Cornell University Library


S218.A4 E6
Fragments of Enipedocles;

into Englis


1924 028 975 923

Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. the United States on the use of the http://www.archive. There are no known copyright restrictions in .




and dear Than this true man. The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create. 716 if. Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. ever so far and pure . Sc yJ Empedocles . hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. . I. . COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO. lofty Lucretius. Nay. wonderful. .. Nor aught more holy. .

The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often. W. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. you That I richer having heard your voice. L. N. . (To W. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. I found. 1906.: — — DEDICATION. in nights of friendliness with you. and rejoice little. E. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. when the long day's task was through. R.) winter by Atlantic seas. Madison.. Wis. Dec. While you explored the Orphic liturgies. goes inland..


1907. May 14. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. W. William Ellery Leonard. J. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. Wis.. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. but I consin for medical references. Madison. Newbold. B. R. I am indebted to Dr. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R. . Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend.PREFACE. Dr.


PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. the Poet.TABLE OF CONTENTS. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 . 4 9 13 On Nature. The Man. the Philosopher. To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate.

PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 .viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications.

or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles. The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy. falling at last from popular favor. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. according to the tradition of antiquity. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. was born at in Sicily. . the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. but. and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. THE POET. He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. LIFE. THE PHILOSOPHER. as it seems. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — .

'From Empedocles. in purple vest and golden girdle. eloquent^ soul that he was. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed.. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher. Cf. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce. 1884. after two thousand years. how throngs of his accompanied him along the road.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. K.and now. the study of impulse. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. And egotistic. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. according to Aristotle. . and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths. P. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal . Some traces of this imposing figure. of PERSONALITY. but the poet. And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. Akademie d. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant.. Wissenschaften. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities.. melancholy.

The fragments were mine. 3 WORKS. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve. though but a small part of the whole. lost . It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573.. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine. . who them into Latin. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. however. who at least quotes from the On Nature at length.* works. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement. the poems On Nature and the Purifications. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show. possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. Of many menides. in the editions of Sturz . Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries.^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. which. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance.

Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles. and subsequently (igo6). pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. of which the former's is the better. TRANSLATIONS. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. the former's in verse. all that I have seen being in prose. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. hexameters of W. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. with a few slight changes and additions. there are several translations into . and some work of distinguished scholars. C. As Latin said above. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. We . the latter's in prose. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings. and notes.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian.

and declares them as universe. Love and Hate. •Various problems are discussed. albeit the lectician. the chemistry of later times. in the Notes. if we philosophy and magic. the allusions in the ancients . The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things. even at the risk of some repetition. the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. There is something in the conception suggestive of . due to two eternal powers. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . 5 by no means precise. To the water of the fire Thales." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole. the air of Anaximenes. as they come up. may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal. and alike primeval.

"Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. rested. winning the upper hand. like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. : which. as some maintain. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. each separated and unmixed. again ''exultant in surrounding solitude. a whirling mass. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. and crowded air beneath her. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system. and in continual interchange follow one another forever." Whereupon. condensing or thickening. the . until Love. these four. new world-periods arise. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. in the sarfte way. came the elements one by one first. . begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. Moreover. by the uniting bond of Love. of an egg then fire." things. air.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. which took the upper space. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. And thus arose two hemispheres.

germinations out of earth. The development of organic life. worked within her. because still in unstable equilibrium. for this revothe cause of day earth. first he tells us. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements.— . and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. And. First the plants. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. and the dry land appeared. Then ani- . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for signs and seasons. Furthermore. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. took place. conceived as endowed with feeling. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. Out void. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. and night. and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. and for days and years. sprang up. the greater light to rule the day. And the everlasting Law made two great lights. "J the dafk of air. as we have seen. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. bright entirely of fire. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday.

roaming ghastly through space. arms. the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. his theory of perception. modern sci- ence. Behind pedocles. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. Band. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. I. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition. which. some others from Vorlander. 1903. eyes. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads." but he is of creation.* like for like. so many later materialists. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion. sight. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. in company with to Haeckel. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. . all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. are. they developed into the organisms we see about us. Geschichte der Philosophie. perhaps. Leipsic. even down who puts the soul in the atom. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world. in our day with our resources of knowledge.

The Milky Way. is in this their only successor. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). he recalls the Eleatic. but in mood and manner. the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. FV. have suggested the innovation."* •Parmenides. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. lo. Ol3mipos outermost. Lucretius. Diels. and whence they all arose. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher. as Burnet conjectured. Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters. And burning might of stars made haste to fr. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES. ii. is Homeric. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . .: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. be. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. And And all the starry signs along the sky. as sometimes in philosophic terminology. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. and occasionally even his phrase.

his fragments as For. He was true poet. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. There is first the grandeur of his conception. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. the same yesterday. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. and an essential element in the poem.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. even the pseudoits validity. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. towering over the wrecks of time. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv." ! . FV. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. as thou art more than I. and yet Much more than mine. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace.

is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. in the world of petty facts.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for "Night. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. and of men and women. the powers of life and death are at work. with her sightless eyes. And Our and a poetic response. life the movement. circle forever. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. "awful heights of Air. this shaggy earth. the arms. the mystery. all wonderful to see. the glaring eyes. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea." amid the monstrous shapes." . ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. the heads. comes full — . in space. as we have seen. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. the lonely. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : . and at last we are in the habitable world. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive. argues greater mind of man than any truth. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered.

which suggests so much. of the poet. is to adorn the temple ." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away.12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. . the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. the sympathy with "men and women. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase.But I am the translator. not the critic. There is the poet's relation to his kind. "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . how now down by the brook. . because so an austere simplicity. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led. on the mountain side. ." There little . the pitied and bewailed. by Aphrodite. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius. it may be.

