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Fragments of Enipedocles;
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1924 028 975 923

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Ph. ONIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN CHICAGO THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY LONDON AGENTS KEGAN PAUL. . ENGUSH DEFASTMBNT. TRENCH. LTD. TRITBNER £ 1908 CO.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH VERSE BY WILLIAM ELLERY LEONARD.. D.

The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create. COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO. ever so far and pure . I. lofty Lucretius. . 716 if. wonderful. Sc yJ Empedocles . Nor aught more holy. . . Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. . hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. Nay. and dear Than this true man..

in nights of friendliness with you. E. L. . Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. Madison.. 1906. R. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. Dec.: — — DEDICATION. I found. when the long day's task was through. you That I richer having heard your voice. and rejoice little. W.) winter by Atlantic seas. While you explored the Orphic liturgies. goes inland. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. N. Wis.. (To W.

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J. I am indebted to Dr. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. May 14. W. Wis. Madison. William Ellery Leonard. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. but I consin for medical references. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references. 1907. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. Newbold. . R. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E.. Dr. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R.PREFACE. B.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. The Man. the Poet. 4 9 13 On Nature. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 . the Philosopher. PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate.

PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 .viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications.

The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles. and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. but. LIFE.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. as it seems. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. THE PHILOSOPHER. He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. was born at in Sicily. falling at last from popular favor. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. . he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe. THE POET. according to the tradition of antiquity. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — .

the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. the study of impulse.. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal . P. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce. but the poet." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher. And egotistic. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. according to Aristotle... he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Akademie d. of PERSONALITY. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. 1884. . in purple vest and golden girdle. how throngs of his accompanied him along the road. Wissenschaften. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. melancholy. and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. Cf. eloquent^ soul that he was.and now. K. after two thousand years.. And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. 'From Empedocles. Some traces of this imposing figure. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths.

in the editions of Sturz . which. The fragments were mine. But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve.* works. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. who at least quotes from the On Nature at length. . imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine. however. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. Of many menides. the poems On Nature and the Purifications. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show. confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance.^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. who them into Latin. lost . Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. though but a small part of the whole. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. 3 WORKS.

There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. We . hexameters of W. all that I have seen being in prose. As Latin said above. Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. TRANSLATIONS. the latter's in prose. with a few slight changes and additions. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. there are several translations into . the former's in verse. of which the former's is the better. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. and notes. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. and some work of distinguished scholars. C. and subsequently (igo6). selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES.

and alike primeval. but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole. the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. the chemistry of later times. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things. and declares them as universe. as they come up. if we philosophy and magic.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal. 5 by no means precise. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. Love and Hate. albeit the lectician. the allusions in the ancients . due to two eternal powers. may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. the air of Anaximenes. With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing. in the Notes. even at the risk of some repetition. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. To the water of the fire Thales. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision ." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. There is something in the conception suggestive of . •Various problems are discussed. The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming.

the . each separated and unmixed. of an egg then fire. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." things. condensing or thickening. by the uniting bond of Love. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. which took the upper space. winning the upper hand. begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. air. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. rested. . encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system. and crowded air beneath her. in the sarfte way. these four. and in continual interchange follow one another forever. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. And thus arose two hemispheres. as some maintain. : which. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see." Whereupon. Moreover. came the elements one by one first. like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. until Love. new world-periods arise. a whirling mass. again ''exultant in surrounding solitude.

bright entirely of fire. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. because still in unstable equilibrium. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. first he tells us. sprang up. and the dry land appeared. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. and for days and years. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. First the plants. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. germinations out of earth. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. And the everlasting Law made two great lights. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. the greater light to rule the day. Then ani- . for this revothe cause of day earth. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. as we have seen. and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. and night. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge.— . Out void. Furthermore. worked within her. "J the dafk of air. And. for signs and seasons. took place. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. conceived as endowed with feeling. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday. The development of organic life.

the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. are. some others from Vorlander. I. 1903. his theory of perception. Geschichte der Philosophie. Band. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter.* like for like. they developed into the organisms we see about us. Leipsic. perhaps. in our day with our resources of knowledge. arms. sight. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. . eyes. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world." but he is of creation. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. Behind pedocles. roaming ghastly through space. in company with to Haeckel. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist. even down who puts the soul in the atom. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads. modern sci- ence. which. so many later materialists.

as sometimes in philosophic terminology. And burning might of stars made haste to fr. be. Ol3mipos outermost. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. The Milky Way. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. and whence they all arose. but in mood and manner."* •Parmenides. Diels. have suggested the innovation.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters. is in this their only successor. ii. but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. and occasionally even his phrase. the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher. Lucretius. Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. And And all the starry signs along the sky. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. is Homeric. . he recalls the Eleatic. lo. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. FV. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. as Burnet conjectured.

He was true poet. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv. FV.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. There is first the grandeur of his conception. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history. and yet Much more than mine. as thou art more than I. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace. towering over the wrecks of time. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels. and an essential element in the poem." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine. even the pseudoits validity. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ. his fragments as For. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. the same yesterday." ! .

and at last we are in the habitable world. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. comes full — . for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive. circle forever. the mystery. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. in space. as we have seen. And Our and a poetic response. in the world of petty facts." . is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. life the movement. argues greater mind of man than any truth." amid the monstrous shapes. with her sightless eyes. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. "awful heights of Air. the powers of life and death are at work. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. the arms. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. and of men and women. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. all wonderful to see. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. the lonely. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. this shaggy earth.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for "Night. the heads. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : . the glaring eyes.

of the poet." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away. by Aphrodite. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led. the sympathy with "men and women." There little . . is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. on the mountain side. how now down by the brook. . which suggests so much. because so an austere simplicity. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. it may be. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius. in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. not the critic. "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze.12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.But I am the translator." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. the pitied and bewailed. There is the poet's relation to his kind. . and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. is to adorn the temple .

