Cornell University Library


S218.A4 E6
Fragments of Enipedocles;

into Englis


1924 028 975 923

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though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. wonderful. . Sc yJ Empedocles . The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create. hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. ever so far and pure . I. . Nor aught more holy. Nay. COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO.. 716 if. and dear Than this true man. Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. lofty Lucretius. . .

The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often. goes inland. Madison. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. 1906. when the long day's task was through. in nights of friendliness with you. (To W. L.: — — DEDICATION. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. Wis. Dec. . and rejoice little.. W. While you explored the Orphic liturgies.) winter by Atlantic seas. I found. you That I richer having heard your voice.. R. N. E.


W. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. May 14. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. 1907.. J. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. Madison. but I consin for medical references. Newbold. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. I am indebted to Dr. Wis. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. . B. Dr. R. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references. William Ellery Leonard.PREFACE. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R.


The Man. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 . the Poet. To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate. 4 9 13 On Nature.TABLE OF CONTENTS. the Philosopher.

viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications. PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 .

The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. was born at in Sicily. falling at last from popular favor. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — . THE POET. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. according to the tradition of antiquity. the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. as it seems. LIFE. and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. . He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe. but. THE PHILOSOPHER. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy.

And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. 1884. eloquent^ soul that he was. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. Akademie d. and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. of PERSONALITY. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem... in purple vest and golden girdle. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant. how throngs of his accompanied him along the road. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths. melancholy. after two thousand years. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. Wissenschaften. And egotistic. but the poet. according to Aristotle." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities.. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. Cf. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce. 'From Empedocles.and now. P. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. . Some traces of this imposing figure. the study of impulse. K.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal ..

however. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance. lost .* works. confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement. which. 3 WORKS. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine.. who at least quotes from the On Nature at length. Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. in the editions of Sturz . possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. who them into Latin. though but a small part of the whole. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. . The fragments were mine. But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show.^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. the poems On Nature and the Purifications. Of many menides.

and notes. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings. all that I have seen being in prose. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. of which the former's is the better. with a few slight changes and additions. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. the former's in verse. there are several translations into . There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. We . and subsequently (igo6). the latter's in prose. As Latin said above. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. TRANSLATIONS. selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES. Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. hexameters of W. C. and some work of distinguished scholars.

the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. as they come up. •Various problems are discussed. the air of Anaximenes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. There is something in the conception suggestive of . of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal. To the water of the fire Thales. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . the allusions in the ancients . The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. even at the risk of some repetition. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. in the Notes. due to two eternal powers. 5 by no means precise. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things. if we philosophy and magic." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. and declares them as universe. Love and Hate. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing. and alike primeval. the chemistry of later times. but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. albeit the lectician.

like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system. condensing or thickening. by the uniting bond of Love. each separated and unmixed. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. of an egg then fire. these four." things. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. winning the upper hand. : which. And thus arose two hemispheres." Whereupon. which took the upper space. rested. the . air. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. . as some maintain. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. and crowded air beneath her. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere. until Love. a whirling mass. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. Moreover. "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. and in continual interchange follow one another forever. in the sarfte way. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. new world-periods arise. begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. again ''exultant in surrounding solitude. came the elements one by one first.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or.

and night. the greater light to rule the day. and the dry land appeared. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday. as we have seen. Furthermore. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. conceived as endowed with feeling. sprang up. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. worked within her. bright entirely of fire. First the plants. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. And the everlasting Law made two great lights. And. took place. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. first he tells us. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for this revothe cause of day earth. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. because still in unstable equilibrium. "J the dafk of air. The development of organic life. and for days and years. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. germinations out of earth. for signs and seasons. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. Then ani- . and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. Out void.— .

would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist. some others from Vorlander. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. 1903. even down who puts the soul in the atom.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. in company with to Haeckel. arms. in our day with our resources of knowledge. so many later materialists. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads." but he is of creation. sight. eyes. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. Geschichte der Philosophie. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition. are. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. his theory of perception. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. Behind pedocles. . the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. Leipsic. they developed into the organisms we see about us. roaming ghastly through space.* like for like. modern sci- ence. I. perhaps. Band. which.

have suggested the innovation. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher. but in mood and manner. and whence they all arose. ii. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . as Burnet conjectured. Diels. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. And burning might of stars made haste to fr.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. Ol3mipos outermost. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. The Milky Way. and occasionally even his phrase. Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. FV. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. Lucretius. And And all the starry signs along the sky. be. . as sometimes in philosophic terminology. is in this their only successor. is Homeric. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES."* •Parmenides. lo. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. he recalls the Eleatic.

" ! . as thou art more than I. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. the same yesterday. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. and an essential element in the poem. towering over the wrecks of time. even the pseudoits validity. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv. He was true poet. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. There is first the grandeur of his conception. FV. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. his fragments as For. and yet Much more than mine. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine.

the glaring eyes. this shaggy earth. the mystery. in space. argues greater mind of man than any truth. the lonely. comes full — . the powers of life and death are at work. the heads. "awful heights of Air. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete." amid the monstrous shapes. all wonderful to see. And Our and a poetic response. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. as we have seen. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive. with her sightless eyes. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. in the world of petty facts. and at last we are in the habitable world. for "Night. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. circle forever. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. life the movement. and of men and women. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. the arms." .