L.) Tannery. New York. York. 1907. (Contains partial prose translation."). The First Philosophers of Greece. VII. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher. however.) (lOMFERZ. Early Greek Philosophy. Cited as "Tannery. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. London. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. London. (Beautifully written. by H. New York. I.. acumen . 1887. man. E. 1898. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. fanciful. tions. History of Ancicnt Philosophy. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet. 1904. Greek Thinkers.") WiNDELBAND. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. Source Book in Greek Philosophy. inspiring. for the general reader the following will.) 1892. trans. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. Burnet. with some prose transla1893. (Good critical appreciation. Fairbanks. 1899•This book seems to Paris. that he had not as yet found time to examine it.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. (Keen trans.") Symonds. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles. Studies of the Greek Poets. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. perhaps.. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz. pendent. vol. who answered. New York. vol. chap. be II Principio (Rome. 1901. Four Phistoire de la science helline. but by Laurie Magnus. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. and independent.

erster Band. original notes in Latin. Cited as "Diets. funfte Auflage. (Cited as "Zeller. the above mentioned texts of Berlin. sic. FV. Berlin. (Contains German translation. Die Philosophic der Griechen.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.") And DiELS. I. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Cited as "Diels. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. but very useful. Teil. Leip- 1892. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. 1906. 1901. and a few.") . zweite Auflage. Zeller.

wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. Pausanias. crv 8e Kkvdi. Friend. cttci too eAtaort/ijs.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. 2. And having viewed Their little share of life. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie.6vov TreLcdepTes. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. to. to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. t d. To His I. Believing only what each chances on.ON NATURE.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. with briefest fates. And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. Hear thou. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. . ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. Ilav(rapir).

But turn their madness. avTOfiai. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. ... Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all..T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. ZrjfKov iKaarov.. Movaa.(riv aKoveiy. vdci ff iKacrrov. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv. Gods from tongue ! of mine. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp. nor seized by mind And thou. (re. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs. .a. &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi. since hither now withdrawn apart. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. Never be heard by men.-qi. itrji. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive. ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. p. But thuswise never shall these things be seen. ti tSjv aXX<ui/.

having sight. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. Whose lives are but a day. So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth. Dis. . Yea. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov. But come. The Elements. life-bringing Here. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. : — . 6. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Nor. 8e irap' qp. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto..

7. But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. vofiai. S' Kal auTOS. dXoLTTjV. la death. and birth is but its name with men. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. . nor end in ruinous death. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart. Avenging Death." and though I too assent to use. or bush. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'. dyevTjTa. or bird. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<.. Birth and Death. 8. ddvWTOV . <j)v<ri.s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. . icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. wild beast. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light..19 [ou] KaXeovcri. The uncreated elements. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. . l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 'tis "doom of Law. But when in man. eis •^ atUep i.

14. 12. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t. But with the All there is no Void. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? . Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The Plenum.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai.. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed. Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become. can wholly die away.. Ex nihilo II.

Kal cirtreTat. Our Elements Immortal. And ere as mortals we compacted be. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. oia». T6<f>pa p. .Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . .kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai. dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris. Love and Hate. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. We are as nothing. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev.. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. ovBev ap aaw. TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. The Cosmic Process. the Everlasting. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. ouSe iror'. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore.20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain.

eaa-i. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei. Now grows now The One from Many into being.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. . CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi. vo[ii^eTcu ep. fwjS' 6p.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov.p. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov.trepe<i.

Water. the Even from One disparting come the Many. Behold her now with mind. Naming the utter goal of these my words. And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. Now grows The One from Many into being. twofold the LEor. I will report a twofold truth. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife.. shut from them apart. the meeting of the . Whiles into One do all through Love unite. death of things: Twofold the I birth. whatever grew From out their sundering. through her . Many brings 1 . — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Earth and awful heights of Air. now. again. flies apart and dies. To birth and death and. now. Fire. the deadly Strife And In equipoise. For as before I spake. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. and sit not there With eyes astonished. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. And this long interchange shall never end. and the Many. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move.

and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. besides. 20. They were no longer. And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. 18. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. each rules its task. And so forever down Eternity. Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. these are all. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. Love and Hate in the Organic World. now that is born And And . might they to ruin come. Firm-clasping Lovingness. as they course along Through one another. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. now this. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. Perfect the works of concord. 19.— — — . Love. and. 23 She speeds revolving in the elements.

They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. dXX' dye. So too with thicket. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai. water-fowls that skim the long blue sea. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd. From the Elements is All 21.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. a-wfia / yvla. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide .. And mortal members take the body's form. hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes.x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio. TO. tree. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. . Kuju/Sais. We See. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji.

For these>are all. obscure and cold and dark. see Also the Rain.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. yuyverai dXXoicoTra. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. By varied mingling and enduring change. aye. Similta Similibus. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. the warm. the bright-diffused. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. they take new faces all. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. and. 22. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. and men and women. beasts and birds. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. as they course along Through one another. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei. Behold the eternal Stars. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. long-lived gods. . in honors excellent.

irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ. Hate.kv irXccu. miserable and lone.cri. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p. . 'A<f)po8Crr}i. dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. Far driven and scattered. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv. After the counsels of their father. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn.. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp. air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like.v. deov irapa da-irera. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev. both in birth. aXXa S* cXacrtro). irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai.. fv SeSaoiTe. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. j^c/airiv. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. and love by Aphrodite's best.[S' a] irXela-Tov re.p.

and men and women. From which they fashion forms innumerable. leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. . 25- . 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. An Aphorism. . 24. fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. The Speculative Thinker. O guard this knowledge well. may well be said twice o'er. KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. . beasts and birds. And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast). peopling a fresh world With trees. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . What must be said.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.Lav. . for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. now less). Even so the spring of mortal things. . . aye. now more. To join together diverse peaks of thought. And not complete one road that has no turn. . And fishes nourished in deep waters. And like to all things.

In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all. when grown into the One and All Once more.. still. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many. KoX (j)6Cv€i. Till they. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. again.a Xijyei. T'^i jno' 171.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. The Law of the Elements. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. 26.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri. . iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. once more go under and succumb. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all. roll. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. as they course along Through one another. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. and the Many. ravrrii. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. So far have they a birth and mortal date. And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. .

Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. nor form . The Sphere on every side the boundless same. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. '^ ov iroSes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. nor Sea. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. Exultant in surrounding solitude.Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. 29. But in the strong recess of Harmony. For from its back there swing no branching arms. ov 0od yovva. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. The Sphere.v. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. It hath no feet nor knees alert. Exultant in surrounding solitude. 27a. Trepirjyii yauov. « 27. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs.

. . to Love. . But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. For one by one did quake the limbs of God. a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra.. 30. . times arrived to Strife. Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. Should come by amplest oath and 31. Physical Analogies. as the Which unto each in turn. . and like unto itself. and will bind it 34- fast. SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. . — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. and rose To her own honors. . irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. decree. on all sides was. . . . 32. 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . . . Cementing meal with water . life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. old. 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . The joint binds two. .

ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. reached Yet not a-sudden. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. ?] dddvar eivai. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv.^eTcua»v. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi.i. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each . The Conquest 35. laid make return down before. 3 of ^ove. I now will To paths of festal song.iive^ fiekecov to. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai.(Ti. Be t e^e^efirJKei. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. ovK tS)v a(f)ap. \6yov \6yov e^o. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. But hurrying back. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov.. Toi' irporepov KareXefa. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass.a IBeadaL.

aloft. her figure magnifies. the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. As much as Hate still held in scales. see. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. . aWepa 8' ald-qp. Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And as they came together. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. exchanging highways of new life. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. and nearer. But partwise yet within he stayed. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. And ever the more skulked away and fled. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. partwise Was he already from the members gone. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. inward pressed The gentle minded. Similia similibus. Then ever the more.

The World
as It
, . .




ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd


eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,



Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv




TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,


Aether, the Titan,


binds the globe about.

Earth and Air Not

eiwep aireipova

y^s re


Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs



okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps



and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.

aXX' o


a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,








KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s


errXero firjvrji.

The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.

ws avyrj rv^axra


kvkKov evpvv



As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov


Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.

ap/taro? ws irepi




re irap' aKpijv


Even as revolves a The outmost

chariot's nave,

which round




ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.






But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.



iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?




night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and


'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.


from sea brings wind or mighty

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'





sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many



there burns beneath the ground.


yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci


For sometimes so upon





ofttimes otherwise.

aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^^. ovra cTrXavaro .] In isolation wandered every limb. S8. There budded many a head without a neck. . . \- [. ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav. shoulderless and bare.36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. 57. oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p. Hither and thither seeing union meet. Earth's sweat. The salt grew solid. the sea. . iiovvop. smit by beams of sun.€\T) ert ra yvla .erdm(av. And arms were roaming. yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. s6. Things Passing Strange. . . / aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. . X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav.

born with twofold brow and breast. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' . 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u.v6p. with the face of 62. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. and sometimes womangrowths. ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav.ei'a yuiois. Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. . to. . aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai. feet. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. man on bovine stock. . 60. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head. Many were vvv S' ay. These members fell together where they met. oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora.KO<j>vrj . Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . Sometimes like men.evov iTvp.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'. ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'. But now as God with God was mingled more.

64..v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark. Of men and women. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress.v dppeva Oepfiov]. reminding him 6s. the birth is girls. human limbs. 63. .€. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of . Into clean wombs the seeds are poured. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. Nor secret member. and when Therein they meet with Cold. [rd 8' ip.. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d.vBp6s . Love-longing comes. when contrariwise they meet with Warm. That had their shares of Water and of Warm. And boys. who sees. nor yet a human cry. the pitied and bewailed. The Process of Human Generation To-day. iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p.. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. . These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a.7rdki. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. common to the male. erst whelmed in night. dwiatrai'Ta. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov.

and therefore men are dark.. iv yap depfioripai roKa. . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. month the eighth. On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. SCyovoi. More stalwart and more shaggy. . ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. Sheepskin. 68. Twice bearing. On the tenth day. . aiiviov. 70. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. 67. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav . 'A^po8iTi79. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . . the blood Becomes white 69. in pus. 66. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii .

. 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. to.. in Got this their sponginess. . as have come to be. fish. . 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . As the tall trees and fish in briny floods. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. inside Which. The Earth and Water. if belief And lack pith. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. .. .^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being.ej/ irvKvd. Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. . iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . the palms of Aphrodite shaped. <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. .. As Kypris. t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i. Zealous to heat her. compact with outsides loose. after watering Earth with Rain. the Ether and the S)Xm. 72. 73.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 81. \hevZpta 8'] ifnre. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p.o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. Trees bore perennial fruit. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. . And issues from the rind. of shell-fish wreathed. ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa. Wine but water fermented in the wood. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts. 80. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be.. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year. ocean-dwellers.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. 76. perennial fronds. aye. Since fed forever by a fruitful air. 77-78. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs.

of fish. As when a man. SiieaKov. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri. on sturdy limbs grow hair. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs.v. 82.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. From the same Leaves. . scales plumes. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv.Tre<f>piKau(Ti. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night. In horny lantern shielding from all winds.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . to sally forth. 84. TavTtt T/3i. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. Stiff hairs. Our Eyes. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. keen-piercing.

The untiring eyes were formed. as more fine and thin. Whilst Fire burst outward. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. y6p. as more 8s.. 86. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. the divine. 87. One vision of two eyes is born. And thus kept off the watery deeps around. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. fj fine and thin. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love. . enclosed In films and gauzy veils. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Its beam darts outward. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip.

ocra eyevovTO . ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra. [idpirre. t5i KaTTiripoii p.. .. ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. 89. flew. will not mix with oil. Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. . o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. Thus Sweet seized Sweet.€i\divTa tov -)(a. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. . 92. otvcM . 90. Water But to wine more nearly is allied. and upon Hot rode Hot. yj/ous. Knowing that all things have their emanations. 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. 91.\K6v . Similia similibus. . The Black River Bottoms. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris. . .

