Cornell University Library


S218.A4 E6
Fragments of Enipedocles;

into Englis


1924 028 975 923

the United States on the use of the . There are no known copyright restrictions in text.Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.




wonderful. . 716 if. ever so far and pure . Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which.. . Nay. though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. Nor aught more holy. The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create. . lofty Lucretius. COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO. hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. I. Sc yJ Empedocles . and dear Than this true man. .

. Madison. goes inland. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. you That I richer having heard your voice. The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often.. R. 1906. Wis. when the long day's task was through. E. in nights of friendliness with you. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. and rejoice little. Dec. N. W. L. While you explored the Orphic liturgies. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. I found.: — — DEDICATION..) winter by Atlantic seas. (To W. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view.


R. B. J. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. May 14. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. 1907. .. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation.PREFACE. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. Wis. but I consin for medical references. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references. Newbold. W. Dr. Madison. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. I am indebted to Dr. William Ellery Leonard. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy.


To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate.TABLE OF CONTENTS. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 . PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. the Philosopher. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. the Poet. 4 9 13 On Nature. The Man.

viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 . PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day.

He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. THE PHILOSOPHER. but. according to the tradition of antiquity. as it seems.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. was born at in Sicily. . THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. falling at last from popular favor. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — . the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. LIFE. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles. The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. THE POET. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy.

. Some traces of this imposing figure. Wissenschaften.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce.and now. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. melancholy." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities. of PERSONALITY. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal . And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. eloquent^ soul that he was. 'From Empedocles. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. Cf. K.. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant. 1884.. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher. P. how throngs of his accompanied him along the road. in purple vest and golden girdle. Akademie d. according to Aristotle. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. after two thousand years.. and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem. And egotistic. but the poet. the study of impulse. .

who at least quotes from the On Nature at length. 3 WORKS. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show. lost . confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement.. Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. who them into Latin. Of many menides. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the poems On Nature and the Purifications. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine.* works. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve. possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. though but a small part of the whole. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. which. however. The fragments were mine. in the editions of Sturz .^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. .

none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. C. with a few slight changes and additions. hexameters of W. We . but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. and notes. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian. There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. TRANSLATIONS. As Latin said above. all that I have seen being in prose. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. the former's in verse. selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES. of which the former's is the better. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. and subsequently (igo6). there are several translations into . and some work of distinguished scholars. the latter's in prose. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings.

5 by no means precise. With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. the chemistry of later times. the air of Anaximenes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. even at the risk of some repetition." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. and alike primeval. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. and declares them as universe. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things. of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal. To the water of the fire Thales. Love and Hate. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing. in the Notes. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. There is something in the conception suggestive of . if we philosophy and magic. the allusions in the ancients . as they come up. The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. •Various problems are discussed. due to two eternal powers. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . albeit the lectician. but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole.

in the sarfte way. a whirling mass. these four. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. again ''exultant in surrounding solitude. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. which took the upper space. Moreover. air. : which. came the elements one by one first. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. the ." Whereupon. and crowded air beneath her. each separated and unmixed. begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. until Love.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. and in continual interchange follow one another forever. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere. of an egg then fire." things. rested. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. new world-periods arise. like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system. And thus arose two hemispheres. winning the upper hand. as some maintain. "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. . condensing or thickening. by the uniting bond of Love.

conceived as endowed with feeling. for signs and seasons. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. sprang up. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. and for days and years. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. because still in unstable equilibrium. bright entirely of fire. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. as we have seen. And. Out void. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. First the plants. The development of organic life. Then ani- .— . without form and was involved in the whirl of things. worked within her. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. took place. "J the dafk of air. germinations out of earth. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements. And the everlasting Law made two great lights. the greater light to rule the day. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. Furthermore. and night. and the dry land appeared. for this revothe cause of day earth. first he tells us. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex.

Band. modern sci- ence. Geschichte der Philosophie. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads. I. roaming ghastly through space. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist. sight. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. are. 1903. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world." but he is of creation. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. perhaps. some others from Vorlander. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.* like for like. so many later materialists. they developed into the organisms we see about us. . and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. eyes. even down who puts the soul in the atom. arms. in our day with our resources of knowledge. Leipsic. Behind pedocles. the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition. which. in company with to Haeckel. his theory of perception. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion.

the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. Diels. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . and occasionally even his phrase. as Burnet conjectured. Ol3mipos outermost. is in this their only successor. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters. have suggested the innovation. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). ii. lo. And And all the starry signs along the sky. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. Lucretius. but in mood and manner. but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. . is Homeric. And burning might of stars made haste to fr. be. FV. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. The Milky Way. he recalls the Eleatic. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES. Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. as sometimes in philosophic terminology."* •Parmenides. and whence they all arose.

" us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. He was true poet. as thou art more than I. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history." ! . towering over the wrecks of time. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. even the pseudoits validity. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace. and yet Much more than mine. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage. his fragments as For. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. FV.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine. the same yesterday. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels. and an essential element in the poem. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. There is first the grandeur of his conception.

however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. and at last we are in the habitable world." .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. in the world of petty facts. "awful heights of Air. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. And Our and a poetic response. the heads. the arms. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive." amid the monstrous shapes. in space. the lonely. all wonderful to see. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. with her sightless eyes. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. and of men and women. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. as we have seen. this shaggy earth. for "Night. is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. argues greater mind of man than any truth. the mystery. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : . comes full — . the powers of life and death are at work. circle forever. the glaring eyes. life the movement.

12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. is to adorn the temple .But I am the translator. because so an austere simplicity. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away. the sympathy with "men and women. of the poet." There little . and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . how now down by the brook. . not the critic. on the mountain side. the pitied and bewailed. in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. . which suggests so much. by Aphrodite. it may be. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. There is the poet's relation to his kind. "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze. the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. .

