xxxix. At that Archbishop ^ Adalbert of Bremen. virum iustum. perrexit ieiunii: posterior.: NATIVITY. p. quam ^ hactenus abhorruerant regia voluntate passim per aulam. Kogeri Hcrvedeni " Henricus II. : Giraldi Cambrensis Expugnatio Hiberniae. Cotincils and Ecclesiastical Documents. CHRISTES M. hilares convivje pro sua consuetudine finitis epulis plausum cum voce levaverunt. velox ad faciendum malum scientiae .

" I. donee Justus judex fortis patiens liberet Ecclesiam meam: est vel potius suam quam Pastore contempto videt miserabiliter enim desiderium eorum. and is receives one as characteristic early another. a lupis discerpi.* Ordeal and oaths are forbidden on festival days. 172. niht ofer Eastran.^ Under King Ethelred regular Ember-days. and from Advent till till the octaves of Epiphany and from Septuagesima fifteen all days after Easter j and at those holy tides there was to be with strife Christian If men one general peace and concord. and fram Adventum Domini odh octabas Epiphanie.. Impletum et sanctuarium Dei. appeased. ^Thorpe's Ancient Laws. which displeased the archbishop. and fram Septuagesimam odh XV. 7. or pays or And to if a lord his theow to work on a and wite festival day. "And beo tham halgum ttdan eal swa hit riht is. et disperdamus eos de Exsurge: quare obdormis. et super dolorem vtdnerum tneorum addiderunt. ix." xix. lah'Slit. and riht .S. 309. Quoniam quern tu percussisti. sicut torrens in austro. et non inemoretur nonien Israel ultra. flevit amare. : fre&ls-dagum. Ita ille nobis pone sequentibus. bitterly. (991-1016). Doniine. "And ordal and adhar sindon tocweden Ymbren-dagum. and oelc sacu getwoemed. Miserere nostri. I. Through a freeman oblige forfeits freedom.." 3 Thorpe's Ancient Laws. repellas in jinem. Non cessabo. persequuti sunt. p. and this inhibition extended to the .^ any owed another borh or bot on tatem nostram respondente choro . qui dixeinint : Hcereditate possideamus dies festos Dei a terra. ascendit semper." freols-dcege. Then. a Jietu.1 64 YULE AND CHRISTMAS Duke Magnus. the A. et in oratorium reclusus.. xviii. he has pay lah-slit within the Danish law. He therefore ordered the clerical members of the feast to sing some clerical song. Adalbert therefore ordered in a loud voice the table to be lifted. the older inhibition of ordeals and oaths on festival-days was repeated. he retired into the oratory. 172. In high dudgeon. quiscere faciamus onines vs. . among the English. et ne gente. p. asking God to free him from such captivity. weeping time The our festival festive about December 25 and January 6 evolves before after eyes. quoniam multum repleti sumus despectione. which they did without being able to defy their secular opponents. the duke and his people began to sing shout songs or exclamations. No. "^ : faesten-dagum. even being . p. and a great crowd while the banquet was also attended by of others. term "Ordel ond adhas syndan tocwedene freols-dagum ond riht Ibid. of Work on Edward and wite days suppressed it as in his the Laws Guthrum. ait. eallum cristenum mannum sib and s6m gemsene. Quia superbia eorum qui te aderunt. with his followers. or The dinner being over.

Rhine-country. " This last sentence forms one of the few conclusive . I. "And si that man aelc beboden fsesten.Archive.e. had been exempt from Friday fasting. and to selces and lacobi msessan we ne be6dadh nan fsesten. account of secular matters. oththon seften.. Sancti Michaelis. et semper Omnium Sanctorum kalendis Novembris. which were beginning of the twelfth century.NATIVITY. gelseste hit georne. si p. sanctorum omnium Apostolorum. I. And of middan-wintre odh octabas Epiphanie. ipsa habet vili. p. 320. Alia ab hora data manu sua. viil. hit elles odher mid ealre geornfiilnesse. 443. Town.^ The same holds ^Thor^Q^s set A ruient Laws. 447: "Pax regis multiplex est. Item in festivitatum celebrationibus Sanctorum quicumque fuerint in parochiis ubi sunt ecclesiae eorum. in ecclesia diebus Dominicis annunciabuntur. fsesten healde. Similiter a Septuagesima usque ad octavas Item ab Ascensione Domini usque ad octavas Pentecostes. hit Lengcten-fsesten. that seofen niht ofer twelftan msesse-dsege." xvi. tham Easterlican fre61se. dies. to be kept from Christ's Nativity a week after Epiphany. CHRISTES M/ESS. nona vigiliarum et totum diem sequentem. Item omnibus Sabatis totius anni." The same regulations are repeated in the resolutions passed at the Council of '^Rees. there shall be ^Thorpe's Ancient Laws. (vry wesen.^ With little alterations these pro- hibitions appeared again in the so-called manufactured in the Laws of King Cnut. butan fsesten Sanctam to Philippi Mariam msessan selcere." The king's peace. I. dies Pentecostes. 6'': "Item desselben no law gelijck sail oick als vry wesen in den twaelff nachten ende onsen jair marckten ende kirmissen courts). in Ibid.e. however. Alia die qua primum coronatus est.2 Edward tide. xxii. and later had been called Gehhol. dies Paschae. Ibid." "Ab adventu Domini usque ad octavas Epiphaniae pax ecclesiae per omne regnum. as the entire holy which in previous centuries. Leges Edwardi Confessoris (1042-1066): "Quibus temporibus pax servanda est. Item vigilia Sanctae Mariae. Item omnibus diebus nil. and selces Frige-dseger buton hit freols sy. : "And ser gif hwa odhrum scyle borh oththon b6te woroldlican thingan. Thorpe's ^««^7z/ Laws..-xxv. * In Natali Domini. et Sanctorum illorum quorum festivitates a sacerdotibus Dei et sanctae Paschae. et totum diem sequentem.. p. is And ne thearf man na fsesten fram Eastran odh Pentecosten. the Confessor ordained again that till strict peace was i. fol. dies. i. 308. temporum. Sancti lohannis Baptistae. et VIII. ii. hit Ymbren-faesten. ende men onse vrouwe dreghet". buton hwa gescnfen oththe he elles wylle. was different.. et Enam." etc.. he was to but not within the festive tide. p. has been shown above in the chapter on the Nativity of Christ. ab hora nona. Burgerbuch. quam Anglici vocant kinges hand-sealde gridh.. fulfil willingly before In Germany the same habits can be proved to have existed about 1400. et viii. xx. fseste apostoles maessan faesten. I. sig..^ AND CHRISTMAS it 165 or after. 368: " st De leiuniis. for and to man.

gaudiis et alicubi datis. (1016-1028). sit vel ferri. Ibid. lunii. opus est. the term midwinter 25.. et faciendi. p. Ixii. eallum cristenum mannum sib and s8m gemsene. but also the stricter fasting for offenders. set woruldlicum thingum. And Sancte Dunstanes msesse-dseg on xilii. lengcten dagum. nihton ofer Eastron. vigiliis Quadragesimalibus. But by that time Nativity banqueting seems to have so that gay. Et qui debitor honestis ante persolvat § 3. 1 66 YULE AND CHRISTMAS as written good of those laws which hold themselves out (1100-1135). And beo tham halgum tidum. si donee dies isti transeant. England under proofs that. gelseste hit him georne. inter manus habens si retinetur. 370." . At the end of the eleventh century the time of to Christ's Nativity seems have passed from a mere ecclesiastical and state celebration into popularity far. vel aquae. vel induciet. 402. nativitate provecti. April. diebus Veneris. diebus usque post aliis Pascha. non vel est tempus leges bellum. dies [i. Et quis malefactum sit. est. Laws of King Cnut. in the beginning of the twelfth century. had proclaimed it to be a joyous time. and fram Septuagesima odh xv. beata sapientia conditi sumus. ibi purgetur vel sordidetur. I. eal swa hit riht is. et et Ab Adventu Domini ad xv.. I.. This to be seen from the change of the attitude of the Church towards far it that festive tide. and dagum.. vel idem jusjurandum pro fidelitate concordiam. is so that it became general So to keep it by feasting and banqueting. : "De diebus. § I..e. xlvii. securi. and selc sacu t6twaemed. voluptatibus instituti. cujus § 2." About the general observance of festival days. xlv. and riht fsesten tide. ubi justum fuerit terminanda. et vel sanctorum domini.. consolatione Dei.! under Henry I. which were fabricated in reality. Laws of King Cnut: "De Temporibus lustitiae. meant December xvii. ser oththe sefter. before mentioned. et a Lxx." "And we forbe&dadh ordal and adhar freols-dagum. kl. vel alias legis examinationes tractari caritas. a ad honorem Omnipotentis morte redempti. Apostolorum.. who had to do penance for a number of become too This in is years. 562-63. of the Laws of King Cnut from but the beginning of the twelfth century. compare Ibid. during which all fasting was suspended grave —not the only regular Friday fasting. et festis quatuor temporum. sed in omnibus vera pax. kl. and xlviii. ^Thorpe's Ancient Laws. And gyf hwa odhrum sceole borh oththe bfite. in Observatione temporis leges faciendi. et legitimis jejuniis. and ymbren-dagum. December 25] usque ad Epiphaniae octabas.. now evident from the so-called as Church made attempts to check it. revertatur. Si solum inculpatio plegiis. And sancte Eadweardes msesse-dseg witan habbadh gecoren that man freSlsian sceal ofer eall Engla-land on xv. I. and fram Adventum Domini [this term does not mean the AdventDecember 25] odh se eahtodha dseg agan sig ofer twelftan m:esse-d3ege.

De Milite Stulto. Ancient Ecclesiastical commune commodum atid Instittttes of habita. strict Henry fasting. healde that is . Kalendae. 521. the lines appear: '* Daz mir daz ich sol tragen gewant ze wlhnahten swie ich daz mac betrachten. mo/ itself and which ordain the time of from midwinter to the octave of Epiphany. thirteenth or fourteenth century). fecisset. 368. Liebermann. under in ballealione. et milites egregie induti apparentes. ad laudem Dei. p. Latin Stories. cxxii.. . I. a. praedictas balleationes alterius sub intimatione anathematis episcopi Canttiarensis. Harleana. dixit cum baconibus induit apparuit vestitus. about a. 1279. NATIVITY. . ealre geornfulnesse. Wintoniam. Joannis Evangelistae post Nativitatem Domini. ridiculed. So hilfet in German epic of Meier 1158-1160. et turbationes. XVI : . 1840. . p. that in the thirteenth in gaieties. to be also a time of This. quod talem qualem sibi misit dominus. Glossariiim. pp. AND CHRISTMAS strict 167 peace. seofen niht ofer twelftan maesse dsege. was so little carried through. 1260.. : Ducange. ^Compare 100. cuidam militi bacones.d. No. of the Helmbrecht. No. A the Selection of No. London. v." etc. et et et Norwegarum.S. cui hoc 112. '^Thorpe. however. : He also refers to Statuta Joannis Archiand mentions from the Necrologium Ecclesiae Parisiensisy vii. solenniter et devote celebraretur in Ecclesia nostra. 83. Vol.d. "Idus Januarii obiit Hugo Clemens Decanus noster et Sacerdos" [frater Henrici dementis Franciae Marescalli].^ a date dangerously near stories. 3244. venerando sapientum ejus consilio. quam aliis consueverunt provenire.. nee illam voluit mutare " (Thomas Wright.* V and whoever does not follow the fashion that respect When ^ the giving of presents at Christmas had become more general. In thirteenth and fourteenth century in Christmas is presupposed as the time when everybody shows himself in his is best dress. that man selc beboden faesten of middan-wintre odh octabas Epiphanie." etc." OF THE OF * UNiVERSiTY . 1842. inolevit. century the Church was most seriously involved which were shifted from the Calends of January to Christmas. ii. Cnuti Aliorumque Regum Anglorum. Cui cum requireretur.. . from the MS." the note on p. contentiones. London. CHRISTES M^SS. On the Instituta II. fieri multae lixae. 85 Thorpe's Ancient Laws. suam regalitatem." agebatur. " Rursus cum quae Inno- centium in quibusdam Ecclesiis tarn in divinis Officiis.d. sancto Natali Domini. c. ut ipsos venderet et vestes contra festum Sed stultus miles in festo bacones a dextris et a sinistris circa se ille suspendit. regis Anglorum. Concilium in festo S. "De Jeiuniis: And And England. * " Rex quidam sibi alii misit Natale compararet. Danorum. a. apud Laws Laws mid of King Cnut.2 I. Copriniacense. "Procuravit etiam salubriter et devote. Leges Regis Cnuti: " Haec in sunt' instituta Cnuti. quod Festum B. quod prius negligenter et joculariter fieri prohibemus.

and there being no earlier evidence for this statement. springing from a purely Christian soil. cognatos et 1233 : ^Johannis de Fordun. Zeitrechnting des deutschen 169. et ultimum valedicens omnibus. Church added in which every year took place another commemoration this of the birth of God. Vereins fur den Niederrhein. and later on the fourth Advent. Edinburgh. under the years 1231 to " Patricius comes de Dumbar. convocavit filios et filias. Vol.. Gervasius von Tilbury. Grotefend. 2. super quam asserunt rorem coelestem nutu divino quotannis hora nativitatis Dei descendere. Rhine-country. 1465 . 59. Town-Archive. The one.1 68 fairs YULE AND CHRISTMAS were instituted at various places. more priest express which took the form of a benediction spoken by the from the Out of both Great Britain and Germany evolved popular customs. Document No. hordeo vel avena. xii.D. *Gervasius of Tilbury wrote about 1200 "Apud antiquos Britanniae inolevit.. Archbishop Dietrich of Cologne allowed the town a fair of six days at St. aut vasculum aliquod plenum avenae vel hordei." Liebrecht. which blessed everything that came in contact with to this automatic benediction. 1461. Thomas (December 21). s. had not been sung in vain for so many centuries.^ and family gatherings Christmas were held about the same time. in April 18. The song Rorate Founded upon it. chap. 42. IX. aeger corpore. that at Christmas the heavens really gave a special and it. the habit of celebrating first Christmas in the family circle cannot be set down half of the thirteenth century. and showing how deep root Christianity had. ex illo vel ut.^ According to Franz Wessel's description of the ^So Roman Catholic service at in A.^ In addition to the usages enumerated in former chapters which can there be directly derived from Roman Calends-of-January customs.^ the folk-belief had sprung up beneficial dew. : Mittelalters. previous to the introduction of the summer solstice of June 24. I. Vol. legends and usages. diem clausit extremum. 367. p. taken in Germanic minds. si fortassis. altar. et Continuatione Walteri Boweri. quod in nocte natalis Domini ponunt manipulum avenae sub dio. II.. Scotichronicon cum Supplementis ut festa Dominicae nativitatis secum celebrarent. Annalen des historischen Kempen. Compare also Document No.. Lib. Adam having written in the as of the 3 first half of the fifteenth century. third " Rorate coeli desuper et nubes pluant justum " was sung on Wednesday after the Advent. now evolved a number of beliefs and habits. induit se monachum. p. pestis mortifera coeperit alia tangere.. et ab eo extremam unctionem accepit ac habitum religionis. in the Coeli course of time. Jacob is one of the days which frequently divide the summer into two parts. chap. Jacob (July 25). St. ut assolet evenire. xlviii. and St. 1461. 387 of March 10. 1759." Bower vicinos. LXV. Peractis quatuor diebus vocat abbatem de Melros. .

