Cornell University Library


S218.A4 E6
Fragments of Enipedocles;

into Englis


1924 028 975 923

the United States on the use of the .Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in text.archive.




. . lofty Lucretius. though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. ever so far and pure . 716 if. hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. Nay. The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create. Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. and dear Than this true man. wonderful.. . Nor aught more holy. COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO. Sc yJ Empedocles . . I.

Dec. E. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. Wis.: — — DEDICATION. The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often. R. L. I found. 1906. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. in nights of friendliness with you. While you explored the Orphic liturgies. when the long day's task was through.. you That I richer having heard your voice. W. and rejoice little. goes inland. N.) winter by Atlantic seas.. (To W. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. . Madison.


Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references. . The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. Madison. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R.PREFACE. Wis. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. B. I am indebted to Dr. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. W. 1907.. Newbold. J. R. but I consin for medical references. William Ellery Leonard. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. May 14. Dr.


the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 . the Poet. To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate. the Philosopher. 4 9 13 On Nature. The Man. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life.TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 .viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications.

LIFE. THE POET. THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. falling at last from popular favor. The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. as it seems. and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — . the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. . according to the tradition of antiquity. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy. but. was born at in Sicily. THE PHILOSOPHER.

But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal . the study of impulse. . how throngs of his accompanied him along the road. Wissenschaften.. Akademie d.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant. after two thousand years.. but the poet. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. according to Aristotle.. 'From Empedocles. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher. of PERSONALITY. P. 1884. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. K. in purple vest and golden girdle. melancholy. Cf.and now. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. Some traces of this imposing figure.. eloquent^ soul that he was. And egotistic. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce. and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words.

in the editions of Sturz . 3 WORKS. lost .^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. who them into Latin. Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show.* works. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance. though but a small part of the whole. But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve. Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. Of many menides. the poems On Nature and the Purifications. which. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. however. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. who at least quotes from the On Nature at length. The fragments were mine. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement.. possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius.

But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. the former's in verse. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. TRANSLATIONS. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. of which the former's is the better. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. and subsequently (igo6). and notes. all that I have seen being in prose. there are several translations into . in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. C. There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. with a few slight changes and additions. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. the latter's in prose. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. We . Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles. As Latin said above. hexameters of W. and some work of distinguished scholars.

With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. due to two eternal powers. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing. •Various problems are discussed. the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. the chemistry of later times. of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal. albeit the lectician. even at the risk of some repetition. the allusions in the ancients . but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole. and alike primeval. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. To the water of the fire Thales. and declares them as universe. Love and Hate. The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . the air of Anaximenes. as they come up. 5 by no means precise. if we philosophy and magic. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. There is something in the conception suggestive of . may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. in the Notes.

like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. air. begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. each separated and unmixed. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. by the uniting bond of Love. these four. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. : which. as some maintain. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere. of an egg then fire. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system." things. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. which took the upper space. rested. and crowded air beneath her. "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. in the sarfte way. came the elements one by one first. winning the upper hand. And thus arose two hemispheres. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. until Love. the . . new world-periods arise.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. a whirling mass. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time." Whereupon. and in continual interchange follow one another forever. condensing or thickening. again ''exultant in surrounding solitude. Moreover.

First the plants. The development of organic life. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. the greater light to rule the day. because still in unstable equilibrium. as we have seen. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. first he tells us. And. and night. conceived as endowed with feeling. for this revothe cause of day earth. "J the dafk of air. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. and for days and years. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. for signs and seasons. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday. bright entirely of fire. worked within her. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements.— . sprang up. Then ani- . and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. Furthermore. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. Out void. germinations out of earth. and the dry land appeared. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. took place. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And the everlasting Law made two great lights.

some others from Vorlander. which. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition." but he is of creation.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. sight. 1903. . would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist. arms. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world. I. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. in our day with our resources of knowledge. perhaps. Behind pedocles. they developed into the organisms we see about us. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. his theory of perception. are. eyes. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads. even down who puts the soul in the atom. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. Band. modern sci- ence. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. so many later materialists.* like for like. in company with to Haeckel. the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. roaming ghastly through space. Leipsic. Geschichte der Philosophie.

Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. and whence they all arose."* •Parmenides. but in mood and manner. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. be. have suggested the innovation.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES. as Burnet conjectured. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. Diels. Ol3mipos outermost. is Homeric. and occasionally even his phrase. Lucretius. as sometimes in philosophic terminology. ii. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. FV. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher. is in this their only successor. The Milky Way. the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. . And burning might of stars made haste to fr. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . lo. he recalls the Eleatic. And And all the starry signs along the sky. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters.

as thou art more than I. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv." ! . even the pseudoits validity. FV. He was true poet. and yet Much more than mine. and an essential element in the poem. towering over the wrecks of time.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. his fragments as For. There is first the grandeur of his conception. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. the same yesterday." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history.

all wonderful to see. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : . in the world of petty facts. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive." . argues greater mind of man than any truth. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean." amid the monstrous shapes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. And Our and a poetic response. the powers of life and death are at work. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. the lonely. the glaring eyes. "awful heights of Air. the mystery. in space. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. and at last we are in the habitable world. the arms. the heads. with her sightless eyes. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. circle forever. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. comes full — . life the movement. and of men and women. this shaggy earth. as we have seen. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. for "Night. is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven.

by Aphrodite. on the mountain side. in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. which suggests so much. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius. it may be. of the poet.But I am the translator. how now down by the brook. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led." There little . the pitied and bewailed. not the critic." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . is to adorn the temple . .12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the sympathy with "men and women. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. . "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze. There is the poet's relation to his kind. because so an austere simplicity. ." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away.