1907. by H.") Symonds. perhaps. Cited as "Tannery.) Tannery. 1899•This book seems to Paris.. History of Ancicnt Philosophy.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York. VII. (Keen trans. New York. acumen . be II Principio (Rome. Fairbanks. and independent. trans. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz. however. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. (Good critical appreciation. (Contains partial prose translation. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet. Studies of the Greek Poets. man. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. Burnet. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. but by Laurie Magnus. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles.) 1892.) (lOMFERZ. London. for the general reader the following will. I. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. who answered. Early Greek Philosophy. (Beautifully written. but came to hand after the present volume was in press.").. L. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher.") WiNDELBAND. E. The First Philosophers of Greece. Four Phistoire de la science helline. 1898. London. pendent. New York. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. inspiring. Source Book in Greek Philosophy. with some prose transla1893. 1887. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. 1904. vol. fanciful. Greek Thinkers. tions. York. chap. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. 1901. vol.

sic. Cited as "Diels.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but very useful. Teil. the above mentioned texts of Berlin.") And DiELS. 1901. erster Band. original notes in Latin. 1906. Cited as "Diets. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. I. zweite Auflage. FV. Zeller. and a few. Die Philosophic der Griechen. Berlin. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek.") . Leip- 1892. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. (Contains German translation. (Cited as "Zeller. funfte Auflage.

Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. cttci too eAtaort/ijs.ON NATURE. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. To His I. ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away. t d. 2. And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. Hear thou. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. Pausanias. to. And having viewed Their little share of life.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas.6vov TreLcdepTes. crv 8e Kkvdi. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. Believing only what each chances on. to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. Friend. with briefest fates. Ilav(rapir). .

nor seized by mind And thou. ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. (re. since hither now withdrawn apart. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive.-qi. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. ZrjfKov iKaarov. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs.. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app.. &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi.T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. But turn their madness. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp. itrji. p. Gods from tongue ! of mine.a. .. €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv.(riv aKoveiy. vdci ff iKacrrov. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. Never be heard by men. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed.. i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. But thuswise never shall these things be seen. ti tSjv aXX<ui/. avTOfiai. . The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. Movaa.

yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. 8e irap' qp. Dis. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. life-bringing Here. The Elements. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. having sight. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. . Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. Nor. But come. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth. Yea. Whose lives are but a day. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. 6. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov. So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. : — ..

7. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. dyevTjTa. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<..s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. and birth is but its name with men. The uncreated elements. nor end in ruinous death. or bush. 'tis "doom of Law. But when in man. . Birth and Death.. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal. <j)v<ri. ." and though I too assent to use. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart.19 [ou] KaXeovcri.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. . But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. Avenging Death. wild beast. 8. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ddvWTOV . or bird. vofiai. icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. S' Kal auTOS. eis •^ atUep i. dXoLTTjV. la death.

. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed. 12.. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. The Plenum. Ex nihilo II. 14. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? . From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi. But with the All there is no Void. can wholly die away.

.Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . Love and Hate. And ere as mortals we compacted be. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re. ouSe iror'.kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart. TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. the Everlasting. . T6<f>pa p. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. oia». For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. The Cosmic Process. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev. . Our Elements Immortal. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. Kal cirtreTat. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris. ovBev ap aaw. ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe.20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa. We are as nothing.

vo[ii^eTcu ep. CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi.trepe<i. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei. . fwjS' 6p. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i.p. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'. Now grows now The One from Many into being. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. eaa-i. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e.

Naming the utter goal of these my words. And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. Water. again. now. I will report a twofold truth. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. and sit not there With eyes astonished. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. Many brings 1 . the deadly Strife And In equipoise. Behold her now with mind. death of things: Twofold the I birth.. twofold the LEor. now. whatever grew From out their sundering. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. and the Many. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. Now grows The One from Many into being. flies apart and dies. the meeting of the . so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. To birth and death and. Earth and awful heights of Air. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. through her . the Even from One disparting come the Many. For as before I spake. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And this long interchange shall never end. shut from them apart. Fire.

23 She speeds revolving in the elements. They were no longer. Firm-clasping Lovingness. besides. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . now that is born And And . Love. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Love and Hate in the Organic World. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. Perfect the works of concord. 20. each rules its task. as they course along Through one another. Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. 18.— — — . And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. and. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. might they to ruin come. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. And so forever down Eternity. these are all. 19. now this.

And mortal members take the body's form. The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes.. hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. dXX' dye.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. a-wfia / yvla. So too with thicket. tree. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. water-fowls that skim the long blue sea. . They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. We See. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. Kuju/Sais. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi. From the Elements is All 21. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji.x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide . TO. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse.

urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. obscure and cold and dark. see Also the Rain. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aye. long-lived gods. in honors excellent. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. For these>are all. Similta Similibus. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. the bright-diffused. the warm. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. Behold the eternal Stars.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. as they course along Through one another. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. they take new faces all. By varied mingling and enduring change. beasts and birds. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. and men and women. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. 22. yuyverai dXXoicoTra. . and. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra.

re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi. irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Hate. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ. dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. miserable and lone. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. Far driven and scattered. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like.. fv SeSaoiTe. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. both in birth. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt.cri. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p.[S' a] irXela-Tov re.. After the counsels of their father. aXXa S* cXacrtro).ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv. .v. air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji.p. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. and love by Aphrodite's best. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL.kv irXccu. j^c/airiv. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. deov irapa da-irera.

. leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. What must be said. . To join together diverse peaks of thought. . And like to all things. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . O guard this knowledge well. . and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. now less). and men and women. beasts and birds. Even so the spring of mortal things. From which they fashion forms innumerable. 25- . The Speculative Thinker. . And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast).Lav. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. . peopling a fresh world With trees. fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. An Aphorism. for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. 24. And fishes nourished in deep waters. aye. And not complete one road that has no turn. .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. may well be said twice o'er. now more. KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets.