its year 1523. col. Breslau. forbade^ drunkenness in general. IV. 846. dadt se de windt. gensen. Beal. To speak. the men drinking on memory of the times.^ basis of of Stephanas minne as a special custom. we are told the following: "An S. aut per filios nostros. and even then it appears not as a popular. Magni Regis Capitula alia. De I. on other days." ^Rostock. which was even named after Christ's When a child was bom. aut per nos. pp. P- 273- . dem vehe krefftige stercke geue. 1593. Concilia Gervianica. auergelouischen gebeden vnd affgodischen dissem dage ingesegendes korn. or his sons. prohibemus et praecipimus ut episcopi vel abbates non vadant per casam miscendo. 277. sne. Deutsche Opfergebrdtiche. Schannat. saint of the day. a similar birth. 286. . himself. enten.^ That the same custom is was still existing about the end of the sixteenth century witnessed by Nicolaus Gryse's Spegel des antichristlichen Pawestdoms? When Charlemagne by St." *In his book. ock den Minschen de daruan ethen. dadt on Christmas eve efte sus in deelde men koyen. or 800 years after Charlemagne. CHRISTES M^SS. mit etlyken Criitzslegen in. Caroli iii. as. on the e. Johannes minne. and the participation in banquets abbots. anni 789: "Omnino pro- hibendum est omnibus ebrietatis malum et istas conjurationes.g.NATIVITY. : I. Ulrich Jahn does/ is out of place — for such a custom cannot be proved to have existed before the second half of the sixteenth century. chap. vnd wenn ydt geseyet. Martinis minne. dad se des morgen allem vth. but as a purely ^ When in the sky — "so drogen the peasants there se had fasted garuen in de koppele rip efte sus de lucht beschinen konde. Stralsund before the AND CHRISTMAS ceremony took place 169 there. where a great number of cases are given in which that custom still survives. In the same way they had. Vol. sehr vele fruchte bringe. p. 1884. quas faciunt per sanctum Stephanum. a habit called later Stephanas minne. Die deuischen Opfergebrduche bei Ackerbau und Viekzucht.. schloch eine garue 2 efte 3 vth vndt gaf den swinen. their gods. as of bishops and St. Lyues vnd der Seelen gesundtheit mitdele. till they saw the stars appear de lucht. little presents which were called " child'scalled the gift which all the domestic By that name also was animals got on the occasion of Christ's birth. alle des kindesvothes geneten scholdenn. in pre-Christian drunk to the memory of this passage. X. where wyhet men nicht alleine dat water." Ulrich Jahn. 278. Steffens dage sonderen ock den Hauer vnd allerley Korn. 1714. Acta Concilionim. however. — this applied to saints' the habit of to Stephan's day. Dadt hetede men des morgens kindesvodt . the conjurations Stephan." Kindsfuss. ^ vnd sprickt. Parisiis. brothers and sisters used to receive foot. ... dat solckes an mehr alse dat vngewyhede.

Gryse. Breslau. Koln. A. v. and the trees in the forest began to bud and bloom fields all in one night in spite of the ice and snow by which the for were covered. From the fifteenth that century onwards. the most extraordinary things happened.. tained in example for the evolution of a Christmas legend into a popular belief is conDie Pilgerfahrt des Ritters Arnold von Harff. at the hour when Christ was born. their had with them adorned. p. Bienenkorb. 26. as a The blessed cup was regarded by the people means useful for all kinds of things. 1593. where a church at Rome is mentioned: "Item beneven deser kirchen is ein pallais zo broecken den der lies A fine keyser Octavianus bouwen. p. ed.. Zeitrechnung. 149. 1844. the Church. the same miracles happened again. Wiener Sitzungsberichte. according to the Christian legend. by Dr. eloquent preachers to. . 1567.^ Johannes Hebe Johannts trunk appear In the marvellous night on which the Saviour was born. 180. "Seb. die Baermutter gut seyn. Aus Schwaben. and II. Strigenitius Nicolaus Petrus Mosellanus III..^ ^ Fischart. Groote. 1675. gibt dem ^ opferenden Volck darab zu trincken. He vragde die affgoede ind de bouwelude wie lange . 1496-99). Stephanstag in einen Kelch. ^ Ackerbau uttd Viehziicht. XL. 158. Thomas Naogeorgus. Birlinger. I. 673. .D. p. rejoiced in The animals in the rivers the salvation that was bestowed on the world.. das heisst soil fiir S. X." is I. geusst ftir Wein dariiber. 100. there ran wine instead of water. Stephansquoted by Ulrich Jahn. so that at became a popular year. Nebenarbeiten. G.. and last it lent impressivebelief that every sermons." A large part of the more important ^ei literature for this item is Die deutschen Opfergebrdtiche Franck..^ I. adopted that custom by the repetition of that bene- diction as part of the service. which was drunk to the memory of John the Evangelist on its December 25. in commemoration of the legend John the Apostle destroyed the poison contained in a cup by making the sign of the cross over it. i860 (a description of a journey to the Orient.^ YULE AND CHRISTMAS So it is with Johannes minne.: 176 ecclesiastical custom. ii. Stephan gesteiniget ward man jahrlich an S.^ enjoyed a great reputation. 1553. Rarely transferred to June 24. Ecclesiastical fancy had played with these things some ness time. Grotefend. II.. it Stddtechroniken. 63: "Zu Freuburg in Preiszgau bey den Johanniten an einem silbernen Kettlin ein Stein. XL. Ibid. Archivalische dem ^ volck pfligt ausz " Daz man davon alle jar zum goczhausz an sandt Johannstag zu weynachten so man dem kelch sandt Johanns mynn zu geben " Grotefend.. chap.. Johanns-Segen S. Burckhardt Waldis Matthesius . 269 ss. and wine blessed ax\(i at that opportunity for it. denselben legt darmit S. : wein. . Spiess. Fibiger. 122. . 375. mentions a foundation from the year 1484: schike und bestell wein doselbst 99.

158. so happened. ein tempel der Maria der reiner maget geboren waert. 364. si in horto recentibus esset floribus decorata." of the thirteenth century. Cristus unser herre van muire hauwen Doe spraich der Darumb lies er ewicheit. 5. "Durmars le galois. probably of the thirteenth century: "Quoniam eo tempore. He went. while she was the table. ^ the Christ Himself as a child sitting on a tree covered all over with candles appears in Old French epic." ^ Georg Jacob. Anzeiger fiir 1834. Niimberg. But she said 'That is a sign of the coming mortality. on sitting Christmas day somebody entered the room.. Terrified and wondering what this means. Et ut prae- dixerat omnino evenit. ss. the reversed lights the bad men. sent him back tree in order to see whether the buds sprang from the lower or from the upper part of the tree. 60 ss. renunciavit arborem in ramis inferioribus florescentem. Teviplum eternitatis. and receives the answer The lit tree is humanity. want sulch : neit moegelich. when she was young. Studien in arabischen Geographen. in dum adhuc iuvenis esset. doe veil des tempels vil dar neder ind noch all jairs zo cristmissen veldt ein stuck der muyren van dem tempel. The story tells of her who was born about 1180 Once. 155. . that a cherry tree in the garden stood in full on blossom. is keiser Octavianus in des tempels : soe wirt he ewich stain. 1878.. Simrock. She. the night between December 24 and and Britain. the : ' upright lights are the good men. also lange bis dat ein Do spraich ein stimme van dem hemell. missus fuerat. of which some stand properly and some upside down. a resplendent child is sitting on the top. Multi enim pauperes morientur isto anno. the life of Hadwigis. 8. 572: "Durmars sees a tree whose branches are covered from top to bottom with lit candles. saying. CHRISTES M^SS. Kunde des deutschen Mittelalters. Doe nu pp. Leipzig." . At ilia. 10. quod arbor una cerasus stans siderandum. this belief is carried through Spain and France to Germany and Great first On German " ground it appears in a saint's life. Das hofische Leben zu7. col.: NATIVITY. 17 p. the trees of the forest actually stand in full blossom. . signum sic. 9.' And as she foretold. I. Heft I. the child is the Saviour. III. he seulde stain maget in junferlicher reinicheit ein kint geberet. inquit. Durmars asks the Pope. : in Franken. 2 ss. 172.Zeit der Minnesinger."^ der pallais waell stayn moechte. Bonn. 25. 1889. and on his return reported that the blossomed at its lower branches. Qui est. pp. 171.. Quod audiens misit ad con- praedicti flores in inferiori aut in superiori parte arboris pulularent.. it Many poor will die this year. 5. in die natalis domini venit qui diceret coram ea sedente mensa. 151.'" *Aufsess und Mone. AND CHRISTMAS is jyi An Arabian geographer of the tenth century i in the first to tell the story that. and Heft IV. ^ St. mortalitatis futurae. But still more shining than these.. p. on hearing this. (Alwin Schulz. Handbiich der deutschen Mythologie. 5th ed.

There he was. Therefore every year. pp. . Leipzig. bore blooming apples the people go all size of a thumb. Kleine the Jahresbericht fur den that historischen Verein fur 8 Mittelfranken.172 YULE AND CHRISTMAS This is a legend.^ In England the tells appears somewhat Christ's but has got a peculiar form.^ A bishop in a to a friend. therefore. chap. . About 1430 the same story is told of the neighbourhood of Nurnberg. 219-255. He . Stuttgart "^ und Oehringen. An extensive sketch of the further development of belief is found in my Geschkhtc der deutschen Weihnacht. 1864. Nicolaus von Dinkelsbiihl 1426. . so that it became of one of the most popular parts of the story German after Christmas creed later. was shown. .^ : by a theologian. there his grave was said to be. fol. Die bliihenden Bdunte der Weihnacht. . seventeenth. Although the legend bears the stamp of learned and was perhaps invented by William of Malmesbury. Johannes Nider. of two apple trees which on Christmas night blossomed and ripened. But a century later we find the same thing tells. Germany. A nobleman testifies to the truth of the affair. A. . of January 16. viii. yet from the beginning of the twelfth century 1 Letter in of the the Bishop of Bamberg to Library of Vienna. Court No.. 4899. and keep watch night this A tree similar to one every respect is found in the the diocese of Bamberg. p. Beitraege in F. Deutsche Pflanzensagen. there stood a miraculous tree. reports " Not far from Nurnberg Every year in the wildest and most disagreeable time of the year. 1893. von Perger. describing the colour of the apples. and there in the crypt his coffin origin. Reuss. modern times. it when the Virgin of Virgins . 57. specially revered. 312 . gave birth to the son of God. trustworthy there from Nurnberg and the neighbouring at that place to test the truth of the in regions thing. . being attested again and again in various popular books and chronicles of the sixteenth. and eighteenth centuries. p. . invariably and only on the night of Christ's birth. 1859." belief spread over all From the beginning of the fifteenth century. and stating that he had held them in his own hands. as a letter belief purposely furthered by the Church. 95. Legend that death Joseph of Arimathea came to England and settled at Glastonbury.

that blossoms about Christmas-day. ^ 173 England as a kind of national He in was the said to have brought with him his walking-stick. 1862. Joseph was regarded in AND CHRISTMAS saint. Boutele's). Aubrey. one of the inoculate. 105-106. CHRLSTES MiESS. W."^ September When. W. September was by law turned into Christmas was held twelve days opportunity of this earlier than the year before. Kent. Esq. Suffolk a pretty ancient thorne. a mile long or more. have seen. flower-pott. Soldiers downe that near Glastonbury. is But in the rode that leades from Worcester to Droitwiche half a black thorne hedge at Clayes. in as doth the King's (Mr. or like Tanhfiser's staff in the thirteenth century legend (from a mixture with which the story of Joseph of Arimathea has arisen). and was made use of Records of are preserved in ^ Skeat 2 The Legend of Joseph of Arimathea (709 verses) has been edited by . The 14. which he planted ground of his new home. are thornes naturally like that near Glastonbury. blossoms Christian old report November when the weather is mild. Anthony Hinton. further it took to the habit Whilst in reality of blossoming every year on the eve of Christ's Nativity. which blossoms at Christmas. at Wilton. Dr. Ezerel Tong sayd that about Rumly-Marsh. A Righte Merrie Christmasse. it Like Aaron's rod. Nattiral History of Wiltshire. Oak is the New In Parham Park. the legend connects firmly with the night of Christ's birth. thorns. Elias Ashmole. that blossomes like that at Glastonbury. Christmas. on a for a thorne. pp. for the Roxburgh Club. An on it^ gives the following account: "Mr. .. the in it Crataegus praecox. This afforded a good legendary it watching the qualities of these at various places. his notes upon Theatrum a walnutt Chymicum. at his farm house.NATIVITY. Prof. the thorn from which the staff was cut. in My mother has had branches of them which I several Christmasses. not officers of the civill Earle of Pembroke. ^Ashton. in 1752. put forth leaves . a long before the late warres (ten bud of Glastonbury Thome. and by Frederick Furnivall. did yeares or more). the it people flock hither to see on Christmas Day. for a in week or more did cutt together. as the other did. the 2 stump remaines. tree saies that in the churchyard at of Glastonbury grew that did in putt out young leaves Forest.