History of Ancicnt Philosophy. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. with some prose transla1893. Fairbanks. (Beautifully written. Early Greek Philosophy. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. acumen . 1904. London. but by Laurie Magnus. vol. 1899•This book seems to Paris.. Source Book in Greek Philosophy. Cited as "Tannery. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles. by H. pendent. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. who answered. (Good critical appreciation.) 1892.. be II Principio (Rome. VII. (Contains partial prose translation. however.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. I. fanciful. inspiring.") WiNDELBAND. York.) (lOMFERZ. trans. Greek Thinkers. Four Phistoire de la science helline. 1887. 1901. 1898. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz. and independent. E. Studies of the Greek Poets.") Symonds. L. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher. tions. 1907."). (Keen trans. The First Philosophers of Greece. New York. chap. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. New York. New York. vol. London. for the general reader the following will.) Tannery. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet. man. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. Burnet. perhaps.

funfte Auflage.") . I. and a few. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. 1901. Cited as "Diels. (Cited as "Zeller.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. the above mentioned texts of Berlin. but very useful. FV. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. sic. erster Band. zweite Auflage. Leip- 1892. Teil. Zeller. Die Philosophic der Griechen. (Contains German translation. 1906. original notes in Latin.") And DiELS. Cited as "Diets. Berlin.

And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. Believing only what each chances on. To His I. . to. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. And having viewed Their little share of life. Pausanias. with briefest fates. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie. cttci too eAtaort/ijs.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. t d. Ilav(rapir). to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. Hear thou. Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. crv 8e Kkvdi. Friend.ON NATURE.6vov TreLcdepTes. 2.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away.

irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app. vdci ff iKacrrov. But thuswise never shall these things be seen. . €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv. ZrjfKov iKaarov.(riv aKoveiy. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all.. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive.T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.a. Gods from tongue ! of mine. itrji.-qi. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs.. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. (re. &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi. Never be heard by men. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. since hither now withdrawn apart. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. avTOfiai. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed. nor seized by mind And thou. . Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. But turn their madness. ti tSjv aXX<ui/. i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. Movaa.. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. p.. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp.

. Nor. Yea. . The Elements. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. : — . But come. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. life-bringing Here. having sight. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed. 8e irap' qp. Whose lives are but a day. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. Dis. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. 6.

9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'. But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. .s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. 8. wild beast.. or bush. nor end in ruinous death. dyevTjTa. <j)v<ri. But when in man. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." and though I too assent to use. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light. la death. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal. or bird. Birth and Death. and birth is but its name with men. Avenging Death. . vofiai. 'tis "doom of Law. dXoLTTjV. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. . S' Kal auTOS.19 [ou] KaXeovcri. The uncreated elements.. ddvWTOV . eis •^ atUep i.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. 7.

The Plenum.. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. 14. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi.. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. But with the All there is no Void. 12. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? . Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. Ex nihilo II. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. can wholly die away. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set.

And ere as mortals we compacted be. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris. Love and Hate.Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. T6<f>pa p. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. ovBev ap aaw. Kal cirtreTat. The Cosmic Process. . We are as nothing. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore. .20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa. Our Elements Immortal. ouSe iror'. ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. the Everlasting. TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev.kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart.. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. oia».

ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai.p.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. vo[ii^eTcu ep.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e. Now grows now The One from Many into being. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji.trepe<i.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei. eaa-i. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio. fwjS' 6p. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi. . e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei.

and sit not there With eyes astonished. Fire. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. Earth and awful heights of Air. Naming the utter goal of these my words. To birth and death and. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. whatever grew From out their sundering.. the meeting of the . I will report a twofold truth. now. for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. flies apart and dies. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. now. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. again. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. For as before I spake. Many brings 1 . the deadly Strife And In equipoise. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. through her . And this long interchange shall never end. Water. twofold the LEor. shut from them apart. and the Many. the Even from One disparting come the Many. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. Behold her now with mind. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. Now grows The One from Many into being. death of things: Twofold the I birth.

each rules its task. 19. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. And so forever down Eternity. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. Love and Hate in the Organic World.— — — . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Perfect the works of concord. might they to ruin come. Firm-clasping Lovingness. and. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. 23 She speeds revolving in the elements. as they course along Through one another. besides. these are all. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. now this. And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. Love. 20. 18. They were no longer. now that is born And And .

And mortal members take the body's form. dXX' dye. a-wfia / yvla. TO. So too with thicket. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. We See. Kuju/Sais.. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. . The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes. They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev. tree. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide .y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. water-fowls that skim the long blue sea. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi.x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio. From the Elements is All 21. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite.

/ ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. By varied mingling and enduring change. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. Behold the eternal Stars.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aye. in honors excellent. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. . obscure and cold and dark. and men and women. long-lived gods. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei. beasts and birds. the bright-diffused. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. Similta Similibus. and. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. they take new faces all. as they course along Through one another. For these>are all. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. 22. see Also the Rain.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. the warm. yuyverai dXXoicoTra.

irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ. j^c/airiv. deov irapa da-irera. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. aXXa S* cXacrtro). Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. fv SeSaoiTe..aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL. miserable and lone. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp. After the counsels of their father. and love by Aphrodite's best. air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev. dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi.cri. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. .kv irXccu.[S' a] irXela-Tov re. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like.p. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. Hate. Far driven and scattered.. both in birth.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv.v. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle.

Even so the spring of mortal things. KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. aye. The Speculative Thinker. and men and women. now more. 24. now less). may well be said twice o'er. 25- . What must be said. . And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast). To join together diverse peaks of thought.Lav. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. . From which they fashion forms innumerable.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. And fishes nourished in deep waters. and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. And not complete one road that has no turn. . . fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. O guard this knowledge well. An Aphorism. leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. beasts and birds. . . And like to all things. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. peopling a fresh world With trees. .

eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. The Law of the Elements. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. Till they. when grown into the One and All Once more.. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all. and the Many. 26. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. KoX (j)6Cv€i. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ravrrii. once more go under and succumb. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. . as they course along Through one another. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. roll. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. still. again. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. T'^i jno' 171. they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many.a Xijyei. So far have they a birth and mortal date. .