Eyes. The back-bone. in the palms of Kypris shaped. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade.Lv. and one may same In hollow caves. ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis. Xupevecraiv . As. S' aiyXrjs. Thence came white bones. 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. Bones. Blood and Flesh. Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev.. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. "^^^ 97- pdx. pakurra. 98.if ^^X^ NiyariSos to. . they first Began to grow together . 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. ' And of Hephaestos four. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

the Clepsydra. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. aafe KevOav. And Rain and Ether. Of Aphrodite anchored lay. 99- KtoStav. And Earth within the perfect ports u. ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u. irdKiv e/orveiei.~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. Siapirepe^. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. she met-wlt. ako^iv <j>6vov p. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh. (Tapxivo^ 0^09. the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less.rj(r6cu.dv (TTop. a fleshy twig. A bell . e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp . diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd.. Sometimes a little more than theirs). 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos. after The Ear. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai.. ^ The Rushing Blood and 100.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp.

until the child at last . m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. Over the body's surface. iraXij'. That falls inside against the countless holes. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell. but the own weight. Keeps it in check. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw. and. dp. And when from here the thin blood backward streams.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. however. the air In turn breathes out. For air. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx. and so the blood remains within. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe. In all. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. is cut a passage free. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. But when again it forward leaps. oiSjuari ^Coi/. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed.^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. ws S' avrcD.Kpa Kparvvtap. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water. at their outlets..

. KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in. . sets free the thickened air. as air gives way.a)i>.. holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. Even so it is.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . But when again it forward leaps. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. As air drops down and in. lOI. Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward. The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. Left by their feet along the tender grass .: —— . Scent. [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on.. . Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs. When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. that from without Comes pressing inward. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. 102. As the child keeps possession of the top. And thus got all things share of breath and smells. Until her hand will loosen.

Even so through these men think. 103. 107. rejoice. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. 104.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^. On the PsychicJLife. Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa. where prevails the power call thought.. For as of these commingled all things are. back-leaping unto it. or grieve.^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia. In the blood-streams. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought.. . Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi. The heart That men is nourished.. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together . According to the body's thrift and state. For unto men their thrift of reason grows. --^i 105. 106. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

Through Water. ota kot avopa<s a t dp.. And Love through Hate. Through Ether. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. and endeavor pure. .€voLO p. . through Fire. . o aiaepa olov. divine Ether luminous.a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj. . arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. . I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii. Love.pKvvovcri p.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju. . and Hate through doleful no. For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold. oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo?^. Water. . e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op.aro^ dttrav. reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm. so far night their thinking changes 109. oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji.oi'. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup.epLp.vpCa 8ciX. io8. As By far as mortals change by day. devouring Fire.

.evos oi t yarai/ opvup. <j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands. where his essence lies. drjcrei. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock. aye. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. for service.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv. ^v ideXrjLO-da. rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x.a. myriad and vile.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^.ra CTrafcis* ef op. — Dominion. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra. III. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. As men be after. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll. vaXCvrLTa irvevp. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

. And if thou wilt. shalt thou arouse the blasts. at seasons good for men. nourishing the mountain trees. As down they stream from ether. And watch them shrill. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents.52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. wild and For that before thou cowedst them. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. take their vengeance. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought.

The Healer and Prophet. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. XatpeT. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos. ye stewards of good works.iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends.. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i. THE PURIFICATIONS. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis.. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come . 112.v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap.vpioL i^epeoi/T£^. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri. no more as man. OL p. ft) (^ /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. axrirep Ibt/ca.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa. As god immortal now. All hail. fillets and well. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk . The stranger's refuge venerable and kind.

p. XcXd^aai /Sioio. To thriving cities. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p. For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi. doomed to many deaths! — 114.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo. O friends. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai opp.ivov opKoiS' n? d//.vdoi9. S> <j)C\oi. iiil <j)peva TTumo. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains.a'^prjyia'p. craving some oracles. . I am sought by prayers. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju. I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth[ia TraXaidi/.ij.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i. ovs iyo) i^epeo}. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me.

Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor. .^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. 8e i/Sv ei/ii. There is a word of Fate. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea. aWepiov p. iraires. 6 S' aldipo^ ip. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed. And in that brood I too am numbered now. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p. Or swear Shall forsworn.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life. made fast With amplest spirits.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX. OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<.aLvofiev(oi. irCcrvvo's. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. Neucel' p. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods. oaths. oTvyiovai. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. ii6. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land. iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven. Charis abhors intolerable Fate. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei. as failing of their pledge.— .09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL.kv yap <r<^e p.

And then we came unto a roofed cave. drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. 120. Thicket and bird. fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. o-kotos 'Q\ /tcTa OvrjTois.e. wept and wailed. place. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. and mute fish in the waves..'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi. A Where besides. 121. was once already boy and girl. 117. For I This Earth of Ours. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. This Vale of Tears. joyless land. a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World. Kal (rTJ\lii. . rj\vdop. 118.v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . and troops of Dooms . Slaughter and Grudge. beholding the strange 119. voaoi.

t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia. 123. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. and Glory many-crowned. burdened with the water-jars. Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay.epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. & iroTTOi. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. There was Earth-mother. a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. 124. And Filth. And Labors. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. 122. o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. . and Silence and prevaihng Voice. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. Action and Rest. .. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! . There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun. and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays.

T(ovi. flesh. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127. when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live. All things doth Nature change. The Changing Forms. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs . IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes.oe afieiprnv. €K ju. But.os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 128. For from the living he the . iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. 126. dead did make. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men. Are taway-lions. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls.ei' yap l. Their forms exchanging. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side. The Golden Age. I2S. 'tis. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei.. arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t.