Source Book in Greek Philosophy. 1898. (Contains partial prose translation. The First Philosophers of Greece."). (Beautifully written. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. I. History of Ancicnt Philosophy. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher. 1887. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz.) Tannery.) 1892. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. L. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles. vol. tions.) (lOMFERZ. who answered. Greek Thinkers. London. 1899•This book seems to Paris. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet. VII. London. perhaps. Studies of the Greek Poets. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. 1901.") Symonds.. New York. for the general reader the following will. Cited as "Tannery. fanciful. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. York. Burnet. E. New York. 1907. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. vol. Fairbanks. man. pendent. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. acumen . inspiring. however. Four Phistoire de la science helline. with some prose transla1893. chap.") WiNDELBAND.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. by H. be II Principio (Rome. (Keen trans. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. and independent. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. but by Laurie Magnus.. New York. Early Greek Philosophy. 1904. trans. (Good critical appreciation.

original notes in Latin. Berlin. Die Philosophic der Griechen. and a few. 1901. funfte Auflage. Cited as "Diets. Cited as "Diels. I. Teil.") . zweite Auflage.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. sic.") And DiELS. (Contains German translation. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. Zeller. Leip- 1892. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. the above mentioned texts of Berlin. erster Band. FV. (Cited as "Zeller. 1906. but very useful.

Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. Believing only what each chances on.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away. . cttci too eAtaort/ijs. t d. Hear thou. to. And having viewed Their little share of life. to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. 2. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. Ilav(rapir). crv 8e Kkvdi. Friend. with briefest fates.ON NATURE.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. To His I. Pausanias.6vov TreLcdepTes. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie.

i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all. But thuswise never shall these things be seen. &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi. €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv. But turn their madness. Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. Movaa. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive.a. ZrjfKov iKaarov.T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. p.(riv aKoveiy. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app. nor seized by mind And thou.. Gods from tongue ! of mine. .. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed. avTOfiai.-qi... Never be heard by men. (re. itrji. vdci ff iKacrrov. ti tSjv aXX<ui/. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. since hither now withdrawn apart. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp. . 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs.

Dis. Yea. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out. The Elements. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov. having sight.. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. life-bringing Here. Nor. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. 6. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. : — . 8e irap' qp. Whose lives are but a day. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. But come. . Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed.

wild beast. 'tis "doom of Law. .\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'.s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. Birth and Death. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. The uncreated elements. 7. dXoLTTjV. S' Kal auTOS. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart. But when in man. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." and though I too assent to use. . icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. eis •^ atUep i. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light.. 8.19 [ou] KaXeovcri. .. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal. nor end in ruinous death. But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. Avenging Death. dyevTjTa. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. and birth is but its name with men. <j)v<ri. or bird. vofiai. ddvWTOV . or bush. la death.

so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? . I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become.. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi.. can wholly die away. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji. But with the All there is no Void. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov. The Plenum. Ex nihilo II. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. 14. 12.

TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore. ovBev ap aaw. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. The Cosmic Process. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev.Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . ouSe iror'. We are as nothing. oia». . And ere as mortals we compacted be. Our Elements Immortal..20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. . T6<f>pa p. Love and Hate. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. the Everlasting. Kal cirtreTat.

Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv. Now grows now The One from Many into being. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.trepe<i. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji. vo[ii^eTcu ep. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv. fwjS' 6p. . eaa-i.p. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'. CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev.

So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. Earth and awful heights of Air. Naming the utter goal of these my words. Fire. through her . for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. Now grows The One from Many into being. and the Many. the meeting of the . shut from them apart. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. now. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. And this long interchange shall never end. death of things: Twofold the I birth. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. I will report a twofold truth.. Water. now. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. the Even from One disparting come the Many. To birth and death and. again. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. twofold the LEor. Many brings 1 . For as before I spake. whatever grew From out their sundering. Behold her now with mind. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. and sit not there With eyes astonished. the deadly Strife And In equipoise. flies apart and dies.

Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. 19. might they to ruin come. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . each rules its task. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. Perfect the works of concord. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. Love and Hate in the Organic World. now this. besides.— — — . And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. as they course along Through one another. And so forever down Eternity. Love. and. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. 20. Firm-clasping Lovingness. 18. now that is born And And . They were no longer. these are all. 23 She speeds revolving in the elements. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

.. So too with thicket. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. water-fowls that skim the long blue sea.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd. tree. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide . opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji. a-wfia / yvla. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite.x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes. And mortal members take the body's form. Kuju/Sais. dXX' dye. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. We See. They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. From the Elements is All 21. hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. TO. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi.

22. as they course along Through one another.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. obscure and cold and dark. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra. By varied mingling and enduring change.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. they take new faces all. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. beasts and birds. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. the bright-diffused. see Also the Rain. For these>are all. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. Similta Similibus. and. . yuyverai dXXoicoTra. long-lived gods. Behold the eternal Stars. aye. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. and men and women. in honors excellent. the warm.

and love by Aphrodite's best. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. deov irapa da-irera. Hate. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs. miserable and lone. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ. dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji.v. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. fv SeSaoiTe.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p.cri.p. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'.. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. .[S' a] irXela-Tov re. aXXa S* cXacrtro). both in birth. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev. Far driven and scattered. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp. irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep.kv irXccu. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL. After the counsels of their father. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi.. j^c/airiv.

may well be said twice o'er. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. 25- . And fishes nourished in deep waters.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. And like to all things. . fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. 24. . and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. What must be said. and men and women. An Aphorism. . leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. . And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast). O guard this knowledge well. Even so the spring of mortal things. . Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . aye. beasts and birds. now more. now less). peopling a fresh world With trees. To join together diverse peaks of thought. 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. The Speculative Thinker.Lav. And not complete one road that has no turn. KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. . From which they fashion forms innumerable. .

T'^i jno' 171. . And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. as they course along Through one another. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. . when grown into the One and All Once more. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov.. ravrrii. So far have they a birth and mortal date. The Law of the Elements. Till they. again.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri.a Xijyei. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. and the Many. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. KoX (j)6Cv€i. roll. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many. they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. 26. once more go under and succumb. still. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi.

The Sphere. 27a. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere. Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. nor form .Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. « 27. But in the strong recess of Harmony. nor Sea. ov 0od yovva. For from its back there swing no branching arms. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. Exultant in surrounding solitude. 29.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The Sphere on every side the boundless same. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai. Trepirjyii yauov. '^ ov iroSes. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. It hath no feet nor knees alert.v. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. Exultant in surrounding solitude.