There is the poet's relation to his kind. is to adorn the temple ." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . . the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius. ." There little . "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze. of the poet. in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. because so an austere simplicity. the pitied and bewailed." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. on the mountain side.12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. it may be. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. how now down by the brook. by Aphrodite.But I am the translator. . which suggests so much. the sympathy with "men and women. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led. not the critic.

almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher.") Symonds. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. (Good critical appreciation. man. and independent. New York. perhaps. 1901. Studies of the Greek Poets.) (lOMFERZ. Fairbanks. 1899•This book seems to Paris. fanciful. trans.) Tannery. (Keen trans. be II Principio (Rome. London. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles. acumen . (Contains partial prose translation. Four Phistoire de la science helline. Greek Thinkers. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. vol. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz..) 1892. Cited as "Tannery. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. L. 1887. vol.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. however. Source Book in Greek Philosophy. New York. with some prose transla1893. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. tions. 1907. chap. 1904. History of Ancicnt Philosophy. who answered. 1898. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. inspiring. London. (Beautifully written. York. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet.") WiNDELBAND. by H. for the general reader the following will. E. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. New York. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. Early Greek Philosophy. The First Philosophers of Greece. pendent. Burnet. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. VII.. but by Laurie Magnus. I.").

Cited as "Diels. Berlin. 1906. zweite Auflage.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. (Cited as "Zeller. Die Philosophic der Griechen. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. Leip- 1892. Teil. funfte Auflage. 1901.") . Cited as "Diets.") And DiELS. erster Band. original notes in Latin. Zeller. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. but very useful. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. the above mentioned texts of Berlin. I. sic. FV. and a few. (Contains German translation.

And having viewed Their little share of life. cttci too eAtaort/ijs.6vov TreLcdepTes. . Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. Pausanias. Believing only what each chances on. Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. to. with briefest fates.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. Ilav(rapir). son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. Friend.ON NATURE. To His I. Hear thou. 2. ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away. And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. crv 8e Kkvdi. t d.

Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. Never be heard by men. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv. i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. p. ti tSjv aXX<ui/. since hither now withdrawn apart.-qi.. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. But turn their madness. ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs. Movaa. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. . avTOfiai. nor seized by mind And thou. itrji. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv.a.T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp. ZrjfKov iKaarov. (re.. . oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. vdci ff iKacrrov.. &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi.. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. Gods from tongue ! of mine.(riv aKoveiy. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed. But thuswise never shall these things be seen.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. Nor. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. .erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. 6. 8e irap' qp. Dis. Yea. having sight. : — . Whose lives are but a day. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out. But come. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. The Elements. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. life-bringing Here. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth.. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov.

icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. Avenging Death. The uncreated elements. 8. eis •^ atUep i. vofiai. But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. wild beast.. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. ddvWTOV . <j)v<ri. S' Kal auTOS. 'tis "doom of Law. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart. or bush. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light. la death.19 [ou] KaXeovcri. or bird. 7. nor end in ruinous death. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. . and birth is but its name with men. But when in man." and though I too assent to use. Birth and Death. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<.. dyevTjTa. .s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. dXoLTTjV. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. .

But with the All there is no Void. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. 14.. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become. Ex nihilo II. The Plenum.. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? . So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. 12.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai. can wholly die away.

They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain. TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. Our Elements Immortal. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore. the Everlasting.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai.kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart. Love and Hate. . aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. And ere as mortals we compacted be. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. ovBev ap aaw. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa.. ouSe iror'. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. T6<f>pa p. We are as nothing. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. The Cosmic Process.20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . Kal cirtreTat. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re. ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. oia».Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris.

aTaXawoi/ avavrrji.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri.p. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. vo[ii^eTcu ep. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. eaa-i. fwjS' 6p. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/. Now grows now The One from Many into being. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai.trepe<i. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii.

But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. now. To birth and death and. For as before I spake. Naming the utter goal of these my words. And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. twofold the LEor. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. Many brings 1 . the Even from One disparting come the Many. through her . And this long interchange shall never end. flies apart and dies. the meeting of the . Now grows The One from Many into being. Water. shut from them apart. whatever grew From out their sundering. the deadly Strife And In equipoise. Behold her now with mind. and the Many. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. Earth and awful heights of Air. for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men.. I will report a twofold truth. death of things: Twofold the I birth. and sit not there With eyes astonished. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. Fire. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. now. again.

They were no longer. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. 23 She speeds revolving in the elements. might they to ruin come. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. besides. Perfect the works of concord. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 18. each rules its task. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . 19. and. these are all. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. now that is born And And . now this. Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. Love.— — — . Firm-clasping Lovingness. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. as they course along Through one another. And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. And so forever down Eternity. Love and Hate in the Organic World. 20.

x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t.. From the Elements is All 21. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide . And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji. a-wfia / yvla. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev. They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. . limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite. So too with thicket. The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi. Kuju/Sais. hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. And mortal members take the body's form. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd. TO. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai. dXX' dye. We See. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. tree. water-fowls that skim the long blue sea.

Similta Similibus.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. yuyverai dXXoicoTra. in honors excellent. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. the bright-diffused. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. and. 22. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. aye. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. the warm. and men and women. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. beasts and birds. . ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. For these>are all. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. obscure and cold and dark. see Also the Rain. long-lived gods.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. By varied mingling and enduring change. Behold the eternal Stars. they take new faces all. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. as they course along Through one another.

. miserable and lone. j^c/airiv. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p.[S' a] irXela-Tov re. both in birth. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev. Hate. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep. irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai. air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy.. and love by Aphrodite's best.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like. dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. After the counsels of their father. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs. fv SeSaoiTe. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. .cri.kv irXccu. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi. aXXa S* cXacrtro). deov irapa da-irera.v.p. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp. Far driven and scattered. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ.

and men and women. . An Aphorism. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. . aye. fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. peopling a fresh world With trees. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . From which they fashion forms innumerable. And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast). . . 25- . beasts and birds. And not complete one road that has no turn. now less).Lav. KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. Even so the spring of mortal things. and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. . What must be said. for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. may well be said twice o'er. O guard this knowledge well. The Speculative Thinker. To join together diverse peaks of thought. And like to all things. leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. And fishes nourished in deep waters. now more. 24. .

Spring from primeval scattering of the One. . The Law of the Elements. ravrrii. roll. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. again. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. still. Till they. as they course along Through one another. when grown into the One and All Once more. they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all. KoX (j)6Cv€i. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.a Xijyei..a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. . so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. once more go under and succumb. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. and the Many. T'^i jno' 171. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. So far have they a birth and mortal date. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. 26. And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi.

Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. nor Sea. But in the strong recess of Harmony. 29. Exultant in surrounding solitude. nor form . For from its back there swing no branching arms. The Sphere on every side the boundless same. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. Exultant in surrounding solitude. « 27. Trepirjyii yauov. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. The Sphere. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai.v. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. '^ ov iroSes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. 27a. It hath no feet nor knees alert. ov 0od yovva. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere.

33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra. on all sides was. and will bind it 34- fast. Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. old. . 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Physical Analogies. The joint binds two. . SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. . But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. times arrived to Strife. 30. .. . irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. . . Should come by amplest oath and 31. For one by one did quake the limbs of God. life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. and rose To her own honors. as the Which unto each in turn. — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. . decree. 32. Cementing meal with water . 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . . . . . . and like unto itself. to Love.

8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each . 3 of ^ove.a IBeadaL.i. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv.(Ti.. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO.^eTcua»v. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. reached Yet not a-sudden. Be t e^e^efirJKei.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov.iive^ fiekecov to. ovK tS)v a(f)ap. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. The Conquest 35. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. \6yov \6yov e^o. ?] dddvar eivai. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi. I now will To paths of festal song. But hurrying back. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra. laid make return down before. Toi' irporepov KareXefa.

the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. Then ever the more. partwise Was he already from the members gone. But partwise yet within he stayed. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. And as they came together. exchanging highways of new life. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36. inward pressed The gentle minded. As much as Hate still held in scales. And ever the more skulked away and fled. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. her figure magnifies. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. aloft. and nearer. Similia similibus. aWepa 8' ald-qp. see. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. . Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air.

The World
as It
, . .




ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd


eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,



Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv




TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,


Aether, the Titan,


binds the globe about.

Earth and Air Not

eiwep aireipova

y^s re


Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs



okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps



and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.

aXX' o


a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,








KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s


errXero firjvrji.

The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.

ws avyrj rv^axra


kvkKov evpvv



As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov


Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.

ap/taro? ws irepi




re irap' aKpijv


Even as revolves a The outmost

chariot's nave,

which round




ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.






But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.



iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?




night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and


'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.


from sea brings wind or mighty

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'





sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many



there burns beneath the ground.


yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci


For sometimes so upon





ofttimes otherwise.

erdm(av. . ovra cTrXavaro . yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. shoulderless and bare. . aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. smit by beams of sun. . / aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt. oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p. . There budded many a head without a neck. The salt grew solid. Earth's sweat. the sea. X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. And arms were roaming. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. S8.] In isolation wandered every limb. .€\T) ert ra yvla . ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav. And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. . 57.36 THE FRAGMENTS OF^. \- [. . iiovvop. Hither and thither seeing union meet. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. s6. Things Passing Strange.

feet. born with twofold brow and breast. with the face of 62. oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. and sometimes womangrowths. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u. Sometimes like men. Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai.ei'a yuiois.evov iTvp. ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'. ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa. 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt. aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro. . dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' . Many were vvv S' ay. . . oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi. These members fell together where they met.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life. man on bovine stock.KO<j>vrj . S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. 60. But now as God with God was mingled more. to. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.v6p. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa.

common to the male. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. nor yet a human cry. dwiatrai'Ta. erst whelmed in night. when contrariwise they meet with Warm.. iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. [rd 8' ip. Of men and women. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov. the birth is girls. who sees. reminding him 6s.7rdki. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs. 64. Love-longing comes.v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. And boys. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov.vBp6s . Nor secret member. . For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark.. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. and when Therein they meet with Cold. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d. 63. The Process of Human Generation To-day. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a. the pitied and bewailed. human limbs. That had their shares of Water and of Warm.. .€. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of .v dppeva Oepfiov].

67. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . 'A^po8iTi79. SCyovoi. 68. in pus. month the eighth. 66. .. . More stalwart and more shaggy. . For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. and therefore men are dark. On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. Sheepskin. iv yap depfioripai roKa. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav . the blood Becomes white 69. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . Twice bearing. 70. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. aiiviov. On the tenth day. dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov.

Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. after watering Earth with Rain.. . 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. in Got this their sponginess. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. As the tall trees and fish in briny floods. The Earth and Water. t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i.. . Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . As Kypris. compact with outsides loose. the palms of Aphrodite shaped. . Zealous to heat her. if belief And lack pith. . fish. . inside Which. 73.ej/ irvKvd. . 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the Ether and the S)Xm.. to.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being. 72. <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. as have come to be. .

77-78.. aye. And issues from the rind. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. ocean-dwellers. 81. Wine but water fermented in the wood.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. Trees bore perennial fruit. of shell-fish wreathed. 76. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs. .o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles. 80. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be. \hevZpta 8'] ifnre. perennial fronds. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa. oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts. Since fed forever by a fruitful air. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p.

Stiff hairs. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp. on sturdy limbs grow hair.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri.v.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. In horny lantern shielding from all winds. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. 84. scales plumes.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri. SiieaKov. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night. 82. TavTtt T/3i. Our Eyes. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev. of fish. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. As when a man. keen-piercing.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. From the same Leaves. to sally forth.Tre<f>piKau(Ti.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . .

as more fine and thin. 87. And thus kept off the watery deeps around.. The untiring eyes were formed. 86. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. One vision of two eyes is born. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri. Its beam darts outward. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. the divine. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. fj fine and thin. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. . y6p. Whilst Fire burst outward. as more 8s.

ocra eyevovTO . 90. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. Water But to wine more nearly is allied. 91. Knowing that all things have their emanations. flew. . ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s. 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. . [idpirre. otvcM . . ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin.€i\divTa tov -)(a. 92. will not mix with oil. Similia similibus. and upon Hot rode Hot.. yj/ous. .. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. t5i KaTTiripoii p. . Thus Sweet seized Sweet. The Black River Bottoms. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra. . atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris.\K6v . 89.