With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all. the king of gods. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. With painted images of living things. Tavpwv S' a. nor Kydoimos. nor . Zeus.. I2g. ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu. gainer of large wealth Of understanding. Poseidon then. nor Kronos. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. . not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. limbs. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv.d?. redolent fumes of frankincense. . 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. rjia yvZa. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge. .. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat.

throve. thou couldst deign soul. and friendship's flame blew fair. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro. 130. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice.e[n)\€i/. For since. All things were tame. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. 131. The Divine. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. and gentle toward men. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. SeiXos 8'. afi^pore Movtra. O Muse undying. KaXXtoTreta. All beasts and birds. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. 132. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. O well with him who hath secured his wealth . Orjpes T olo)voiT€.(f>aCvovTi. oX)8to?. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri.

dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. Of thoughts Is divine. We may not grasp It with our human hands. With neither hands nor eyes. ov iroSes.kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi]t. pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. ov doa yovva. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head. but It lives. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^s. nor form Of tufted secret member.ovvov. We may not bring It near us with our eyes. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. . Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. Ojig^holy mind. ineffable.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. ov p. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. alone. It hath no feet nor knees alert. For from Its back there swing no branching arms.

And slits A But the poor victims press. 136. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. their own dear flesh. Animal SacriUpe. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form. children the mother seize. And reave of life and eath 138.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. Imploring their destroyers. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail.evoi. Thus too the son Seizes the father. . «us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast. ^uoj^Tas. unthinking as ye are.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p.

. Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. 142. 140. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. Ye ye altogether wretched. 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. irdvhaXoi. . nor dire Hecate's venging house. O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos... rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . tree SaXoi. Sin. tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai.

64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. . dreipei^. feast At hearth and tals. Physicians sage. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. and singers of high hymns. whence germinate the gods. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains. seers at last. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. of Rebirth. And The excellent in honors. O fast from evil-doing. The Progression 146. diroKhrjpoi. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov.

isi- Life-giving. IS3. The belly. Evening. 65 Man-enfolding Earth. 152.v. iSSa. the day's old age. The blood-full liver. iv eirra €phop. In seven times seven days. The cloud-collecting.axn. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. ISO. . Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost. 149. iroXvatftarov -^Trap.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 148.


Cf.NOTES. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. etc. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna. (rroXd/tg) cf. Fr. 4. here E. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. fr. "from [the realm of] Piety. 3. "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices". Fr. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). Addressed to Pausanias. I. cf. way fr." Lucr. ceu fumus. 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. : . : Meek Piety's lit. 4. so elsewhere. fr. Trust sight no more than hearing. Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. or device Empedocles. the simulacra of Lucr.. may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception. unlike Parmenides. 2. of knowing: by every passage. Ill. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. in altas aeris auras. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. Fr." By every . Like smoke cf. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. IV). Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. Parmenides and other philosophers. Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. ON NATURE.. 2. 4SS-6.

" : PPF. The four-fold root the four elements.. p. make Zeus air. four elements. Here earth. 6. . 759) makes Zeus fire. for the reverent attitude. following Knatz.' 'pore. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. Zeller (p. E. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. Burnet (p. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. 'road. if. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow. s. also the "flowing" (like water). 427a 21-29) says that E. Fr." a very different. is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. Ill. Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation." Moreover. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology. also Gomperz. and Aidoneus fire. reflected in this fragment. the gods Love and Strife. and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. and to Fr. was poet no less than philosopher. the "mistiform" . identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF).' The Roman critic (Hor. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf. 243) and Bodrero (p. Here air. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. Aristotle (. one sense as acting as a check consider. 245) at the most E. 78). 3.De an. — calls the stoffe. : me less effective figure. though it had never made them GrundCf. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). may chology. De arte poetica. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth.. the roll of his splendid verse. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. with the sensationalists of modem psyon another. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault.68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

d. 759. Gesch. monism Fr. 53. PPF). Elements (amx^ta). Psychol. 10.. PPF. p. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold .) E. the psychic (Siebeck.. "doom of death" Fr. "in In man. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. the case of man. fr. not only men but 267) I do all per- . 17. Heraclitus. Thales. 15. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. 935 est sceleris vindex. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. Zeller. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. p. where any one every time puts it. 11-12. is a Plenum. Cf. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. E. 13-14. etc. any given object] be right there. Ppanl denotes with E.THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES. in- Fr.: properly. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. Plato. had made ultimate reality a material One." Fr. 7.. 9. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. supplied here and elsewhere. quoted by Diels." Diels. e. (cf. : For there 'twill be. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. Plut. Cf. however." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. Burnet. is nowhere preserved to us by E. not believe. in a connection similar to 9 (cf." Fr. Parmenides.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. Pjfthagoras. 8. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. it so. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr. upon as is the idea of birth. at least I take Fr. etc. 207-8). etc.

16. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. are the four elements. Zeller. p. are part of the physical system." etc. as to every thing. "The One" is tlie Sphere. or to the Fr. in so far as their elements are eternal.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as the elements come together. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for. and these are eternal only Zeller. But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. and the most difficult of the fragments. Efforts to relate them . as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv). to which. 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". 11 must apply. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere. The longest. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying. ishable beings. Two-fold the birth. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). deed. the most significant. preserved by Simplicius. however. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again. again. with the increased tendency ration. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. 26. . p." Diels. Love and Hate: and "Strife. "Lovingness" and "Wrath. Thought and feeling with E. as Fr. "the Many. as the dynamic powers of the universe. conception are still in dispute (cf." Cf.. of the Egyptian. Many details of the . "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. and "our being" is but a physical being. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) . the thought of fV. in- however. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). 771 Tannery. fr. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). 306). until. conceived by E. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. p. 17." "Aphrodite" under varying names. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements.