. life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. . . times arrived to Strife. Should come by amplest oath and 31. 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. decree. Cementing meal with water .. . . 30. Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. . as the Which unto each in turn. The joint binds two. Physical Analogies. . . on all sides was. and will bind it 34- fast. . . 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . . to Love. and rose To her own honors. SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. old. — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. . But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. . For one by one did quake the limbs of God. a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra. 32. and like unto itself. 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all. reached Yet not a-sudden.(Ti. Be t e^e^efirJKei. I now will To paths of festal song. The Conquest 35. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. laid make return down before. ovK tS)v a(f)ap.^eTcua»v. But hurrying back. 3 of ^ove.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each .a IBeadaL. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv.. \6yov \6yov e^o. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. Toi' irporepov KareXefa. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO. ?] dddvar eivai. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov.i. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.iive^ fiekecov to.

Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36. and nearer. Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. aloft. partwise Was he already from the members gone. As much as Hate still held in scales. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. exchanging highways of new life. . 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. Similia similibus. inward pressed The gentle minded. her figure magnifies. Then ever the more.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. And ever the more skulked away and fled. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. see. aWepa 8' ald-qp. And as they came together. But partwise yet within he stayed.

THE FRIVGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
The World
as It
38.
, . .

33

Now
t

Is.

ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd

a.p-)(y\v^

eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,

yaia

re.

Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv

'^8'

uypos

a,tqp

TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—
!

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,

And

Aether, the Titan,

who

binds the globe about.
Illimitable.

Earth and Air Not
39-

eiwep aireipova
<w?

y^s re

^ddif]

Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs

eKKej^yraL

a-Top,d.T(iiV^

okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps

were

endless,
5

and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.
40.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.
41.

aXX' o

fjiev

a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,

.

.

34

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPBDOCLES.
42.

cot'

av

trji

KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s

yXavKcamSos

errXero firjvrji.

And
The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.
43-

ws avyrj rv^axra

crcXijj'aMjs

kvkKov evpvv

.

.

As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.
44.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.
45-

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov

«^a)S.

Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.
46.

ap/taro? ws irepi

)(yoLri

e\«r(reTai

rj

re irap' aKpijv

.

Even as revolves a The outmost
.
.

chariot's nave,

which round

47-

ddpel

fiev

ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.

.

.

.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

35

But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.
49.

sun.

WKTO^

iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?

.

.

Of

night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and
SO.

Rain^

'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.
rain.

Iris

from sea brings wind or mighty
Fire.
SI.

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'

apoTraLov

.

And

fire

sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.
52.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many

a

fire

there burns beneath the ground.
Air.
S3.

ovTCt)

yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci
its

aXXcDS,

For sometimes so upon

course

it

met,

And

ofttimes otherwise.

36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. smit by beams of sun. the sea. iiovvop. Hither and thither seeing union meet. Earth's sweat.ai^. shoulderless and bare.erdm(av. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. / aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt. And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. 57. X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. . ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav. \- [. ovra cTrXavaro . There budded many a head without a neck.€\T) ert ra yvla . aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. . . . oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p. Things Passing Strange. S8. . . And arms were roaming. The salt grew solid.] In isolation wandered every limb. . s6.

S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. born with twofold brow and breast. with the face of 62.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. and sometimes womangrowths. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . . ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'. 60. feet. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u. aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro.KO<j>vrj . Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts.evov iTvp. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' . Sometimes like men. . And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life. But now as God with God was mingled more. 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt. Many were vvv S' ay.v6p.ei'a yuiois. ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa. These members fell together where they met. . to. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head. man on bovine stock. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'.

reminding him 6s. And boys. dwiatrai'Ta. who sees. . 63.vBp6s . irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. That had their shares of Water and of Warm. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress. the birth is girls. common to the male. 64. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.7rdki. Nor secret member. For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark. Of men and women. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of . The Process of Human Generation To-day. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a. Love-longing comes. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov.. and when Therein they meet with Cold. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d..v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov.. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. erst whelmed in night.€. . [rd 8' ip. the pitied and bewailed. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs. when contrariwise they meet with Warm.v dppeva Oepfiov]. human limbs. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured. nor yet a human cry.

On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. 66. aiiviov. 'A^po8iTi79. . the blood Becomes white 69. Twice bearing. SCyovoi. . dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. 67.. On the tenth day. vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . 68. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys. in pus. and therefore men are dark. month the eighth. . More stalwart and more shaggy. iv yap depfioripai roKa. 70. Sheepskin. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. .

. Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . The Earth and Water. fish. . Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. .. inside Which. . . <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. if belief And lack pith..ej/ irvKvd. then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. after watering Earth with Rain. As Kypris. As the tall trees and fish in briny floods.. compact with outsides loose. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. in Got this their sponginess. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . . 72. as have come to be.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being. . 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i. 73. 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . Zealous to heat her. the Ether and the S)Xm. the palms of Aphrodite shaped. to.

Trees bore perennial fruit. And issues from the rind.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. . ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa. 76. perennial fronds.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. of shell-fish wreathed. \hevZpta 8'] ifnre. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts. Wine but water fermented in the wood. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p.. 77-78. aye. 80. oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop. ocean-dwellers. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year. 81. Since fed forever by a fruitful air. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs.

keen-piercing. From the same Leaves. on sturdy limbs grow hair.v. Our Eyes.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. to sally forth.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. Stiff hairs. As when a man. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night. . scales plumes. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . In horny lantern shielding from all winds. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev.epCT)v Sia vvKTa.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of fish. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. 84. 82. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v.Tre<f>piKau(Ti. SiieaKov. TavTtt T/3i. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros.

87. fj fine and thin. as more fine and thin.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri. y6p. as more 8s. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. . SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. One vision of two eyes is born. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. The untiring eyes were formed. And thus kept off the watery deeps around. Whilst Fire burst outward. Its beam darts outward. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the divine. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite.. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love. 86.