Eyes. ' And of Hephaestos four. .. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. "^^^ 97- pdx. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis. they first Began to grow together . Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo. Thence came white bones. As. S' aiyXrjs. KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. Bones. Blood and Flesh. The back-bone. Xupevecraiv . ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti.if ^^X^ NiyariSos to.Lv. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. 98. 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. pakurra. and one may same In hollow caves. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. in the palms of Kypris shaped.

^ The Rushing Blood and 100. ako^iv <j>6vov p.dv (TTop. a fleshy twig. And Rain and Ether.~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And Earth within the perfect ports u. she met-wlt. 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei.. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd. Siapirepe^.rj(r6cu. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai.. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos. the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less. e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp . acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. aafe KevOav. ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u. irdKiv e/orveiei. Of Aphrodite anchored lay. after The Ear.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. Sometimes a little more than theirs). (Tapxivo^ 0^09.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red. the Clepsydra.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp. diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa. A bell . aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp. 99- KtoStav.

And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out. For air. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed. however. the air In turn breathes out. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. is cut a passage free. iraXij'.Kpa Kparvvtap. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. And when from here the thin blood backward streams. until the child at last . That falls inside against the countless holes. and. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. dp. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. at their outlets. but the own weight. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. In all. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. Keeps it in check.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. Over the body's surface.. ws S' avrcD. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell. oiSjuari ^Coi/.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm.^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. But when again it forward leaps. and so the blood remains within. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water.

that from without Comes pressing inward.. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in. KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. Until her hand will loosen. lOI. As air drops down and in. But when again it forward leaps.: —— . The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air.. . And thus got all things share of breath and smells.a)i>. Left by their feet along the tender grass . sets free the thickened air. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Even so it is. When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. Scent. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. . 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a. 102.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward. holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. As the child keeps possession of the top.. Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs. as air gives way.

. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. where prevails the power call thought. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together . Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought.^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia.. --^i 105.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The heart That men is nourished. back-leaping unto it. 103. According to the body's thrift and state.. rejoice. 106. 104.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^. In the blood-streams. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv. For as of these commingled all things are. or grieve. 107. Even so through these men think. On the PsychicJLife. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi.. For unto men their thrift of reason grows.

vpCa 8ciX. . e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op.epLp. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju.a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji. For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold. Love. io8. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL. As By far as mortals change by day. and endeavor pure. . Through Ether. . Through Water. devouring Fire.. Water. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi.aro^ dttrav. . And Love through Hate. . ota kot avopa<s a t dp.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^^.pKvvovcri p. .oi'. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup.€voLO p. divine Ether luminous. through Fire. and Hate through doleful no. reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm. oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. so far night their thinking changes 109. o aiaepa olov. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai.

aye. III. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands. drjcrei. . — Dominion. rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought.ra CTrafcis* ef op.a. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll. vaXCvrLTa irvevp.evos oi t yarai/ opvup. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina. where his essence lies. As men be after. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ^v ideXrjLO-da. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. for service. myriad and vile. <j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra.

And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. take their vengeance. . And watch them shrill. shalt thou arouse the blasts.52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. at seasons good for men. wild and For that before thou cowedst them. And if thou wilt. nourishing the mountain trees. As down they stream from ether. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought.

iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa.. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi. ye stewards of good works. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis.. no more as man.v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come . fillets and well.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri. axrirep Ibt/ca. THE PURIFICATIONS. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. ft) (^tXoi. The Healer and Prophet. 112. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk . OL p. As god immortal now. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. All hail. XatpeT. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's.vpioL i^epeoi/T£^.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos.

I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides. O friends.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.vdoi9. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo. craving some oracles.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p. XcXd^aai /Sioio. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai[ia TraXaidi/. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me. To thriving cities.a'^prjyia'p. iiil <j)peva TTumo. I am sought by prayers. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi.p. doomed to many deaths! — 114. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms.ij. For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav. ovs iyo) i^epeo}. S> <j)C\oi. .

OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. ii6. There is a word of Fate. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life. iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea. iraires.. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land. oTvyiovai. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. as failing of their pledge. . Or swear Shall forsworn. oaths. Charis abhors intolerable Fate. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven. irCcrvvo's. And in that brood I too am numbered now. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife.09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods. Neucel' p. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed.— . made fast With amplest spirits. 6 S' aldipo^ ip.aLvofiev(oi. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<. aWepiov p.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.kv yap <r<^e p. Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei. 8e i/Sv ei/ii.

v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . Thicket and bird. beholding the strange 119.'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs.. Kal (rTJ\lii. and mute fish in the waves. 120. voaoi. 121. . 118.e. joyless land. wept and wailed. and troops of Dooms . For I This Earth of Ours. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. 117. place. ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. A Where /tcTa OvrjTois. a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. rj\vdop. o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv. And then we came unto a roofed cave. drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. Slaughter and Grudge. was once already boy and girl. fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. This Vale of Tears.

T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. burdened with the water-jars.epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. Action and Rest. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia. There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . There was Earth-mother. . and Silence and prevaihng Voice. & iroTTOi. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! . 123. 124. And Labors. and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. . a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. and Glory many-crowned. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. And Filth. 122..

Their forms exchanging. 'tis.oe afieiprnv. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side. dead did make.. The Changing Forms.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei.T(ovi. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv. IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes.ei' yap l. arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls. flesh. For from the living he the . But. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. The Golden Age. €K ju. 128. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men. I2S.os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs . when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live. 126. Are taway-lions. All things doth Nature change. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127.

Zeus. nor . rjia yvZa. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. Tavpwv S' a. Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the king of gods. ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu. .. . and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. I2g. nor Kronos. gainer of large wealth Of understanding. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge. not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. limbs. redolent fumes of frankincense.d?. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. Poseidon then. With painted images of living things. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv. nor Kydoimos.. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease.