. again. So far have they a birth and mortal date. 26. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. Spring from primeval scattering of the One.a Xijyei. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. KoX (j)6Cv€i. Till they. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. still.. when grown into the One and All Once more. they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. as they course along Through one another. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. The Law of the Elements. T'^i jno' 171. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. and the Many. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. once more go under and succumb. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. roll. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. . ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs. ravrrii.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri.

« 27. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. nor form . '^ ov iroSes.v. Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. Trepirjyii yauov. But in the strong recess of Harmony. The Sphere. For from its back there swing no branching arms. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. 29. Exultant in surrounding solitude. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp.Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. 27a. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai. Exultant in surrounding solitude.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. nor Sea. It hath no feet nor knees alert. The Sphere on every side the boundless same. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere. ov 0od yovva.

. decree. The joint binds two. and will bind it 34- fast. times arrived to Strife. . a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra. . SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV.. . old. as the Which unto each in turn. . 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . . Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . . . — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. . to Love. and like unto itself. . For one by one did quake the limbs of God. 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. on all sides was. . Physical Analogies. 32. Should come by amplest oath and 31. Cementing meal with water . . 30. and rose To her own honors. irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO.

iive^ fiekecov to. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra. Toi' irporepov KareXefa. ?] dddvar eivai. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each .(Ti. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. ovK tS)v a(f)ap. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv. Be t e^e^efirJKei. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv.. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. laid make return down before. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. But hurrying back.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all. reached Yet not a-sudden. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. The Conquest 35. I now will To paths of festal song.^eTcua»v.i. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. 3 of ^ove. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. \6yov \6yov e^o. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.a IBeadaL.

Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. aloft. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36. exchanging highways of new life. As much as Hate still held in scales. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. aWepa 8' ald-qp. her figure magnifies. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. And ever the more skulked away and fled. Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. inward pressed The gentle minded. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. Then ever the more. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. and nearer. . Similia similibus. the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. And as they came together. But partwise yet within he stayed. partwise Was he already from the members gone. see.

The World
as It
, . .




ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd


eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,



Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv




TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,


Aether, the Titan,


binds the globe about.

Earth and Air Not

eiwep aireipova

y^s re


Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs



okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps



and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.

aXX' o


a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,








KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s


errXero firjvrji.

The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.

ws avyrj rv^axra


kvkKov evpvv



As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov


Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.

ap/taro? ws irepi




re irap' aKpijv


Even as revolves a The outmost

chariot's nave,

which round




ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.






But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.



iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?




night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and


'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.


from sea brings wind or mighty

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'





sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many



there burns beneath the ground.


yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci


For sometimes so upon





ofttimes otherwise.

/ aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt. aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. There budded many a head without a neck. \- [. And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. ovra cTrXavaro . .erdm(av. ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav. Earth's sweat. The salt grew solid.€\T) ert ra yvla . . . iiovvop. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. s6. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. . smit by beams of sun. oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra^. Things Passing Strange. . And arms were roaming.] In isolation wandered every limb. shoulderless and bare. yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov.36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. . S8. . Hither and thither seeing union meet. the sea. 57.

. S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. born with twofold brow and breast. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 60. Many were vvv S' ay. aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life.KO<j>vrj . ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u.ei'a yuiois. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt. with the face of 62. Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. man on bovine stock. But now as God with God was mingled more.v6p. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai. Sometimes like men. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' . and sometimes womangrowths. oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'.evov iTvp. . ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav. to. feet. These members fell together where they met. .

. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. Of men and women. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov.7rdki. For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured..€. reminding him 6s.v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. 64. common to the male. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft. when contrariwise they meet with Warm. That had their shares of Water and of Warm. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress. human limbs.v dppeva Oepfiov]. the birth is girls. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov.. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. dwiatrai'Ta. who sees. the pitied and bewailed. The Process of Human Generation To-day. And boys. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a. erst whelmed in night.vBp6s . [rd 8' ip. 63. and when Therein they meet with Cold. . But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of . Nor secret member. nor yet a human cry. . Love-longing comes.

dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. More stalwart and more shaggy. 66. . the blood Becomes white 69. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. 'A^po8iTi79. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . and therefore men are dark. On the tenth day. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav . 68. aiiviov. . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Twice bearing. 67. 70. . firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. month the eighth. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys.. in pus. Sheepskin. iv yap depfioripai roKa. SCyovoi. vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . .

. The Earth and Water. 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. compact with outsides loose. . if belief And lack pith. . . cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i.ej/ irvKvd.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being. 73. Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How .. As Kypris. in Got this their sponginess. Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. . 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. . Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. as have come to be. after watering Earth with Rain. the Ether and the S)Xm. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. fish. to. the palms of Aphrodite shaped. As the tall trees and fish in briny floods. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. . inside Which.. Zealous to heat her. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ .. 72.

Since fed forever by a fruitful air. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be. perennial fronds. Trees bore perennial fruit. ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. .o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles. And issues from the rind. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts..86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Wine but water fermented in the wood. oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. of shell-fish wreathed. 80. 77-78. 81. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. ocean-dwellers. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year. \hevZpta 8'] ifnre. 76. aye.

42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. scales plumes. TavTtt T/3i. 82. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs.v. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? .v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. on sturdy limbs grow hair.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. to sally forth.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. Stiff hairs. of fish. From the same Leaves. SiieaKov. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. keen-piercing. As when a man. . bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs. In horny lantern shielding from all winds. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri.Tre<f>piKau(Ti. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev. 84. Our Eyes.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv.

the divine. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. 86. . The untiring eyes were formed. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love. y6p. as more fine and thin. One vision of two eyes is born. Whilst Fire burst outward. as more 8s. And thus kept off the watery deeps around. 87. Its beam darts outward. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri.. fj fine and thin.

ocra eyevovTO . 91.€i\divTa tov -)(a. . will not mix with oil. ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s. yj/ous. [idpirre. ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. 90. 89. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm.. flew. . The Black River Bottoms. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra. . Knowing that all things have their emanations. and upon Hot rode Hot. . Thus Sweet seized Sweet. . . Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj. otvcM . t5i KaTTiripoii p. 92. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov..\K6v . atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris. Similia similibus. Water But to wine more nearly is allied. 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin.