'^ ov iroSes. nor Sea. ov 0od yovva. 29. Exultant in surrounding solitude. Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. It hath no feet nor knees alert. nor form . But in the strong recess of Harmony. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. « 27. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. The Sphere on every side the boundless same. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere. For from its back there swing no branching arms.Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai. The Sphere. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. 27a. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi.v. Trepirjyii yauov. Exultant in surrounding solitude. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!.

. 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . . Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. to Love. . . . The joint binds two. times arrived to Strife. . SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. . 30. a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra. on all sides was. . Should come by amplest oath and 31. . and rose To her own honors. But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . Physical Analogies. . irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. . and like unto itself. Cementing meal with water .. For one by one did quake the limbs of God. 32. old. . . as the Which unto each in turn. life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. and will bind it 34- fast. 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. decree.

iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai.iive^ fiekecov to. The Conquest 35.^eTcua»v. Toi' irporepov KareXefa. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. ovK tS)v a(f)ap. 3 of ^ove. ?] dddvar eivai. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each .u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi.a IBeadaL. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra. \6yov \6yov e^o.(Ti. Be t e^e^efirJKei.i. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. But hurrying back. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai. I now will To paths of festal song. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. reached Yet not a-sudden. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. laid make return down before. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi.

Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge. partwise Was he already from the members gone. As much as Hate still held in scales. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. her figure magnifies. aloft. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. inward pressed The gentle minded. . and nearer. And as they came together. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. But partwise yet within he stayed. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. Then ever the more. exchanging highways of new life. And ever the more skulked away and fled. aWepa 8' ald-qp. see. Similia similibus.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36.

The World
as It
, . .




ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd


eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,



Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv




TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,


Aether, the Titan,


binds the globe about.

Earth and Air Not

eiwep aireipova

y^s re


Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs



okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps



and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.

aXX' o


a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,








KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s


errXero firjvrji.

The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.

ws avyrj rv^axra


kvkKov evpvv



As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov


Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.

ap/taro? ws irepi




re irap' aKpijv


Even as revolves a The outmost

chariot's nave,

which round




ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.






But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.



iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?




night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and


'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.


from sea brings wind or mighty

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'





sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many



there burns beneath the ground.


yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci


For sometimes so upon





ofttimes otherwise.

/ aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt. yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. ovra cTrXavaro . Hither and thither seeing union meet. iiovvop.] In isolation wandered every limb. shoulderless and bare.€\T) ert ra yvla .36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.^. There budded many a head without a neck. S8. . . TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. And arms were roaming. Things Passing Strange. And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. \- [. . ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav. oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p. the sea. . The salt grew solid. .erdm(av. aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. smit by beams of sun. s6. X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. . Earth's sweat. .

aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro.v6p.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'. Sometimes like men. with the face of 62. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'. man on bovine stock. to. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai. ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav. born with twofold brow and breast. .ei'a yuiois. Many were vvv S' ay. These members fell together where they met. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' .KO<j>vrj . Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u. But now as God with God was mingled more.evov iTvp. S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. 60. . 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt. feet. and sometimes womangrowths. . oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

who sees. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d.. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. Nor secret member. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft.v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. reminding him 6s. human limbs. erst whelmed in night. dwiatrai'Ta. The Process of Human Generation To-day. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured.7rdki. Of men and women. and when Therein they meet with Cold. 63. For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark. Love-longing comes. iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. And boys. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress.. nor yet a human cry. . when contrariwise they meet with Warm. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of .v dppeva Oepfiov]. 64. . the birth is girls. [rd 8' ip.vBp6s .. common to the male. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. That had their shares of Water and of Warm. the pitied and bewailed.€.

. ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. 68. iv yap depfioripai roKa. Sheepskin. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . Twice bearing. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aiiviov. SCyovoi. More stalwart and more shaggy. dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav .. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. in pus. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. the blood Becomes white 69. . vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . . and therefore men are dark. . 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. 66. 'A^po8iTi79. On the tenth day. month the eighth. 70. 67. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys.

the palms of Aphrodite shaped. <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. As Kypris. the Ether and the S)Xm. Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . if belief And lack pith. .. compact with outsides loose. . . . cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . in Got this their sponginess. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. 73.. . inside Which. 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as have come to be. Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i.. fish. to. . Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. after watering Earth with Rain. As the tall trees and fish in briny floods. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . Zealous to heat her. The Earth and Water.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being. then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. . 72.ej/ irvKvd.

77-78. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs.. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p. Wine but water fermented in the wood. . \hevZpta 8'] ifnre. And issues from the rind. ocean-dwellers. Trees bore perennial fruit. aye. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 81. 80. ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa.o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. of shell-fish wreathed. Since fed forever by a fruitful air. 76. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts. oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. perennial fronds. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be.

j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. on sturdy limbs grow hair. of fish. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp. 82. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs.v. 84. In horny lantern shielding from all winds. From the same Leaves.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night. Stiff hairs. keen-piercing. scales plumes.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.Tre<f>piKau(Ti.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v. . to sally forth. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. SiieaKov. As when a man. TavTtt T/3i. Our Eyes. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri.

86. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. Whilst Fire burst outward. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love. as more 8s. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. The untiring eyes were formed. . with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. the divine. Its beam darts outward. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as more fine and thin. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. y6p. And thus kept off the watery deeps around. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^.. 87. One vision of two eyes is born. fj fine and thin.

. Thus Sweet seized Sweet.\K6v . ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s. . and upon Hot rode Hot. Knowing that all things have their emanations. ocra eyevovTO .. Similia similibus. . ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj. flew. 90. 89. 91. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. [idpirre. Water But to wine more nearly is allied. 92. The Black River Bottoms. o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. t5i KaTTiripoii p.. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra. 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. otvcM .fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris.€i\divTa tov -)(a. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. . . . Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. will not mix with oil. yj/ous.

ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp. in the palms of Kypris shaped..Lv. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis.if ^^X^ NiyariSos to. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. Bones. Thence came white bones. 98. ' And of Hephaestos four. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. pakurra. Eyes. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. "^^^ 97- pdx. Blood and Flesh. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade. S' aiyXrjs. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. . 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. As. they first Began to grow together . Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo. Xupevecraiv . The back-bone.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. and one may same In hollow caves.

e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp . Of Aphrodite anchored lay. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh.rj(r6cu. (Tapxivo^ 0^09. aafe KevOav..aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai. And Rain and Ether. diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa. the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. ako^iv <j>6vov p. a fleshy twig. A bell . irdKiv e/orveiei. 99- KtoStav.dv (TTop. Siapirepe^. after The Ear. the Clepsydra. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai. she met-wlt. And Earth within the perfect ports u. ^ The Rushing Blood and 100. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red.~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u.. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd. Sometimes a little more than theirs).

rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. at their outlets. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. In all. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed. That falls inside against the countless holes. and so the blood remains within. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out. is cut a passage free. but the own weight. and. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw. oiSjuari ^Coi/. m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. Keeps it in check. But when again it forward leaps.Kpa Kparvvtap. And when from here the thin blood backward streams.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s.^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. ws S' avrcD. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe.. For air. the air In turn breathes out. Over the body's surface. dp. until the child at last . p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. however. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell. iraXij'.

: —— . 102. Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs.. holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on. When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. But when again it forward leaps. 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a.a)i>.. as air gives way. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. lOI. that from without Comes pressing inward. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. Left by their feet along the tender grass . And thus got all things share of breath and smells. Until her hand will loosen. As air drops down and in. sets free the thickened air. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward. As the child keeps possession of the top. . . Even so it is. Scent.

For as of these commingled all things are. --^i 105.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. According to the body's thrift and state. 106. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye. Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together ... T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. The heart That men is nourished. For unto men their thrift of reason grows. rejoice. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. or grieve. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv. . 103.^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^. back-leaping unto it. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought. Even so through these men think. 107.. In the blood-streams. On the PsychicJLife. where prevails the power call thought. 104.

And Love through Hate. As By far as mortals change by day. devouring Fire. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB'^. e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op.a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op. and endeavor pure. through Fire. Love. io8. arap irvpi irvp aioiyA..epLp. Through Ether. . .v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. o aiaepa olov.pKvvovcri p. reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm. . divine Ether luminous. Water.aro^ dttrav. . For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold. so far night their thinking changes 109.€voLO p. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Through Water. . oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. . oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii. ota kot avopa<s a t dp.vpCa 8ciX. . and Hate through doleful no.oi'.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji.

a. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. As men be after. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv. for service. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll. . aye. vaXCvrLTa irvevp.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them. rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. ^v ideXrjLO-da. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock. myriad and vile. drjcrei.ra CTrafcis* ef op. <j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures. — Dominion. III. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. where his essence lies.evos oi t yarai/ opvup. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds.

at seasons good for men. nourishing the mountain trees. . And watch them shrill. wild and For that before thou cowedst them. take their vengeance. And if thou wilt.52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought. shalt thou arouse the blasts. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. As down they stream from ether. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents.

ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. As god immortal now. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come . otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's.vpioL i^epeoi/T£^. ye stewards of good works. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa. 112. axrirep Ibt/ca.v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends. fillets and well. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis. THE PURIFICATIONS. All hail. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk . no more as /Licra ttScti rerifievo^.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi.iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^. ft) (^tXoi. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p.. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. OL p. The Healer and Prophet.. XatpeT. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov.

O friends.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p.vdoi9. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo.ij.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi. To thriving cities. craving some oracles. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai[ia TraXaidi/. I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis.a'^prjyia'p. XcXd^aai /Sioio. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms. For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe. I am sought by prayers. ovs iyo) i^epeo}.p.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains. iiil <j)peva TTumo. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage. doomed to many deaths! — 114. S> <j)C\oi. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. .54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. Charis abhors intolerable Fate. oaths. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?.09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL. Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. irCcrvvo's.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. Neucel' p. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven. And in that brood I too am numbered now. iraires. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<.aLvofiev(oi. oTvyiovai.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei.kv yap <r<^e p. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life. as failing of their pledge. 8e i/Sv ei/ii. ii6. Or swear Shall forsworn. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed. iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. There is a word of Fate. 6 S' aldipo^ ip.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land. . which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea.. aWepiov p.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX. made fast With amplest spirits.— . /tcTa OvrjTois.. And then we came unto a roofed cave. This Vale of Tears. rj\ ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv. was once already boy and girl. wept and wailed. . i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. and mute fish in the waves. Slaughter and Grudge. Thicket and bird.v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi.e. 120. voaoi. For I This Earth of Ours. 117. A Where besides. 121. joyless land. fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. and troops of Dooms . beholding the strange 119. drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. 118. a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World. Kal (rTJ\lii.

. Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. There was Earth-mother. 123. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. burdened with the water-jars. And Filth. 122. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. Action and Rest. and Silence and prevaihng Voice. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. 124. o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos.. and Glory many-crowned. And Labors. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! . ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. & iroTTOi. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia. . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re.epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re.

enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes. when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live. Are taway-lions.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei. arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t. The Changing Forms. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs .os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. Their forms exchanging. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls.ei' yap l. dead did make. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. The Golden Age.T(ovi. €K ju. 128.oe afieiprnv. 'tis. flesh. But.. I2S. For from the living he the . 126. All things doth Nature change.

^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. nor Kronos. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. limbs. the king of gods. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease. I2g. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. Tavpwv S' a. gainer of large wealth Of understanding.d?.. nor Kydoimos. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage. not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. redolent fumes of frankincense. Zeus. . . of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat. . and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all. rjia yvZa. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. nor . Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. Poseidon then. With painted images of living things.