Orjpes T olo)voiT€. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice.e[n)\€i/.(f>aCvovTi.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. All beasts and birds. 130. O Muse undying. oX)8to?. SeiXos 8'. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. and gentle toward men. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding. thou couldst deign soul. 132. All things were tame. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. KaXXtoTreta. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. 131. afi^pore Movtra. For since. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more. O well with him who hath secured his wealth . Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. and friendship's flame blew fair. The Divine. throve. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days.

pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^]t. Of thoughts Is divine.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.ovvov. ov iroSes. Ojig^holy mind. We may not bring It near us with our eyes. ov doa yovva. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. ov p. ineffable. but It lives.kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat. alone. It hath no feet nor knees alert. nor form Of tufted secret member. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. We may not grasp It with our human hands. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. . With neither hands nor eyes. For from Its back there swing no branching arms. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head.

unthinking as ye are. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. Thus too the son Seizes the father. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. Imploring their destroyers.evoi. 136.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Animal SacriUpe. . The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast. And reave of life and eath 138. their own dear flesh.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p. ^uoj^Tas. children the mother seize. «us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. And slits A But the poor victims press.

ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos. Sin. Ye ye altogether wretched. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai. 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. 142. tree SaXoi. irdvhaXoi. . . tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. 140. O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . nor dire Hecate's venging house. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES... TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago.

O fast from evil-doing. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. . ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. Physicians sage. And The excellent in honors. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. dreipei^. whence germinate the gods. diroKhrjpoi. of Rebirth. and singers of high hymns. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. 61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi. seers at last. The Progression 146.64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. feast At hearth and tals.

Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost.v. iSSa. ISO.axn. 65 Man-enfolding Earth. . iv eirra €phop. 149. In seven times seven days. The cloud-collecting. Evening. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. The belly. iroXvatftarov -^Trap. 152. The blood-full liver. IS3. 148. isi- Life-giving. the day's old age.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.


the simulacra of Lucr. Fr. fr. 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. 4. so elsewhere. Cf. and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. : Meek Piety's lit. 2. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/.NOTES. 3. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. fr. : . "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices". Addressed to Pausanias. of knowing: by every passage. Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. ceu fumus. 4SS-6." By every . Parmenides and other philosophers. ON NATURE.. "from [the realm of] Piety. Ill. Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. Fr. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna.. unlike Parmenides. (rroXd/tg) cf. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. in altas aeris auras. cf. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. Fr. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). way fr. may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . or device Empedocles." Lucr. Trust sight no more than hearing. 4. 2. etc. Like smoke cf. here E. I. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. IV).

was poet no less than philosopher. De arte poetica. s. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. make Zeus air. Here earth. E. Zeller (p. 'road. — calls the stoffe. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. for the reverent attitude. though it had never made them GrundCf.' 'pore. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow. may chology. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out. and to Fr. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. p. the gods Love and Strife. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF). without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. 243) and Bodrero (p. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. 3. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. Ill. . Fr. 245) at the most E. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology." a very different. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed. Aristotle (. reflected in this fragment..68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The four-fold root the four elements. Here air. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. 427a 21-29) says that E. the roll of his splendid verse. the "mistiform" . is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. 6. with the sensationalists of modem psyon another. four elements." Moreover. one sense as acting as a check consider. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent.De an. 759) makes Zeus fire. and Aidoneus fire. Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation.. if. : me less effective figure. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. following Knatz. also Gomperz. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). 78). as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf. Burnet (p." : PPF. also the "flowing" (like water). and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water.' The Roman critic (Hor.

not believe.) E.THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES. in- Fr. Burnet." Fr. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. 11-12. had made ultimate reality a material One. Parmenides. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. Cf. 15. the psychic (Siebeck. PPF. 759. any given object] be right there. etc. : For there 'twill be. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. etc. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. Elements (amx^ta). The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I.. 13-14. Zeller. is nowhere preserved to us by E. Ppanl denotes with E. however. p. where any one every time puts it. Plut. "in In man. PPF). Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. 8. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. 10. it so. upon as is the idea of birth. quoted by Diels.." Fr. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. Psychol. not only men but 267) I do all per- . Plato. 207-8). at least I take Fr. 9. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. fr. 17. 935 est sceleris vindex. End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. is a Plenum. p. in a connection similar to 9 (cf. the case of man.: properly. e. Thales. etc.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. Gesch. 7. Heraclitus. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr. supplied here and elsewhere. 53. "doom of death" Fr." Diels. Cf. (cf. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold .. Pjfthagoras. monism Fr." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. E. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. d.

But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) ." etc. are the four elements. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). fr." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). in- however. with the increased tendency ration. as to every thing. as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv). Love and Hate: and "Strife. of the Egyptian. preserved by Simplicius. 306). 16. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. and the most difficult of the fragments. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). p. p. the most significant. however. "the Many. in so far as their elements are eternal. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying." Cf. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere.. deed. "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. ishable beings. as the elements come together. "The One" is tlie Sphere. conceived by E. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for. conception are still in dispute (cf. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. 771 Tannery. Many details of the . The longest. 17. as the dynamic powers of the universe. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. again. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again. "Lovingness" and "Wrath.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and these are eternal only Zeller. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. p. . Zeller. the thought of fV. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements." "Aphrodite" under varying names. 26." Diels. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. 11 must apply. Efforts to relate them . and "our being" is but a physical being. Thought and feeling with E. or to the Fr. Two-fold the birth. to which. as Fr. 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". are part of the physical system. until.