The back-bone. in the palms of Kypris shaped. and one may same In hollow caves. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}. Blood and Flesh. "^^^ 97- pdx. Eyes. Xupevecraiv . KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. ' And of Hephaestos four. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis.. 98. 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. As. they first Began to grow together . pakurra. .Lv. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. Bones. S' aiyXrjs.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. Thence came white bones.if ^^X^ NiyariSos to. ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade.

rj(r6cu. the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less. aafe KevOav.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red. 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp.~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh. ako^iv <j>6vov p. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai. Siapirepe^. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp.dv (TTop. diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa.. And Rain and Ether.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. (Tapxivo^ 0^09. And Earth within the perfect ports u. after The Ear. A bell . ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u. the Clepsydra. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd. ^ The Rushing Blood and 100. irdKiv e/orveiei. Sometimes a little more than theirs). e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp . oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. 99- KtoStav. a fleshy twig. she met-wlt. Of Aphrodite anchored lay.

TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. and. ws S' avrcD. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe. In all.Kpa Kparvvtap.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. but the own weight. is cut a passage free. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water. the air In turn breathes out. at their outlets. Over the body's surface. oiSjuari ^Coi/. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. dp. however. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out. That falls inside against the countless holes. Keeps it in check. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. iraXij'. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. For air. And when from here the thin blood backward streams. until the child at last .^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed. m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. and so the blood remains within. But when again it forward leaps. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx.

Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward. 102. .TraX'^t irepl irovqi . When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. lOI. sets free the thickened air. Left by their feet along the tender grass . that from without Comes pressing inward.a)i>. KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on.. As air drops down and in. Until her hand will loosen. The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in. 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. But when again it forward leaps. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a.: —— . .. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as air gives way. And thus got all things share of breath and smells. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. Even so it is. As the child keeps possession of the top.. Scent. Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs.

rejoice. or grieve.. The heart That men is nourished. According to the body's thrift and state. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together .^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia. where prevails the power call thought.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv. On the PsychicJLife. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. In the blood-streams. . 104. 103. back-leaping unto it.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. --^i 105. For unto men their thrift of reason grows. 106. For as of these commingled all things are. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi. 107.. Even so through these men think. Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa..

..epLp. so far night their thinking changes 109. . through Fire. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.pKvvovcri p. As By far as mortals change by^. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju. . devouring Fire. oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii. and Hate through doleful no. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup. And Love through Hate. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai. arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. and endeavor pure. Love. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. io8. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj. ota kot avopa<s a t dp. oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi. . divine Ether luminous. Water. For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. Through Water. Through Ether.oi'. e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op. reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm.vpCa 8ciX. . o aiaepa olov.a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op. .aro^ dttrav.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL. .€voLO p.

ra CTrafcis* ef op. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv. — Dominion. rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i. As men be after. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. where his essence lies. <j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ^v ideXrjLO-da.evos oi t yarai/ opvup.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina. for service.a. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra. drjcrei. . For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. vaXCvrLTa irvevp. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures. aye. myriad and vile. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them. III.

at seasons good for men. And if thou wilt. wild and For that before thou cowedst them. As down they stream from ether. shalt thou arouse the blasts. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents. And watch them shrill. nourishing the mountain trees. take their vengeance. .52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap. axrirep Ibt/ca. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi.iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths.. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. All hail. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi. THE PURIFICATIONS. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa. XatpeT.vpioL i^epeoi/T£^. As god immortal now. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. fillets and well.. The Healer and Prophet. ft) (^tXoi. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. no more as man. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov. 112. ye stewards of good works. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p. OL p. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk . and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come .

For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis. O friends. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains. ovs iyo) i^epeo}. S> <j)C\oi.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.a'^prjyia'p. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju. doomed to many deaths! — 114. I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai opp. craving some oracles. To thriving[ia TraXaidi/.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe.vdoi9. . iiil <j)peva TTumo.p. I am sought by prayers.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i. XcXd^aai /Sioio. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me.ij.

A fugitive and vagabond from heaven. oaths. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. . iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre. 6 S' aldipo^ ip.09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL.aLvofiev(oi.— . Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?. aWepiov p. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei. irCcrvvo's. Charis abhors intolerable Fate.. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. Or swear Shall forsworn. iraires. Neucel' p. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. made fast With amplest spirits. as failing of their pledge. And in that brood I too am numbered now. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea.kv yap <r<^e p. Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor. There is a word of Fate. 8e i/Sv ei/ii.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. ii6. oTvyiovai.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX.

a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World. Thicket and bird. o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv. was once already boy and girl. A Where besides. wept and wailed. For I This Earth of Ours.v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov .e. Slaughter and Grudge. joyless land.. and mute fish in the /tcTa OvrjTois. 121. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. voaoi. place.'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. rj\vdop. This Vale of Tears. . 118. And then we came unto a roofed cave. beholding the strange 119. drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. 120. 117. Kal (rTJ\ ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. and troops of Dooms . fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji.

Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. & iroTTOi. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! .. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays. There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun. And Labors. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . There was Earth-mother. Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. 122. 124. o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia.epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. and Glory many-crowned. and Silence and prevaihng Voice. . Action and Rest. And Filth. . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. burdened with the water-jars. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. 123.

128. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. The Golden Age. 'tis.ei' yap l. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men.os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t.oe afieiprnv. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side. The Changing Forms. flesh. For from the living he the .oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei..T(ovi. But. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs . Are taway-lions. All things doth Nature change. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv. 126. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. dead did make. €K ju. I2S. Their forms exchanging. when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live.

but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease. gainer of large wealth Of understanding. Poseidon then.. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. nor Kronos. ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu. the king of gods.. rjia yvZa. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. nor . 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. nor Kydoimos. I2g. not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge. redolent fumes of frankincense. limbs. . Zeus.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all. . Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there.d?. Tavpwv S' a. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. . With painted images of living things. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat.