All beasts and birds. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. oX)8to?. Orjpes T olo)voiT€. 130. throve. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. All things were tame. O well with him who hath secured his wealth . cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. SeiXos 8'. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. O Muse undying. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice. and gentle toward men. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. The Divine.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. thou couldst deign soul.e[n)\€i/. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. KaXXtoTreta.(f>aCvovTi. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. and friendship's flame blew fair. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. afi^pore Movtra. 132. 131. For since. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro.

For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p. pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. ov iroSes. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. Ojig^holy mind. ineffable. ov doa yovva. We may not grasp It with our human]t. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. With neither hands nor eyes. but It lives.ovvov. . We may not bring It near us with our eyes. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. alone. It hath no feet nor knees alert. For from Its back there swing no branching arms. Of thoughts Is divine.kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. nor form Of tufted secret member. ov p. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^s.

Thus too the son Seizes the father. And reave of life and eath 138. «us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast. ^uoj^Tas. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. And slits A But the poor victims press. unthinking as ye are. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. their own dear flesh. children the mother seize. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. Animal SacriUpe.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Imploring their destroyers.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p. 136. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. . The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo.evoi. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa.

139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. tree SaXoi. tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai... Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. Ye ye altogether wretched. 140. irdvhaXoi. nor dire Hecate's venging house. . ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos. 142. ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Sin. . 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ].

61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains. seers at last. ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. dreipei^.64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. feast At hearth and tals. And The excellent in honors. . companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. diroKhrjpoi. The Progression 146. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. whence germinate the gods. of Rebirth. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. and singers of high hymns. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. O fast from evil-doing. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. Physicians sage.

152. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. iv eirra €phop. the day's old age. The belly. The cloud-collecting.axn. isi- Life-giving. IS3.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The blood-full liver. ISO. 65 Man-enfolding Earth. . 149.v. iroXvatftarov -^Trap. Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost. In seven times seven days. Evening. 148. iSSa.


and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. Cf. Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. Fr. (rroXd/tg) cf. Addressed to Pausanias." By every . in altas aeris auras. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers.. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf.NOTES. of knowing: by every passage. or device Empedocles. 4SS-6. fr. ON NATURE." Lucr. unlike Parmenides. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. : Meek Piety's lit. "from [the realm of] Piety. IV). "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices". 2. so elsewhere. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. here E. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. : . Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. fr. ceu fumus. I. 2. may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception. Like smoke cf. Trust sight no more than hearing.. Fr. 4. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. 3. cf. etc. Fr. Ill. Parmenides and other philosophers. 4. the simulacra of Lucr. way fr. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna.

following Knatz.' The Roman critic (Hor. Here air. Burnet (p. the "mistiform" . : me less effective figure. with the sensationalists of modem psyon another. reflected in this fragment. The four-fold root the four elements. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out. 243) and Bodrero (p. and to Fr. 3. for the reverent attitude. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E.. four elements. 78). is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation. the roll of his splendid verse. E. Ill." a very different. was poet no less than philosopher. though it had never made them GrundCf. Fr. . the gods Love and Strife." Moreover. 759) makes Zeus fire. one sense as acting as a check consider. Zeller (p. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. if. — calls the stoffe. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf.68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. also Gomperz. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. s. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault. 6. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. Here earth. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. 427a 21-29) says that E. may chology. 245) at the most E. De arte poetica. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow. without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology. 'road.De an. make Zeus air. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed. and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. p. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF)." : PPF.' 'pore. Aristotle (. also the "flowing" (like water).. and Aidoneus fire.

monism Fr. Cf. had made ultimate reality a material One.. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. is nowhere preserved to us by E.. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold . and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. 15. E. Ppanl denotes with E. Zeller. Elements (amx^ta). PPF). "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. fr. d." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. 53. Pjfthagoras. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. in- Fr. the psychic (Siebeck. "in In man. PPF. upon as is the idea of birth. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr." Diels. in a connection similar to 9 (cf. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. not believe.: properly. 10. p. Burnet. supplied here and elsewhere. e. Thales. 11-12." Fr. Parmenides. any given object] be right there. (cf.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. 207-8)." Fr. Cf. at least I take Fr. etc. 935 est sceleris vindex. 9. etc. however. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. 13-14. Plut.THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES. p. 759. Psychol. 17. quoted by Diels. End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. : For there 'twill be. The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. the case of man. it so. not only men but 267) I do all per- . Gesch. 8. etc. where any one every time puts it. Heraclitus.. is a Plenum.) E. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. "doom of death" Fr. 7. Plato.

p." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). are part of the physical system. in so far as their elements are eternal. as Fr. deed. as the dynamic powers of the universe. with the increased tendency ration. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense." etc. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) ." Diels. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for.. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere. Two-fold the birth. 16. in- however. Zeller. "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. however. 26. to which. fr. Many details of the . and the most difficult of the fragments. as to every thing." Cf. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. 306). until. preserved by Simplicius. 771 Tannery. the most significant. p. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying." "Aphrodite" under varying names. 11 must apply. are the four elements. conception are still in dispute (cf. as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv). "Lovingness" and "Wrath. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. ishable beings. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". conceived by E. 17. p.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again. . The longest. of the Egyptian. again. Love and Hate: and "Strife. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. Efforts to relate them . or to the Fr. "the Many. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements. and "our being" is but a physical being. "The One" is tlie Sphere. and these are eternal only Zeller. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. Thought and feeling with E. the thought of fV. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. as the elements come together.