The Black River Bottoms.. 90. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. Water But to wine more nearly is allied.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. . ocra eyevovTO . o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. yj/ous. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra. will not mix with oil. otvcM . . [idpirre.€i\divTa tov -)(a. flew. 92. Similia similibus. t5i KaTTiripoii p. . 91. . Knowing that all things have their emanations. . mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin.\K6v . . atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris. ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj. 89. Thus Sweet seized Sweet. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed.. and upon Hot rode Hot. 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai.

17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. 98. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade.. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp.Lv. Blood and Flesh. Xupevecraiv . pakurra. Thence came white bones. Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo. in the palms of Kypris shaped. S' aiyXrjs. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. Bones.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. they first Began to grow together .if ^^X^ NiyariSos to. . and one may same In hollow caves. "^^^ 97- pdx. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis. The back-bone. Eyes. As. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. ' And of Hephaestos four.

aafe KevOav. the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. ^ The Rushing Blood and 100. a fleshy twig. e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp . 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. Siapirepe^. (Tapxivo^ 0^09. And Earth within the perfect ports u. ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red.~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.rj(r6cu. diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa. Sometimes a little more than theirs).. after The Ear.dv (TTop. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd. 99- KtoStav.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp. A bell . ako^iv <j>6vov p. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. the Clepsydra. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos. irdKiv e/orveiei. she met-wlt. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp. And Rain and Ether. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai.. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh. Of Aphrodite anchored lay.

^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. iraXij'. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ws S' avrcD. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe. But when again it forward leaps. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. In all. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. Over the body's surface. until the child at last . m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. That falls inside against the countless holes.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. and so the blood remains within. and. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed. Keeps it in check. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. but the own weight. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx. at their outlets.. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. however. For air. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell. is cut a passage free.Kpa Kparvvtap. And when from here the thin blood backward streams. the air In turn breathes out. oiSjuari ^Coi/. dp.

But when again it forward leaps. Left by their feet along the tender grass . 102..a)i>. Even so it is. lOI.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . . . that from without Comes pressing inward. Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward... as air gives way. As the child keeps possession of the top. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in. 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. Until her hand will loosen. sets free the thickened air. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. And thus got all things share of breath and smells. [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a. Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. As air drops down and in. Scent. The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.: —— . When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on.

^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. For as of these commingled all things are. 107.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^.. Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi. rejoice. . On the PsychicJLife. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv. In the blood-streams. --^i 105. or grieve. Even so through these men think. The heart That men is nourished. 103. 106... CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. where prevails the power call thought. According to the body's thrift and state. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together . for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought. 104. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. For unto men their thrift of reason grows. back-leaping unto it.

aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi.va^. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji.vpCa 8ciX.€voLO p. so far night their thinking changes 109. .. oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi. .a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op.aro^ dttrav. through Fire.epLp. divine Ether luminous. . . . For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj. . Through Water. and endeavor pure.pKvvovcri p. As By far as mortals change by day. . devouring Fire. And Love through Hate.oi'. io8. and Hate through doleful no. ota kot avopa<s a t dp.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju. e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup. Through Ether. Water. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii. reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm. o aiaepa olov.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. Love. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures. <j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. myriad and vile. aye. where his essence lies. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv. vaXCvrLTa irvevp.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina. As men be after. III. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock.ra CTrafcis* ef op. ^v ideXrjLO-da. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra. drjcrei. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought. — Dominion. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. for service. rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i.a.evos oi t yarai/ opvup. .

nourishing the mountain trees. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents. wild and For that before thou cowedst them.52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. As down they stream from ether. . at seasons good for men. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. And if thou wilt. take their vengeance. And watch them shrill. shalt thou arouse the blasts.

The Healer and Prophet. ye stewards of good works. no more as man. All hail. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i.ai /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come . As god immortal now.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends. XatpeT. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. axrirep Ibt/ca. OL p. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. THE PURIFICATIONS. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos.vpioL i^epeoi/T£^.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov.. ft) (^tXoi. 112. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk .iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa.. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi.v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis. fillets and well.

iiil <j)peva TTumo.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me. S> <j)C\oi.p.cr[ia TraXaidi/. XcXd^aai /Sioio.ij. I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides. doomed to many deaths! — 114. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju. For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p.vdoi9. O friends. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe. craving some oracles. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. ovs iyo) i^epeo}. . I will Expiation and Metempsychosis. I am sought by prayers. To thriving cities. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains.a'^prjyia'p. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai opp.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i.

6 S' aldipo^ ip. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed. Or swear Shall forsworn.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land.09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL. OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei. Charis abhors intolerable Fate. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. irCcrvvo's. 8e i/Sv ei/ii. aWepiov p. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?. There is a word of Fate. And in that brood I too am numbered now. . iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre.kv yap <r<^e p. Neucel' p. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea. iraires.— . Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. made fast With amplest spirits.aLvofiev(oi. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p. as failing of their pledge.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX. oaths. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life.. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. oTvyiovai.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. ii6. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<.

e. . drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. A Where besides. voaoi. 121. and mute fish in the waves. And then we came unto a roofed cave. Thicket and bird. wept and wailed. For I This Earth of Ours. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv.'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. 117. rj\vdop.es ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. Kal (rTJ\lii. was once already boy and girl. Slaughter and Grudge.. This Vale of Tears.ai /tcTa OvrjTois. 118. and troops of Dooms . joyless land. beholding the strange 119. ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi. 120. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. place.v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World.

Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. and Glory many-crowned. burdened with the water-jars. and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun.epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. 124. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . And Filth. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. There was Earth-mother. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. & iroTTOi.. . o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. and Silence and prevaihng Voice. ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! . . Action and Rest. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. 122. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. 123. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays. And Labors.

Their forms exchanging. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. I2S. €K ju. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv.oe afieiprnv. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127. 128. The Golden Age. Are taway-lions. flesh. The Changing Forms. 126. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live.os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia.T(ovi. 'tis. But.. IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes.ei' yap l. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls. dead did make. All things doth Nature change. For from the living he the . evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs . arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai.

Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. nor Kydoimos. I2g. and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all.. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge. nor .d?. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat. Poseidon then. 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv. rjia yvZa. . nor Kronos. gainer of large wealth Of understanding. . Tavpwv S' a. redolent fumes of frankincense.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. .. With painted images of living things. ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu. limbs. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease. the king of gods. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage. Zeus.