a complete dissipation. e. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules.). immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things. Anaximander (but cf. So far have they a birth. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. I believe. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf. almost as diffused gases. 305). equal in length and breadth." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. while Love. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists.. is situated inside. e.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. and ciples. who believes we period. Tannery. we have the harmony of the Sphere. the m3fthological names of fr. i. out the thought with consistency of detail. etc." And shut from them apart. are in the former period. 248 ff. : : "thejr" refers.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. 6). p. whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn. Burnet. if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. when Hate is supreme.. if — of the world. The early philosophers corporealities . Burnet (p. p. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation." i. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. etc. 7I It must be noted that. "speeds revolving in the elements. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere. etc. Cf. when Love is supreme. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space. there is a freshness : . and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. Burnet. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world. and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. Thus Strife is in equipoise.

to me at least. without ever ending in fire's dominating all. 18. its E. are told that wood conquers earth. Zeller. by the way. E. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. with a passion. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. water conquers fire. or Earth. quoted by Diels. Cf. etc. in the life of man.72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names.'s thought that seems to correspond. or a faculty. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. in this identification of a cosmic principle. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. p. primeval. PPF. qualitatively distinct from the others. that E.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. or Water. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition." Paul Carus. : Behold these elements own equal strength. but each. Cf. fr. ments). Plut. Chinese Thought. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. p. Zeller." etc. allusion to the theory of the pores. or simply to the fact that now this. or material. translator has The ing (pCKlii . with (cf. 787). log). p. 762. with identified which usually by the commentators. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. fire conquers metal. 767. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. and metal conquers wood. perfectly clear. 26. But there is nothing in E. 1907.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. earth conquers water. fr. 47. p. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. Cf. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. I think. Fr.

with this Fr. 41. 608) phrases which. 231). etc. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere). as I understand them. PPF. The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. is here speaking of things as they are. Fr. one might well note that E. hardly the bright heaven. are not. I. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. Fr. Cf. on fr. and both as formed of fire separated from the air. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk.' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott)." Diels. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. . 1. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. 21." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. e. 20. rain to the watery. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. like tree or fish. 19. or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. But were it so interpreted. 'the beginnings of things. 62. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). But come. formed. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. though "in honors excellent. I. the planets as free. 73 With reference here to water. hence. Air seems to be unrepresented. 57-62. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. however. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. fragment fr. for E. out of the elements ." they are not immortal.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Line i has been supplied by the translator. and earth to the earthy. the aery expanse of day..

. mixing harmonious. this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. is reasonable reason. 26. "A If good. 21..succumb : i. as I understand it. Fr. when grown." none the worse for Byron. cf. . f r. p. Also Burnet. p. the universal law of being. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. mentioned several times by E. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. 17 . 22. till. XV. Heaven : air . important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. as the unifying process goes on. Cf. Don Juan. 5. in the dead harmony of the Sphere.74 Fr. The simile were then doubly striking. e.. 25. Fr. fr. repetition. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. Tannery. Burnet.. 308. 'divinitjf" (Seov). 247. 237. One may Cf. 23. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. 4.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. 233) sees a reference in etc. I think. 247 ff. Gomperz. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. . etc. Cf. 17. fr. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements. and can only mean. For amber Sun. gi. : The goddess: lit. p. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. (cf. fragment to the four primary colors. cf. eh ha Kiaiiov. undoubtedly the Muse. . which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. 131). Whiles in fair order: Or. note to fr. Cf. Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. Fr. . as analogous to the four elements. this Gomperz (p.

a (1. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. but the union of Love and Hate. their equilibrium". though not altogether satisfactory. not as hiding it somewhere in space. as . however. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. and perhaps. and wonders if a line may have been lost. and is usually. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. Sphere. Burnet. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides." universe. as here. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone. all . were the personified "fitting. The figure may be Pythagorean. 27." Diels. latebris PPF. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars. then. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love. There: in the Sphere. For various ancient cf.'s present spherical universe. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air. but Kp<i*os. if Pythagorean. i. which was spherical and immovable. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought. however. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai. as it seems to here. as a noun (meaning. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr. y is..' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. interpretations of the nature of the ff. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. e. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. one would "adaptation. but the four elements. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. difficulties must be admitted." If examined narrowly. of the point of view adopted in these pages. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love. fitted." Bodrero assumes (p. Moreover. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. for the figure. p. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai. Prof. composed. Harmony.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

i. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense. Fr. note to fr. 'AH round. PPF. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man. 115. Nor form Fr. though in a corrupt form. God: the Sphere. Amplest oath Gr. 34.' Cf.'" Fr." 814. ." Diels.902. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. fr. not ex- Tannery thinks (p.the final resultant of the disordered movements . the totality of divine beings and powers. 314) is the principle of division and movement. and in its joyous : rest reposing. Fr. Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere. learn from the doxographers. 29. and says "e Plut. are used fr. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. 35." And again (p. Zeller. 3) "If thou wilt separate. fr. 31. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. and the things of time to come and of time that is past. the naked and the swift. Cf. itXot&s : SpKov. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. 813 . p. is Fr. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. £. Cf. . e. itself cf. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. like a baker. I say. pressit Fr. Ht. where expressions. 134.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 30.. apparently of the Divine. 'broad oath. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. according to Karsten and Burnet. Fr. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. 33. 32. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. in part identical.48. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. in con"Hate .

fr.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 787. July 1906). Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. : the circumference of the vortex. 130. Class. A. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. caused. although this seems. I. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. 3. Cf. according to Tannery by Hate. mixed. p. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid. 30) . : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. fr. Fr. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. 784. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity. 116. : Cf. or vortex. Zeller. 17 and 26. however. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf. Not all blameless i. attraction of Cf. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low. and fr.. identified with the Sphere. 36. This chaos. Heidel." Bodrero. Hate retreated under protest. W. preceding fragment . which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. it was.. if anything more than a poetic touch. note to : fr. The two states are again contrasted in p. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. Philology. The members: the elements." But cf. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. but with the 26. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. 22. right and wrong. "and from their mingling. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution." They The elements. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf." etc. and is finally excluded altogether. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels. e. PPF.