The Divine. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. Orjpes T olo)voiT€. All beasts and birds. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro. For since. KaXXtoTreta. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. O well with him who hath secured his wealth .e[n)\€i/. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. oX)8to?. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. 130. All things were tame. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more.(f>aCvovTi. throve. and gentle toward men. 132. thou couldst deign soul. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice. SeiXos 8'.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. afi^pore Movtra. and friendship's flame blew fair. O Muse undying. 131.

ineffable. ov iroSes. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. It hath no feet nor knees alert. With neither hands nor eyes. but It lives. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p. nor form Of tufted secret member. . pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. ov doa yovva. Ojig^holy mind.kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat. alone.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ov p. Of thoughts Is divine. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head. For from Its back there swing no branching arms. We may not bring It near us with our eyes. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu.ovvov. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^]t. We may not grasp It with our human hands. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop.

evoi. Imploring their destroyers. ^uoj^Tas. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. children the mother seize. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And reave of life and eath 138. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo. «us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. . ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. unthinking as ye are. Thus too the son Seizes the father. The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. their own dear flesh. And slits A But the poor victims press. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa. Animal SacriUpe. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. 136.

O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. irdvhaXoi.. Ye ye altogether wretched. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai. 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . tree SaXoi. 142. 140. Sin. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . . tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai. TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze.. Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. nor dire Hecate's venging house. ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos. 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre.

Physicians sage. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. whence germinate the gods. O fast from evil-doing. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. and singers of high hymns. And The excellent in honors. 61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. seers at last. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune.64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. feast At hearth and tals. of Rebirth. The Progression 146. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains. dreipei^. diroKhrjpoi. .

152. iv eirra €phop. 148.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. iSSa. Evening. 149. iroXvatftarov -^Trap. . ISO. The belly. The blood-full liver. isi- Life-giving.v. IS3. The cloud-collecting. In seven times seven days.axn. the day's old age. 65 Man-enfolding Earth. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost.


Ill. and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. Trust sight no more than hearing. : . ON NATURE. 4SS-6. fr. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. 4. Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles." Lucr. Fr. Addressed to Pausanias. 2. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. 4. Cf. or device Empedocles. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. fr. (rroXd/tg) cf. : Meek Piety's lit. Parmenides and other philosophers. may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception.NOTES. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. way fr.. Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. Like smoke cf. Fr. "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices". Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. in altas aeris auras. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). 3. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. of knowing: by every passage. 2. unlike Parmenides." By every . the simulacra of Lucr. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna. so elsewhere. cf. "from [the realm of] Piety. here E. IV). ceu fumus. Fr. I.. etc.

Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. and to Fr. one sense as acting as a check consider." : PPF. E.De an. the "mistiform" . The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. 245) at the most E. 3. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf. — calls the stoffe. Here earth. the gods Love and Strife. and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. Zeller (p. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault." a very different. De arte poetica. 'road.68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. p. following Knatz. Fr. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. . is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. 759) makes Zeus fire. if.. the roll of his splendid verse. may chology. Burnet (p." Moreover. Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation. 427a 21-29) says that E. also the "flowing" (like water). for the reverent attitude. and Aidoneus fire. 243) and Bodrero (p. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. Ill. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed.. s. with the sensationalists of modem psyon another.' The Roman critic (Hor. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. also Gomperz. Here air. make Zeus air.' 'pore. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. The four-fold root the four elements. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF). the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. was poet no less than philosopher. reflected in this fragment. 78). four elements. 6. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. Aristotle (. though it had never made them GrundCf. : me less effective figure.

afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. in a connection similar to 9 (cf. where any one every time puts it. 207-8). 15. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. : For there 'twill be. it so. etc. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. 935 est sceleris vindex. 7. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. Gesch. monism Fr. Parmenides. E. 10. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. quoted by Diels. End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. not only men but 267) I do all per- .THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. 11-12. 13-14. the case of man. p. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. PPF). The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. Burnet. Cf. the psychic (Siebeck. 8.. PPF.) E.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. Cf. upon as is the idea of birth.. at least I take Fr. "in In man. fr.: properly. Heraclitus." Diels. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. Elements (amx^ta). 9." Fr." Fr. is nowhere preserved to us by E. had made ultimate reality a material One. "doom of death" Fr. in- Fr. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. any given object] be right there. Plato.. etc. is a Plenum. p. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. Zeller. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. Ppanl denotes with E. 17. etc. however. not believe. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold . e. Thales. Plut. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. 53. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr. d." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. Psychol. 759. Pjfthagoras. (cf. supplied here and elsewhere.

with the increased tendency ration. 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". "The One" is tlie Sphere. p. p. 17.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as the elements come together. as Fr. conception are still in dispute (cf. in so far as their elements are eternal. . preserved by Simplicius. in- however. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying." etc. 306). 26. fr." Diels. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. again. Love and Hate: and "Strife." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). "Lovingness" and "Wrath. and "our being" is but a physical being. Zeller. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements. "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. as to every thing. Efforts to relate them . to which. as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv). genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. deed.. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense. the thought of fV. however. The longest. the most significant. or to the Fr. 16. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere. 771 Tannery. Many details of the . of the Egyptian. ishable beings. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). conceived by E. and these are eternal only Zeller. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). are part of the physical system. p. But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. and the most difficult of the fragments." Cf. Thought and feeling with E. until. 11 must apply. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for. Two-fold the birth. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. are the four elements. "the Many. as the dynamic powers of the universe. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) ." "Aphrodite" under varying names.