246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf. and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. "speeds revolving in the elements. e. p. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. So far have they a birth. we have the harmony of the Sphere. Burnet. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world.. Tannery. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists. Cf. while Love. but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. and ciples. when Love is supreme. who believes we period. e. 248 ff.. 305). 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. equal in length and breadth. i. if — of the world. : : "thejr" refers. out the thought with consistency of detail. p." And shut from them apart. The early philosophers corporealities . Anaximander (but cf. almost as diffused gases. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space.). the m3fthological names of fr. 7I It must be noted that. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. Thus Strife is in equipoise." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. I believe. when Hate is supreme. is situated inside. etc. a complete dissipation. whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. there is a freshness : . Burnet (p. Burnet.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. etc. 6). etc." i. are in the former period.

or Water. quoted by Diels. 47. with identified which usually by the commentators. But there is nothing in E. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. in this identification of a cosmic principle. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. 762. p. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf. that E. 767. but each. p. in the life of man. earth conquers water. : Behold these elements own equal strength. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. etc. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. Zeller. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. to me at least.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. Plut. PPF. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. 26. fire conquers metal. p. Fr. or a faculty. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. Cf. 787). E. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. p. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. fr. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. log). Zeller. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. by the way. qualitatively distinct from the others. Cf. I think. or material.72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 1907. its E. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. ments). or Earth. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. are told that wood conquers earth. without ever ending in fire's dominating all. Cf. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names. primeval. allusion to the theory of the pores. 18. translator has The ing (pCKlii . with a passion. Chinese Thought. perfectly clear." etc. water conquers fire. with (cf. fr." Paul Carus. and metal conquers wood. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. or simply to the fact that now this.'s thought that seems to correspond.

and both as formed of fire separated from the air. the planets as free. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. 21. hence. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. 73 With reference here to water. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere). or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. I. are not. 608) phrases which. on fr. formed. I. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E. etc. the aery expanse of day. 20. and earth to the earthy. 57-62. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk. PPF. as I understand them. 'the beginnings of things. like tree or fish. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. out of the elements . 19. 41.' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott). 231).. 1. . Line i has been supplied by the translator. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. Fr. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. hardly the bright heaven. The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. however." they are not immortal. fragment fr. But come. But were it so interpreted. Fr. Cf. is here speaking of things as they are. for E. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green").— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 62. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. with this Fr. one might well note that E." Diels." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. though "in honors excellent. rain to the watery. Air seems to be unrepresented. e.

. . Cf. which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. 26. undoubtedly the Muse. . (cf. Heaven : air . ." none the worse for Byron. in the dead harmony of the Sphere. e. 21. gi. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. 247 ff. 4. important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. when grown. f r. I think.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. Tannery. 5. mixing harmonious. repetition. Burnet. Fr. till. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. Cf. p. 25. .74 Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 22. fr. eh ha Kiaiiov. cf. : The goddess: lit. "A If good. as analogous to the four elements. note to fr.succumb : i. One may Cf. 233) sees a reference in etc. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. 131). Also Burnet. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. cf. Gomperz. Fr. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. mentioned several times by E. 237. For amber Sun. etc. the universal law of being. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements. as the unifying process goes on. 23. Don Juan. 'divinitjf" (Seov). 17. 17 . this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. Cf.. as I understand it. p... Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. p. 308. fragment to the four primary colors. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. XV. The simile were then doubly striking. and can only mean. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. Whiles in fair order: Or. 247. Fr. this Gomperz (p. fr. is reasonable reason.

'a hidden place') would confuse the thought. difficulties must be admitted." Diels. but Kp<i*os. as a noun (meaning. for the figure. a (1. There: in the Sphere. one would "adaptation. as here. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. Prof. Sphere." Bodrero assumes (p. however. their equilibrium". as it seems to here. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai. Moreover. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone. e.. and perhaps. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. latebris PPF. and wonders if a line may have been lost. as . where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere. Burnet. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. but the union of Love and Hate. which was spherical and immovable. For various ancient cf. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love." universe. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. 27. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai. of the point of view adopted in these pages. y is. p. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable." If examined narrowly.'s present spherical universe. however. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air. not as hiding it somewhere in space. Harmony. and is usually. interpretations of the nature of the ff. though not altogether satisfactory. then. all . if Pythagorean. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. composed. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love. The figure may be Pythagorean. but the four elements. were the personified "fitting. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. fitted. i.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

" And again (p. 314) is the principle of division and movement.'" Fr. Cf. 32. and says "e Plut. fr. and the things of time to come and of time that is past. not ex- Tannery thinks (p. apparently of the Divine.' Cf. 31. Fr. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact. 134. i. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere. itXot&s : SpKov. Amplest oath Gr. 'AH round. are used fr. and in its joyous : rest reposing. . like a baker. fr. the totality of divine beings and powers. the naked and the swift.." Diels. Fr. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man.the final resultant of the disordered movements . though in a corrupt form. itself cf. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus." 814.902. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. where expressions. 3) "If thou wilt separate. is Fr. 34. according to Karsten and Burnet. Ht. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. 115.48. learn from the doxographers. Zeller. p. . pressit Fr.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. £. 35. 813 . e. PPF. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. 33. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. I say. 29. note to fr. Nor form Fr. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. God: the Sphere. Cf. Fr. 'broad oath. in con"Hate . in part identical. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. 30.

e. and fr." etc. 36. caused. July 1906). but with the 26. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. Hate retreated under protest. right and wrong. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. or vortex. 17 and 26. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. 22. mixed. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. : Cf. W. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low." They The elements. 130. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf. however. This chaos. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. it was. : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. : the circumference of the vortex. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. although this seems. Not all blameless i. "and from their mingling. I. fr. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. note to : fr. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander.. Cf. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels. Philology. 787. p. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. Zeller." But cf. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution. fr. Heidel. attraction of Cf. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 30) . according to Tannery by Hate. 116. 3. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf. Fr. preceding fragment . Class." Bodrero. The two states are again contrasted in p. A. The members: the elements.. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. if anything more than a poetic touch. identified with the Sphere. 784. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error. PPF. and is finally excluded altogether. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid.