the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Burnet. E. the pure ether." the "awful heights of Air. "without. Deorum. for fire.) Cf." the vaulted sky of his imagination.78 Fr. stars. But cf. Days. one finds nothing representative of fire. p. 41. a mere reflection. Fr. and of Emerson's etc. 109 on sense perceptipn. This. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air. as opposed to the upper air. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i. some tongues.." Tannery. but is in keeping with E. ''cetera Cf. the all splendorous. and Zeller. I. Lucr. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). 39. 100 (q." the earth. 44. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf. notes to Cicero's De Nat. 786. The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. note to fr. 37. with reference to the fiery sky (cf. its 254." Diels. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. 'light up." Emerson. mist" by Burnet." p. indeed. e. How the sun. for slight differences of interpretation. fr. fools. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E. v. it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. . at versus recuperari nequit. As forsooth Heraclitus. however. however. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. tal vault of heaven. II 1114 sq.'s "Ether. 38. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements. "Bread. as by Anaxagoras. p. and sky that holds them all.. Stickney.). kingdoms. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E. 789. "Moist air" is . PPF. assuming any elemental difference. : "With Ether.' •blaze')—a sense. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). unless ether be here used. 317. thicker.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr.

Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v. The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. air. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. p. 31). darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. Fr. 41). 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. 43. a darker of Cf. II." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac. Rhod. himself uses 93) of the elder. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. Zeller. Fr. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. a lighter of fire.. fr. Her lord: the sun.ii. irapb. the olive. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. A. 790." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. see note on fr. and E. 45. E. Zeller." is used of the willow." used especially of Athene. Fr. Odys. and. on Apoll. and one-half . : by Merrill and Riddell. "Seirii Cf. Fr. E. 43. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. 48. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p.' or something of the sort. ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri. . 786 flf. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. Schol.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. bearing with it its sun (see fr.irta>. 42. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. E." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. 46. Fr. it 7XouKos (fr. whose revolution produces day and night." whom the Iliad (A. Cf. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. who speaks of "Selene mild. 47. followed here. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . 200) says. 41). Kal yX'qvti \i. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. I.

e.. increasing . e. : Cod with god There seems Gr. fire has a crystallizing.: of fire. totle. Love and Hate. Burnet. 62. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. that E. its pores in the form of drops. fr. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern ..'s thought. Fr. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. as air a downward (see fr. p. etc. Zeller. Diels. tific charming poetry. PPF. with the other elements. so. 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. Fr. II.. is 17) fr. "It" refers to air. in E. "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. which. For authenticity cf. Fr. condensing function. 55. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. B 3. et corr.80 Fr. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. 52. Fr. 56. Sal/tovi Salnuy.). when Hate world). no reason for the conjecture. functions attributed by E. in the period of the present Cf. S4) tendency. 256. the fourth period . The Greek imagination was long fato be . 35] made Burnet. 51.e. 51. Cf. on the other hand to another process (i.. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. then. p. was at first mixed with water. e.. 261. {. 73. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. as criticized the water gush forth. but the inFr. With E. S7-6i. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 54. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i." i. p. Burnet (p. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. Fr. "Met. The phrase is not. See note to fr. S3. sometimes advanced." And upward. 79S) . see fr. as common in Sicily. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. had an upward." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor.

is speaking here of mankind. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring. the latter inducing decay. 1239. For 'tis in part in man's : i." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom. Fr. as rational as most modern theories. See notes to fr. whole Warm warm : ditions in E. 62.'s system. Cyclops. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex. The sundered Are: Gr. waking well Old memories. chimxras." Fr. Cf." Though E. This present is. death. the pitied and bewailed. old age.'' Lucr. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters. Fr. we perhaps. as he gazes. satyrs. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. e. The genera. explained conception as a union of male and female semen. An alternative reading. lit. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. so a medical colleague informs me.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. S7-6j." Williams.. E. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate. fire "Of men and women.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. IV. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum. sleep. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched. 63. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. Obstetrics (1904)1 P. 64. 65. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him.143- . Fr.. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being. by a collection (originally from Marburg). dites 8 miliar with centaurs. in part in the male semen.

could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. Fr. others. Love. Kypris: Aphrodite. 484a 38) says that E.e. 71. 75-76. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). 79. however. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. 70. 77-78. with the skin. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. Twice-hearing: i.. 68. Aristotle {Pneumat. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. 80. present in the breast after the first few months. Colostrum is. E.. finger-nails. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. if my be- available lexical information be correct. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. fr. Trees were supposed by E. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. — Fr. 74. The Fr. E. 73. Here the bones. 69. 56.82 Fr. the lime) within some animals are related. the earthen part (in modern science. quite in the spirit of our own physiology. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). Fr. White pus: Gr. Fr. Fr. consisting chiefly of keratin. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. Fr. 66. laid Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. turtle's shell. To speed of fire that she might Cf. etc. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. morphologically connected. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. like horn. to the shells on the outside of is. t6 iriov. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. however. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). the "embryo" Fr. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard .

and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. e. but for the slangy connotations. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. however inadequate. 87. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water." bringt. moreover. from these elements. 92. to explain percepIt was an attempt. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern. 89. 82. must be understood here. and "horny. of the eye contains "Emp. p. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. of the poet-scientist Goethe. note on fr. following Aristotle. Fire serves for perceiving the bright. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. apple. Fr. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes. 77-78. 83 thick skin. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 88. Cf. 801. 2. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. fr. Fr. Fr. Cf." Fr. alternately arranged for each element. Fr. Cf. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln .. 86. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. give to the emanations of each a free passage. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. was an attempt. p. 96. 267. Fr. : a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. eine harte Verhindung zustande. From which Bolts of love i. go. the pores of which. Fr. who has preserved us the fragment. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. 235. 84." Zeller. water for the dark. : p. however reluctantly. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn." though not in the text." Gomperz. which admitted. Burnet. the subjective factor. Dort aber geht es. Diels (FV).

inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science." Fr. 103. : A The — Fr. They I e. She met: Gr. as grotesque as it is ingenious. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. dass einige bei Tag. Fr. 39). though far enough from the discovery of Harvey.. Cf. aquae. fr. aeris arcessit. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach. 9S." as Bodrero translates it. it is As a theory of respiration. 96. Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis. Aeshy sprout E. 93. This fragment (cf.84 Fr. Silvery : See note to f r. 94. 2 parts water. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. a word. admisceatur. 43. gests in Empedocles' system. among others. Cf. Bodrero. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood. Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. will sometimes emphasize a term. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. 107 ff. 102. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV). following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. Fr. ovviKvpae. the eyes. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. 97. 100. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not. of 2 parts earth. Thus bones are formed fire. andere bei Nacht heller sehen. . Thus completed by Diels (FV)." Fr. Ether. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus. 99. 98." : Fr. Quaest." . Cf." Fr. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. fr.'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. p. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us..

In the blood streams : cf. Fr. loi. e. nowhere credits the elements as such. as 85 the clepsydra." i. Fr. 109 be so interpreted (but cf. : i. a cor- All that is left of E." But E. unless fr. p. . 105. as in some passages Cf.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Zeller. note on fr.. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus." Fr. 803. 802. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down. e. Zeller. did not mean here. Fr. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap. (cf. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. elsewhere. upoij scientific experiment. Here. though in form of a Burnet points out. etc. 230) will.i seems to be a hylozoist. 98. Cf. 102. with consciousness. 104. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs.. E. 245).'s theory of scent. but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. p. . The mites are the emanations. PPF). 103. but E. Gomperz. Got: lit. fr. note to f r. I think. it : Diels. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . Fr. p. Chance: cf. 100. The comparison with Homeric simile. The top b was not altogether open. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. The lightest: supply "bodies. 98. Cf. perhaps. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. rests. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power.

no. The dominion over human ills. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf. Italian school of medicine. Fr. 108. a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. possibly "charms" is better. Cf. quoted by Diels. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. e. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. . sondern er hat das.. consciousness. 802). Through Earth. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt.. 215. as sugme by a friend. E.: interpretation just above be correct. my sound psychology. . "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. drought and death. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft. is the microcosm. PPF.. etc. All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here. Ill. gested to Drugs: Gr.. p. All things have Axed intent Fr. 109. doctrine. Galen makes E. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking.: . Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr. the founder of the Cf. sickness. Cf. For of themselves.. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. p. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. 107. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. 17). etc.they grow. 86 Fr. note on fr. as elsewhere. Fr. Burnet. here promised to Pausanias. p. Plotinus yeyevTiniros. : i. note on fr. : Cf. 106. 445-6. (p&p/iaKa. These: the elements. — Zeller. and Philop. Fr. was early imputed to . III. io6. windstorms. e. addressing Pausanias. and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf.'' Lucr. 802.

conservatively by Burnet (p. (cf. 87 Introduction) . Fr.. if an (cf. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following. 213. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. e. of the THE PURIFICATIONS. One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. and not. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. 589. our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. p. Fr. p. as the latter. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. a god and so much above mankind?" E.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. to the citizens of Acragas. Proleg. and his references). Harrison. radically by Bodrero (passim). 112. The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum.. and. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. 271). has here . though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. Empedocles himself tue of these lines. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition. the courage of man). KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. to Study of Greek Religion. 113." Cf. I. perhaps. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. Burnet. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought.

" according to Bodrero (p. etc. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: .000 years. etc. 249 S. is probably Pythagorean in origin. Fr. In offense: in sin. e. 147. p. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect.. Zeller." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 136. Cf. Moreover. Fr. Cf. bloodshed of animals. Charis: Aphrodite. 35) E. e tomo ad Bodrero. p. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. p. Burnet (p. Sat/ioves. 116. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate. rpU iivplai «5pot. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. by some interpreted as 10. pesce. 30. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. compatible with the On Nature. uccello. IIS. 117. fr. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. familiar four elements. fr. Those far spirits: Gr. it i. With amplest oaths: cf. fanciullo e giovinetta. 139]. 146). identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. though apparently certi determinati esseri. something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. : Be born through time. 271). the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. fr. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. Cf. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. essere arbusto. also Gomperz. Cf. 780. In the On Nature (fr. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. sinfully. Fr. p.

is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed.. 119.. cf. For other Fr. Proleg. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum. V." If this interpretation be correct. Fr.' Harrison. to Study of Greek Religion. A bush. was .'' I. p. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell. this refers. 614 ff. . representing. fr." According to this. Proleg. after 119). life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits. A joyless land it. which. vagituque locum lugubri complet. notes to loc. plains. p. Chap. it has been suggested to me by Prof. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. cit. a bird. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings. Newbold. which. 122 and 123 itself. if the scene be earth." etc. "Infans. Cf. Harrison. 118. Cf. XI. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. wander.^nd I was a maiden. Fr." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 226. : with fr. as he entered.. 118. parallels see Munro and Guissani. banishment from heaven. 121. note to fr.. Prometheus Unbound." Lucr. sed agri inundationibus vexati. upon his earthly career (cf. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I.) but that E. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. 169. 590. "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). to Study of Greek Religion. and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean.

Fr. 122.


in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this


Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv


follow are




imitates the catalogue of







edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the


of the

blessed to the (relative) death


this earth,

where souls are

"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,




dt Kal


ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having


a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate



the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in


Unmixed blood:
as such,

the figure


from unmixed wine, which,


and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.


In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

sive decern sive viginti



saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose



(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,



"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,


und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."


Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.


"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note


fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle






Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,



Fr. 142.

''etiam sensus incertus,

utrum lovis


Hecates regna


2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus


scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."


Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.



George Herbert uses the same



in his

Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.





us of the


too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.







quoted by Diels, PPF).




Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,

quoted by Diels, PPF.

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is


Hesych., quoted by Diels,


Fr. iS3a.



translates the doxographer: "In sieben


Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung



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