who believes we period. e. is situated inside. Anaximander (but cf. are in the former period. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists. p." And shut from them apart. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. I believe. when Love is supreme. out the thought with consistency of detail. 7I It must be noted that. Burnet. almost as diffused gases. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. Burnet. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. we have the harmony of the Sphere. equal in length and breadth. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere." i. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. etc. if — of the world. when Hate is supreme. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere. i. "speeds revolving in the elements. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. while Love. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things.. whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn. etc. Cf. e. 6). The early philosophers corporealities . So far have they a birth. Thus Strife is in equipoise. etc. but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. a complete dissipation. and ciples..). : : "thejr" refers. 305). the m3fthological names of fr. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space. Tannery. and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p. Burnet (p. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world. there is a freshness : . 248 ff. p.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

to me at least. but each. But there is nothing in E. allusion to the theory of the pores. qualitatively distinct from the others." Paul Carus. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. perfectly clear. or a faculty. translator has The ing (pCKlii . Zeller. that E. Fr. or simply to the fact that now this. Cf. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names. by the way. 1907. its E. Chinese Thought. fr. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. or Water. E. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. Cf. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. quoted by Diels. or Earth. etc. without ever ending in fire's dominating all. : Behold these elements own equal strength. 26. ments). and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. water conquers fire. or material. earth conquers water. with (cf. fire conquers metal. in this identification of a cosmic principle. p. in the life of man.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. 767. 762. and metal conquers wood. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. primeval. PPF. 787).'s thought that seems to correspond. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. Zeller. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. 47. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. Plut. fr." etc. log). are told that wood conquers earth. p. p. with identified which usually by the commentators. with a passion. p. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. Cf. 18. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. I think.72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

the planets as free. PPF. Line i has been supplied by the translator. though "in honors excellent. "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. with this Fr. Air seems to be unrepresented. 73 With reference here to water. 19. however. out of the elements . rain to the watery. on fr. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. 'the beginnings of things. formed. one might well note that E." Diels. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. 231). and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk.' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott). etc. hence. But were it so interpreted. hardly the bright heaven. and earth to the earthy. and both as formed of fire separated from the air. or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. 62. I. But come. Fr. e. for E." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. are not. 20. as I understand them. like tree or fish. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. I. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere). The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). is here speaking of things as they are. Fr. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. . Cf. the aery expanse of day. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof.. 1. 41. 21. The green : the Greek is S&^viira." they are not immortal. 608) phrases which. fragment fr. 57-62. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E.

eh ha Kiaiiov. p. 17. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. f r. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. as the unifying process goes on. in the dead harmony of the Sphere. e. 237. 233) sees a reference in etc. Don Juan. The simile were then doubly striking. as I understand it.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. fr. . this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. 5. . : The goddess: lit. till. Fr. p. Cf. .succumb : i. Fr. etc. Burnet. 21. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. 26. One may Cf. (cf. note to fr..74 Fr. is reasonable reason. Also Burnet. XV. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. 247. . gi. 17 . they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. p. and can only mean. Tannery. Cf. "A If good. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 4. Heaven : air . this Gomperz (p. the universal law of being. when grown. 23. I think. Gomperz. Fr. fragment to the four primary colors. ." none the worse for Byron. which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. repetition. 22. undoubtedly the Muse. mixing harmonious. important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. 25. For amber Sun.. 'divinitjf" (Seov). fr. Cf. Whiles in fair order: Or. mentioned several times by E. 131). cf. 308. 247 ff.. as analogous to the four elements. Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. cf. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements.

and wonders if a line may have been lost. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities.'s present spherical universe. fitted. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. latebris PPF. and is usually. for the figure. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. For various ancient cf. y is. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai. Sphere. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere." Diels. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw. however. Burnet." Bodrero assumes (p. i." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love. which was spherical and immovable. were the personified "fitting. of the point of view adopted in these pages. difficulties must be admitted. then. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air. Harmony. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. if Pythagorean. p. e. one would "adaptation. as . l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. not as hiding it somewhere in space. a (1. but Kp<i*os. though not altogether satisfactory. 27.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. There: in the Sphere. The figure may be Pythagorean. but the four elements. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone. however. but the union of Love and Hate. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. as here. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not." universe. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars. as it seems to here. all . their equilibrium". 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai. Prof. Moreover. as a noun (meaning." If examined narrowly. and perhaps. interpretations of the nature of the ff. composed..

and the things of time to come and of time that is past. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. Fr. where expressions. and in its joyous : rest reposing.. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. 134. though in a corrupt form. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. Fr. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man. £. 29.the final resultant of the disordered movements .' Cf. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. Fr. i.902.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. 34. itXot&s : SpKov. 31. Cf. Zeller. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. p. in con"Hate . Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere. 'broad oath. 813 . are used fr. the totality of divine beings and powers. 3) "If thou wilt separate. pressit Fr. 30. . God: the Sphere. 115.'" Fr. apparently of the Divine. not ex- Tannery thinks (p. according to Karsten and Burnet. I say. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. fr. PPF. and says "e Plut. 35. like a baker. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. Nor form Fr. fr. itself cf. note to fr. the naked and the swift. Ht.48." And again (p. 33. . learn from the doxographers. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact. Amplest oath Gr." Diels. 314) is the principle of division and movement. e. 'AH round." 814. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense. Cf. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. 32. in part identical. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. is Fr.

preceding fragment . The two states are again contrasted in p. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low. Hate retreated under protest. Zeller. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere." Bodrero. note to : fr. "and from their mingling. July 1906). : Cf. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. if anything more than a poetic touch. 130. 30) . p. Fr. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error. or vortex. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. This chaos. but with the 26. fr. and fr. right and wrong. Heidel. Philology. 787. W. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels. 22. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. 116. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr." They The elements. Cf." But cf. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. 36. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid. Class." etc. I. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity. A. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. e. it was. mixed. however. according to Tannery by Hate. Not all blameless i. 3. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili... 784. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf. 17 and 26. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. identified with the Sphere. PPF. caused. : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. fr. although this seems. and is finally excluded altogether. : the circumference of the vortex. The members: the elements. attraction of Cf. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution.

seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i.'s "Ether. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. at versus recuperari nequit. thicker. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air. as opposed to the upper air. The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. 789. a mere reflection. for fire. and sky that holds them all. 786. Days. p. assuming any elemental difference. it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. e." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E. 39. II 1114 sq. kingdoms. and Zeller. the all splendorous.). 44. "Moist air" is . appropriate to the appellative "Titan. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf.78 Fr. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). its 254. "Bread.. as by Anaxagoras. Burnet. fr. Deorum. Stickney. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower. "without. 41." p. : "With Ether. But cf. however.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. with reference to the fiery sky (cf. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements.' •blaze')—a sense." the earth. but is in keeping with E. 100 (q. . indeed. How the sun. however. was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess." Emerson. the pure ether. and of Emerson's etc. fools. 109 on sense perceptipn. This.) Cf. for slight differences of interpretation. note to fr. p. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E. one finds nothing representative of fire. 37. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. mist" by Burnet. ''cetera Cf. some tongues. unless ether be here used. As forsooth Heraclitus. v. Fr. tal vault of heaven. Fr. Lucr. notes to Cicero's De Nat. stars. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). 'light up." Diels. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. PPF. E. 317." Tannery.." the vaulted sky of his imagination. 38." the "awful heights of Air. I.

. 41).irta>." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 42. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. Fr. 41). 45. 43. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. on Apoll. it 7XouKos (fr. A. I. p. air. E. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac." is used of the willow. Fr. 200) says. ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri. a darker of Cf." used especially of Athene." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. bearing with it its sun (see fr. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. Fr. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. E. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. followed here. Cf. see note on fr. Odys. Zeller. a lighter of fire. Her lord: the sun. 786 flf. 47. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf. Zeller. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. himself uses 93) of the elder.. 43. Schol. and. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. irapb. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. whose revolution produces day and night. "Seirii Cf. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. and E. the olive.' or something of the sort. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. and one-half . Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v.ii. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. Fr. 46. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis." whom the Iliad (A. Rhod. 31). 48. II. Fr. 790. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. E. who speaks of "Selene mild. fr. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. Kal yX'qvti \i. : by Merrill and Riddell.

as common in Sicily. For authenticity cf. as air a downward (see fr. the fourth period . 52. fr. its pores in the form of drops. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i.: of fire. tific charming poetry. 56. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. 261. in E. e. With E. 51.. Zeller. Cf. e." i. is 17) fr. B 3. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 55. 51. with the other elements. functions attributed by E. "Met.80 Fr. but the inFr. Fr. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. p. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. 62. Fr. {. when Hate world).. 54. PPF. so. S7-6i. See note to fr. Diels. 73. II. as criticized the water gush forth. totle. on the other hand to another process (i. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. see fr. "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr.. Burnet.. 35] made Burnet. increasing .'s thought. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. had an upward. e. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. 79S) . then. fire has a crystallizing. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. The Greek imagination was long fato be . et corr. 256. Fr. Love and Hate. which. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . "It" refers to air. Burnet (p. S4) tendency. : Cod with god There seems Gr. was at first mixed with water. p. etc. Sal/tovi Salnuy. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. that E. p.. sometimes advanced. Fr. in the period of the present Cf. The phrase is not.e. S3.)." And upward. 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. Fr. condensing function. no reason for the conjecture.

is speaking here of mankind. An alternative reading. The genera. 62.. lit. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring. so a medical colleague informs me. 65. Fr. The sundered Are: Gr. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum. 64. the latter inducing decay. Obstetrics (1904)1 P. explained conception as a union of male and female semen. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. old age. E.143- . whole Warm warm : ditions in E. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being. Cyclops. as he gazes. Fr.'' Lucr. fire "Of men and women. S7-6j. death. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. by a collection (originally from Marburg). in part in the male semen. Fr. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen." Though E. sleep. waking well Old memories. e. the pitied and bewailed.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as rational as most modern theories. For 'tis in part in man's : i. 63. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. chimxras. we perhaps. 1239. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. See notes to fr. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate.'s system. dites 8 miliar with centaurs. This present is." Williams. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched. IV." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. Cf. satyrs.. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters." Fr.

and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. 71. laid Fr.e. morphologically connected. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. 74. White pus: Gr. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. with the skin. consisting chiefly of keratin.. finger-nails. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. etc. 73. Fr. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. Colostrum is. t6 iriov. present in the breast after the first few months. if my be- available lexical information be correct. like horn. 77-78. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). 484a 38) says that E. Fr. fr. 66. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). Love. To speed of fire that she might Cf. Fr. however. 69. the lime) within some animals are related. the earthen part (in modern science. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. Here the bones. however. 75-76. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. 70. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds.. Kypris: Aphrodite.82 Fr. Trees were supposed by E. E. 56. Fr. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. The Fr. Fr. Aristotle {Pneumat. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. 68. Twice-hearing: i. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. 79. quite in the spirit of our own physiology. the "embryo" Fr. others. 80. turtle's shell. — Fr. to the shells on the outside of is. E.

who has preserved us the fragment. however reluctantly. 235. of the eye contains "Emp. : a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. p. however inadequate. Fr. of the poet-scientist Goethe. From which Bolts of love i. alternately arranged for each element." Fr. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. 84. was an attempt. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln . note on fr. water for the dark. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes. Cf. Burnet. Cf. and "horny. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. 77-78. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. fr. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. Diels (FV). eine harte Verhindung zustande.. 86. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr." Zeller. 88.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 267. 89. 83 thick skin. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn. : p. 2. to explain percepIt was an attempt. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. Fr. Fr. but for the slangy connotations. 82. give to the emanations of each a free passage. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. following Aristotle. apple. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. Fr." bringt. from these elements. 92. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern. p. e. Dort aber geht es." Gomperz. which admitted. Fr. 801. the subjective factor. go. the pores of which. Cf. must be understood here. moreover. Fr. 96. Fire serves for perceiving the bright." though not in the text. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. 87.