103 to 106. fir at Strassburg. finding 25. which I edited in the Jahrhuch fiir p. the Christmas day. that December N. the same town in which adorning of. " Glastonbury. Above 2000 people came here to view a black thorn (this night. to their great disappointment. like so many Then others. dated " Quainton in Buckinghamshire. made them watch it narrowly the Old Style. Sprache und Literatur Elsass-Lotkringens. VI. that the it year only) to be a from the famous always budded on the off at 24th." to the From Roman when Christmas ^c year. 1890. the conifers.. and before long turned into a popular belief.S. houses with branches at New Year is witnessed at the end centuries. 62. and took the place of the Roman beginning of the Beside the usage.. this December 24.^ the legend of the blossoming trees of the Christmas night reached the Germanics. bay and box. was transferred to that date. laurel and evergreen. with lanthorns in the slip and candles. times the adorning of the houses with laurel and green 4 trees at the Calends of January finally had been known Germanics . holly and mistletoe were used for that purpose. accordingly. A its vast concourse of people attended the noted thorns Stile .. as usual at length the affair became so serious that the ministers of the neighbouring villages. in it order to appease the people. ss. to and. on Christmas Eve. of the for Out of the union of these two elements the usage fully Christmas tree seems to have sprung. which grows neighbourhood. which of Jan. was full blown next day. : "Auft . appears the the time in ^^4. and which was remembered Glastonbury Thorne. there was no appearance of 5th blowing. and of went all night. refused going : Church and treating their friends on that day. thought old Christmas prudent to give notice that the Day should be kept holy as before. New but. which.^ of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth Fir trees ^ Compare pp. no appearance a bud. "^Memorabilia quaedam Argentorati ohsei'vata. 4. 'twas agreed by all. which contains a striking report. first developed. when it blow'd as usual. could not be the right Christmas Day. which ascribed that wonder to every night between December 24 and December 25. Geschichte.174 the Historical YULE AND CHRISTMAS Chronicle (for January) of the : Gentleman^s Magazine for 1753. but the people.

adorned with roses cut out of many-coloured leaf-gold. in AND CHRISTMAS 175 the rooms. Bayrisches Worterbuch. sweets. These with their artificial flowers remind the reader too clearly of me legendary blossoming and fruit-bearing apple trees of Christmas eve to admit of the connection with them being overlooked.. ^ In an etching by Joseph Kellner. Were they numerous and they meant luck. A Salzburg regulation about forests. on the other hand. when cherry trees." tree is The further evolution and spreading of the Christmas ix. Die Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht. Whilst. The blossom oracle looks very much like the Roman cake oracle with the Strenae and had not special heathen ideas and practices been connected with them. or similar early-blooming bushes were put into water in order to be kept fresh for some time. CHRISTES M^SS. Nay. 35I-355' Schmeller. forbids i. so that were. In all probability something similar was done with the green trees at the Roman Calends of January. the direct link between the two is And even supplied by popular custom. daran hencket Aepfel. on the one hand. 256-278. In the Weihenachten richtett man Dannenbaum zu Strasburg in den Stuben auff. were they scarce and crippled. has to be dated about 1790.^ fruits. this was the natural consequence. etc. and by preference such as bore with its fruits of a colour different from that of the leaves. and mistletoe with white ones . I. a fortnight before New Year. elaborately treated in my book. since the sixteenth century at least. or later on at Christmas. ''' pp. chap. which. beautiful all. The probable etymological connection 1 between "^aV^/boschen" and the '^baadus episcopalis" was pointed out on pp. and and fixed in a rectangular frame.— . were put up papers. or not apparent at they were considered unlucky. put into water in a at warm they had a chance to bud and bloom New Year. of 1755.. the Church would scarcely have taken the trouble to forbid their application to festive purposes.e. like holly its red berries. Zischgolt. the taking from the forests oi Bdchlboscheii or Weihnachisboschen^ bushes not trees —so that the custom of putting up bushes to at Christmas must Christbescherens then have prevailed. 271. man pflegt ^ rossen auss vielfarbigem papier geschnitten. apples. Man darum ein viereckent ramen zu machen. NATIVITY. and pp. hawthorn. p.. tr£es. boughs of cherry trees and hawthorn place. Zucker. according costumes. evergreens were applied. The blossoms were used as an oracle. the presentation of Christmas gifts shown. . 100 and 10.. the Das is Oder der frohliche Morge?i. etc.

One family competed with house which as late the other to have the finest tree. 248-9. Albrecht Adam. but months before Christmas.^ members of that The same was done tree is as 1858 with cherry boughs. 91. von Holland. elder boughs. Volkstumliches aus Sonneberg. of the religion of the cross among the Christian Germanic ^ My Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht. p. in themselves not the power of transforming Germanic usage and But inspired with a by the Christian religion and a its legendary apparatus.176 YULE AND CHRISTMAS corner of the room stands a fresh green tree in foUage.i and the autobiography of the painter. Weimar. pp. . on the basis of as evidence.^ is no doubt the modern Christmas and bushes in simply an artificial substitute for these trees bloom. in his youth at Nordlingen. and lime boughs. a cherry or agriot tree was put into a big pot in the corner of the room. fir tells that. and indeed added much had the most So there to the festive joy. not the dark tree was in use at Christmas eve. after the fourteenth century quite all new world of popular which too long been regarded as a relic of purely Germanic antiquity. and the beautiful were very proud. '^Albrecht 3 Adam's Selbstbiographie. That was regarded as a great ornament. but historical which we now. herausgegeben A. who was born in 1786 at NdrdUngen. 23. which bears three lit candles and other adornraents. 92. are entitled to claim a great product of the popularisation nations. 1858. near Coburg. they produced tradition. The Roman new has life Calends-of-January customs had belief. Schleicher. so that at Christmas it stood in full bloom and extended along the ceiling. pp.

in part very uncertain. the of Roman year.D. and Anglo-Saxon poetry. We have no literary documents the Scandinavian dialects of the eighth. ninth. and the Roman week. to can show not only how the power passed over from the Romans Germanics in Gaul. tenth. Germanics Roman writing and learning. There we have no early records first that might compare with our Latin sources from the to the eighth century. Gaul. THE SCANDINAVIAN YEAR. after the is introduction about A. the Western literary — there exist no such connective links Roman and all the Scandinavian worlds. Roman characters. very few fragments having come down to us written before the year 1250 time when for — many centuries Western civilisation had been influencing fairy- Scandinavian tribes at home. there is a continuous stream in of literary the tradition between the Roman and political the Germanic periods west of Europe. While we. of the texts 1 Even the history which were written down 150 of in Iceland. Roman months. but also how Roman civilisation and Roman habits and customs. dealing with Roman and Western Germanic in relations. Spain. culture. and Britain. Old Saxon.a CHAPTER XIII. Roman weekbetween the at days were gradually accepted and popularised among. Germany. and Asia Minor brought these men into M . and eleventh centuries which could stand by the side of our oldest Old-High-German. Italy. and the names by. and the Viking voyages of large numbers of North-Eastern Britain. and while by the medium of historical documents. Germanics had on the coasts of Germany. a great number of Eastern stories and tales had been communicated to them.

close contact

and eye
to eye with the

whole world of Roman, Romance,

and even

partly of

Greek and Eastern

Yet we possess, from

the pen of a Greek,

sixth century report

on a Scandinavian

though on one which, under

circumstances, must

have been partial


in the sixth

century the inhabitants of northern Scandinavia

had been
to the


days without sunlight, they used to send messengers

summits of the highest mountains to look out whether now the

sun would soon return.


he had






everywhere that



days the light would reach the ground of the


a great rejoicing arose, and the highest festival of the year

was celebrated.

For although the same event took place every

year, the

inhabitants of the Norwegian islands were perhaps afraid
that the sun

might happen

would not






the day of the


Procopius, Bellum




Me^' o6j


Aavwi' rh




^La^ofiivuv a<pai twv ryde


^ari 8i

uKeavbv d^iKS/xevoi ivavriWovTO, QoCXy




es ^70;/.

Bperraviai ykp
irpbs iv




yrj fiiv






iv Ta&rrj rrj


iK tov

vXelaTov Tvyxdvei



TpiaKaLSeKa ^Ovq ToXvavOpuwdTaTa 'idpvrai' ^acriXels ri

Kard, ^Ovos 'iKacrrov.

ivravda ylverai dvk irdv Itos















irdvra tovtov rbv XP^^°^



bk oiix ^cffov ^ ?f
v/jffov raijTris




rpoirds -^Xios ^ikv is


(peid re dir'






diripavros KaraKixvTai'



wdvra tovtov rbv xp^fov

toi)s rrjde

dvOpdiwovs, ewel dXX'ffKoLS iirifilyvvaOai









rwv re elp-qpAvwv



Kaiirep yXixo/J-ivip, rpdirip





d^iKo/Jiivuv iirvvdavbp.y)v

irork dtol re *









dXridrj re /cat Tricrrbv ^ippaaav.

roh Kadi]Kovai xP^vols rbv yhp ifKibv <f>a<n. recrcrapd(palveadai









Si rois rah-ifi dvdptbirois


vpbi ?w,



iireiddv ofhrep

odv iiraviCov



rbv bpi^ovrd re







dvicrxovra rd





viKja /dav




rdv vvktuv



T^s ye aeX-^vrjs


SpaaOai. del rots dpbpLois reKpLrjpioijfievoi rb







rpidKovra T]fiepwv xp^''o^






rQv dpQv rdj virep^oXds,

avro2s rovrb ye,

rbv re






irivre iv




Si iravSruiel iravrjpvpl^ovaiv

eiiayyiXia Kal ravra


re QovXlrais
oZroi, Kaiirep


ruv iopruv




TrepiSeeis dei



ravrb ^vfi^aivov

dvd irav


irore a&rofis iiriXeiTroi rb

napdirav 6 ^Xios.




was the 19th of December, and towards the end of

8th of that month.


period of forty days of the sun remaining

below the horizon would, therefore, have extended from

November 29




festival at the

end of


was accordingly the


more southerly people
a region
of such


and the






expanse such a custom should evolve

almost as natural as


impossible that

should arise in a region in

which the sun never stays

for forty-eight hours

below the horizon.

can scarcely be said to contribute anything to our general knowledge

of the Germanic division of the year, and

we have

rather to regard



a singular curiosity than as a fact connected
with the

by the




stock of Germanic lore, which was at one time believed




Northern Germanics.




only the

charm and genuineness of the marvellously





of Iceland





thirteenth centuries, that explained


the literature

of the











especially in

Denmark and Germany, was regarded by






and genuine expression of ancient Germanicism.

There was
of late










Norwegian and Icelandic poetic


which we are wont

by the
not an


of the





of songs

outline of the art of

composing poetry as



of Snorri Sturluson)

were thought to be the stock of poetry which originally had been

the basis





had to be taken


of Germanic







any longer, though in minor questions some
that prejudice.





means been freed from

So Professor Karl Weinhold

base his conceptions

of the

Germanic year of ancient times

on a singular statement made by Snorri Sturluson
a reconstruction of the ancient



the thirteenth century in Iceland, instead of taking as his basis for such

conceptions on the course of the year,

the huge pile of solidly

warranted historical facts that can be gathered

from contemporaneous and principally Latin sources, from





century in


Germany, and


He makes





of fulfilment,

by declaring



given by Snorri

Sturluson in chapter

of the Ynglingasaga, to the effect that the Northern

Germanics about the middle of January made great
for fertility, guarantees this as a



genuine and ancient heathen custom

in his

very proposition which has to be proved.^



however, to

state in what he thinks the guarantee to consist.

Three times over he has

elaborately dealt with the problems connected with the Germanic year

pamphlets on the German division of the year, and on the German

names of months, and

a chapter of his

Old North


Whilst the

of these writings rests on the assumption that the Germanics divided






and equinoxes









that they

had not even words

for them), the


from the few comparatively early attempts to
of months over a larger territory, and tries

use the same

German names



what measure they were successful, instead of ascertaining
early popular tradition about



months and


names among
he arrives
pure chance

the various



and showing then how

determined the action

of those early reformers

of calendar-denominations.


conclusion that the ancient

Germanics had had


the very






reached by


through a long course of historical evolution, with the solitary distinction
that the

Germanics began

their year a quarter of a

year earlier than the


on October

instead of January


In his book on old Scandinavian
Zeitschrift des

Professor Weinhold

has tried

1894, Heft I., p. 100: "Die Nordgermanen (Weinhold confuses here the winter solstice with the middle of January, on which the offerings previously to the time about 940 were made, according Morris and Magniisson's to Heimskringla, Story of Hakon the Good, chap, xv.,

Vereines fiir Volkskunde,




Translation, Vol.



163) die grossen Opfer


grodhrar, d.








eine Angabe, die,

wenn auch



Jahrhundert von einem

Christen gemacht, dennoch Echt und Altheidnisches verbiirgt.

Karl Weinhold, Uber die deutsche Jahrteilung, Kiel, 1862
Altnordisches Leben, Berlin, 1856, pp. 371-383.


Die deutschen Monat-

na7nen, Halle, 1869, and Altnordisches Leben, Berlin,

1856, pp. 371-383.


It is true


to give a theory of the ancient northern year.

he has leamt
than of

from Ideler^ that the Runic ahnanacs of Scandinavia Germanic, of

are, rather

Roman and

Christian origin


but he has &iled to apply this

knowledge to the divisions of time
identical with the institutions of the

among Scandinavians, and almanac of old Rome. He thinks it

even probable that the Germanics, without foreign influence,

upon the

week of seven week came





an established

fact that that


to the



through the Romans, as



by the names of the week-days, which exactly correspond to the

Roman Grimm assigns to the fourth or fifth century a.d. the introduction of Roman week among the Germanics, but I should rather be inclined to


to the


century before or after Christ's birth.

Professor VVein-

hold's statements in that
It is true that the

book can

scarcely be taken seriously

any longer.

Germanics of Caesar's time observed the new moon, the

moon, and so on


it is

not true that either Caesar^ or Tacitus* says

that decisive divisions of religious

were based upon them.^


from that supposition that

in Caesar's

time periods of fourteen days or

of twenty-eight days must have existed, and he declares these periods of
twenty-eight days

be identical with months of



In one

place" he says that Germanic heathendom

based on things very different

from the observation of




another place® he ascribes to the

heathen Germanics a whole
contact with

"art" of astronomy, of which before their
they apparently



knew next




speaks of a " popular astronomy " of the ancient Scandinavians,® though

he adds that nothing


of it


ftirther states that this


(of which, according to
to images


we know nothing) was





and yet produced bye and bye observations


chiefly the

division of time.'*'



maintains that the

thing the Germanics did was to

" exactly "^^ the four regions of


Uber das Alter der RunenkaUfuUr^ Abhandlungen der Berliner Akademie der Wissen*

schaften, Philolc^;isch-Historische Klasse, 1829- :832, pp. 49-66.
P- 373'

Bellum Galluum, VI. ,
« P.



Germanta^ chap. xL

P. 374. 372.


P. 383. P. 372-

Pp. 371-372-

9 P.

P. 372.


Compare pp. ed. 375. etymology proves this conclusively.. This statement. ^Vtgastyrs saga.^ according to the dual division ^P. p. 376. he goes on to declare that a is tri-partition of the year never took root in Scandinavia either. chap. 5 and 6 of the present book. implies a fourfold partition of the year. as much at discord six He admits that the Norwegian summer of months is divided into three three-score-day tides — Vaarmoaner. 1828. 22. 1015. But he tries to explain that fact I quite Professor Weinhold winter. As has been shown already. iii. and was not arrived at without Roman that. influence. In reality that partition took root. if it implies anything. suggests a combination of two such periods into a long hundred of days. makes the observation that 360 days are He life maintains that the phases of the moon played a part in the religious is of the ancient Germanics (for which there no evidence). that the Germanic year began with the beginning of of and that the Scandinavian year olden times began between October 9 and ^ 14. 1013. III. and yet does away. as four Hues further down he just three long hundreds. Sumarmoaner. whilst in certainly reahty this one of the we find among them. p. agree with not overlook the fact that the Scandinavians celebrated three great annual festivals. Altnordisches Saemundar. Havniae. Deutsche Monatnamen. YULE AND CHRISTMAS and is that the division of the day latest things was based upon it. he with himself as before. ^Weinhold. doubtless much older than any definite denomiThere is no doubt division of the year into nation such as spring and autumn. Finn Magnussen. in regard to which Germanic tongues are much at variance with each other. among the Scandinavians. Htmanadir^ mentioned by If Weinhold himself. The very fact that the three later months Professor learnt common name. Leben.^ is an assertion which not reconcilable with his other affirmation (in 1894) that the Germanic year was based on solstices and equinoxes.^ proves that in the thirteenth century people had to count the year in quarters. This suggestion has and Haustmoaner —a fact which. by its very existence. though somewhat of winter were given a late. Edda . and that consequently.152 the sky. As little true is it that the fourfold partition of the year never took root in Scandinavia. *•?.^ The names of winter and summer are common Germanic expressions. there existed a two parts. not failed to present itself to his mind. 378.

putting the winter on January 14 and the summer 14 Jbl. November : frermdnudhr. according to the milder climate of Denmark. besides Ridemaaned. winter-month. month of New Northern. 183 summer began between on to say that (while came again ever more strongly into April 9 and 14. even the later Scandinavians have not twelve names which. for sddhtidh. heyant. cattle (?) \^ New Icelandic after the howling of the storm (?) . rutting time of stags. New Icelandic morsugr. 376-378. 'Jul-' month ^ . . eggtidh. — he into leaves entirely the basis of fact. could be called month-names. which allows work on the field so late in the year. formerly. In truth.^ we have the following denominations of the Roman months October: gortnanudhr. speculation. called thus after gor. be assumed to have been those of the twelve alleged Germanic months. Sddemaaned. ^ The interrogation and exclamation marks are mine. were halved by solstices in midwinter and midsolstice summer. the first part of which is *'hay" list are not month-names. that these incisive days were strongly accentuated by religious and were the states principal religious points in the course of the year.: THE SCANDINAVIAN YEAR of the year. and calling January when he maintains festivals. month of sowing. with any probability. which in historical times the foreground. sucker or eater of bacon. According to Professor Weinhold's own of Scandinavian month-names. excrementa intestinorunif from the cleaning of the intestines of killed >'//>. when he of that the Northern year was based entirely on it the course nature. December: hrutmdnudhr. Modern Northic. egg-time (April). after the (Not of swine?) frost . 372. ^ Pp. heyannir. whilst before^ he had stated that was based on astronomic observations. sowing-time (March). Nobody is able to point out twelve names of months which can. month of rams(?). solstice on July 14. But when he goes on the preceding page he had maintained that the quartering of the year never took root in Scandinavia) these two seasons of about 180 days each. in a proper sense. Danish. and jumps into a world of unjustifiable And he quite fails to establish his theory that the Scandinavians knew of a division of the year into twelve months before they came contact with the world of Roman civilisation. On p.

Danish. month skortant. and contradictory names as having sprung from one and being genuinely Germanic. March : sAdhtidh. : August kornkurdharmdnudhr. month (?) . May : sdlmcLnudhr. after the fleecing of the sheep. 184 YULE AND CHRISTMAS : yanuary name.i but is of the month of the same origin as Anglo-Saxon Thrilidi. Danish Faaremaaned. . Danish Homaaned^ Icelandic hay-month. . spring. and Hostmaaned. September : haustmdnudhr. Nobody even will regard this conglomerate of mutually inconsistent root. einmdnudhr. hoant. Norwegian Torre. Danish —unex(?) plained name. native Most of the names are very vague attempts to give names to the new periods of about thirty days taken over from the Romans. the cuckoo or harpa New month of — unexplained . Thurrmaaned. in other words. sowing-time (!) . harvest-month Danish Ftskemaaned. heyannir. The New name tvtmdnudhr. harvest-month. Swedish Gdja. Norwegian Gjd. Its duplicate served as an intercalary month. —unexplained. from putting up the hurdles for lambs. 13 to 15 of the present book. month of lambs. with dry weather Norwegian Krikla or Kvine . of reaping. . Swedish Thoree — unexplained Goie : Goi. midsummer. sun-month : New yum yuly : selmdnudhr. Even the Germanic denominations of the old three-score-day tides ^ Compare pp. from sel. Swedish varant. as explained by the fact " that August in neighbour month " other Grimm supposed and Professor Weinhold holds. February Thorri . April : eggitdh. Swedish. arbour. skorde- maaned or the same . be many places shared its name with a (which feature August has in common with almost every year). Icelandic.. summer-month. Odin's month. important month New Icelandic. and Skdrsomar. Icelandic eggtid. or. hay-month Danish Ormemaaned. Swedish Tormaaned. August was the month that was doubled the reign of the pre-Julian in Scandinavia in the leap years under Roman calendar. double-month. cannot. worm-month Swedish New Icelandic selmdnudhr. time of eggs sieckiidh. . fish- month.

which people had learnt to observe according to Roman custom. slowly shifting this backwards. the year was taken as It consisting of 52 weeks at 7 days each. January liuleis. however. Thornstein Surt found an admirable means to meet The Roman week of seven days had (as was remarked above) been introduced to the Germanics very early. influence. Thornstein found the proper way to escape the difficulty by keeping the year of 364 days and adding a leap week every seventh year. an intercalary month was put in every fourth year by the doubling of the month of August. . Gothic as monthly name is Modern Northic. ^ insufficiency. but When the Julian Calendar. 950 and 970 that. was adopted. and was in Scandinavia rooted 12 full much more deeply than the Roman far year of 365 days and months. and Now it the Northern year so in use had comprised 52 seemed to the people of Iceland most desirable not to interfere with the division of the year through the week without a fraction remaining behind. As regards the respective frequency of the festive tides mentioned. and in those periods of seven years which contained two leap years after the Roman fashion adding one every sixth year. that year being called leap year (hlaupar). 1856. As long as the preJulian Roman calendar prevailed among Scandinavians.. or in from December 14 to February appears solely in growth. it was noted that was wrong.THE SCANDINAVIAN YEAR have been made use of so little 185 for that purpose that the till common Germanic Scandinavia a name for the time from November ii 14.d. of course. would naturally become more easily familiar with leap weeks than with leap days. statement is In the Heimskringla more than once the repeated that the Scandinavians had three great festive tides. p. weeks. in Iceland. especially when the congruity of 52 weeks and a year was preserved. had had leap months. or 364 days. was between the this years a. it appears that the most important ^ Islendingab6kt chapter iv. 379. not so very long before. of artificial We know Roman little of the development of the Scandinavian year under we know something about it. A tribe which. The Islen- dingabdk was written by An after the year 1134. the beginning of summer. Altnordisches Leben. 11. and there. Weinhold.

understood to this mean it the time between December 21 and January 13." i. The Yule by law at had be advanced only by a few days Harald to agree with Christmas. being called hokunoit. . perhaps. hewing-night (from hoggva. when he wrote did not remember that single days. From passage appears that Professor Weinhold. hawk-night. but three-score-day tides in winter time. December 31). hook-night. swine. day 2 also was kept holy. because the very names of October it {gormdnudhr. kaukan6lt. 2 Weinhold apparently meant the eve of December 14. in a wider sense. obscure. It and being named by a name primeval and 14). these facts Yule-festival In the face of Weinhold maintains is : Among it all feasts of heathendom. the son of this harfagrs. King Hakon least for Adalsteinfostri. blotmanad) point to the fact that with the great cattle-killing time. slagtmanad. the Gothic word liuleis and Anglo-Saxon Geola do not mean The same term {Jot) must at one time have meant in Scandinavia the time from December 14 to February 12. offering-night (a term. Yule bye and bye received a is duration of ten days. being the anticipation of the cele- bration of the winter solstice."* it. was the fact at between October 9 and 14. and if we will not make the year begin in the middle of such a three-score-day tide. ••Page 380. I should rather be inclined to derive the word from hog. I fail to see we must allow one to pass before we come to Yule-tide. what induces Professor Weinhold to suppose a festival to have ever been ^ In reality at vetrndttum refers to the time about October 14. 'Other explanations given by Weinhold are hoggundtt. For we know that the Scandinavian year began at October 14.. was held in the winter night ^ (December ?) and originally (how does Professor Weinhold know comprised three days.e. the the most important. " as its natural basis. In Norway. a which we cannot be astonished. When Christianity was introfacilitated duced. the familiarisation of fact that festival its customs was very much to those of the holy tides were close to heathen. an abundance of fresh meat unequalled in the whole course of the year.^ offering of the year The preceding The principal by the was celebrated its at Yule. was identical and had. identical with English hog-maney.1 86 YULE AND CHRISTMAS festive tide at " winter-nights. fixed Norway advance by ten days. Yule. to hew).

the date of which he shifted. in Iceland it shape of an Allthing a very late time." etc." viii. Weinhold . It is in no way apparent from why the Scandinavians did not prefer to celebrate the winter solstice at date.^ As regards celebration. till Norway it seems to have fallen in the somewhat it was preserved that.. he moved one back.. according to the rules laid down in 999. was not celebrated at all in the middle of December. and Ynglingasaga. So the festival. chap.. viz. given by Dahlmann. Whilst Jbl extended from December 14 to February 14. shows the same lack in historical insight. is the great Thing of Iceland : in the Now.. and Hdkojiarsaga godha^ chap. but a considerable time after the date of Christian Christmas.. "hit thridhja at sumri. Geschichte von Daenemark. 227-231. * helga. "til sigrs. . xxi. chap.. himself says " The Scandinavian year began with the winter in historical ^Page 380.d. The sketch of the calendar of the Icelandic summer. II. to fix it King Hakon did not move forward a on December 25 . ^The passages Olafsaga etc. of the Heimskringla shows how that strange confusion was created. in. proper December it 17 (in 901 a. pp. but are alleged to have celebrated an "anticipation" of festival on December 14. It is not without reason that modern the three-score-day the thirty-day tide Norway counts Yule till January 13. tha fagna their sumari. Vol. being vouched so well the feast al sumri (between June and which he. 14. entirely erroneous. civ. xv. lasted from December 14 and at the January is Professor Weinhold of opinion that the two feasts at the beginning less end of winter were of til drs. forgetting all about the Scandinavian climate. seems to assume to have been celebrated in March or April. as his it saying is that summer was without any more important few 9 things 14). Whilst during the Vikings' time of into the background.. period Jbl^ to sprang out of the former. Assuming there had ever been a on December where is the evidence that that festival was an "anticipation" of the solstice? chap..— THE SCANDINAVIAN YEAR celebrated on 187 his text its December 14. point in the very opposite direction. Professor Weinhold simply misunderstood festival the text of the Heimskringla. His reference to Olafsaga Tryggvasonar. which 13.).^ so time when history sets in reality. importance than the Jbl festival of spring festival^ the harvest festival and the spring and victory.

only very faint recollections of preserved. . is if a tri-partition to be assumed for the Scandinavian year as for the Western Germanic.1 88 YULE AND CHRISTMAS It times the beginning of winter was fixed on October 14. whilst the dual in the course it and of time superseded the tri-partition. Deutsche Monatnamen. the third term must have fallen in the middle of February division line went from October 9 to 14 to April 9 to 14. or a long hundred of days."^ apparently never occurred to him that June 9 to 14 and October 9 to 14 are distant exactly a third of a year. p. 22. being ^ Weinhold. so that. .

the tides. ed. SCANDINAVIAN OFFERING TIDES. It is needless to say that the dual division and the tri-partition of the Scandinavian year.CHAPTER XIV. enn hann skylldi veria land is theirra fyrir this lifridi. more remembered statements were to. paraphrases way." which the Latin translation which added. wit a penny for every head. skylldi biota f moti vetri til ars. in midwinter for the growth offering for gain of the earth. that var sigablot. " Tha 20 (^Saga Library. In the time when King Odin ruled on earth. : Ynglingasaga. but he was to sacrifice for bound : to ward their land from war.. and them for a good year " " Folk were to hold sacrifice against the coming of winter. Vol." ^ and a third in the summer that was an and '^Heimskringla. decisive traces of three-score-day tides are found in Scandinavia than in time there Germany and England. victory. as well tides allowing a combination of two complexes of three though much less as of three complexes of two tides. by Morris and Magmisson. are in the same way based upon an older partition of the year into six six Aryan tides as among the Western Germanics. chap. so that a number of mutually contradictory made about them. Vol. oc bl6ta ixs. which are found alongside each other. for a good year. hit thridhja at sumri. p.). But whilst had been three seasons was remembered well the fact that at one in the Scandinavia of the thirteenth century. I. III. "Sacrificia . enn at midhjum vetri grodhrar . biota til viii. the three terms which divided them were no exactly. Snorri Sturluson tells us about 1230 in the Heimskringla that "all over Sweden men paid Odin scat. fyrir Um alia Svithiod gulldu menn Odni skattpenning theim til nef hvert .

ut sacrificiaque omnem felicitate hostilem vim ingruentem armis propulsaret. had been there at midwinter and that there they had made king blood-offerings for peace and a good winter season. felicis anni adventu . journey. see the least willing to go this journey. such things again. pro victoria obtinenda. that ye hide the matter and do not face but however things have gone hitherto. he went straightway to it the king. 'I shall get to it . good deal be not of long after. Ynglingasaga. " Later on in the winter. answered and said that the bonders were sackless of that guilt. Ha%Tiiae. that The king answered little. and there deem good glee to drink together a many. left over .. and was rather truer than deeming that he wotted that other things were set forth. and to talk. and mickle dwelling round about. i. sub aestatem. and that Up-Thrandheimers were gathered together great blood-offerings in multitudes at . pro . and that the king was prima sub hiemem hieme. and was. quodvis caput nummo censebatur.. . that The bonders are not minded so to pinch them in their cheer as that a for the Yule-feast.' 'But says he. The king laid on hand to the Olvir bonders that they had had a midwinter blood-offering. pro annonae annique curaret" {Heimskringla af Snorra Sturlusyni. at the prayer of all who had fared the But the bonders Olvir undertook the And when he came down then fell to the town. And when the men and messages to the town. the truth. the king (Olaf the Holy) was told that the Mere. 1777. he sent deemed he knew for sure the truth of this. I90 YULE AND CHRISTMAS When Snorri. 13). 'Yule-biddings and drink-bouts and wide about the countrysides. in the Story of still Olaf fuller the Holy (loi 2-1030). pro annonae (jussit Othinus) institui. this is it men were it a-drinking At Mere there a great chief-stead and big folk houses. Per totam Sueciam. do no again. far *We had. he gives a thus : account. qui Othino solveretur. his proxima. media in felicitate et ubere glebae tertia. which was now yet. to wit. Historia Kegum Norwegicortim conscripta a Snorrio Sturlae filio. later in the Heimskringla.' cross-grained. lord. again touches on that point.' journey that it So the bonders fared home and told of their had been none of the smoothest. So now the bonders had a parley and talked over this message between all them and they were winter before. The know king bade the bonders go back. and summoned the bonders down wisest naming by name such men as he deemed the among them. still up into Thrandheim.' said he.

vetri. Now short while after Asbiorn took the heritage of his father. and another at midwinter. to He wont. at hafa threnn blot hvern vetr. *Chap. ^ . friends. p. Now it is their wont to have a blood-offering in autumn to welcome the winter. cxv. wellnigh the folk are all-heathen in their faith. 214. chap. is men's goods and fining the Another account the following:* lesser state. But Asbiorn ^Sa£a Library. of eighteen winters. and many others.. en annat at midhjum thridhja at sumri. the third against [should be t'n] And when he took christening. Isle folk. "But at home at his house Sigurd was in no way a man of While heathendom was. even as his father had had. heritage after Then was Asbiorn father. by Morris and Magniissen. then. he was wont to have summer. and bade yet many men to him and a to this third feast he had at Easter." . Heimskringla. eitt at vetmottum. slaying Olvir rest. And wont he held as long as he Sigurd died of sickness." *Ibid. that the year's increase took to worsening. ." ^ 191 The truth about the story tell. p. also a multitude. one at winter-nights. to carry out the blood-feasts the feast. chap. Vol. hindered the taking other festival by means of force. it took the his and he too held the old and had was but a three feasts every year. 194. another at midwinter. he held the same wont in the matter of the feasts.. is told to the king by Thorald:^ "This are. In autumn. the Verdale-folk. though some men be there who are christened. that is the truth to king.. p.. The Story of Olaf the Holy. cxxiii. Vol. and There are twelve men who take upon themselves . haustum ok fagna thd vetri. cxiv. and the sowings of folk failed. consequently brought all the goods which are needed for the feast.SCANDINAVIAN OFFERING TIDES something wroth. their at " En that er midhjum sidhr theirra at hafa blot & vetri. 196. and now next spring is it is Olvir's turn to uphold and now he in much ado at Mere. he had mickle bidding of again and in winter a Yule-bidding.^ three blood-offerings every year. tha fagna their sumari. and thither have been Olaf.^ These are the ways of the the Skaun-folk. if I am all to tell things as they throughout Upper Thrandheim. ' *' Sigurdhr var vanr. and the third at summer for the welcoming of summer. annat blot hafa en hit thridhja at sumri. the Sparebiders. II. and had then lived." sailing there. IV.

the corn was no it whit better than had been afore. too. by Thorir. But Asbiorn would not have harvest-time he went to see his it friends. and. then invited him to the Yule-feast. and got that he upheld as gift from some. and the preceding winter part of a year's circle. that But Asbiorn refused." And in came to pass that year. summer. called Ijuleis. some or all of them. his ship all When. so that they must needs begin their year with the beginning of winter." we learn not only from Snorri himself 'Compare pp. and in good stead then. stood him that there was this old corn and other old stores that were needed. The Goths of the sixth century. 17. that they were . being according to to the quartering of the year Snorri's Roman assumed custom. he went aboard he was robbed of it and got corn sold to him in the south. with his mother and such of their men as they would take with them. although every remark made doubt. Thorir after slandered him. done so in away with. as Snorri contradicts himself about them at various places of his book. and so bought corn whereso it he might. his feasts. But when season wore and the next came round. which was prevalent in to own time. will naturally be liable to much A very critical attitude. festival There can be no doubt about the autumn — the feast af vetrnbttum. however. "for a good year" century the feast of the year's beginning. Then would this Sigrid have the feasts . who. slew him before King Olaf's These three annual offerings point clearly to the old tri-partition of the in contradiction Germanic year. and when eyes. has to be taken up as regards the dates of these three festive times adorned with blood-offerings. quite consistent as regards this point. began Snorri's story is with November a new tide of sixty days. by a Christian writer of the thirteenth century about the four hundred state of things years before that time. however. 18. About the offerings "against the coming of winter. For apart from the fact that the record first of such a festival agrees with the statement of Tacitus of the of our era.— ig2 YULE AND CHRISTMAS it held to the same wont as to his feasts. may well be be historical truth. it has been pointed out before^ that the Germanics in olden times regarded the preceding night as part of a day.

p. 80. An exact description of the festivities of these Stoty of Halfdan the Black. (Heimskringla. With all the hlaut should the stalls of the gods be reddened. But when Halfdan was one winter old. the next autumn they offered up men. Vol. and the hlaut-tein a rod made in the fashion of a sprinkler.d. * xliii. and redden the seats of the gods with the blood of him . Vol.d. great blood-offerings at Upsala the first autumn they offered up oxen. set on him and slay him. and the Swedes were So they drew together ill content therewith. when King Olaf Traetelia of Sweden was offered up " for the connected plenty of the year" (640 a. There also was slain cattle of every kind. chap. I. his father.^ These autumn offerings were with great feasting.. their king. Vol. is given in the Story of Hakon the Great.. in the autumn-tide fared King Gudrod a-guesting. xvi. whenas the sacrifices should be. when a blood-offering should be. that they should chap. 29. iv. there came to him at midnight the man. I.). bringing with them all the victuals they had need of while the feast should last ." etc. but none the more was the earth's increase bettered . (Ibid. or worse it might be . I. Ynglingasaga. and the men-folk also besprinkled . xviii." which — /// grbdhrar It — he mentioned in before as the peculiarity of the midwinter festival. " Now. his son-in-law.) : " It N . I.. King Olaf was a man but little given to blood-offering. all the bonders should come to the place where was the Temple. and fell on King Olaf. was the olden custom that. liii. a great host. and the increase of the year was the same. (Ibid. and took the house over him and burned him therein.).. but also for the bettering of the " earth's increase. and deemed that thence came the scarcity. Vol. 784). and the king was very merry with drink " (a. 62. Ynglingasaga. Ynglingasaga.). Vol. Ynglingasaga. p. " King Halfdan went in the autumn out to Vingulmark . with caldrons thereover. and even so they did" {Ibid. and at that feast should all men have ale with them. 71. offering him up for the plenty of the year" (Ibid. blood-offerings p.). chap. but the flesh was to be sodden for the feasting of men. " The next autumn fared King Granmar and King Hiorvard. p.. but the third autumn came the Then held the great Swedes flockmeal to Upsala. 165 s.). and in Then the Swedes set up on the Swedes great hunger and famine.... and great drinkings there were. ^ " Domald took his days there fell : and withal that they should sacrifice him for the plenty of the year. and ruled the lands .. 66. chap.. chap. I. and gave him to Odin.^ to him the heritage of Visbur. and were of one accord that this scarcity was because of Domald. ^ was apparently autumn also. to guesting in the isle called Sili at their own manor therein" {Ibid. 3 «' xlvii. Vol. and horses withal . men counsel together.SCANDINAVIAN OFFERING TIDES 193 not merely brought to the gods for " a good year " in general. p. p. and all the blood that came from them was called hlaut. and the walls of the temple within and without. but ^/a«/-bowls were they called wherein the blood stood. yea. and lay on his ship in Stifla-sound. Fires were to be made in the midst of the floor of the temple. chap.).. and so on a night whenas King Halfdan was a-feasting. I.

both are mentioned with about equal frequency. indeed. should sign the cups and all the meat ." eighth century.D..D.. there is not a single mention Then for some time.. . Thus King Granmar and his son-in-law. I. thither came King Ingiald with his army on a night. and first should be drunken Odin's cup for the victory and dominion of the king. thus King Halfdan was surprised and forced to flee into the woods about 830. and are frequently used by some enemy as opportunities to slay the men when to the year drunk. King Hiorvard. 1891. I. Mythologie. and he did a deed that was great of fame. iv. I.^ festival stands first is Up 840 the autumn and. p. Vol." Ynglingasaga. until. Story of Harald ^ . whilst that date the importance of the Yule-feast grows as rapidly as the festivity autumn St. or October 9 to 14. as festival of 1891. Paul's ^Mythologie.D.^ nights. to guesting in the isle called Sili at their own manor therein and so while they were at this feasting. v. chap. xliii. If and finally is merged entirely in late as a simple Christian Michaelmas."^ this can. in Paul's Grttndriss der germanischen Philologie. Strassburg. i. I. Earl Sigurd was the most bounteous of men. p. . his son-in-law. Grey-cloak. and all his folk with him. chap. the Ynglingasaga. whereas he made great feast of sacrifice at Ladir. 205. among the three annual festive tides. Strassburg. and took the house over them.194 All through YULE AND CHRISTMAS. in p. and A.. 62. chap. 1127. 1891. and burn their houses. the story kings in Norway up to 825. Vol. and men drank also a cup to their kinsmen dead who had been noble..e. Vol. 1125. HeitJiskri7igla. Thereafter were many men wont to drink the Bragi-cup . and Story of Halfdan the Black. made to it. Ynglingasaga. Their date was at vetrnottum. among the and the health-cups should be borne over the fire. chap. and was the lord thereof. up to that year. Now. and that was called the cup of Memory. about after 1000. Hermann Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. Thus King Pudrod was murdered about 784. the great festivities and banquets are held autumn. and burned them therein with all their folk. fire set to his house. even Eugen Mogk. at the winter- at the beginning of winter.. and then the cup of Niord and the cup of Frey for plentiful seasons and peace. while frequent reference of a Yule-feast A. about A. thus Earl Sigurd was surprised during the autumn festival at Oglo.. ^ Compare Eugen Mogk. But he who made the feast. calls the Yule festival "undoubtedly the highest our ancestors. decays. were slaughtered in the "The next autumn fared King Granmar and King Hiorvard. tells which stands of the oldest at the beginning of the of Heimskringla. and the stead burned and the earl therein. liii. Heimskringla. and alone sustained all the costs thereof. 970.

though probably under German influence. the great slaughtering time this fact lived still in 195 iooo. early on a morning at Karstead. and men deemed no otherwise than that the cow was dead or stolen away. Pfannen- Germanische Erntefate. tua cura Heimskringla. Olaus ad insulam Martinus episcopus Norvegiae Mostur nominatam adplicuit. Martin had appeared to Olaf Tryggvison. But a little short of Yule. and King Olaf also should be there. their fierce mind was appeased. among festival the Scandinavians. In chapter in of the Yngltngasaga.. he saw a neat before the byredoor.. 12. 317. dicens illi : Hie noctu innotuit ipsi moris in his terris esse solet." in ^Odo monachus schmid. Story of Olaf Tryggvison. 14. Ixxii. Summer it Festival. p. p. according III. and now finds that she is with and thinks good not to kill her . where the year began about October times." " So whereas the king spake thereafter all the talk . as the herdsman went to the b)Te according to his wont. Schiller. II. cum convivia celebrentur. Hunc ut mutes volo atque in mei memoriam in ilia posterum bibatur. and at the last it was determined that the midsummer feast of offering should be holden in at Mere. efficies. and went hopefully and peacefully. p. and thither should come all lords and mighty bonders. Odini ^ et aliorum asarum scyphos evacuare. in memoriam Thoreri. and laid his hand on her. chap. softly to the bonders.. and knew that thither was come the broken-legged cow which had been missing. * : ' xxiv. So he led the cow into the boose and bound her. Vita Olafi filii Tryggwii. in a dream. and withal he had by then done all the slaughtering his household whereof need was.^ feast of offering. 499 Ex Eoo mari veniens S. and bade in him up drinking This can honour of the old gods and drink St.d. p. 358. to Keissler. as the wont was . Saga Library. but when men went after her. Aniiquitates Septentrionales et Celticae. for and saw the cow. the story of which is laid about the year lOCX). and then told Thorod. chap. 173: "So in the autumn Thorod was minded to slaughter the cow. Vol. Krduterbuch. she was nowhere to be found. but found her not." I. Thorod sent after her often that autumn. Thorod went to the byre calf. ^ Somewhat later the autumn was even connected with Martinmas..— SCANDINAVIAN OFFERING TIDES Scandinavians. St. which even in Scandinavia."^ is referred to as "the midsummer and as clearly heathen ^ This is the date of the Eyrbyggjasaga. seems to have prevailed in later Things are not quite so simple with the viii. in his honour in future. and the The autumn was memory of Iceland about the middle of the thirteenth century. apply only to the time after a. King of Norway. about the end of the tenth century. * Vetus autem consuetudo ut deponatur conveniens est. only apply to the feast on Martin's day. A northern monk^ give told how. Snorri states that was celebrated the it summer at sumri — and in the story of Olaf Tryggvison (995-1000).

Thorbjorn rode to the Thing.. ^Mythologie. the wedding was held with a splendid dinner " p. after compared with the great festive tide This a. up to the Orkneys and Iceland. every summer.. Compare Maurer." p. p. 19 of his translation). p. Thjodrek's son. year. language midsummer 9 festival was held at sumri. approximately between June and 14. chap. which runs "Thorbjorn.e. in Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. who : believes in the quartering of the Germanic in June. 1855-56. to the Thing. in opposition to the Christian tendencies of Olaf Tryggvison. . p. where. midwinter the meant in Snorri's thirteenth century i. again. in his notes to his translation of the Hovard Isfjordingssaga. Story of Olaf Tryggvison.^ tides He is of opinion at that the offering places. Ixxiv. und der Beginn des Sommers fiel auf den Donnerstag zwischen dem 9 und 15 April) ungefahr um die St. Vol. p. various were at comparatively midwinter." p. 1127. also puts it I. 1127. rode every summer with his folk to the Thing. welches alljahrlich einmal in der elften Woche des Sommers (Auf Island wurde das Jahr namlich in Sommer und Winter geteilt. 1878.. 237. Heilbronn. Mythologie. in some degree to be admitted for the time 1000 but before that time the very contrary was the case. 129 " 1st kurzweg von Thing die Rede." The story of the Hovardsaga is laid in the tenth ^Heimskringla. It well ^Mogk. 233. . more men sometimes even the whole armsscattered along the coasts of the were abroad on board their bearing host was Baltic far ships. MUnchen." ^ and admits that at that time of the year the great Thing Professor Mogk assemblies were wont to be held. So does Willibald Leo." His note is a passage of the Hovardsaga (p. 319. so that in the west. as the simple enumeration of autumn offerings mentioned in the early parts of the Heimskringla shows.^ The offering was made "for peace and the plenty of the year. and and the German Ocean. in June and October.* It is not strange that the have lost its old consequence at a summer Thing should time when. Bekehrung des norwegischen Stammes sum Christentum. 21 "Thorbjorn rode home from the Thing with Gest to Bardastrand. although mentioned unimportant as is. 20: "In the same summer in which Hovard and his son went away.: ig6 YULE AND CHRISTMAS Although January i. " But in in the very same summer. * I. IL.d.. so ist dabei auf Island gewohnlich das fiir das ganze ' ' Land geltende Allthing gemeint. Johanniszeit (gegen Ende Juni) abgehalten wurde und 14 Tage wahrte. 32 explanatory of : : summer Thorbjorn rode century.

it. I. and from all parts of the land. as the wont coming of summer. and there at the same blood-offering should be at Uppsala in the time withal should be the Thing of all the Swedes.^ '"The was at the next spring went King Granmar to Uppsala to the blood-offering.. thither they seek There is holden the Thing It is of the Swedes. it and held Candlemas. p. it has been regarded as a feast of second rank. The Story of Olaf the Holy.. to a great guesting."^ It is to Snorri himself that we owe the detailed knowledge of the further tells evolution of that festivity.SCANDINAVIAN OFFERING TIDES accords therewith that I97 are the feast. touched comparatively seldom by Snorri and other existence tions of it. . des norwegischen Stammes zufit Christentum. the chief \ month of Gbi (February) then should be done blood-offering for peace and victory to their king. that he : ^Heimskringla. chap. 236.e. Ynglingasaga. Bekehrung II.). Thither folk should seek from the whole realm of Sweden. 'Maurer. Story of Half dan the Black. Vol. 1855-56. was in danger of being drowned." he the us in the Heimskringlay that "it was an ancient custom. which lasted for a week. Vol. all christened. xiii. ix. 863.). p. just as King Hring. was.. in A. I. Vol. while land was heathen. sit at Law-Thing and the market were holden there none the But now. because the ice of the lake broke over which he drove (Fridhthjdfssaga.D. Uppsala. for good peace .. chap.^ June 9 to 14. ill. This festival must not be confused with the feast at Hadaland {Heimskringla. Ixxvii. A market and a fair was there also. xlii. Ingibiorg. and the kings forbore at to flitted. riding home from which King Halfdan the Black was. and suchwise the lot fell to him thereat would not live long so he went home to his realm " {Heimskringla. drowned in the river through the ice breaking under him.). chap. chap. and that has prevailed ever and now is held for but three days. although the of a midsummer festival is proved by the few existing men- Beside there the Summer the Festival or feast at sumri. Miinchen. " In Sweden. when Sweden was the market was since. p. But when Sweden was christened. II. 62. ever since Maurer gave his opinion Professor that sense. 86. i. a Spring Festival "at the coming of summer." also containing a blood-offering "for good peace. and the Thing connected with writers. when he drove with his queen."^ very strange that this Gbiblbt should not have been recognised as one of the three old offering in tides. the less. but that. in eighth century.

chap. The bound to be one month begins one month later than the is Scandinavian. Shrove-tide. but Mittfasten. on those days the wheel as a symbol of the "^ at the time of the twelve nights tion. an im Freien Feuer entziindet. that of the sun. Vol. however. Snorri himself us^ how this festive tide. its eve being. these customs are observed not Shrove-Tuesday. rightly all. which tenth space. wiederkehrenden Sonne gewesen Ich glaube daher. in. p. with one reservais The time when i. diesen wo namentlich der Himmelsgott Freyr verehrt wurde. dass vielmehr dieses Fest das Fest der ist. zu Fastnachten. the god of the feel was revered. spater. is. Mythologie. gefeiert. and on fire. which was connected with a Thing and a market.." Ixxvii. 1126-27: " Neben diesem Hauptfeste das Goiblot wurde ungefahr einen Monat fiel im Februar im Norden . I. Mogk before enough. outside. this chief-offering at Uppsala.." '^"An diesen Tagen das ist es auch. Story of Olaf the Holy.. that at sky. same time at it is that up till to-day folk fires Then.. OF THE "^^ UNIVERSITY . i. the Sunday Laetare. the evening of February i. tells make the fields fertile. of course. werden draussen das Volk in Deutschland Feste feiert . Heimskringla. Freyr.e. Wagenrad ^ als Symbol der Sonne eine II. as it about one Easter putting month within later — about the of March —although is varies with right in a considerable the But Mogk clearly the Gbiblbt beside German sun-wheel-festivities. an diesen Tagen spielt Rolle. in the time after the Roman months had 1 Mogk.e. in those days the this Scandinavians began to the return and the air that feast was probably the feast of the sun the returning. In diese Zeit auch das Hauptopfer zu Uppsala. lit. a rule. touch with the Germanic three-score-day tide called which among Scandinavians must have meant.^ When he continues celebrate "About festivities.. sun plays a not —he is quite correct.. spring festivity since the Anglo-German winter about Martinmas. nicht zur Zeit der zwolf Nachte.— 198 YULE AND CHRISTMAS says. in Paul's (J 61) Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. in the open are part. wo noch ihnen. Thus the feast came into almost immediate Jbl. An Tagen beginnen die Scandinavier cine Ruckkehr der Sonne zu merken. rolled down from a hill-top to corresponding Anglo-German later. was shifted back from about the middle of February to the very beginning of the month (February 2). the characteristic of which set is that a is wooden wheel tied round about with ropes of straw.

the year had begun at tide vetrnbttum. December and January. Jbl received a significance While./*?/. the beginning of the year was now shifted over to mid. i.SCANDINAVIAN OFFERING TIDES been accepted.. January . or between October 9 and 14. 199 At the same time the middle of the three-score-day it had never possessed before.e. ending with January 31. formerly. i.

. the Spring Festival. in a little the fixing of these tides may have been over different various parts of the country. true are without doubt. . and is of opinion that there existed only festive tides. on the fundamental condition of olden times in economic existence festive . The Autumn celebrated Festival. which were not dependent on the position of the sun. the heaven that they felt sun drawing nearer I. tides On the other hand. It was only when they noticed that the days grew warmer through the resplendent star of ^ He says : from each other. kept between June 9 and ninth century. held between October 9 and 14. in his general remark on Scandinavian different " Sun and day were. the division of the year into six three-score-day was taken by the Germanics in prehistoric times. Summer to Festival. according Snorri's own report. of course. Strassburg." Paul's Grundriss der ger- manischen Philologie. in the minds of our ancestors. 1891. It is Eugen Mogk rejects the assumption of fixed Germanic festive days altogether.CHAPTER XV.e. no doubt strange that Snorri. or will perhaps of three hundred and and nobody according its deny that a established which counts the days of the year is to an standard It is absolutely in a position to fix festive tides very exactly. and the 14. p. It is tantamount to a counting even tribe of three sixty-six hundred and days. but rather on the fluence in- of the sun '^ upon the earth. between February 9 and 14. to them. the three great offering tides appearing up to the beginning of the Even the dates of them can be fixed very exactly. sixty days.. things thoroughly The Germanics cared little for the increasing of days. and. 1126. SCANDINAVIAN YULE. i.

is and mentioning strange. they fulfil all requirements of the three old Germanic beginnings of the single seasons. For the very same reason is not well possible to assail Snorri's statement when he maintains tides that the old Scandinavians had three great offering only. does mention these three. This the more Roman Autumn Equinox. Roman i. He being not only acquainted . as instead a feast between January 9 and 14. April t. being each distant from the others by four months or two it three-score-day tides. 261 not of the Ynglifigasaga. October Spring Equinox. leaving out the Spring Festival.SCANDINAVIAN YULE festive tides in chapter viii. but only two of them.

to 840. at all would have been only natural for him to look questions connected with the division of the year from the standquartering of the point of a year according to solstices and equinoxes. four hundred years previous to his own lifetime. xxiii.202 with YULE AND CHRISTMAS and brought up in the Christian saints' days. Records of single outstanding events may unchanged centuries in the memory life of a nation. the conditions of the more especially if his various reports are absolutely And it apparently escaped his notice that.. Story of Olaf the Holy). ^ all Special weight has therefore to be attached to his statements of his in which to the effect mind appears his for to have in been his free from any prejudice that conditions prevailing own time had obtained also in the far away past of live ancestors. and historians have state much inclined to assume that the of things recorded by the oldest prior to their people living held good also for two centuries own time. King Olaf . Snorri has no knowledge of the fact that. on the ninth of the Calends of January {Ibid. on Wednesday the fourth of the Calends of August (Heimskringla. p. over he apparently takes the festival.).. The Story of Sigurd Jerusalemfarer. irreconcilable. he a historical was himself unable previous ^ to give his instance of a Yule celebration spring festivals. but as regards things as are gone through customs and general conditions of year by year as — every older it — such We status is almost completely wiped out of ourselves find it memory to soon as disappears from reality. chap. but being also on close terms with the Roman calendar. Ixxix. Vol. though he thought that the festival about the middle of January was of ancient growth. The Story of Harald the Hard-redy.. festival about midwinter time first for an old Germanic On the other hand. should have different lived under conditions and forms of always been only from ours. II. chap. which at his time was the calendar it of his Icelandic compatriots. and although for him the word Jbl never means a single day. a writer of the half of the thirteenth century cannot be regarded as an authority on sixth or eighth century. p. 227. 157.). but in various places a shorter or longer festive period. Jbl denoted a three-score-day tide extending approximately December and January. on the Nones of January {Ibid. while fell records of autumn festivals. a life hundred years ago. difficult imagine that our own too ancestors.

story is of the same kind It {^Heimskringla. ordering that the holy tide should in future begin with December 25 after the Christian fashion. It was Hakon the Good. These.).e. p. 82. King of Norway from 940 to 963. Jblblbt elapsed between the two had taken the place of Gbiblbt} the And it could Gbiblbt. etc. 85.^ that the is last historical is Gbiblbt mentioned by Snorri to have been held. which Earl Sigurd There." almost immediately followed by another which connected with a story bearing a clearly legendary character. won such an importance was regarded as genuine and It is under King Granmar. p. Is it too daring a supposition that. completely absorbed in the Yule influence of the festival having everywhere else been which had arisen under that the it Roman calendar and old. chap. brought forth a man-child (Ibid. Bergliot. Ynglingasaga.. . it about the middle of the ninth century of by for the first time. his Yule-feast at first Thrandheim. p. Story dan Half "But all at Yule-tide King Halfdan (840-863) was It is guesting in Heathmark. a Yule-tide is spoken him as having been celebrated by guesting. in the eighth century. . chap. The next Yule i.). in his time. chap. chap xii. Story of is. is are serious facts. Story of Halfdan the Black. Vol.. and be kept in a festive and proper way.. Vol.SCANDINAVIAN YULE and summer festivals 203 festival were considerably older. Snorri's report on this important episode ^ Heimskringla. and that. his story Indeed.: Vol. Vol. Vol. on the night of Yule. in fact. 120. or tried to change. Snow-white. is ^ The oj first instance of a particular JSl occurring in the Heimskringla the Black. Hakon the Good. Harald Hairfair. and telling how all the victuals vanished from the festive table {^Heimskringla. feast ^King Hakon (940-963) held arrayed for him at Ladir. I. who changed. 62. merely preserved in a market in Sweden. the spring festival had completely disappeared from its when the Yule the made debut. however. have received with equal ease another name than Jblblbt. within the century which had events. the German fairy tale of Schneewittchen.. I. I. this state of affairs. p.d.. 161. v. xlii. and the only conclusion old spring festival was to be drawn from them that. about a. xxv. p. viii. which had its name from month of Gbi. and had heard is these tidings. . the earl's wife...' and its celebration began between January 9 and 14. Story of and the next day King Hakon sprinkled the lad with water. according to the month in which was now held ? ^ In the tenth century the Yule-feast extended over some days. I. 880). chap. I.

in illustrating January the i. a stage at which.e. men sorely all he took such rede that he fared privily with his Christian faith. it would not be impossible to assume for the north country a name consisting of hoggva. Siory of ti'ma Heimskringla. xv. and mondth. at least since the beginning of the nineteenth century. according to Roman Calends custom. to hew (hogg is stroke). 67) derives it from ^710 ii. If. and Yule for three nights. p. well that i. en halda heilagt medhan En adr var jolahald hafit hokunott. But an explanation would have to be given why the word month only.e. ^yg^i h-^gi hay. December 31 . witch. verb has no been felt to be the same word. For although there exists a word more a g. and keep holy night. hedvan.. Sunday he held and the Friday at that tide should tide while is and he made a law that Yule should be holden the same time as Christian men hold it. ok haldin thriggja natta jol. a name slaughter-month for December could be shown to have existed.. to pig. . that var midhsvetrar nott. and month. but whereas sacrificing. Unger. chap. 92. and is more caution or requisite since the etymology of both words of is entirely uncertain. p. Nevertheless hedvan and hoggva must have There remain two other ijossibilities of derivation. among the Scandinavian nations. in his History of the Swedes (translated by Turner. But apart from all that. en gjalda fe ella. S. Yule was kept on do not think there is any reason to identify hokunott with Hogmanay . An Language. Morris and Magnusson translate hokunott as Hogmanay."^ 163. It is strange that the ultimate bearing of the name would thus be almost identical with what it would have been if it consisted of hoggva and month. under "Hogmanay").2o4 runs thus '* : YULE AND CHRISTMAS King Hakon was a well-christened man when he came all to Norway. Hakon the Good. holy month. by C. R. Hogmanay Hogmenay was a Northumbrian name Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish has denoted. And until it has been shown what witches have to do with December. the was not formed of A. without year. Yule But aforetime was Yule holden on hoku was holden ^ i that to say. namely. October 9 to 14 to April 9 to 14. the last day of that December (John Jamieson. i. but he gives no proof that December was ever called fiyta ii. while in Scotland it Lambe (Notes to the Battle of Floddon. I do not see how. ed. month in which pigs were killed. : " Hann setti that Ibgum at hefja jolahald thann sem kristnir menn. London. Christiania. and folk much given to and many great men and the love of and that he deemed he lacked fast. as the Scandinavians always did in historical times. S. Vol. p. 1868.. but however would I suit my own theory about the evolution of the Scandinavian year. and from hog. midwinter's night can mean anything but a night between January 9 and 14. and that every man brew a meal of malt lasted. the A.rivi\. the land was heathen.i\vr\ in Scotland. folk." Heimskringla eller Norges Kongesagaer af Snorre Sturlasson. midwinter night. in the land. I should rather be inclined to take hogmanay as pig-month. among a people which counts the winter from from hag. or pay money else. common Northumbrian form being at his time Hagmana. When Eric Gustave Geijer. I. hew. ok skyldi tha hverr madhr eiga jolin ynnist mselis 51.

Candlemas. while heathenism every year one at the commencement of winter. a rich existed." which at far that time outshone in splendour the January festivity. tells this according to Snorri.. Stor)/ 0*^ Hakon the Good.. Vol. 1126). Hfimskrtngla. But after he had embraced Christianity. Strassburg. but I do not see how we can help (according to the beginning of winter between October 9 and 14 and the beginning of summer between April 9 and 14) fixing it original date at the at February 9 to ^ 14. He only confuses February 9 to 14. i66-i68. and Professor Elard Hugo Meyer at the beginning of February. chap. cxxiii. In conformity with that..Saga of St. The time at the beginning or about the middle of February can never have been called midwinter. then about January i. XV. Hacon the Good of Norway had removed the Pagan Yule. is still called in chap. xvii. that he had the custom. . Olave. related of Sigurd Thorson. While so the king had preferred to take his meal p.). p. February (between February 9 and 14). An earl of his called all all bonders together to a place called Ladir. . plain not quite from the record given by Snorri Sturluson . and customs was received with it so that the king thought wisest to take part in It is the offering in order not to lose his crown and kingdom. and himself giving the victuals and ale. night (niidwintersnatten)^ called also hawk's night {hokettaiten). for the feast of the sun returning " (in Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. celebrated at the time of the old winter sacrifice. in winter a Christmas revel. p. called Yule-festival by : the Scandinavians. of keeping three sacrifices Geijer's note is : " It is Norwegian. then about Candlemas. formerly observed as midwinter's in midwinter. but was simply the end was originally kept in of the third of the year. he preserved the custom of giving entertainments. some provinces Little Yule. arranged a huge blood-offering.. and kept at the beginning of February. the — second and the third towards summer. according to the Harvarar Saga. to the Catholic Christmas (Saga of Haco. in his opinion. and finally on December 25. he did not succeed. In harvest he kept with his friends a harvest-home. ^ at which of the three great annual festivals this was but it is certain that the next great event connected with Hakon's attempt public celebration of blood-offering to withhold himself from an all too festivities still "took place in the autumn- tide at winter-nights. beginning between October 9 and 14. 43). their old religion His proposal to give up undivided disapproval. its I. I. the great winter festival. at which the king appeared. and midwintersnatten. In full accordance with this report Eugen Mogk says "There is no foundation whatever for taking . he adds a note which shows that that festival. 1891. ).SCANDINAVIAN YULE However folk his 205 the serious attempts were made by Hakon Good to win his over to Christianity. then about midwinter (January 14). and the third feast he held at Easter and many guests were gathered at his board" (. chap. Professor Kaufmann fixed end of January.

The own might and main. but this would he none the more."^ belief This was not the end of the trouble caused by his Christian winter "The next was the Yule-feast arranged for the king in Mere. thereover will . Story of Hakon the Good. he was now compelled to take it publicly the hall and to make many compromises. 170. so that the kettle- bow was cloth all greasy. strove Sigurd to appease them. • . whereas the reek of seething had gone up from the horse-flesh. to eat his meat in a house but few but now the bonders feast murmured at it. Vol. Snorri thus: "In the autumn-tide Ladir. to table. Then they bade him drink the they have to their broth thereof. and gaped and went back to the high-seat. I. p.' So all was quiet that eve. bidding in him eat horse- and no wise the king would. chap. king doth as they signeth all do who trow the cup to Thor. the eight lords offerings of all who had most Thrandheim appointed a meeting" between themselves and to this. xviii. thereover. then spake Earl Sigurd thereover. and spread a linen then over the kettle-bow. that he sat not in his own the high-seat. lay the Then . the bonders thronged the king. and he For he made the sign of the hammer over it Earl Sigurd answers in their before he drank. Then went the king thereto. if at winter-nights was there a blood-offering held at and the king went at thereto.. So first it was therefore that the king sat in his high-seat. "bound themselves ^ that the four of Outer Thrandheim should Heimskrinsla. and Earl went nigh falling on him. But when the cup was poured.2o6 privately in YULE AND CHRISTMAS on such occasions. when men went flesh. going on. he were abiding any place where little was a with feast of blood-offering folk. and bade storm but the king he bade gape over a kettle-bow. however much he might tells it grudge them. and drank off the horn to the king. Then the king took it. Then would it him them eat of the dripping. But on the morrow. but neither side was well pleased thereat. dealing But when in blood- time wore towards Yule. but he would not. and made the said : sign of the cross and Karl of Griting spake and he not do worship ? ' ' Why : doeth ' the king thus. where the of men was greatest. and signed the cup to Odin. and the earl said to king that so he would not do as now. Heretofore he had ever been wont.

^ Heimskringla. When f. him for departing from Thrandheim with his saying that he would for the come with more men another time and pay But Earl Sigurd back the bonders enmity they had shown him. For some time come the new belief could not root itself in Norway. were the bonders come in great throngs. abolished Earl the festivals. and abode there that winter and on into spring and as it summered he drew fall together an host. and the end of bits was that King Hakon ate some all of horse-liver. Vol. p. 172. and drank crossless the cups of feast memory that the bonders poured for him.)..^ to establish Christianity in to He died in 963. and j went south to Mere. . as the folk of Thrandheim." the But when the king his country. and to of Inner Thrandheim should compel the king Thrandheim fared priests. Ibid. xix. and were said that no good would come of his to the king of threatening or warring against the folk own land. offering came to Norway and broke down temples and they gained only hatred thereby. ^ and rumour ran that he would on the Thrandheimers therewith. Of full little cheer was the king. I. that no speech might be held with him. He departed from Thrandheim. and all straightway he arrayed court. But so soon as the was ended. who had been christened England.SCANDINAVIAN YULE make an end of the Christian faith in 207 the four Norway..d. and there and burned three churches. to But there feast when King Hakon came Mere with his court and Earl Sigurd. pp. So the Outer slew three in four ships south to Mere. xx. and the very pith of the his realm. blood-offering. chap. The very first day of the the bonders pressed hard on the king. and was supported therein by Earl Sigurd and the Thrandheimers (about 955 a. Hakon had hung up King the Good. and when the sons of in King Eric of Denmark. and threatening him with all things ill if he would not. But king was so wroth. and so gat them back again. prayed the king not to hold them of Thrandheim for his foes for this. it Earl Sigurd strove to make peace between them. bidding him offer. the king and the earl went out to Ladir.. his attempts Norway having utterly failed. 170 Story of Hakon ^ 171. chap. learned the news that King of Denmark had invaded he preferred to lead his army against him.

" Ibid. chap. chap. 131. .. chap. p. chap. cxxv. and thither went the Icelanders. p. 152. xlii. king let hold high-tide. of Olaf the Holy." Ibid. he bade restore the temples and blood-offerings throughout later all his dominions. 475. III. Story of King Magnus.. "King Olaf had a great feast at Easter. 467.. 310. bade the earl and his to a feast." Ibid. chap.. to come there at Candlemas. p. Vol. I. p. 468.. . and had many men chap. clxxxvi. chap. "about candlemas. his Easter-feast arrayed for him." Ibid. "That was the latter Marymass. ' Is not a guilt unto death. p.. a man break the "the day before Michaelmas. xxxix. . ii. Ixxxviii. son of Erling. 481. p. cxxiv." Ibid." : Ibid. p." Ibid. chap. chap. Barefoot. 468 ." Ibid:. and the voice of the bells." Ibid.. which is on the water. 207. Magnus.. and sing mass full gloriously . "The next day was Michaelmas Eve. .. "on Tuesday in Rogation-days. "the battle was on the Wednesday next before Matthewmass. " The priest who sang at Rydiokul. .." as well as the : first Michaelmas. xciii. 325. 325. chap.2o8 YULE AND CHRISTMAS all Harald on a gallows and subdued the land." Ibid. chap.. 242. The Story of Magnus the Good. xxviii. p. of the town bidden and . "and this was Michaelmass. xvi.^ Just as. Ixxxv. Whitsunday to wit. chap. p." Ibid. "ere Michaelmas. p. The Story of King Magnus "the day before Bartholomewmas. "After Candlemas. p." Ibid. p. . 458.. many bonders it withal. . Story of Olaf Tryggvison in 999 there "[he] came at Easter eve to Ogvaldsness in Kormt-isle. p. . ix. centuries earlier.. Christianity and force even when King Olaf I. . Harald Gilli." Ibid. . now from the beginning of the eleventh century the Yule-tide ^ Heimskringla. clxii. ." Ibid. 35. fast was wearing. "in the night before Ascension day.." Ibid. 2 Under was his reign the first : Easter is recorded in the Heimskrinqla. p. chap. Story of Olaf the Holy. . Story Story of Olaf the Holy. I. p. the country was by no means Christian. Story of Olaf Tryggvison.. I. Story of King Magnus. son of Erling. xxvi. Tryggvison established by cruelty in Norway about some 998. chap. chap.. In the Stories that follow in and hearken the fair song." Ibid.." Ibid.. 195. p. "when Lenten . Easter peace?'" Ibid. son of chap. Ixxxix." Ibid. Story of King Magnus. xxxvi. Story of King Olaf if the Holy. chap. cxv." tide. "On Thomas-mass before Yule in the very first dawn. p. p. II. . . p..." Heimskringla. p.. 223. 288. 240.. they turned back to blood-offering. chap. son of Erling. "And now was Michaelmas come. p. p. 221. 313. 354. "on Whitsunday. chap. 50. xxv. . chap. p. chap.^ And although some and men took christening. And 336. "at Candlemas. the Autumn Festival at had been feast the opportunity frequently chosen for surprising the enemy and drunk.. . "a high"one night after Marymass in autumn. xviii. Erling." the Heimskringla the names of Christian festivals get ever more numerous: "It befell on Ascension day that King Olaf went to high mass. . p. "The king says p. and the Story of Olaf Tryggvison.. Story of King "to Rogation-days' Thing. 168. 467. Skialg." Ibid. xxxii. Story of Magnus the Blind and Ibid.. xxx.

The kinsmen-in-law drank against each other. and which presupposes a corresponding "Great Yule. ground was divided into cerra Geola and among the Goths in fruma liuleis and * aftuma liuleis. of Yule are counted like the days of the eyes. sons of Thorbrand minded for the Yulefeast at Holyfell. ceftera Geola. and they drank together the Another thorp there was a little way thence. and they took all the Yule victuals and burnt all the houses. 53. but telling a story : : of the time about icxx) {Saga Library. a wealthy. the earl into the town. Now their . which contains the following "That to his winter at Yultide had Thorolf a great drinking. Thorar and in-law. Yule-feast There were many through there bonders living in that thorp. II. of the other. and in the evening was mickle masterful talk and man-pairing betwixt the Norway men and the Swedes. chap. p. : ". which on A. ^ Heimskringla." and in the terms "earlier Yule" and "latter Yule. and let array there a Yule feast ." little 147: would be going the "in the winter a and ^ Yule. The Story of Olaf the Holy (1012-1030). : SCANDINAVIAN YULE was used to feast for the 209 same purpose . II." p. grown. p.. and The days calendar. " being called the at Thorar's and the Thorod was with another man and gild ale drinkings." The same is evident from the Eyrbyggjasaga written about 1250... and when they were drunk.Yule was come. and son. " Earl Svein was then up Thrandheim at Steinker.." p. . " Even at that nick of time came the host of there was a cheaping-stead " p. These kinsmen-in-law were to drink half Yule beginning at Thorar's." there are contained reminiscences of a halving of the older Yule-tide of three scores of days. II. as it month in the Roman and under our were." his O . chap. xlii." Heimskringla. 48. he egged them on that to go up to Ulfar's-fell and bum Ulfar his house. dwelt a kinsman-in-law of Thorar. 125: there p.. It Thorod against the bonder's was a champion drinking. ^ while at the first half of Yule-tide among friends it became a custom the home of the one and the the two parts second half earlier at the latter home Yule. and promised to give them "Then Steinthor and his men misdoubted them. when mid.S. Story of Olaf the Holy. Vol. p. before there freedom therefore. and put the drink round briskly thralls . chap." which provincially means Candlemas. 148: " Kiartan and Thurid bade their neighbours to the arvale. 79). 296. a mighty full man and He at had a son each other's. cli. all and there was mickle Yule-tide. all and there he was to drink the latter freedmen with him went to his kinsmanYule. xxxix. that festive tide grows and grows. Yule ale was taken and used for the arvale." ^ In the term " Little Yule.

for three days. clxxii. at it fell men. Vol. Eystein and Olaf. Vol. but some mickle harder. Story of Olaf the Holy. The Story of Sigurd Jerusalem farer. : p. and every housewife was framed manner of the laws of to give housewife's-tow. * ccliii. as his wont was. 294. 337. " So befell : ' .^ it was celebrated but when it took its new date. to have Neither was any more the habit.1035) brought new laws after the into the land for many matters. to give gifts of friendship p. Bye and bye the Christian customs obtained sway the habit to fast on Yule-eve. II.' answered Heimskringla.^ By this act a new step was taken towards a complete overtaking of the Roman calendar. festivities not earlier than Yule- December was it called in the twelfth century.' said they. that was called pasture-tod. feasts. Story of Olaf the Holy. 163. according to Roman Calends-of- January custom. day. and fetched together his precious things for on the eighth eve of Yule" (Heimskringla.. 'it is not wont in Norway to eat flesh-meat on Yule-eve. chap. then will I have it the wont. on a time on Yule-eve. chap.. so much of undressed flax as might be spanned by the biggest finger and the longest" {Heimskringla. the eighth day (January i) being the day of giving gifts of friendship. which were Denmark.).. So they He had this sake. much King that stress he laid Even King Olaf the Good stuck to that custom. ^ then had great store arrayed. who. and a thigh of a threewinter ox. As it regards Yule-tide. xxxiii. p.. as concubines on the night is preceding Yule-day. 2 King Olaf had a great Yule-feast. that is to say.* The introduction of fasting also vouched by another 1 HeifJiskringla. for three-quarters of a century became a celebration of at least eight days. Story of »• Hakon the Good. that the King said: 'Fetch me flesh'Lord. at his death. At Yule every man was to bring the king a measure of malt for every hearth. as the 25 th of it over the land.2IO YULE AND CHRISTMAS it Snorri informs us that. III. ^ King Olaf was expelled from his remarkable for the fact it country by King Cnut of Denmark. to a certain house. 450.' So they came and had in If it be not the wont. which apparently had not been until then.. and at this time he was with him. so long as Yule was held in January.. and all of Christianity. On the seventh day of Yule which there was gathered to him a many great that the king went a-walking. was succeeded by Svein. 1103-1130) sat in the hall and the boards were set. Svein's reign is he made a legal term at which duties had to be paid. as the king (Sigurd Jerusalem-farer. p. xv.). chap. wherein went were guarded the precious things of the king. however on Christian rites. and a few men with Sigvat followed the king day and night. " King Svein (1030. chap. II. him. and a keg of butter withal . became and begin the had been. . which rites made It as quick and steady progress as the doctrine.' He meat. Vol. I.

322: "Only three days in the Yule-tide were holden holy from smith's work.waxen. early in the Yule-tide. ^ " King Harald came to Biorgvin on Yule-eve. 321. 415.^ and celebrated by a great drinking. " King Hakon was in Cheaping through the Yule . p. 50. 1000. 'for I : : and had a woman with them.). but one may give no heed thereto. will sit dovm in quiet at Steinker over " may be that he Story of Olaf the Holy. and looked on her. and many were Wounded. p. chap.' but took not thereof.." Ibid. chap. * But after the eighth day of Yule there fared into Elda these fellows of Hakon " (Ibid. and a mere whore must thou be. p. such must be put up with. and one evening. Vol. Story of Hakon Shoulder-Broad." ^Ihid.' And he bade them take her out. last He stayed there for the night. xiv." .* the occasions on which Yule From is the beginning of the eleventh century in the mentioned Saga literature its become no ever more frequent.).^ The Yule-tide grew further. three days only were kept free from labour. the host to give way.^ So the Bandamannasaga. this was on a bath-day" {Ibid. went out of King's Rock on the latter part of Yule-tide with much folk. his men got to blows in the Court Hall. 420. The Story of the Ere-Dwellers. p.^ no longer permissible fact. yet one must endure it. tells the year Yule is absolutely the Christian Christmas.' A foot monstrous and Then he bade her reach forth her foot . 1892. chap. The king a stuck his knife into into the hall. yet not so that one may not endure her.. and they came Force on the thirteenth day of Yule. : SCANDINAVIAN YULE Saga. xi. he looked thereon.. and hand to her head. origin porpoise. Story " He to of Hakon Shoulder-Broad. preceded by an Advent-fast or Yule-fast.. and some men were killed.. 211 a story of about The Eyrbyggjasaga. p. and said mickle much . King Harald let blow In Yule-tide nine hundreds of men had gathered to King Harald. in the case of necessary in work. 48. ^Heimskringla. Its dating from about 1250. him thereafter . and it became a fight specially memorable when. London. though at that time there was no fasting 146 : " in Iceland. 79.' Then he looked at her hand and said 'An ungoodly hand and ill. which has it.' Then he bade them lift up the kirtle. 02 . and now he saw the leg. "And by then it was hard on the Yule-fast. and said ' Fie on thy leg it is both blue and thick. and said 'An ill-favoured woman is this. and went to to matins there on the day of Yule. p. and laid his host into Feoru-bights. Story of Olaf the Holy. Story of Magnus the Blind and Harald Gilli). xl. chap. though there were cases which a would arise in a still Yule company. p.. xxxix. p. ' : ! will not ^ have her.. so that in the twelfth century a celebration of fourteen days was reached. thither Then said the king 'Fetch me : woman They came The king laid his she was coifed wide and side. III. and would not fight for its holiness' sake" {Heimskringla.' William Morris and Eirikr Magnusson. and III. After another century people thought it to fight on Yule-day. and the gospel was read II. and eight men came by their death. But on the out-going day of Yule. Yule.