when Love is supreme. p. p." And shut from them apart. So far have they a birth. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. etc. Burnet. : : "thejr" refers. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things. Burnet (p. Burnet. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. there is a freshness : . who believes we period. e. i. out the thought with consistency of detail. Anaximander (but cf. when Hate is supreme. a complete dissipation.). but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. etc. the m3fthological names of fr. we have the harmony of the Sphere. and ciples. if — of the world. etc. Thus Strife is in equipoise. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. equal in length and breadth. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. The early philosophers corporealities . whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf. e. 7I It must be noted that. "speeds revolving in the elements... Cf. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world. if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. 248 ff. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. I believe. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. are in the former period. 6)." i. almost as diffused gases. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space. Tannery. is situated inside.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p. while Love. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. 305).

translator has The ing (pCKlii .72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. p. and metal conquers wood. fr. Cf. perfectly clear. quoted by Diels. : Behold these elements own equal strength. water conquers fire. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. in this identification of a cosmic principle. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. 47. or Water. Cf. or a faculty. primeval. 26. Zeller. with a passion. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. or simply to the fact that now this. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. log). fire conquers metal. earth conquers water. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. PPF. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names. its E.'s thought that seems to correspond. p. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. in the life of man. by the way. are told that wood conquers earth. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. ments). without ever ending in fire's dominating all.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. 767. 787). or material. but each. Fr. E. I think. 1907. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. or Earth.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. 18. with identified which usually by the commentators. that E. allusion to the theory of the pores. with (cf. to me at least. p. But there is nothing in E. 762. fr. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf." etc. Chinese Thought. Plut. etc. Zeller. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. Cf. qualitatively distinct from the others." Paul Carus. p.

or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. like tree or fish. 608) phrases which. formed." they are not immortal. 1. "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. 'the beginnings of things. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. Fr. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. the planets as free. on fr. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere)." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. out of the elements . Air seems to be unrepresented. rain to the watery. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). 21.. 19. fragment fr. is here speaking of things as they are. But come. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. 73 With reference here to water. The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. hardly the bright heaven. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. and earth to the earthy. for E. 62.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Line i has been supplied by the translator. with this Fr. Fr. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk. 20. one might well note that E. 231).' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott). etc. though "in honors excellent. are not. 41. and both as formed of fire separated from the air. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. I. the aery expanse of day. as I understand them. however. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. Cf. 57-62. e. . The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E. But were it so interpreted. hence. PPF." Diels. I.

: The goddess: lit. note to fr. undoubtedly the Muse. 247 ff. this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. as analogous to the four elements. 17. Gomperz. 131). 'divinitjf" (Seov). Don Juan. when grown." none the worse for Byron. p. fr. p. and can only mean. mentioned several times by E. One may Cf. f r. I think. in the dead harmony of the Sphere. Fr. 237. till. e. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. p.74 Fr. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. 4. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. this Gomperz (p. cf. 26. 25. The simile were then doubly striking. Also Burnet. repetition. Burnet. . gi. Tannery. 23. is reasonable reason. . 247. "A If good. Fr. 308.succumb : i.. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. cf. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. the universal law of being. etc. 233) sees a reference in etc. fr. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. For amber Sun. Cf. important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher... as the unifying process goes on. mixing harmonious. Cf. as I understand it. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. 17 . Whiles in fair order: Or. Heaven : air . fragment to the four primary colors. 5. Fr. 22. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements. . . Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. 21. . eh ha Kiaiiov. Cf. (cf. XV.

as a noun (meaning. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below." universe. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr. y is. Burnet. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. composed. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought. but the four elements. were the personified "fitting. all . requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere. Harmony. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai. for the figure. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw. and wonders if a line may have been lost. difficulties must be admitted. e. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. not as hiding it somewhere in space. however. Moreover. interpretations of the nature of the ff.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars.'s present spherical universe." Bodrero assumes (p. then. but the union of Love and Hate. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur. Prof." If examined narrowly. fitted. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. 27. however. p. their equilibrium". as it seems to here.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. though not altogether satisfactory. There: in the Sphere. The figure may be Pythagorean. a (1. but Kp<i*os. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. as . one would "adaptation. i." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love. and is usually. latebris PPF. which was spherical and immovable. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai." Diels. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone. For various ancient cf. if Pythagorean. of the point of view adopted in these pages. and perhaps. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air.. as here. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. Sphere.

34. 35." 814. 3) "If thou wilt separate. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. learn from the doxographers. 31. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. 115. Cf. 30. 'broad oath. apparently of the Divine. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. 134.. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. . according to Karsten and Burnet.48. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. Amplest oath Gr. I say. £. Fr. fr. 'AH round. fr. Fr. God: the Sphere. in part identical. where expressions. note to fr. Nor form Fr. Cf. though in a corrupt form. e. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man. itself cf. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact. is Fr. the naked and the swift. 33. itXot&s : SpKov.' Cf. p. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. like a baker.the final resultant of the disordered movements . "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. 813 . i. which Hate occasions in the Sphere." And again (p. and in its joyous : rest reposing. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense.'" Fr. and says "e Plut. and the things of time to come and of time that is past. not ex- Tannery thinks (p. 314) is the principle of division and movement. the totality of divine beings and powers. Fr. Ht. 29. pressit Fr." Diels. PPF. Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere.902. are used fr. Zeller. 32. . Diels (PPF) cites Homer. in con"Hate .: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

Hate retreated under protest. Cf. "and from their mingling. or vortex. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. preceding fragment . attraction of Cf. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. it was. fr. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution. mixed.. right and wrong. and fr.. and is finally excluded altogether. 36. 116. : the circumference of the vortex. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. fr. 3. The two states are again contrasted in p. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. July 1906). as seems clear from the lines that fol- low. although this seems. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. p. according to Tannery by Hate. note to : fr. A. Not all blameless i. if anything more than a poetic touch. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. PPF. caused. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid. Philology. but with the 26. e." Bodrero. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. The members: the elements. Zeller. 22. W. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. Heidel. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity. This chaos. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels." But cf. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. Fr. : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. Class. 30) . 130. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. : Cf. I. identified with the Sphere. however. 784." They The elements. 17 and 26. 787." etc.