O Muse undying. 130. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. O well with him who hath secured his wealth . then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. and friendship's flame blew fair. 132. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding. oX)8to?.(f>aCvovTi.e[n)\€i/. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice. thou couldst deign soul. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. KaXXtoTreta. and gentle toward men. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. All beasts and birds. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. afi^pore Movtra. SeiXos 8'. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more. For since.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. throve. All things were tame. Orjpes T olo)voiT€. The Divine. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. 131. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p.

Ojig^holy mind. With neither hands nor eyes. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. nor form Of tufted secret member. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^s. We may not bring It near us with our eyes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. It hath no feet nor knees alert. alone. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. ineffable. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head.ovvov.er]t. ov doa yovva. We may not grasp It with our human hands. pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. . ov iroSes. ov p. For from Its back there swing no branching arms. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. Of thoughts Is divine. but It lives.kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat.

Imploring their destroyers. And reave of life and eath 138. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. Thus too the son Seizes the father. their own dear flesh. children the mother seize. ^uoj^Tas. And slits A But the poor victims press. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. unthinking as ye are. «us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. 136. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo.evoi. .— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Animal SacriUpe.

TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. tree SaXoi. 142. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. .. . Sin. Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos. irdvhaXoi. 140. 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. nor dire Hecate's venging house. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai.. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . Ye ye altogether wretched. O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched.

ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. whence germinate the gods. dreipei^. feast At hearth and tals. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. And The excellent in honors. seers at last. diroKhrjpoi. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. The Progression 146. of Rebirth. and singers of high hymns. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. 61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. .64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains. O fast from evil-doing. Physicians sage.

v. Evening. ISO. IS3. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. 65 Man-enfolding Earth.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The belly. iroXvatftarov -^Trap. 148. The cloud-collecting. the day's old age.axn. Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost. isi- Life-giving. 152. iv eirra €phop. The blood-full liver. . In seven times seven days. 149. iSSa.

.

Trust sight no more than hearing. Fr. and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem." By every . may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception. 4SS-6. ceu fumus. 4. cf.. 3. (rroXd/tg) cf. so elsewhere. Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. fr. Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. unlike Parmenides. 4. Parmenides and other philosophers. 2. Fr. etc. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna." Lucr. of knowing: by every passage. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . Cf. Addressed to Pausanias. IV). Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. fr. 2. here E. ON NATURE. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. Ill. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. : . the simulacra of Lucr. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. way fr. 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices". I. : Meek Piety's lit.. Like smoke cf. "from [the realm of] Piety. Fr. in altas aeris auras.NOTES. or device Empedocles.

" Moreover.' The Roman critic (Hor. 3. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. Here earth. : me less effective figure. — calls the stoffe. p. also Gomperz. 243) and Bodrero (p. 78). 'road. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. the gods Love and Strife. E. with the sensationalists of modem psyon another. the "mistiform" . His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow. 427a 21-29) says that E. and Aidoneus fire. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf. Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation.. 759) makes Zeus fire. the roll of his splendid verse. Aristotle (. Burnet (p. The four-fold root the four elements. 6. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. Fr. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF). was poet no less than philosopher.68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 245) at the most E. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. if. may chology. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology. Here air. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels.De an. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. make Zeus air. s. following Knatz. without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out." a very different. for the reverent attitude. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. Zeller (p. four elements. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. and to Fr. one sense as acting as a check consider. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault. also the "flowing" (like water). .' 'pore. though it had never made them GrundCf. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity." : PPF. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. Ill. De arte poetica. reflected in this fragment..

the case of man. 759. at least I take Fr. 17. the psychic (Siebeck. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. is nowhere preserved to us by E. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. Thales. is a Plenum. : For there 'twill be. E. 15. 13-14. it so. Cf. Heraclitus. 7. supplied here and elsewhere. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E.: properly." Diels. 207-8). however. etc. "in In man. p. Gesch. quoted by Diels. not believe. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. PPF). upon as is the idea of birth. Parmenides.. p. Zeller.) E. Elements (amx^ta). Pjfthagoras." Fr. Psychol. monism Fr. 935 est sceleris vindex. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency.THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES.. e." Fr. any given object] be right there. Plato. (cf. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold . not only men but 267) I do all per- . and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr. d." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. 10. 9.. Burnet. 8. in- Fr. fr. 53. PPF. Cf. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. Plut. "doom of death" Fr.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. 11-12. etc. where any one every time puts it. The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. Ppanl denotes with E. in a connection similar to 9 (cf. had made ultimate reality a material One. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. etc.

as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv).yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. as to every thing. and "our being" is but a physical being. deed. until. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again. the thought of fV. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. as the elements come together. conceived by E. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) ." Diels. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. The longest. Thought and feeling with E. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. Zeller. and the most difficult of the fragments. "the Many. conception are still in dispute (cf. in so far as their elements are eternal." Cf. 26. as the dynamic powers of the universe. as Fr." "Aphrodite" under varying names. p. Love and Hate: and "Strife. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). of the Egyptian. fr. are part of the physical system. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. Efforts to relate them . p. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense. again. 16. ishable beings. 306). 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". Many details of the . "The One" is tlie Sphere. or to the Fr. preserved by Simplicius. in- however." etc. however. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. to which. p. "Lovingness" and "Wrath. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements. 771 Tannery. with the increased tendency ration. the most significant. are the four elements.. Two-fold the birth. 17. 11 must apply. and these are eternal only Zeller." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere. .

equal in length and breadth. whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn." i. there is a freshness : . The early philosophers corporealities . Tannery. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. and ciples. if — of the world. 248 ff. who believes we period. Burnet (p. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. Anaximander (but cf. out the thought with consistency of detail. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf.. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things. 305). but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. Thus Strife is in equipoise. : : "thejr" refers. when Love is supreme. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space. Burnet.. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere. the m3fthological names of fr. I believe. i. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. p. and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p.)." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. Burnet. when Hate is supreme. a complete dissipation. 6). etc. etc. Cf. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. "speeds revolving in the elements. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. e.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world. is situated inside. p. we have the harmony of the Sphere. So far have they a birth. are in the former period. 7I It must be noted that. e. almost as diffused gases." And shut from them apart. while Love. etc.

p. to me at least. with a passion.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. fire conquers metal. earth conquers water. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. and metal conquers wood. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf. 26. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. Chinese Thought. I think. : Behold these elements own equal strength. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. Zeller. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. E. its E. 787). p. etc. Cf. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. that E. log). Cf. Zeller. 47. or Water. translator has The ing (pCKlii . p. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. fr. or a faculty. or material. without ever ending in fire's dominating all. But there is nothing in E. perfectly clear.72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 767." etc. allusion to the theory of the pores. qualitatively distinct from the others.'s thought that seems to correspond. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. PPF. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. p. with identified which usually by the commentators. Cf. ments). or Earth. primeval. Fr. in the life of man. or simply to the fact that now this. 762. 1907. but each. are told that wood conquers earth. fr. 18. Plut." Paul Carus. in this identification of a cosmic principle. by the way. quoted by Diels. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. water conquers fire. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. with (cf.

The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. 73 With reference here to water. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air.. on fr. rain to the watery. PPF. Fr. hence. I. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere). and earth to the earthy.' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott). with this Fr. for E. 1. hardly the bright heaven. one might well note that E. But were it so interpreted. out of the elements . 608) phrases which. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. though "in honors excellent. fragment fr. Cf. 20. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. as I understand them. 21. 19. and both as formed of fire separated from the air." they are not immortal." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. the aery expanse of day. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. etc. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). 231). 41." Diels. "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. 62. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk. however. . are not. 'the beginnings of things. But come. Fr. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. I. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E. Line i has been supplied by the translator. is here speaking of things as they are.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the planets as free. 57-62. e. like tree or fish. formed. or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. Air seems to be unrepresented.

is reasonable reason. Burnet." none the worse for Byron. 17 . Fr. important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. Fr. till.. p. . this Gomperz (p. as the unifying process goes on. p. XV. Heaven : air . In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements. when grown. and can only mean. 'divinitjf" (Seov). : The goddess: lit. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. cf. f r. e. The simile were then doubly striking. 247. . fragment to the four primary colors. One may Cf.succumb : i. Tannery. 237. Cf. Whiles in fair order: Or. 23. 233) sees a reference in etc. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. in the dead harmony of the Sphere. . undoubtedly the Muse. fr. Cf. Fr. Don Juan. "A If good. . 17. . Cf. note to fr. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. 21. gi. I think. p. 4. cf. 308..74 Fr. mixing harmonious. For amber Sun. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. 26. 25. 5. as I understand it. Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. repetition. eh ha Kiaiiov. this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. Also Burnet. the universal law of being. as analogous to the four elements. (cf. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system..: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. mentioned several times by E. 131). 22. fr. Gomperz. 247 ff. etc.

"Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai. and wonders if a line may have been lost. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. and perhaps. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. though not altogether satisfactory. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr. Sphere. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air." Bodrero assumes (p. as here. The figure may be Pythagorean. latebris PPF. and is usually. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai.. then. all . one would "adaptation. were the personified "fitting. as . their equilibrium". 27. interpretations of the nature of the ff. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur. however. There: in the Sphere. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars." Diels. p. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone. Prof. i. Harmony. for the figure. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. e. which was spherical and immovable. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. y is. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw.'s present spherical universe." If examined narrowly. if Pythagorean. Burnet. however. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. composed. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. as it seems to here. For various ancient cf. but the four elements. but Kp<i*os. a (1. fitted. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. as a noun (meaning. but the union of Love and Hate. not as hiding it somewhere in space. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. Moreover. difficulties must be admitted." universe.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. of the point of view adopted in these pages. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought.

'" Fr. 32. Amplest oath Gr. Ht. itXot&s : SpKov. apparently of the Divine. according to Karsten and Burnet. 34. 115.. itself cf.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 35. God: the Sphere. 134. Nor form Fr. Zeller. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. are used fr. the totality of divine beings and powers. note to fr." And again (p. 30. is Fr. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. 813 . learn from the doxographers. and says "e Plut. the naked and the swift. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. pressit Fr. .' Cf. Fr. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. PPF. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact. fr. Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere.48.902. where expressions. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. in part identical. fr. though in a corrupt form." Diels. Fr. 'AH round. £. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. 33. Cf. 29. 3) "If thou wilt separate. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. like a baker. and in its joyous : rest reposing. not ex- Tannery thinks (p. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. . 31. by Marcus Aurelius (XII.the final resultant of the disordered movements . in con"Hate . Fr. 314) is the principle of division and movement. e. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. and the things of time to come and of time that is past. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p." 814. p. I say. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. Cf. i. 'broad oath.

Hate retreated under protest. fr. Not all blameless i." Bodrero. 17 and 26. 784. fr. right and wrong. Zeller. 116. This chaos.. 130. and fr. p. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. 787. it was. preceding fragment . 3. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. PPF. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. The members: the elements. or vortex. Philology. attraction of Cf. identified with the Sphere. "and from their mingling. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. according to Tannery by Hate." etc. and is finally excluded altogether. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution. 30) . : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. July 1906). however. The two states are again contrasted in p. : the circumference of the vortex. if anything more than a poetic touch. Heidel. 22. but with the 26. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error.. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. caused. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid. W. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. : Cf. although this seems. note to : fr. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. mixed. I. Class. 36. A. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels. Cf. Fr. e." But cf." They The elements.

for slight differences of interpretation. its 254. ''cetera Cf. p. Stickney. 100 (q." the vaulted sky of his imagination.78 Fr. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. notes to Cicero's De Nat." Tannery.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. as by Anaxagoras. II 1114 sq.). was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. Days. the all splendorous. 109 on sense perceptipn. fools. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E." Diels. note to fr.. Burnet. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. Fr.'s "Ether. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. and Zeller. E. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air." p. and of Emerson's etc. mist" by Burnet." the "awful heights of Air. 317. PPF. As forsooth Heraclitus. as opposed to the upper air. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. one finds nothing representative of fire. assuming any elemental difference." Emerson. . rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). "without. however. some tongues. "Moist air" is . with reference to the fiery sky (cf. Fr. the pure ether. thicker. "Bread. 41. 38. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf. I. 44. but is in keeping with E. 'light up. unless ether be here used. The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. : "With Ether. however. 786. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower. Deorum. 789. for fire.. v. and sky that holds them all. e. p. a mere reflection. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. kingdoms. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i.) Cf. indeed. tal vault of heaven. This. Lucr. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). How the sun. 39.' •blaze')—a sense. at versus recuperari nequit. fr. stars." the earth. But cf. it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. 37.

I. Fr. : by Merrill and Riddell. 41). ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. on Apoll. Kal yX'qvti \i. Zeller.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. "Seirii Cf. and. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. 43. Rhod. Schol. Her lord: the sun. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. and one-half . Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v. it 7XouKos (fr. 42. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. who speaks of "Selene mild. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. the olive. 31)." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. 790. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. 200) says. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. E. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. E. Cf. himself uses 93) of the elder. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. II. fr. Fr. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. 48. Fr. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p. Fr. followed here. see note on fr. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri.' or something of the sort. irapb. The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. A. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. .ii." used especially of Athene. whose revolution produces day and night. and E. 43. 47. 45. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. Odys. Fr." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. a darker of Cf. 41). accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. a lighter of fire. E. bearing with it its sun (see fr. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS.irta>. 46. Zeller. air." whom the Iliad (A. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf." is used of the willow.. 786 flf. p.

79S) . p." i. Fr.. that E. e. Burnet (p. see fr. which. totle. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . Fr. Fr. Love and Hate. B 3. on the other hand to another process (i. its pores in the form of drops. was at first mixed with water. Zeller. is 17) fr.. PPF. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. {. See note to fr... 73. Fr. but the inFr. S4) tendency. no reason for the conjecture. Diels." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. Cf.. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. sometimes advanced. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. II. fire has a crystallizing. tific charming poetry. e. functions attributed by E.'s thought." And upward. so. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. etc. condensing function. 51. 52.e. in E. 261. 256.80 Fr. p. 56. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. as common in Sicily. S3. with the other elements. as criticized the water gush forth. increasing . 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. : Cod with god There seems Gr. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i. then. "Met. the fourth period . With E. 35] made Burnet. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. The phrase is not. The Greek imagination was long fato be . as air a downward (see fr. 51. Burnet. Fr. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. S7-6i. in the period of the present Cf. when Hate world). Sal/tovi Salnuy. had an upward. For authenticity cf. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. 54. p. fr. 62. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. "It" refers to air. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. et corr.). "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr. e. 55.: of fire.

143- . The genera. as rational as most modern theories. For 'tis in part in man's : i. lit. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring. dites 8 miliar with centaurs.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.'s system. E. we perhaps.. The sundered Are: Gr. 63. 62. whole Warm warm : ditions in E. in part in the male semen. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate. the pitied and bewailed. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex. old age. Cf. as he gazes. is speaking here of mankind. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels.'' Lucr. An alternative reading. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. Fr." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched." Though E.. fire "Of men and women. satyrs. death. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum. Obstetrics (1904)1 P. 65." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom." Williams. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being. This present is. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him. Fr. waking well Old memories. explained conception as a union of male and female semen." Fr. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. by a collection (originally from Marburg). S7-6j. 64. the latter inducing decay.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. so a medical colleague informs me. e. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. chimxras. Cyclops. IV. Fr. sleep. 1239. See notes to fr.

82 Fr. — Fr. consisting chiefly of keratin. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). quite in the spirit of our own physiology. Trees were supposed by E. 74. like horn. E. the lime) within some animals are related. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). 75-76. 79. the earthen part (in modern science. 77-78. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. To speed of fire that she might Cf. could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. 69. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. fr. Colostrum is. 73. t6 iriov. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. with the skin. 484a 38) says that E. Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. turtle's shell. 80. Fr. 68. if my be- available lexical information be correct.. laid Fr. others. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. Twice-hearing: i. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. finger-nails.e. etc. Kypris: Aphrodite. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. 70. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. the "embryo" Fr. Fr. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds. 71. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. to the shells on the outside of is. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). Fr.. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . present in the breast after the first few months. 66. Here the bones. White pus: Gr. however. E. Love. The Fr. Aristotle {Pneumat. Fr. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. morphologically connected. however. 56. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air.

Burnet. however inadequate. which admitted. however reluctantly. Fr. Fr." Zeller. water for the dark. Fr. fr. 801. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. 86. p. e. of the eye contains "Emp. 89. eine harte Verhindung zustande. Fr. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. 96. the subjective factor. Fr. moreover. to explain percepIt was an attempt." though not in the text." Fr. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. apple. 92. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes. of the poet-scientist Goethe. note on fr. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. Dort aber geht es. the pores of which. 2. and "horny. must be understood here. 235. 77-78. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. Cf. Cf. 82. but for the slangy connotations. : a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. Fire serves for perceiving the bright. 87." Gomperz.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. give to the emanations of each a free passage. who has preserved us the fragment. go. 84. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. Fr. 88. : p. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. 267. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. Diels (FV). Cf. alternately arranged for each element. 83 thick skin. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. from these elements. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn. was an attempt.. From which Bolts of love i." bringt. following Aristotle. p. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln .

the eyes. admisceatur. ovviKvpae. 97. Quaest." Fr. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love." . and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. 9S. will sometimes emphasize a term. of 2 parts earth. 96. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV). 98. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. 107 ff. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. Fr. This fragment (cf. fr. p. Aeshy sprout E. dass einige bei Tag. 94. : A The — Fr. 93.. 102. 39). THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. fr. 100. it is As a theory of respiration. as grotesque as it is ingenious. 2 parts water." as Bodrero translates it. gests in Empedocles' system. Thus bones are formed fire. She met: Gr. . Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis. aeris arcessit. andere bei Nacht heller sehen. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus." Fr. following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. among others. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach." Fr. Silvery : See note to f r. a word. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not. Cf. Bodrero. Thus completed by Diels (FV). They I e. aquae. inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science. 99. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. Cf. Cf. 103. 43.84 Fr.'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. Fr. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood.." : Fr. Ether.

note on fr. note to f r. e. loi. fr.. p. 98. 98. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs. Zeller. 803. a cor- All that is left of E. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. Fr. (cf. p. 245). Zeller. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . 103. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. The lightest: supply "bodies." But E. upoij scientific experiment.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. E. it : Diels. etc. Fr. Cf. though in form of a Burnet points out." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. Fr. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus. . but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. but E. p. 802. The mites are the emanations. did not mean here.. with consciousness. elsewhere. 230) will. nowhere credits the elements as such. Gomperz.i seems to be a hylozoist. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. The comparison with Homeric simile. PPF). and is The doubly significant for its sound physics. as in some passages Cf. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. The top b was not altogether open. In the blood streams : cf. Fr. Cf. perhaps. I think. as 85 the clepsydra." i. unless fr. rests. Chance: cf. 100. Here. 102. 109 be so interpreted (but cf. e. 104.'s theory of scent. ." Fr. 105. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. Got: lit. : i. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap.

and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. no. 86 Fr. III. e. Italian school of medicine. Galen makes E. p. doctrine. Through Earth. a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. e. 106.. .. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. sondern er hat das. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking. as sugme by a friend. and Philop. Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. gested to Drugs: Gr. The dominion over human ills. Burnet. 445-6. 17). Fr. sickness. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf. my sound psychology. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. 802). windstorms. Fr. Cf. 109. Cf. io6. possibly "charms" is better. drought and death. 108. etc. is the microcosm. 215. : Cf. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft. 107. p. Ill. 802. note on fr. the founder of the Cf.. . quoted by Diels. note on fr. E. here promised to Pausanias. p.they grow. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. For of themselves. : i. consciousness. (p&p/iaKa. "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. Plotinus yeyevTiniros.. All things have Axed intent Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.'' Lucr. etc. addressing Pausanias. All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here.. PPF. was early imputed to . as elsewhere. These: the elements. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living.: interpretation just above be correct.: . — Zeller. Fr.

(cf. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition. and his references). I. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following.. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum. of the THE PURIFICATIONS. has here . 589. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. e." Cf. Empedocles himself tue of these lines. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation. Harrison. though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. 112. 271). if an (cf. as the latter. perhaps. Fr. p. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. to Study of Greek Religion. Fr. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. and. 113. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. a god and so much above mankind?" E. conservatively by Burnet (p. Proleg. radically by Bodrero (passim). and not.. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. 87 Introduction) . to the citizens of Acragas. followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. the courage of man). Burnet. p. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. 213.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 139]. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate. bloodshed of animals. uccello. by some interpreted as 10. 780. 117. 147. e tomo ad Bodrero. Fr. fanciullo e giovinetta. 136. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. fr.. Cf. Cf. Those far spirits: Gr. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: . Fr. 30. : Be born through time. p. familiar four elements. the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. sinfully. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. Cf. p. 116. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. is probably Pythagorean in origin. 249 S. compatible with the On Nature. 35) E. pesce. fr. Burnet (p. Cf. Charis: Aphrodite. it i. fr. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. p. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. In offense: in sin. p." according to Bodrero (p. e. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. essere arbusto. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. 146). Zeller. 271).000 years. Sat/ioves. In the On Nature (fr. rpU iivplai «5pot. something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. Fr. also Gomperz. IIS. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. etc. though apparently certi determinati esseri. etc. Moreover. With amplest oaths: cf. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh.

this refers.'' I. it has been suggested to me by Prof. Chap. fr. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell. Fr. and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean.) but that E. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf. . banishment from heaven. cit. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. Proleg. 121. plains. notes to loc. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein)." If this interpretation be correct. representing. p. Harrison. Cf." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. note to fr. as he entered. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. upon his earthly career (cf. A bush.' Harrison. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. 169. cf. vagituque locum lugubri complet. after 119). Prometheus Unbound. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings. "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. which. 118. p. if the scene be earth. which. A joyless land it. 122 and 123 itself. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum. 118. Newbold. 226. 590. wander. "Infans. Fr. to Study of Greek Religion." etc.. For other Fr. Cf.. sed agri inundationibus vexati. was . 119." According to this. XI. to Study of Greek Religion. V.. : with fr.. Proleg." Lucr. 614 ff. is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. a bird. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits.^nd I was a maiden. parallels see Munro and Guissani.

90
Fr. 122.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
There:
i.e.,

in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this

earth.

Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
"&«'
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv

that

follow are

feminine.
II.

E.

evidently

imitates the catalogue of

Nymphs

in

S

39:
Kt\,

TXaiKV

re,

edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the

life,

of the

blessed to the (relative) death

on

this earth,

where souls are

wrapped
"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,
:

PPF)
0af

:

"X^et

dt Kal

'E.
ii

ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having
antiquity.

souls,

a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate

A

On

the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in

battle.

Unmixed blood:
as such,
is

the figure

is

from unmixed wine, which,

thick

and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.

(PPF)

In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
cumque
sive decern sive viginti

9I

hominum

saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose
:

e

comuni"

(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,

etc.

:

"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,

aether

und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."

FV.

Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.
'

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.

fr.

"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to
105],

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note

on

fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle
;

«

92
.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
of
.

life

(cf.
,

Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,

p.

628).

t:
Fr. 142.
fr.

''etiam sensus incertus,
13s,

utrum lovis
Diels,

et

Hecates regna

(cf.

2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus
fr.

sit

scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."

PPF.

Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.

Fr.

144.

George Herbert uses the same

figure

somewhere

in his

poems.
Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.

The

last

words

left

us of the

all

too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human
Tf/i

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.

p.

683

E

\post

fr.

80],

quoted by Diels, PPF).

Of
Of

air.

Aphrodite.
21,

Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,
Gr.
/Soi//3<J,

quoted by Diels, PPF.
irop'

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is

•E/iveSok\€:."

Hesych., quoted by Diels,

PPF.
mal

Fr. iS3a.

Diels

(FV)

translates the doxographer: "In sieben

sieben

Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung

nacK)

durchgebildet."