some tongues. . E. 317. unless ether be here used. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. note to fr. indeed. 38. mist" by Burnet. and sky that holds them all. 37. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements.) Cf. But cf. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf. Fr.'s "Ether. p. with reference to the fiery sky (cf. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. ''cetera Cf. and of Emerson's etc. however. 789. : "With Ether. Days. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). the pure ether. 39. the all splendorous. 786. it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. as opposed to the upper air. fools. and Zeller. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower." the "awful heights of Air.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. How the sun.. one finds nothing representative of fire. e. at versus recuperari nequit. 100 (q. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). fr. was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. thicker. 109 on sense perceptipn. Deorum." the vaulted sky of his imagination. Burnet. The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. assuming any elemental difference. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E." p. as by Anaxagoras. tal vault of heaven. for slight differences of interpretation. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. for fire. "Moist air" is . Stickney. but is in keeping with E. As forsooth Heraclitus. 41." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E. v. stars. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. "without.' •blaze')—a sense." the earth. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air. Fr. Lucr. 44. I." Emerson. its 254. p.. II 1114 sq.). a mere reflection. 'light up. "Bread. notes to Cicero's De Nat. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i. This." Tannery." Diels. however. kingdoms. PPF.78 Fr.

it 7XouKos (fr. followed here. 46. 786 flf." is used of the willow. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. 43. who speaks of "Selene mild. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. Fr. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. 41). Fr. Fr. air. himself uses 93) of the elder.ii." used especially of Athene. Zeller. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. E. A. "Seirii Cf." whom the Iliad (A. 790." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac. Schol. 45. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. the olive. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v. 200) says. E. irapb. E. II.. fr. 31). for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. Kal yX'qvti \i. Her lord: the sun. 41). 48.' or something of the sort. The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. 42.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. bearing with it its sun (see fr. on Apoll. and.irta>. Fr. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. Zeller. ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri. and E. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . whose revolution produces day and night. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. . I. Fr. 43. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. p. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. 47. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. and one-half . a lighter of fire. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. Odys. Rhod. a darker of Cf. Cf. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. : by Merrill and Riddell. see note on fr." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen.

261..80 Fr.. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. B 3. 79S) . With E. then. as common in Sicily. when Hate world). which. tific charming poetry. S7-6i. p. PPF. totle. 73. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." And upward. Fr. II. in the period of the present Cf. as criticized the water gush forth. 51. Burnet. e. S4) tendency.: of fire. increasing . fr. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . The phrase is not. "It" refers to air. its pores in the form of drops.'s thought. etc. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i. 55. For authenticity cf. on the other hand to another process (i. had an upward. 256. Love and Hate. functions attributed by E. The Greek imagination was long fato be . e. 54. the fourth period . Zeller. See note to fr. that E. {. e.. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained.. as air a downward (see fr.). These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. Fr. is 17) fr. fire has a crystallizing." i. see fr. : Cod with god There seems Gr. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. p. Burnet (p. "Met.e. 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. 56. condensing function. Diels. with the other elements.. Fr. 51. Fr. Cf. et corr. "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr. S3. 62. in E. Fr. p. no reason for the conjecture." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. so. was at first mixed with water. but the inFr. Sal/tovi Salnuy. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. 52. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. 35] made Burnet. sometimes advanced.

" Williams. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. Obstetrics (1904)1 P." Fr. lit. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. is speaking here of mankind. the pitied and bewailed. S7-6j. fire "Of men and women. dites 8 miliar with centaurs.143- .'' Lucr. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. as he gazes. The genera. This present is. explained conception as a union of male and female semen. by a collection (originally from Marburg). Cyclops. as rational as most modern theories. Cf. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex. old age. The sundered Are: Gr. Fr. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate. waking well Old memories. chimxras. we perhaps. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. See notes to fr. An alternative reading. whole Warm warm : ditions in E." Though E. sleep. 65. IV. 63..: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum.'s system. E. 64." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom. death.. so a medical colleague informs me. satyrs." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched. in part in the male semen. For 'tis in part in man's : i.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being. 1239. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. the latter inducing decay. e. 62. Fr. Fr.

the lime) within some animals are related. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. 56. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. E. the "embryo" Fr. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. t6 iriov. however. Love. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). Fr. Twice-hearing: i. Here the bones. 80. Aristotle {Pneumat. 68. turtle's shell. Fr. with the skin. Trees were supposed by E. consisting chiefly of keratin. present in the breast after the first few months. 69. etc. laid Fr. Fr. the earthen part (in modern science. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. quite in the spirit of our own physiology. fr. The Fr. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds. 73. 79. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . Kypris: Aphrodite. Fr. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. however. 66. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite.. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. Colostrum is.. like horn. 74. E. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). to the shells on the outside of is. morphologically connected. Fr. 75-76. To speed of fire that she might Cf. 484a 38) says that E. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. if my be- available lexical information be correct. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. 77-78. others.e. finger-nails. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. 70. — Fr. 71. White pus: Gr. could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young.82 Fr.

which admitted. 96. 267. 77-78. Diels (FV). Fr. 235. Fr. : p. must be understood here. 801. 83 thick skin. however reluctantly. but for the slangy connotations. p. Fr. e. Fr." Zeller. and "horny. apple. the pores of which. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. Fr. from these elements." though not in the text. 82. Dort aber geht es. 88. fr. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln . alternately arranged for each element. Fr. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. water for the dark. go. : a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. moreover. 2. From which Bolts of love i. p. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. the subjective factor. of the poet-scientist Goethe. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of the eye contains "Emp. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. Burnet. 89.. to explain percepIt was an attempt. 84. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern. eine harte Verhindung zustande. 87." bringt. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. was an attempt. 86. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. Fire serves for perceiving the bright. give to the emanations of each a free passage. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. Cf. however inadequate. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr. Cf. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn. Cf. who has preserved us the fragment." Gomperz." Fr. 92. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes. note on fr. following Aristotle.