's picturesque definition of the outer ear. ovviKvpae. Cf. following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. gests in Empedocles' system. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 99." Fr. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not. aquae." Fr. andere bei Nacht heller sehen. the eyes. 96. She met: Gr. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach. 102. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. Ether. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. 9S." as Bodrero translates it. : A The — Fr. Fr. This fragment (cf. Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. 39). The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV).. 100." Fr. it is As a theory of respiration. dass einige bei Tag. p. Thus bones are formed fire. 97." . Silvery : See note to f r. aeris arcessit. Aeshy sprout E. Fr. 107 ff. . Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. 93. fr.84 Fr. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. 98. 2 parts water. Bodrero. a word. Thus completed by Diels (FV). admisceatur. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood. as grotesque as it is ingenious. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. Cf. will sometimes emphasize a term. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. 43.. among others. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us. inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science. fr." : Fr. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus. of 2 parts earth. They I e. 103. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. Cf. 94. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. Quaest. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis.

In the blood streams : cf. Cf. 803. Zeller. 230) will. E. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down.. Fr. The top b was not altogether open. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. as 85 the clepsydra. 98. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap. e. Cf. unless fr. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs. Got: lit. ." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. p. as in some passages Cf. Chance: cf. 100. (cf. I think. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. 98. The lightest: supply "bodies. Fr. The mites are the emanations. note to f r.i seems to be a hylozoist. PPF). p. 103.. 102. loi. note on fr. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. Zeller. Fr. 802. 104. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus. a cor- All that is left of E. The comparison with Homeric simile. 105.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside." But E. e. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . did not mean here." Fr. though in form of a Burnet points out. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. 245). but E. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. p. rests.'s theory of scent. perhaps. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics. : i. 109 be so interpreted (but cf." i. Gomperz. elsewhere. Here. fr. nowhere credits the elements as such. with consciousness. upoij scientific experiment. etc. . Fr. it : Diels.

here promised to Pausanias. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. p. p. p. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen.. Fr. gested to Drugs: Gr. etc. "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft. III. sickness. was early imputed to .. 17). my sound psychology. Cf. The dominion over human ills. as elsewhere.. 108. Fr. Fr. . (p&p/iaKa..they grow. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf. a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. . Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr. and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. Plotinus yeyevTiniros. 106. e. : Cf. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. io6. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. doctrine. consciousness. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. Burnet.: interpretation just above be correct. the founder of the Cf. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking. 445-6. note on fr. 802).: . All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here. etc. All things have Axed intent Fr. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. 215. Ill. Through Earth. For of themselves. addressing Pausanias. 86 Fr. drought and death. : i. PPF. as sugme by a friend. possibly "charms" is better. Galen makes E. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. quoted by Diels.. and Philop. 109.'' Lucr. e. E. 107. windstorms. — Zeller. sondern er hat das. is the microcosm. note on fr. Cf. 802. These: the elements. Italian school of medicine. no.

like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. Harrison. Fr. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. and his references).. 589. of the THE PURIFICATIONS. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following. 113. conservatively by Burnet (p. 87 Introduction) . p. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. to Study of Greek Religion. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. and. perhaps. Burnet. One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. 213. to the citizens of Acragas. Empedocles himself tue of these lines. 112. as the latter. if an (cf. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. (cf. radically by Bodrero (passim). The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. the courage of man). The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Fr. though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. p. Proleg. 271). but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition.. e. I." Cf. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. and not. a god and so much above mankind?" E. has here .

by some interpreted as 10. though apparently certi determinati esseri. essere arbusto. 139]. compatible with the On Nature. With amplest oaths: cf. bloodshed of animals. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. pesce. Charis: Aphrodite. Sat/ioves. the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. : Be born through time. sinfully. 116. Cf. e. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. p. it i. In the On Nature (fr. etc. Those far spirits: Gr. also Gomperz. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. 136. Fr. fr." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. 117. Cf. Zeller. Burnet (p. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: .. rpU iivplai «5pot. fr. 147. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. 146). 271). 249 S. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr. 780. uccello. 30. fr. Fr. IIS. 35) E. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. e tomo ad Bodrero. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. p. is probably Pythagorean in origin. p. Cf. Fr. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E.000 years. p." according to Bodrero (p. etc. fanciullo e giovinetta. In offense: in sin. Moreover. Cf. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. familiar four elements. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity.

the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings. Prometheus Unbound. Newbold. : with fr. upon his earthly career (cf. For other Fr. was .. representing.." etc. it has been suggested to me by Prof. which. a bird. cf. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf. 118. notes to loc. XI. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. Fr. note to fr. Cf." According to this. as he entered." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. plains. Harrison.. which. fr. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I. if the scene be earth." If this interpretation be correct. p. A bush. and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean. cit.. V. 118. after 119). p.^nd I was a maiden. Cf. "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum. "Infans. Chap. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. this refers. to Study of Greek Religion. 169. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell. banishment from heaven.) but that E. wander. 614 ff. A joyless land it. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. 122 and 123 itself.'' I. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits. 119. Fr. 121. parallels see Munro and Guissani." Lucr. Proleg.' Harrison. vagituque locum lugubri complet. 226. to Study of Greek Religion. sed agri inundationibus vexati. Proleg. . 590.

Fr. 122.


in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this


Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv


follow are




imitates the catalogue of







edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the


of the

blessed to the (relative) death


this earth,

where souls are

"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,




dt Kal


ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having


a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate



the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in


Unmixed blood:
as such,

the figure


from unmixed wine, which,


and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.


In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

sive decern sive viginti



saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose



(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,



"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,


und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."


Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.


"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note


fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle






Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,



Fr. 142.

''etiam sensus incertus,

utrum lovis


Hecates regna


2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus


scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."


Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.



George Herbert uses the same



in his

Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.





us of the


too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.







quoted by Diels, PPF).




Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,

quoted by Diels, PPF.

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is


Hesych., quoted by Diels,


Fr. iS3a.



translates the doxographer: "In sieben


Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung