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The screwdriver is a device specifically designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen and remove, screws. The screwdriver is made up of a head or tip, which engages with a screw, a mechanism to apply torque by rotating the tip, and some way to position and support the screwdriver. A typical hand screwdriver comprises an approximately cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be held by a human hand, and an axial shaft fixed to the handle, the tip of which is shaped to fit a particular type of screw. The handle and shaft allow the screwdriver to be positioned and supported and, when rotated, to apply torque. Screwdrivers are made in a variety of shapes, and the tip can be rotated manually or by an electric or other motor. A screw has a head with a contour such that an appropriate screwdriver tip can be engaged in it in such a way that the application of sufficient torque to the screwdriver will cause the screw to rotate. There are many types of screw heads, of which the most common are the slotted, Phillips, PoziDriv/SupaDriv (crosspoint), Robertson, TORX, and Allen (hex). Screwdrivers come in a large variety of sizes to match those of screws, from tiny jeweler's screwdrivers up. If a screwdriver that is not the right size and type for the screw is used, it is likely that the screw will be damaged in the process of tightening it. This is less important for PoziDriv and SupaDriv, which are designed specifically to be more tolerant of size mismatch. When tightening a screw with force, it is important to press the head hard into the screw, again to avoid damaging the screw.

Jeweler's screwdriver set Some manual screwdrivers have a ratchet action whereby the screwdriver blade is locked to the handle for clockwise rotation, but uncoupled for counterclockwise rotation when set for tightening screws; and vice versa for loosening.

Many screwdriver designs have a handle with detachable head (the part of the screwdriver which engages with the screw), called bits as with drill bits, allowing a set of one handle and several heads to be used for a variety of screw sizes and types. This kind of design has allowed the development of electrically powered screwdrivers, which, as the name suggests, use an electric motor to rotate the bit. In such cases the terminology for power drills is used, e.g. "shank" or "collet". Some drills can also be fitted with screwdriver heads. Manual screw drivers with a spiral ratchet mechanism to turn pressure (linear motion) into rotational motion also exist, and predate electric screwdrivers. The user pushes the handle toward the workpiece, causing a pawl in a spiral groove to rotate the shank and the removable bit. The ratchet can be set to rotate left or right with each push, or can be locked so that the tool can be used like a conventional screwdriver. Once very popular, these spiral ratchet drivers, using proprietary bits, have been largely discontinued by manufacturers such as Stanley, although one can still find them at vintage tool auctions. Companies such as Lara Specialty Tools now offer a modernized version that uses standard 1/4-inch hex shank power tool bits. Since a variety of drill bits are available in this format, it allows the tool to do double duty as a push drill.

A number of screwdrivers used to remove faulty electronics from a laptop computer Many modern electrical appliances, if they contain screws at all, use screws with heads other than the typical slotted or Phillips styles. TORX is one such pattern that has become very widespread. The main cause of this trend is manufacturing efficiency: TORX and other types are designed so the driver will not slip out of the fastener as will a Phillips driver. (Slotted screws are rarely used in mass-produced devices, since the driver is not inherently centered on the fastener). A benefit/disadvantage of non-typical fasteners (depending on your point of view) is that it can be more difficult for users of a device to disassemble it than if more-common head types were used, but TORX and other drivers are widely available. Specialized patterns of security screws are also used, such as the Gamebit head style used in all Nintendo consoles, though drivers for most security heads are, again, readily available. While screwdrivers are designed for the above functions, they are commonly also used as improvised substitutes for pry bars, levers, and hole punches, as well as other tools.

There is no such thing as a "left-handed screwdriver", as the device can easily be wielded in either hand. To be sent on an errand to find a left-handed screwdriver is often a test of stupidity, or is used as a metaphor for something useless. The term "Birmingham screwdriver" is used jokingly in the UK to denote a hammer or sledgehammer. The handle and shaft of screwdrivers have changed considerably over time. The design is influenced by both purpose and manufacturing requirements. The "Perfect Handle" screwdriver was first manufactured by HD Smith & Company that operated from 1850 to 1900. Many manufacturers adopted this handle design world wide. The "Flat Bladed" screwdriver was another design composed of drop forged steel with riveted wood handles? Among slotted screwdrivers, there are a couple of major variations at the blade or bit end involving the profile of the blade as viewed face-on. The more common type is sometimes referred to as keystone, where the blade profile is slightly flared before tapering off at the end. To maximize access in space-restricted applications, the same edges for the cabinet variety, in contrast, are straight and parallel, meeting the end of the blade at a right angle.

A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object. The most common uses are for driving nails, fitting parts, and breaking up objects. Hammers are often designed for a specific purpose, and vary widely in their shape and structure. Usual features are a handle and a head, with most of the weight in the head. The basic design is hand-operated, but there are also many mechanically operated models for heavier uses. The hammer is a basic tool of many professions, and can also be used as a weapon. By analogy, the name hammer has also been used for devices that are designed to deliver blows, e.g. in the caplock mechanism of firearms. The essential part of a hammer is the head, a compact solid mass that is able to deliver the blow to the intended target without itself deforming. The opposite side of a ball as in the ball-peen hammer and the cow hammer. Some upholstery hammers have a magnetized appendage, to pick up tacks. In the hatchet the hammer head is secondary to the cutting edge of the tool.

In recent years the handles have been made of durable plastic or rubber. The hammer varies at the top, some are larger than others giving a larger surface area to hit different sized nails and such, Popular hand-powered variations include:
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

carpenter's hammers (used for nailing), such as the framing hammer and the claw hammer upholstery hammer construction hammers, including the sledgehammer drilling hammer - a lightweight, short handled sledgehammer Ball-peen hammer, or mechanic's hammer cross-peen hammer, or Warrington hammer mallets, including the rubber hammer and dead blow hammer. Splitting maul stonemason's hammer Geologist's hammer or rock pick lump hammer, or club hammer gavel, used by judges and presiding authorities in general Tinner's Hammer

Utility knife
"Boxcutter" and "box cutter" redirect here. For the electronic music artist, see Boxcutter (musician).

A Stanley 99E utility knife, fully retracted

A utility knife (also called a box cutter, a boxcutter, a razor blade knife, a carpet knife, a stanley knife or a stationery knife) is a common tool used in various trades and crafts for a variety of purposes.

Such a knife generally consists of a simple and cheap holder, typically flat, approximately one inch (25 mm) wide and three to four inches (75 to 100 mm) long, and typically made of either metal or plastic. Some use standard razor blades, others specialised doubleended blades as in the illustration. The user can manually adjust how far the blade extends from the handle, so that for example the knife can be used to cut the tape sealing a package without damaging the contents of the package. When the blade becomes dull, it can be quickly reversed or switched for a new one. Spare or used blades are stored in the hollow handle of some models, and can be accessed by removing a screw and opening the handle. Other models feature a quick-change mechanism that allows replacing the blade without tools, as well as a flip-out blade storage tray. This type of tool is known in British English, Australian English, New Zealand English and Dutch as a Stanley knife, a genericized trademark named after Stanley Works, one of the manufacturers to create this kind of implement. [1]. The blades for a utility knife come in both double and single ended versions, and are interchangeable with many, but not all of the later copies. Specialized blades also exist for cutting string, linoleum and other purposes. Spare or used blades may be stored in the handle in some models.

Disassembled utility knife, blade partly extended Another style is a snap-off utility knife that contains a long, segmented blade that slides out from it. As the endmost edge becomes dull, it can be snapped off from the rest of the blade, exposing the next section, which is sharp and ready for use, increasing safety. When all the individual segments are used, it is thrown away or a replacement blade is inserted. This design was introduced by OLFA Corporation in 1956 as the world's first snap-off blade and was inspired from analyzing the sharp cutting edge produced when glass is broken and how pieces of a chocolate bar break into segments.

Segmented blade or "snap-off blade" utility knife

Fixed blade versions, usually about the size of a pencil, are widely used for handcrafts and model making and are best suited for cutting thin, lightweight materials.

Light-duty utility knife for handcrafts and model making. X-Acto No. 1 knife depicted, fitted with X-Acto No. 11 blade. A style that is often used for the cutting of boxes consists of a simple sleeve around a rectangular handle into which single-edge razor blades can be inserted. The sleeve slides up and down on the handle, holding the blade in place during use and covering the blade when not in use. The blade holder is designed to expose just enough edge to cut through one layer of corrugated fiberboard, to minimize chances of damaging contents of cardboard boxes.

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Disediakan oleh: Nur’Ain Mohamad Ali RBT 2


Internal combustion engine

An automobile engine partly opened and colored to show components An internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs in a combustion chamber inside and integral to the engine. In an internal combustion engine it is always the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases that are produced which apply force to the movable component of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades.[1][2][3][4] The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the familiar four-stroke and two-stroke engines, along with a very few more exotic variants, such as the Wankel engine. These engines almost invariably use reciprocating pistons, with crankshafts, connecting rods and most of them now use camshafts with cams. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion - Jet engines (including gas turbines) and most rockets, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.[1][2][3][4] The internal combustion engine (or ICE) contrasts with the external combustion engine, such as a steam or Stirling engine in which the energy is delivered within a working fluid heated in a boiler by fossil fuel, wood-burning, nuclear, solar etc. A large number of different designs for ICEs have been developed and built, with a variety of different strengths and weaknesses. While there have been and still are many stationary applications, the real strength of internal combustion engines is in mobile applications and they completely dominate as a power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats, from the smallest to the biggest. Only for hand-held power tools do they share part of the market with battery powered devices. Powered by an energy-dense fuel (nearly always liquid, derived from fossil fuels) the ICE delivers an excellent power-to-weight ratio with very few safety or other disadvantages.


Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle) 1. Intake 2. compression 3. power 4. exhaust

Basic process
Internal combustion engines have 4 basic steps: 1. Intake
o Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber 2. Compression o The mixtures are placed under pressure 3. Combustion/Expansion o The mixture is burnt, almost invariably a deflagration, although a few systems involve detonation. The hot mixture is expanded, pressing on and moving parts of the engine and performing useful work. 4. Exhaust o The cooled combustion products are exhausted

Many engines overlap these steps in time, jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines. Some internal combustion engines have extra steps.

All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction of a fuel, typically with oxygen from the air—although other oxidizers such as nitrous oxide may be employed. The combustion process typically results in the production of a great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make up of the fuel and oxidisers (see stoichiometry). The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels (petroleum). Fossil fuels include dieselfuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Except for the fuel delivery components, most internal combustion engines that are designed for gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major modifications. Large diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot diesel fuel ignition injection. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Some engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas. All internal combustion engines must achieve ignition in their cylinders to create combustion. Typically engines use either a spark ignition (SI) method or a compression ignition (CI) system. In the past, other methods using hot tubes or flames have been used. Gasoline Ignition Process Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an induction coil to provide a high-voltage electrical spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. This battery is recharged during operation using an electricitygenerating device such as an alternator or generator driven by the engine. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it to not more than 12.8 bar, then use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder. Diesel Ignition Process Diesel engines and HCCI engines, rely solely on heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression level that occurs is usually twice or more than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI type engines will take in both air and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process, due to higher pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more susceptible to cold-starting issues, although they will run just as well in cold weather once started. Light duty diesel engines with indirect injection in automobiles and light trucks employ glow plugs that pre-heat the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce no-start

conditions in cold weather. Most diesels also have a battery and charging system; nevertheless, this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical components and accessories. Most new engines rely on electrical and electronic control systems that also control the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions.

The Archimedes' screw
The Archimedes' screw, Archimedean screw, or screwpump is a machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches. It was one of several inventions and discoveries traditionally attributed to Archimedes in the 3rd century BC.

The machine consists of a screw inside a hollow pipe. Some attribute its invention to Archimedes of Syracuse in the 3rd century BC, while others attribute it to Nebuchadnezzar II in the 7th century BC. A screw can be thought of as an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder. The screw is turned usually by a windmill or by manual labor. As the bottom end of the tube turns, it scoops up a volume of water. This amount of water will slide up in the spiral tube as the shaft is turned, until it finally pours out from the top of the tube and feeds the irrigation systems. The contact surface between the screw and the pipe does not need to be perfectly watertight because of the relatively large amount of water being scooped at each turn with respect to the angular frequency and angular speed of the screw. Also, water leaking from the top section of the screw leaks into the previous one and so on, so a sort of mechanical equilibrium is achieved while using the machine, thus preventing a decrease in mechanical efficiency. The "screw" does not necessarily need to turn inside the casing, but can be allowed to turn with it in one piece. A screw could be sealed with Pitch resin or some other adhesive to its casing, or, cast as a single piece in bronze, as some researchers have postulated as being the devices used to irrigate Nebuchadnezzar II's Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Depictions of Greek and Roman water screws show the screws being powered by a human treading on the outer casing to turn the entire apparatus as one piece, which would require that the casing be rigidly attached to the screw.

Modern Archimedes' Screws which have replaced some of the Windmills used to drain the polders at Kinderdijk in Holland. Along with transferring water to irrigation ditches, this device was also used for "stealing" land from under sea level in the Netherlands and other places in the creation of polders. A part of the sea would be enclosed and the water would be pushed up out of the enclosed area, starting the process of draining the land for use in farming. Depending on the length and diameter of the screws, more than one machine could be used to successively lift the same water. Archimedes' screws are used in sewage treatment plants because they cope well with varying rates of flow and with suspended solids. An auger in a snow blower or grain elevator is essentially an Archimedes' screw. The principle is also found in pescalators, which are Archimedes screws designed to lift fish safely from ponds and transport them to another location. This technology is primarily used at fish hatcheries, where it is desirable to minimize the physical handling of fish.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search This article is about a mechanical device. For other uses, see Pump (disambiguation). For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump.

A small, electrically powered pump

A large, electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure they only displace fluid causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure. The earliest type of pump was the Archimedes screw, first used by Sennacherib, King of Assyria, for the water systems at the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Nineveh in the 7th century BC, and later described in more detail by Archimedes in the 3rd century BC.[1] In the 13th century AD, al-Jazari described and illustrated different types of pumps, including a reciprocating pump, double-action pump, suction pump, and piston pump.[2][3]

Pumps fall into two major groups: positive displacement pumps and rotodynamic pumps . Their names describe the method for moving a fluid.

Positive displacement pumps

A lobe pump

Hand-operated, reciprocating, positive displacement, water pump in Košice-Ťahanovce, Slovakia (walking beam pump).

Mechanism of a scroll pump A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. A positive displacement pump can be further classified as either
• • •

a rotary-type (for example the rotary or vane), lobe pump similar to oil pumps used in car engines, or the Wendelkolben pump or the helical twisted Roots pump.

Roots-type pumps
The low pulsation rate and gentle performance of this Roots-type positive displacement pump is achieved due to a combination of its two 90° helical twisted rotors, and a triangular shaped sealing line configuration, both at the point of suction and at the point

of discharge. This design produces a continuous and non-vorticuless flow with equal volume. High capacity industrial "air compressors" have been designed to employ this principle as well as most "superchargers" used on internal combustion engines.

Reciprocating-type pumps
Reciprocating-type pumps use a piston and cylinder arrangement with suction and discharge valves integrated into the pump. Pumps in this category range from having "simplex" one cylinder, to in some cases "quad" four cylinders or more. Most reciprocating-type pumps are "duplex" (two) or "triplex" (three) cylinder. Furthermore, they are either "single acting" independent suction and discharge strokes or "double acting" suction and discharge in both directions. The pumps can be powered by air, steam or through a belt drive from an engine or motor. This type of pump was used extensively in the early days of steam propulsion (19th century) as boiler feed water pumps. Though still used today, reciprocating pumps are typically used for pumping highly viscous fluids including concrete and heavy oils.

Compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps
Another modern application of positive displacement pumps are compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps. Run on compressed air these pumps are intrinsically safe by design, although all manufacturers offer ATEX certified models to comply with industry regulation. Commonly seen in all areas of industry from shipping to process, SandPiper, Wilden Pumps or ARO are generally the larger of the brands. They are relatively inexpensive and can be used for almost any duty from pumping water out of bunds, to pumping hydrochloric acid from secure storage (dependant on how the pump is manufactured - elastomers / body construction). Suction is normally limited to roughly 6m although heads can be almost unlimited.

Video machine
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