. chap... There was Camel... . "After Yule. 484. i." "A little ere the Yule-tide. Egil. p. xv. son of Erling. Story .. and was in 474. chap. "Forthwith on the back of Yule." Heimskringla. p.. p." Ibid. when thou camest to me at my bidding from thy wreck of a house at Burg in Yule-tide and right glad wert thou thereat. chap.." Ibid... like as thou saidest in p. London. 337.." Ibid." Ibid. 151. 79." Ibid. chap. "close after Yule. chap. as was like to be. p. "after Yule. for the land is barren and an ill meat-land. "a little before Yule. p. 39. chap.^ " and he let flit into the houses both the drink and the victuals. Stoiy oj Olaf the Holy. p. 183. cxlviii. chap. this flock. ' etc. But when Earl Erling had news of to his ships through the Wick. son of Erling. 149. but the story of which laid about 1050. and bade to him Olaf. chap.. and when Yule was spent. . Ibid. 460. Vol. chap. "after Yule. 386. the greateSfof chiefsteads. as was like to be . 422.212 earlier is YULE AND CHRISTMAS than the second half of the thirteenth century.. son of Harald. but the Hising-dwellers tide. "Those cheapingsteads where ye. mentions the Yule-tide in a general kind of way as a festive time. p... many wealthy bonders from the countrysides. and kept and feasted there through Yule. and thou tookest that. chap. p. . xxxi. thou and another with thee . chap. 349." Story of King Magnus. ii. and had all been eaten 1 89 1. p. Ibid. . chap." Ibid. p. and he had for a Yule-gift from the king a gold-wrought sword and therewithal the manor called Vettland. thou grewest sad.. Vol. 114 the winter-tide. "This winter Eyvind was a Yule-guest of King also with the king at the time Bryniolf and took good gifts of him.. xlii. Yule-feast. 250. p. thinking it hard to have to go home to that misery but I. 51. "after Yule.. and then meat grew hard to get." Ibid. Sto7y of Olaf the Holy.." Ibid. fared with his host into the harvest-tide in Oslo.. p.. chap." Ibid. cciii. p. p. lord. are of Magnus the Good.. 50." Ibid. wont to sit and take Yule-feasts. Story of Hakon Shoulder. "the earl should let set market for meat-cheaping for Sigurd all the winter. bade thee abide still. chap." . but this went on no longer than to Yule. chap. i. p. "this folk went on as if nothing was so needful as this Yule-drinking.. chap. being minded to sit there Yule-tide over. Story of King Magnus. 296. I." Ibid. "after Yule. " Good store for Yule. and wert fain thereof: but in spring-tide after Easter. xciii.. chap. 361. when thou wert come home to Burg. son of Erling. ^The Saga Library. p.. ' guild-ale.. when I saw that. Ix." Ibid. "and the King feasted there through the Yule-tide. clxxxvii.." " Erling arrayed there for a Ibid. cii.. chap. and held their fellowship through YuleStory of The night after the fifth day of Yule."/3/a?.. xxxvi. edited by William Morris and Eirikr Magnusson. 266. thou saidst that thirty ice-horses had died. "The king had a great Yule-bidding. 79. p.. clxxii. xxxi. Ibid. Story of Sigurd Jerusalem farer. p. lix. : : : : by us. King Magnus." Ibid. had a xix. Story of Magnus the Good. "after Yule.. Story of Olaf the Holy.Broad. "When it drew towards Yule. p. p. Story of Ingi. he summer. " Said Hermund 'This is like the rest of thy lying.. cli.. Story of Harald the Hard-redy. Story of Olaf the Holy." Ibid. iv. p. and that might in no wise be given up... Erling fared out.'" . III. 285. Story of Olaf the Holy. chap." Ibid. xcii.

of intellectual had embraced Germanic tribes. She was a prophetess.M. Christianity had at last it half a millennium before.. inherited unity but amidst the various tribes entered in lost. 1263. by G. A. Edinburgh. James Johnstone. 1894. and edited with additional notes by Edmund Goldsmid. and everywhere to ask men who wished to learn their future.^ The customs and in of Norway were transferred to Iceland in and to Greenland Greenland Yule was held. forced upon all its subjects a uniform system. p... 19). the two things went together.D. von Doztnten der Leipziger Hochschuky Leipzig. Yule-tide for public seems to have been used was fitted announcements. as. Storm. a fact which alone proves that tide . so that the Vblva or prophetess could within the holy tide visit several farms. for a number of days." etc. Literally translated from the original Icelandic of the Flateyan and Frisian Mss. some of them more than a tonquered the Scandinavian day's journey aparttribes. 1885. life At the dawn of all history an ancient. A. United to the world of Roman civilisation. but also of rite and custom.3 no statement in the early parts of the Heimskringla about a it Thing being held at Yule. had won it over the Western Germanics. p. there lived a Little Volva. Eirikssaga raudha. King Hacon of Norway heard that the Scots committed all kinds of hostilities in the Hebrides. 86 Icelanders. Zauber utui could possibly supply for an expedition {Ribliotheca Curiosa : "^ IVeissagung bet den Gernianen in Kleinere Beitrdge zur Geschichte. ss. for which it no doubt by the fact that men stayed either at home then or met in larger companies at the principal places of the country. as Europe. and was called She was wont for those in winter-tide to fare from one Yule banquet to another. and the course of the new year. SCANDINAVIAN YULE There is 2. By the Rev. in 1262. ed. economic and mental environments into which the several was the destiny of Christianity to create a new mental unity world. : "In a farm in Greenland. Ueber Los. however. built and inhabited by woman named Thorbjorg. Eugen Mc^k. 14 ss. the early Middle Ages that inheritance of the East was irrevocably for the It Germanic A : considerable part of the history of that nation Yule and Christmas. being merely two different sides of the three annual assemblies of the of the individual men In the thirteenth century. not only of belief. . is contained in the two words ^When. was no old offering- for both in Germany and Scandinavia tribes. and order out both what troops and provisions he thought his dominions The Norwegian Account of King Haco's Expedition against Scotland. he resolved in council to issue in winter about J61 an edict through all Norway. p.

there tides. that time both in theirs towards Not only does Yule was one of them. all but was to some extent influenced by began their year with the Whilst Germanic tribes beginning of winter. as three to form halves of years. which consisted of six tides of three-score days each. RESULTS. they early took over a year of oriental origin. The Beginning of the Anglo-German Year doubtless was not wholly dependent climatic conditions. the Western Germanics in Germany and Britain began their winter naturally somewhat later latter than the Northern Germanics did in Scandinavia and Iceland. The reckoned their annual circle as com- mencing towards the middle of October. the actual winter set in about Germany and but the coupling of November tide. of old. II. Two such tides could be combined to form thirds Whilst there are no original for of years. Whilst early record and the history of institutions point to a tri- partition of The Germanic Year. and December in Gothic to form one three-score-day the usage attested all by urbarial evidence. and among the Anglo-Saxons of the December and January. on tradition. . I. extended from mid-November it to mid-January among the Goths of the sixth century covered November seventh century. and December. Germanic month-names. the Aryans divided their year into two parts — winter and summer — only. life. . and the conditions of pasture point likewise to a beginning of the Anglo-German year towards the 15th day of November. although. the former began the middle of November. This seeming contradiction dissipated by the fact that. is ample evidence It originally these three-score.CHAPTER XVI. is etymology is in favour of a dual division.

But in the matter of age. each of which consisted of a long hundred of days. forbidding intem- perance on that day. bears further testimony.d. Michael on September 29 was not instituted before of Michaelmas a. IV. Martinmas and Michaelmas were is far the two popular autumn festivities which Germanic origin has been claimed. Martinmas being the successor of the ancient Germanic it New Year. Martinmas and Mid-May were German terms. behind Martinmas. 755 that the latter two terms were superseded by March I i. V. Michaelmas term owes origin to the Roman quartering of the year. the ecclesiastical festival of St.d.RESULTS III. Even when agriculture grew in importance. 578. instituted by the Church as appropriate to the beginning of November in and the Rogation days together point and October VI. closely Martinmas and the Dual Division of the Year were no less connected. and they are still the prevalent terms in The Frankish May fields and the corresponding celebrations Scotland. we have good reason to regard The Feast OF Martinmas on November 11 as the successor of an ancient Germanic festive New Year. 14. division The three constituted a of the year into three equal parts. Laws. A. 813. to which the Synod of Auxerre in 578. and. the harvest festivals received an ever-increasing significance. The feasting about Martinmas even in the later Middle Ages possessed a higher popularity than belonged to any other similar annual feast. consequently. for ages outshone Michaelmas in popular splendour. till the stock of grain and potatoes under . It was not before a. and prior to the seventeenth century the mentions of Martinmas are at least twice as frequent as those —a fact which clearly shows the respective importance of its the two terms. 215 festival There being evidence of a German in the first half of November as early as a. for the same direction. the oldest legal term in the soil also. Martinmas.S. as the centre of the slaughtering time of domestic animals. is not strange that Martinmas and the Tri-Partition of the Year Martinmas is should be closely connected.d. and appears as such very early on German Mid-Lent and Mid-July were the other two legal terms.d. festivities Michaelmas Whilst excessive Martinmas were forbidden so early as a. As late as the sixteenth century.

the time between Nativity and Epiphany. on the as other. In the sixth century a new December 25 of the 753rd year of of the Rome. played the most important part little terms in the Germanic year. and December no Germanic VIII.^ New Year from the Calends of January . The first severe blow which the Germanic year received was In course of time from the Roman year. festival was celebrated about that of the But these offerings mere transformations Tabula our Fortunae. has been supposed that a Germanic dead time. These conceptions they got from the Romans. Rome in the early centuries of The same X. a most important feature of the Calends-of-January celebration over the whole regions from Egypt to era. the Calends fires. the Calends branches and trees are striking instances of the transference of customs which then took place and later which came to form the centre of the the shortest day of the year. on the one hand. evolution being clearly traceable. sheep. On the basis of a number of instances of sacrifices tables it occurring about the end of December and were the beginning of January. was one of era was begun with products. and swine were killed. and Martinmas and Mid-May. was festive day the contact of the Germanic tribes with the Romans. in The Calends hides gifts. The Nativity of Christ its an anniversary owed its origin to Rome oldest and to the year 354. and Mid-July. the There never was a Germanic pseudo-winter-solstice of the until after solstice celebration. The Dodekaits henieron. the Germanic tribes knew so of Solstices and Equinoxes formed to that they had not even names for them. 25. Whilst Martinmas. The Calends of January soil became the beginning of the year on Germanic rest as well as in the of the world. the Calends mummery the of animals. Germanic celebrations about on IX. holds for the New as Year's cakes connected with that Egyptio-Roman custom.2i6 cultivation YULE AND CHRISTMAS became in general so large that it ceased to matter very much when the cattle. Julian calendar. Mid-March. and the natural outgrowth of this was the moving to Christ's alleged birthday. and the different words which the various tribes express these ideas are mere translations of the Roman denominations. VII.

with which he was familiar. Etymology was not his strong point. of his book De Temporum the some names of two Germanic threefacts of great antiquity. It contains forming chapter xv. for when he its title means to indicate that a celebration took it from a deity. the dew of the night between December 24 and 25 was all Out of the legend rejoiced. was also observed as a Church holiday. and peace was ordained.S. words. and animals had talked sprang the fancy .D. It took part in an obscene but well-known cult in honour cannot denote any deities styled the mothers. and Christmas are terms which show the growth of a regular ecclesiastical celebration of centuries that followed Beda. What he describes is not the Germanic year. evolved out of the Various peculiarly Christian conceptions and hymn Rorate Coeli. among them Some of Beda's other A. in which 25 was called Yule. he says so expressly. '^ XII. generated the belief that specially beneficent. Ordeals and oaths were forbidden from the end of the tenth century. then the Church began a severe struggle against excessive gaiety at Christmas." can only be explained as teferring to human mothers who of the Virgin. contradictions assertion that which his short statement Notwithstanding his December 25 was it originally called Yule. but the Romano-Christian year. Up to the end of the eleventh century the Church tried to possible. strict Christ's birthday anniversary It December 25 in the became from 800 the great day for state ceremonies. not a single case.7 RESULTS 2 I XL One division of the most important sources of our knowledge of the Germanic year is of the the treatise of Beda. make Christ's Nativity as joyous a time as About the beginning of the for twelfth century this goal seems to have been reached. month-names score-day tides. Geola and Lida. all trees that in the actual night of Christ's birth all nature had had budded. were of comparatively late growth. A. and no great weight can be attached to his interpretations of A. Nativity. He was not aware of the numerous contains.S. Christes M^ess. prior to the eleventh century. and that December December time to its and January from there is received their names as the earlier and later Yulemonth. usages. Ratione. De Mensibus Anglorum. His remark that the ceremonies practised 25 in his rise among the Christianised Angles on December had given being called "the mothers' night. to which he supposed to be devoted.

The tri-partition of the early Scandinavian year. These days alone. By this act the Scandinavians joined. and was King Hakon the Good of celebration Norway in (a. that. iooo mentioned festival. It arose out of the festivals at vetrnbttum and in the month it of Gbi (October 9 to 14 and February 9 to 14). XV.d. almost as often as the autumn Subsequently it rapidly grew in St. This trees combining with the Calends-of-January traditional usage of setting tree. whilst the autumn festival was merged in a simple Michael- mas. in autumn at winter's beginning. The Scandinavian Yule festival was a product of the ninthcentury. 840 a Jbl festival began to appear. there can be no doubt that held about October 9 to 14. held between February 9 and 14. and under no circumstance December 25 and June 24. and recovered part of that intellectual unity with the other Germanic tribes which had been lost during their migration time in the early Middle Ages. The author of the Heimskringla remembered quite well originally. there were three of them. although he was not quite sure all which they were.. After a. great festivities recorded up to a. three.d. the ritual world of Christian Western Europe. The third. When the Roman dividing days lay between January 9 and 14 and June 9 and 14. importance. and was in the Heimskringla up to a. an important point.d. Glasgow: printed at the university press by robert maclehose and OF .d. coincided in later Iceland with the great annual assembly. J . could properly have been called midwinter and midsummer. was visible in the Scandinavian Offering Tides. The Scandinavian Year began between October 9 and and was halved by a day between April 9 quartering ot the year gained the mastery. XIV. no longer recogstill nisable in the oldest runic almanacs. 940-963) who first ordered its on the same day as the Christian festival of the Nativity. the Allthing. was one of the Gbiblbt. and Gbiblbt disappeared altogether. For at least a century was celebrated about the middle of January (a dividing-point in the it Roman quartering of the Scandinavian year). however. Christmas In ancient historical times 14. second. in the early parts of the Heimskringla. up and branches led XIII. co. was called and the between June 9 and 14. As. 840 were held this.. the and 14.2i8 that YULE AND CHRISTMAS on the holy anniversary apple at last to the trees and hawthorns bloomed.


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