. She met: Gr. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat." as Bodrero translates it.84 Fr. 107 ff." : Fr. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus. inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science. 97. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. Thus bones are formed fire. Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. 100. 102. . 99. a word. Bodrero. of 2 parts earth.'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us. andere bei Nacht heller sehen. 9S. They I e. Quaest. 96. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood." . Fr. p. Aeshy sprout E. 103." Fr. Cf. 94. ovviKvpae. the eyes. following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. 93. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. 2 parts water. Cf. 39). aquae. Silvery : See note to f r. dass einige bei Tag. This fragment (cf. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis. 43. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach. Cf. admisceatur. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV)." Fr. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not. Thus completed by Diels (FV). gests in Empedocles' system. as grotesque as it is ingenious. aeris arcessit. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." Fr. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. fr. : A The — Fr. Fr. Ether. it is As a theory of respiration. fr.. among others. 98. will sometimes emphasize a term.

as in some passages Cf. though in form of a Burnet points out. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. Zeller. but E." But E. p. rests. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. Fr. note on fr. E. The top b was not altogether open. p. Gomperz." i. did not mean here. loi. Cf. 109 be so interpreted (but cf.. The lightest: supply "bodies. but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. . upoij scientific experiment. unless fr. 104. I think. 102. Fr. : i. . with consciousness. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. nowhere credits the elements as such.. Chance: cf. Cf. e. 105.'s theory of scent. 802. Fr. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap.i seems to be a hylozoist. 100. The mites are the emanations. as 85 the clepsydra. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. 98. 98. it : Diels. 230) will. 245). Fr. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus. Zeller. In the blood streams : cf. fr. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . e. perhaps.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. (cf." Fr. PPF). where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. The comparison with Homeric simile. p. note to f r. 103. etc. Got: lit. a cor- All that is left of E. 803. Here. elsewhere. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down.

if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. possibly "charms" is better. e. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. : Cf. etc. sondern er hat das. Italian school of medicine. PPF. and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. The dominion over human ills. Fr. note on fr. Fr. — Zeller. E. These: the elements.: interpretation just above be correct. . "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. e. p. 445-6. Plotinus yeyevTiniros. is the microcosm. Fr. sickness. doctrine. Ill. Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf. 108. All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here. drought and death. 106. "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. Through Earth. 109. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i.: . p. For of themselves. 215. 86 Fr. p. . aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. io6. no. 802. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. III.. All things have Axed intent Fr. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. Burnet.'' Lucr. etc. note on fr. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft. : i. quoted by Diels. 802). Cf. 107.. my sound psychology. (p&p/iaKa. 17). a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. addressing Pausanias. windstorms. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking. consciousness..they grow. here promised to Pausanias. Galen makes E. gested to Drugs: Gr.. as elsewhere. as sugme by a friend. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. the founder of the Cf. and Philop. Cf. was early imputed to ..

87 Introduction) . The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum. as the latter. 113. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following. and not. The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. and his references). The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition. (cf. e. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. has here . Fr. to the citizens of Acragas. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. p. the courage of man). our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. Empedocles himself tue of these lines. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. Fr. radically by Bodrero (passim). dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. 271). 589. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. Proleg. perhaps. Harrison. to Study of Greek Religion. 112. and." Cf. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. 213. though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. p. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. a god and so much above mankind?" E.. conservatively by Burnet (p. if an (cf. followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. Burnet. of the THE PURIFICATIONS. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. I.. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications.

etc. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. 116. 136. : Be born through time. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. Fr. bloodshed of animals. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. p. pesce. 271). Sat/ioves.. 35) E. it i. Cf. fr. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. is probably Pythagorean in origin. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. sinfully. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. 780. compatible with the On Nature.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. fr. In the On Nature (fr. With amplest oaths: cf. Charis: Aphrodite. e tomo ad Bodrero." according to Bodrero (p. Cf. 139]. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei.000 years. essere arbusto. In offense: in sin. familiar four elements. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate. e. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. 147. Moreover. uccello. p. etc." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. though apparently certi determinati esseri. Burnet (p. fanciullo e giovinetta. Zeller. Fr. 249 S. by some interpreted as 10. rpU iivplai «5pot. fr. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. Cf. Those far spirits: Gr. p. 117. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: . 146). Fr. Cf. the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. IIS. 30. p. also Gomperz.

and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean." If this interpretation be correct. Proleg. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell. 119. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). ... "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. Chap. 121. 226. XI. p. is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. this refers. Proleg. plains. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf. which.^nd I was a maiden. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings.. 118. "Infans. V. as he entered. wander." Lucr." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. banishment from heaven. For other Fr. Prometheus Unbound. upon his earthly career (cf. cit. which. 118.) but that E. vagituque locum lugubri complet. 614 ff. was . A joyless land it. representing. Fr. Cf. : with fr. Cf. 169. Newbold. Fr. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits. note to fr. to Study of Greek Religion." etc. it has been suggested to me by Prof. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I.' Harrison. cf. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. Harrison. 122 and 123 itself. if the scene be earth.. after 119). to Study of Greek Religion. A bush. a bird. notes to loc.'' I. parallels see Munro and Guissani. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. 590." According to this. p. sed agri inundationibus vexati. fr.

Fr. 122.


in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this


Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv


follow are




imitates the catalogue of







edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the


of the

blessed to the (relative) death


this earth,

where souls are

"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,




dt Kal


ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having


a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate



the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in


Unmixed blood:
as such,

the figure


from unmixed wine, which,


and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.


In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

sive decern sive viginti



saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose



(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,



"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,


und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."


Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.


"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note


fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle






Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,



Fr. 142.

''etiam sensus incertus,

utrum lovis


Hecates regna


2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus


scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."


Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.



George Herbert uses the same



in his

Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.





us of the


too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.







quoted by Diels, PPF).




Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,

quoted by Diels, PPF.

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is


Hesych., quoted by Diels,


Fr. iS3a.



translates the doxographer: "In sieben


Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung



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