the pure ether. notes to Cicero's De Nat. PPF. its 254. Fr. 44. 317. How the sun. E. and sky that holds them all. unless ether be here used. Stickney. stars. This. 'light up. 100 (q. assuming any elemental difference. tal vault of heaven. however. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements. I. v." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E." Emerson. 39. 786. Burnet.). The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek.) Cf. kingdoms. Deorum. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). but is in keeping with E. was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. and of Emerson's etc. it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. with reference to the fiery sky (cf.. as by Anaxagoras. 109 on sense perceptipn." p. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air. for fire." the vaulted sky of his imagination.. 38. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i. however. II 1114 sq.'s "Ether." Diels. note to fr. ''cetera Cf. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E. one finds nothing representative of fire. 789. p." Tannery. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. mist" by Burnet. "without. : "With Ether. "Bread. at versus recuperari nequit. a mere reflection. the all splendorous. indeed. Lucr. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv." the earth. thicker. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). 37.' •blaze')—a sense. But cf.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. and Zeller. fr. 41. p. .78 Fr. for slight differences of interpretation. "Moist air" is . as opposed to the upper air. Fr. e. fools." the "awful heights of Air. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. some tongues. As forsooth Heraclitus. Days.

ii.. as far from the earth as the sun ("E." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. 786 flf. Fr. ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. on Apoll. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'." is used of the willow. a darker of Cf. and. Odys. it 7XouKos (fr. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. Schol. Fr. Cf. A. 45. 48. 200) says. 31). 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. see note on fr. 47. "Seirii Cf. Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. : by Merrill and Riddell. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. Rhod. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf." whom the Iliad (A.irta>. 41). bearing with it its sun (see fr. air. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. who speaks of "Selene mild. Zeller. II. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. p. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. 46. fr. followed here. 43." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac. 41). 42." used especially of Athene.' or something of the sort. 43. the olive. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. and E. whose revolution produces day and night. Fr. Fr. irapb. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p. and one-half . The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. himself uses 93) of the elder. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. . E. Zeller. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. I. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. 790. E. Fr. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. Her lord: the sun. Kal yX'qvti \i. a lighter of fire." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen. E. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) .

Fr. et corr. totle. which.. its pores in the form of drops." i. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. then. is 17) fr. with the other elements. "It" refers to air. was at first mixed with water. Fr. functions attributed by E. as criticized the water gush forth.'s thought. p. when Hate world). Cf.. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . 261.. p.e. as common in Sicily. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. 51. 54. With E. had an upward. Fr. increasing . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. tific charming poetry.80 Fr. sometimes advanced. The Greek imagination was long fato be .: of fire. as air a downward (see fr. 55. fire has a crystallizing. p. in E. {. Fr. no reason for the conjecture. S7-6i. The phrase is not. For authenticity cf. 35] made Burnet. 256. B 3. fr. Burnet (p. see fr. 56. See note to fr. etc." And upward. e. but the inFr. Fr. the fourth period . "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr.. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. e." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. Sal/tovi Salnuy. on the other hand to another process (i. in the period of the present Cf. II. : Cod with god There seems Gr. Burnet. PPF.). "Met. 73. 62. Zeller. that E. Diels.. so. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. S3. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. Love and Hate. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. e. condensing function. 52. 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. 79S) . S4) tendency. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i. 51.

waking well Old memories." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. is speaking here of mankind. as rational as most modern theories. the latter inducing decay. lit. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. chimxras. by a collection (originally from Marburg). so a medical colleague informs me. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. death. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him. Cf. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched. explained conception as a union of male and female semen. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate. 64. Cyclops. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring. 65." Fr. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex.143- . Fr.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. 63." Though E. 1239. This present is. The sundered Are: Gr. as he gazes. whole Warm warm : ditions in E. fire "Of men and women. For 'tis in part in man's : i. See notes to fr." Williams. The genera. e.'' Lucr. S7-6j. Fr.'s system. the pitied and bewailed. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. Obstetrics (1904)1 P. 62. An alternative reading. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. E. we perhaps. old age.. sleep.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. dites 8 miliar with centaurs. satyrs. Fr. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters.. IV. in part in the male semen.

E. fr. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). 70. Colostrum is.. etc. 69. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Fr.. Fr. laid Fr. Here the bones. present in the breast after the first few months. Fr. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). Kypris: Aphrodite. the earthen part (in modern science. quite in the spirit of our own physiology.82 Fr. t6 iriov. the lime) within some animals are related. 73. morphologically connected. To speed of fire that she might Cf. if my be- available lexical information be correct. with the skin. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. however. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. to the shells on the outside of is. like horn. 74. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. Twice-hearing: i. others. 56. 484a 38) says that E. 71. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. Fr. Trees were supposed by E. consisting chiefly of keratin. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. 77-78. however. E. — Fr. 75-76. 80. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. 66. 79. White pus: Gr. turtle's shell. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form.e. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. 68. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. the "embryo" Fr. The Fr. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. Aristotle {Pneumat. Fr. Love. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. finger-nails.

: a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. 92. 89. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. apple." Zeller. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. 267. Fr. Cf. who has preserved us the fragment. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. p.. 88. From which Bolts of love i. go. 87. was an attempt. of the eye contains "Emp. Fire serves for perceiving the bright. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. 83 thick skin. from these elements." though not in the text. give to the emanations of each a free passage. Fr. Fr. 96. of the poet-scientist Goethe. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. 84. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. p. 235. moreover. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr. however inadequate. 2. : p. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. Cf. following Aristotle. water for the dark. e. Fr. Dort aber geht es. eine harte Verhindung zustande. Diels (FV). mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln . 801. 77-78. must be understood here. Fr. the pores of which. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes." Fr. fr." bringt. 82. and "horny. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern." Gomperz. to explain percepIt was an attempt. which admitted. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. 86. but for the slangy connotations. the subjective factor. Cf. Burnet.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. alternately arranged for each element. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. note on fr. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. however reluctantly. Fr.

Ether. 99. 94. aquae.. 9S. andere bei Nacht heller sehen. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. Cf. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus. as grotesque as it is ingenious. Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science. Thus bones are formed fire. Cf." Fr.84 Fr." Fr. 39). This fragment (cf." . fr. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not. 107 ff. She met: Gr." Fr. it is As a theory of respiration. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. p. 103. 93. . 2 parts water. dass einige bei Tag. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. a word. Cf. Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis. 102. 98. admisceatur." : Fr. Thus completed by Diels (FV)." as Bodrero translates it. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. Fr. the eyes. Fr. will sometimes emphasize a term. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach. of 2 parts earth. ovviKvpae. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. aeris arcessit. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us. Bodrero. following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV). They I e.'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. among others. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood.. Silvery : See note to f r. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. Quaest. 97. 43. Aeshy sprout E. : A The — Fr. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. 96. gests in Empedocles' system. fr. 100.

I think. 98. as 85 the clepsydra. etc.. but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. . and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. : i. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. 100. did not mean here. Zeller. perhaps." But E. fr. PPF). it : Diels. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on .'s theory of scent." Fr. Cf. e. upoij scientific experiment. In the blood streams : cf. Fr. 802.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." i. nowhere credits the elements as such. 98. p. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs. a cor- All that is left of E. The mites are the emanations. but E. The lightest: supply "bodies. 109 be so interpreted (but cf. Fr. . loi. 105. Cf. Zeller. though in form of a Burnet points out. Fr. The top b was not altogether open. Fr. 102. with consciousness. The comparison with Homeric simile. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. rests. note on fr. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap. (cf. unless fr. 104. as in some passages Cf. Here..i seems to be a hylozoist. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. E. Got: lit." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. Gomperz. p. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus. e. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics. note to f r. Chance: cf. 245). 230) will. p. elsewhere. 803. 103.

and Philop. the founder of the Cf. Fr. Ill. io6. . Fr. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here.: . a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. note on fr. Burnet. possibly "charms" is better. : i. my sound psychology. was early imputed to . : Cf. as sugme by a friend. quoted by Diels. . Plotinus yeyevTiniros. and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. E. Italian school of medicine. (p&p/iaKa. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr. "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft.: interpretation just above be correct.they grow. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. p. 86 Fr. no. etc. 445-6. Galen makes E. The dominion over human ills. All things have Axed intent Fr. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. sondern er hat das. 106. consciousness. e.'' Lucr. as elsewhere. These: the elements. Fr. III. doctrine.. drought and death. 109. e. here promised to Pausanias. Through Earth. p. is the microcosm. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. note on fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. etc. p. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf.. 108. For of themselves. 215. 802. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. 802). — Zeller. Cf. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. PPF. windstorms. gested to Drugs: Gr. sickness. Cf. 107.. addressing Pausanias. 17)..

271). but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness." Cf. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E.. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. e. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. of the THE PURIFICATIONS.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. Fr. Fr. (cf. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following. The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. p. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. has here . the courage of man). perhaps. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. a god and so much above mankind?" E. and not. Burnet.. 112. I. Proleg. 113. conservatively by Burnet (p. radically by Bodrero (passim). Empedocles himself tue of these lines. 87 Introduction) . and. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition. 213. if an (cf. The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum. and his references). as the latter. to Study of Greek Religion. followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. to the citizens of Acragas. p. One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. 589. Harrison. our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation.

something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. 30. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. p. e tomo ad Bodrero. sinfully. 116. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. p. 249 S. essere arbusto. fr. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. p.. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. Charis: Aphrodite. 117. 136. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate. fanciullo e giovinetta. 780. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. 147. e. bloodshed of animals. Fr. also Gomperz." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. 35) E. rpU iivplai «5pot. In offense: in sin. Cf. fr. etc. : Be born through time. Burnet (p. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: . is probably Pythagorean in origin. etc. familiar four elements. pesce. In the On Nature (fr. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. though apparently certi determinati esseri." according to Bodrero (p. p. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. Fr. Cf.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Moreover.000 years. 271). Cf. the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. uccello. Sat/ioves. it i. 146). Those far spirits: Gr. Fr. IIS. compatible with the On Nature. Zeller. by some interpreted as 10. With amplest oaths: cf. 139]. fr. Cf.

'' I. upon his earthly career (cf. "Infans. to Study of Greek Religion. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. 169. Newbold. is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. For other Fr.. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf.' Harrison. wander. Fr. this refers. 121. cit." Lucr. 122 and 123 itself. was . as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. 226.^nd I was a maiden." According to this. as he entered. 118. plains. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). A bush. it has been suggested to me by Prof. which. 119. . p." If this interpretation be correct. if the scene be earth. a bird.) but that E. cf. vagituque locum lugubri complet. and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean. note to fr. 614 ff. Proleg. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I. notes to loc. parallels see Munro and Guissani. A joyless land it." etc. banishment from heaven.. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. fr. Proleg. Chap. Cf. : with fr. Cf. V. "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. XI. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell. which. sed agri inundationibus vexati. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. 590. representing. Prometheus Unbound. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits. p. 118. Harrison. Fr. to Study of Greek Religion. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings.. after 119)..

Fr. 122.


in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this


Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv


follow are




imitates the catalogue of







edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the


of the

blessed to the (relative) death


this earth,

where souls are

"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,




dt Kal


ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having


a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate



the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in


Unmixed blood:
as such,

the figure


from unmixed wine, which,


and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.


In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

sive decern sive viginti



saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose



(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,



"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,


und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."


Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.


"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note


fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle






Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,



Fr. 142.

''etiam sensus incertus,

utrum lovis


Hecates regna


2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus


scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."


Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.



George Herbert uses the same



in his

Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.





us of the


too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.







quoted by Diels, PPF).




Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,

quoted by Diels, PPF.

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is


Hesych., quoted by Diels,


Fr. iS3a.



translates the doxographer: "In sieben


Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung



Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful