Cornell University Library


S218.A4 E6
Fragments of Enipedocles;

into Englis


1924 028 975 923

archive. the United States on the use of the .Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in text.




hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. . I. wonderful. Nay. Nor aught more holy. COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO.. ever so far and pure . though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. . Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. . lofty Lucretius. 716 if. and dear Than this true man. . Sc yJ Empedocles . The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create.

I found. goes inland. While you explored the Orphic liturgies.. 1906. Wis. R. when the long day's task was through. and rejoice little. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. .. N. E. in nights of friendliness with you. (To W. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. you That I richer having heard your voice. W.) winter by Atlantic seas. Dec. L. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. Madison.: — — DEDICATION.


Wis. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. 1907. Madison. William Ellery Leonard. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. J. R. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. but I consin for medical references. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. . Newbold. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. B.PREFACE.. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. May 14. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R. Dr. W. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. I am indebted to Dr.


the Philosopher. To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate. The Man. the Poet. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 .TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. 4 9 13 On Nature.

On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 . PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day.viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

falling at last from popular favor. LIFE. the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. THE POET. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe. but. . THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. THE PHILOSOPHER. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — . and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. according to the tradition of antiquity. was born at in Sicily. The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. as it seems. He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family.

P. of PERSONALITY. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. eloquent^ soul that he was. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce.. Cf. according to Aristotle. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal . how throngs of his accompanied him along the road. And egotistic. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher. and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. in purple vest and golden girdle.. after two thousand years. the study of impulse. 1884. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. Wissenschaften. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. Some traces of this imposing figure. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem. Akademie d. And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths..and now. melancholy. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. but the poet.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities. K. . 'From Empedocles..

But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show. who them into Latin. in the editions of Sturz .* works. The fragments were mine. Of many menides. . possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. lost . 3 WORKS. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine.. however. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance. which. Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity.^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. who at least quotes from the On Nature at length. though but a small part of the whole. Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement. the poems On Nature and the Purifications.

The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings. selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. with a few slight changes and additions. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. and subsequently (igo6). of which the former's is the better. there are several translations into . and notes. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. As Latin said above. the latter's in prose. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. C. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian. There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. and some work of distinguished scholars. all that I have seen being in prose. Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. We . hexameters of W. the former's in verse. TRANSLATIONS. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry.

•Various problems are discussed. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things. may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. To the water of the fire Thales. 5 by no means precise. With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. the allusions in the ancients . the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing. The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. albeit the lectician. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. the chemistry of later times. if we philosophy and magic. Love and Hate. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. in the Notes. but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole. There is something in the conception suggestive of .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal. and alike primeval. due to two eternal powers." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. as they come up. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . and declares them as universe. even at the risk of some repetition. the air of Anaximenes.

again ''exultant in surrounding solitude." Whereupon. each separated and unmixed. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. Moreover. a whirling mass. came the elements one by one first. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. which took the upper space.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system. : which. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. and crowded air beneath her. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. new world-periods arise. by the uniting bond of Love. begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. of an egg then fire. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere. condensing or thickening. until Love. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. winning the upper hand. . air. in the sarfte way. as some maintain. And thus arose two hemispheres. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. these four. rested. and in continual interchange follow one another forever. the . "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate." things. like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day.

First the plants. "J the dafk of air. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. And the everlasting Law made two great lights. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. sprang up. and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. Out void. as we have seen. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. And. for signs and seasons. Then ani- . and night.— . and the dry land appeared. and for days and years. the greater light to rule the day. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. bright entirely of fire. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements. because still in unstable equilibrium. took place. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. germinations out of earth. conceived as endowed with feeling. The development of organic life. worked within her. first he tells us. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. Furthermore. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday. for this revothe cause of day earth.

in our day with our resources of knowledge. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. Leipsic. Band.* like for like. are. Geschichte der Philosophie." but he is of creation. his theory of perception. they developed into the organisms we see about us. I. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. Behind pedocles. sight. perhaps. in company with to Haeckel. 1903. so many later materialists. some others from Vorlander. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. eyes. arms.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world. modern sci- ence. the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. . would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion. roaming ghastly through space. which. even down who puts the soul in the atom.

as Burnet conjectured. but in mood and manner. have suggested the innovation. but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. and occasionally even his phrase. And And all the starry signs along the sky. And burning might of stars made haste to fr. FV. Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. Diels. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. Ol3mipos outermost. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters. as sometimes in philosophic terminology. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . lo. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial."* •Parmenides. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. is Homeric. Lucretius. he recalls the Eleatic. The Milky Way. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher. ii. be. and whence they all arose.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. . the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. is in this their only successor.

and yet Much more than mine. as thou art more than I. There is first the grandeur of his conception. his fragments as For. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ. FV." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. the same yesterday.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv. He was true poet. even the pseudoits validity. and an essential element in the poem.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. towering over the wrecks of time. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever." ! .

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. and of men and women. argues greater mind of man than any truth. life the movement. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive. all wonderful to see. the mystery. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. as we have seen. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. the lonely. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. the powers of life and death are at work." amid the monstrous shapes. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. circle forever. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. And Our and a poetic response. in the world of petty facts. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. the glaring eyes. for "Night. "awful heights of Air." . comes full — . the arms. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. in space. this shaggy earth. with her sightless eyes. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. and at last we are in the habitable world. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. the heads. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : .

. which suggests so much. "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze. is to adorn the temple . the pitied and bewailed. . the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. because so an austere simplicity. and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led. on the mountain side. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius." There little . which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. by Aphrodite." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away.12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. it may be. how now down by the brook. There is the poet's relation to his kind.But I am the translator. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. not the critic. ." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . of the poet. the sympathy with "men and women.

tions. chap. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. New York. be II Principio (Rome. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles. inspiring.) (lOMFERZ. fanciful. for the general reader the following will. The First Philosophers of Greece. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. by H.") Symonds. vol. man. perhaps. (Beautifully written.) Tannery. London. Fairbanks. 1887. L. 1898. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher. (Good critical appreciation. who answered.) 1892. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz. Early Greek Philosophy. 1901. Source Book in Greek Philosophy. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. 1899•This book seems to Paris. but by Laurie Magnus. History of Ancicnt Philosophy. New York. New York.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. I. Burnet. trans.. E. with some prose transla1893. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet. Four Phistoire de la science helline. London. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. York. pendent. vol.") WiNDELBAND. acumen . however.. 1907. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. (Keen trans. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. Studies of the Greek Poets. and independent. VII."). Greek Thinkers. 1904. (Contains partial prose translation. Cited as "Tannery.

(Cited as "Zeller. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. erster Band. 1906. Zeller. zweite Auflage. Berlin.") . I.") And DiELS. Leip- 1892.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. funfte Auflage. but very useful. original notes in Latin. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. Die Philosophic der Griechen. Cited as "Diets. Teil. (Contains German translation. 1901. and a few. Cited as "Diels. sic. the above mentioned texts of Berlin. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. FV.

Believing only what each chances on. Friend. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. And having viewed Their little share of life.6vov TreLcdepTes. Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. 2. . to S' o\ov [iras] ei/.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. crv 8e Kkvdi. Ilav(rapir). cttci too eAtaort/ijs. ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. t d. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. to. Pausanias. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. Hear thou. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie. To His I. with briefest fates.ON NATURE. And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua.

(re.a. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs.. itrji. . since hither now withdrawn apart.(riv aKoveiy. Gods from tongue ! of mine.. avTOfiai. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app. i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. Never be heard by men. &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi.T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). ZrjfKov iKaarov. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. vdci ff iKacrrov.-qi. Movaa. nor seized by mind And thou. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. But thuswise never shall these things be seen. But turn their madness.. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. p. €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span.. ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive. ti tSjv aXX<ui/. .

The Elements. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. life-bringing Here. Whose lives are but a day. : — . When once her words be sifted through thy soul. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed.. Dis. . 6. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth. Nor. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. 8e irap' qp. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out. So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. Yea. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed. But come. having sight.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs.

icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. . or bush. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart.19 [ou] KaXeovcri. 'tis "doom of Law. Avenging Death. <j)v<ri. The uncreated elements. eis •^ atUep i. 7. . wild beast. nor end in ruinous death. la death. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<. dyevTjTa. . tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'." and though I too assent to use. ddvWTOV . But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. dXoLTTjV.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. 8. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. or bird. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal. S' Kal auTOS.. vofiai. Birth and Death.. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light. But when in man. and birth is but its name with men.

13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov.. But with the All there is no Void. Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become. Ex nihilo II.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. The Plenum. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t. 14. 12. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. can wholly die away. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? .

ouSe iror'. oia». ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. Our Elements Immortal. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris. Love and Hate. And ere as mortals we compacted be. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. the Everlasting.Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore .8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai.. T6<f>pa p. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa. The Cosmic Process. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. . <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. . dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain. Kal cirtreTat. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev. ovBev ap aaw. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re.20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. We are as nothing. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore.kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart.

v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'. Now grows now The One from Many into being. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. fwjS' 6p. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei. . totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei. eaa-i. CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra.trepe<i. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov. vo[ii^eTcu ep.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci.p. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio.

. Many brings 1 . for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. Water. and the Many. the Even from One disparting come the Many. Behold her now with mind. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. and sit not there With eyes astonished. And this long interchange shall never end. Now grows The One from Many into being. To birth and death and. through her . And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. I will report a twofold truth. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. again. Fire. flies apart and dies. twofold the LEor. now. the meeting of the . the deadly Strife And In equipoise. shut from them apart. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. For as before I spake. whatever grew From out their sundering. now. death of things: Twofold the I birth. Naming the utter goal of these my words. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Earth and awful heights of Air.

18. these are all. 23 She speeds revolving in the elements. Love and Hate in the Organic World. might they to ruin come. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . Perfect the works of concord. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 19. and. And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. 20. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. Firm-clasping Lovingness. Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. now this. Love. as they course along Through one another. besides.— — — . calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. now that is born And And . each rules its task. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. They were no longer. And so forever down Eternity.

hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. water-fowls that skim the long blue sea. We See. The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. And mortal members take the body's form. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev. .x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. So too with thicket. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. a-wfia / yvla. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. tree. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite. TO. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide . From the Elements is All 21. Kuju/Sais.. dXX' dye.

obscure and cold and dark. aye. For these>are all. beasts and birds. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei. they take new faces all. yuyverai dXXoicoTra. .too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. and men and women. 22. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. the bright-diffused. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. see Also the Rain. By varied mingling and enduring change. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. long-lived gods. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. Behold the eternal Stars. Similta Similibus. and. as they course along Through one another. in honors excellent. the warm. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

v. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ.kv irXccu. aXXa S* cXacrtro). An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. After the counsels of their father. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev. deov irapa da-irera. irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p.[S' a] irXela-Tov re. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. . air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt.. j^c/airiv.. both in birth. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL. Far driven and scattered. miserable and lone. dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like. and love by Aphrodite's best. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs.p. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. Hate. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn. fv SeSaoiTe.cri.

. leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast). for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. . The Speculative Thinker. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . And not complete one road that has no turn. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. and men and women. To join together diverse peaks of thought. Even so the spring of mortal things. fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. now less). beasts and birds. 24. And like to all things. From which they fashion forms innumerable. O guard this knowledge well. What must be said. and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. . . aye. may well be said twice o'er. now more. KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei.Lav.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. peopling a fresh world With trees. . And fishes nourished in deep waters. 25- . An Aphorism. . .

so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. roll. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. still. So far have they a birth and mortal date.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. T'^i jno' 171. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. 26. again. KoX (j)6Cv€i.a Xijyei. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. once more go under and succumb. as they course along Through one another. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. . they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all.. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. and the Many. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. ravrrii. when grown into the One and All Once more. Till they. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. . And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. The Law of the Elements.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri.

Exultant in surrounding solitude. The Sphere on every side the boundless same. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere. 29. It hath no feet nor knees alert. Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. nor form . The Sphere. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. For from its back there swing no branching arms. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai.Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. '^ ov iroSes. Exultant in surrounding solitude. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. « 27.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. nor Sea.v. Trepirjyii yauov. But in the strong recess of Harmony. 27a. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. ov 0od yovva.

The joint binds two. SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. . But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. . to Love. as the Which unto each in turn. irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. . . . 32. . 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. 30. For one by one did quake the limbs of God. Physical Analogies. life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. . — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. . Should come by amplest oath and 31. . . on all sides was. and like unto itself. 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . . and will bind it 34- fast. times arrived to Strife.. a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra. . Cementing meal with water . old. decree. . 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . and rose To her own honors.

aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi. Be t e^e^efirJKei.a IBeadaL. reached Yet not a-sudden. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. The Conquest 35.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. ovK tS)v a(f)ap.i. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each . 3 of ^ove. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra.(Ti. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all. laid make return down before. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought.iive^ fiekecov to. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv. But hurrying back.^eTcua»v.. \6yov \6yov e^o. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai. ?] dddvar eivai. I now will To paths of festal song. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov. Toi' irporepov KareXefa. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO.

aloft. inward pressed The gentle minded. And as they came together. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36. and nearer. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge. aWepa 8' ald-qp. Then ever the more. exchanging highways of new life. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. As much as Hate still held in scales. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. Similia similibus. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. And ever the more skulked away and fled. . the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. her figure magnifies. see. But partwise yet within he stayed. partwise Was he already from the members gone. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things.

The World
as It
, . .




ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd


eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,



Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv




TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,


Aether, the Titan,


binds the globe about.

Earth and Air Not

eiwep aireipova

y^s re


Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs



okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps



and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.

aXX' o


a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,








KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s


errXero firjvrji.

The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.

ws avyrj rv^axra


kvkKov evpvv



As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov


Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.

ap/taro? ws irepi




re irap' aKpijv


Even as revolves a The outmost

chariot's nave,

which round




ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.






But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.



iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?




night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and


'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.


from sea brings wind or mighty

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'





sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many



there burns beneath the ground.


yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci


For sometimes so upon





ofttimes otherwise.

And arms were roaming. . Hither and thither seeing union meet. The salt grew solid. ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav.36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.erdm(^. . Earth's sweat. There budded many a head without a neck. ovra cTrXavaro . \- [. . X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. smit by beams of sun. shoulderless and bare. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. . . And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. / aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt. s6. . yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. . Things Passing Strange. aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p. iiovvop. the sea. S8.] In isolation wandered every limb. 57.€\T) ert ra yvla .

Many were vvv S' ay. feet. ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa.evov iTvp. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai. man on bovine stock. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u. Sometimes like men. But now as God with God was mingled more. born with twofold brow and breast.ei'a yuiois.KO<j>vrj . .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi. with the face of 62. These members fell together where they met. oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav. and sometimes womangrowths. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. . aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro. 60. to.v6p. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' .

dwiatrai'Ta.. That had their shares of Water and of Warm. the birth is girls. 64. human limbs. common to the male. Nor secret member. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov. .v dppeva Oepfiov]. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a. when contrariwise they meet with Warm. reminding him 6s. erst whelmed in night. and when Therein they meet with Cold.7rdki. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft.vBp6s . [rd 8' ip.v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai.€. Of men and women. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs.. The Process of Human Generation To-day. the pitied and bewailed. nor yet a human cry.. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured. Love-longing comes. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of . For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress. And boys. iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. who sees. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d. 63.

68. 66. . 'A^po8iTi79. On the tenth day. iv yap depfioripai roKa. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. Sheepskin. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . . otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . . More stalwart and more shaggy. .. Twice bearing. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys. On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. 70. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. SCyovoi. the blood Becomes white 69. ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. aiiviov. month the eighth. in pus. 67. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. and therefore men are dark.

8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. . 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the Ether and the S)Xm. then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. . <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. . . t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i.ej/ irvKvd. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . 73.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being. after watering Earth with Rain. As Kypris. inside Which. the palms of Aphrodite shaped. if belief And lack pith. . Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . As the tall trees and fish in briny floods. . to.. 72. Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . The Earth and Water.. compact with outsides loose. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. fish. in Got this their sponginess. .. Zealous to heat her. as have come to be.

aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. And issues from the rind. . ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov.. aye. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be. Wine but water fermented in the wood.o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles. of shell-fish wreathed. ocean-dwellers. Trees bore perennial fruit. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. perennial fronds. 80. 76. Since fed forever by a fruitful air. oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop. 81. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. \hevZpta 8'] ifnre. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs. 77-78.

rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. keen-piercing.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . scales plumes. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. SiieaKov. 82. Stiff hairs. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v. In horny lantern shielding from all winds. . Our Eyes. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. As when a man. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83.Tre<f>piKau(Ti.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv. on sturdy limbs grow hair. of fish. 84. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs. to sally forth.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri. TavTtt T/3i.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. From the same Leaves. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night.v.

87.. Its beam darts outward. The untiring eyes were formed. . And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. fj fine and thin. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri. as more 8s. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. as more fine and thin. Whilst Fire burst outward. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. One vision of two eyes is born. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And thus kept off the watery deeps around. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^. 86. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye. y6p. the divine.

.\K6v . 89. 90. .. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin. otvcM . 92. t5i KaTTiripoii p. 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. . Water But to wine more nearly is allied. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. The Black River Bottoms. Thus Sweet seized Sweet. and upon Hot rode Hot. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s.. . With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. Similia similibus. .€i\divTa tov -)(a. [idpirre. . will not mix with oil. flew. ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. 91. Knowing that all things have their emanations. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra. ocra eyevovTO . yj/ous. ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj. Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris.

if ^^X^ NiyariSos to. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade. As. 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. The back-bone. Thence came white bones. in the palms of Kypris shaped. Bones. Xupevecraiv . KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. ' And of Hephaestos four. Eyes. . Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo.. S' aiyXrjs.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis. and one may same In hollow caves. "^^^ 97- pdx. ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp.Lv. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}. 98. pakurra. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. Blood and Flesh. they first Began to grow together .

e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp .rj(r6cu. And Earth within the perfect ports u.~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos.. Siapirepe^. ^ The Rushing Blood and 100. 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp. after The Ear. Of Aphrodite anchored lay. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh. 99- KtoStav. And Rain and Ether. ako^iv <j>6vov p. diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai. Sometimes a little more than theirs). irdKiv e/orveiei. (Tapxivo^ 0^09.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai. the Clepsydra.dv (TTop. she met-wlt. A bell . the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less. aafe KevOav. ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red. a fleshy twig.

is cut a passage free. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out. iraXij'. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. ws S' avrcD. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. Keeps it in check. That falls inside against the countless holes. oiSjuari ^Coi/. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw.. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe. and so the blood remains within. the air In turn breathes out. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. For air. however.^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water. But when again it forward leaps. until the child at last . can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. And when from here the thin blood backward streams. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. and.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm. but the own weight. Over the body's surface. dp. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed. at their outlets. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell.Kpa Kparvvtap. In all. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched.

Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs. Left by their feet along the tender grass . 102. sets free the thickened air. KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. that from without Comes pressing inward. . holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. Until her hand will loosen. as air gives way.: —— .. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. Even so it is. . The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. Scent. And thus got all things share of breath and smells.. Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward.. As air drops down and in. As the child keeps possession of the top. When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. lOI. But when again it forward leaps.a)i>. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on.

Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa.. For unto men their thrift of reason grows.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 104. On the PsychicJLife.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^. or grieve. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. rejoice. In the blood-streams. For as of these commingled all things are. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv.. Even so through these men think.. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought. 106. The heart That men is nourished. --^i 105.^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia. 107. back-leaping unto it. where prevails the power call thought. According to the body's thrift and state. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together . atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. 103. .

. and Hate through doleful no. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii. . . reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm.vpCa 8ciX.epLp.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju.€voLO p.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai. divine Ether^. Through Water. And Love through Hate.aro^ dttrav. oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi. arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. and endeavor pure. Water. devouring Fire.a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op.oi'. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj. io8. . Love.pKvvovcri p. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. o aiaepa olov..avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. so far night their thinking changes 109. oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold. As By far as mortals change by day. ota kot avopa<s a t dp. . . . e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op. Through Ether. through Fire.

But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. .a.ra CTrafcis* ef op. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll. where his essence lies. for service. rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. III. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought. aye. — Dominion. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. As men be after. <j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L.evos oi t yarai/ opvup. ^v ideXrjLO-da. myriad and vile. vaXCvrLTa irvevp. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock. drjcrei.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them.

And watch them shrill. And if thou wilt. wild and For that before thou cowedst them. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. take their vengeance. As down they stream from ether. shalt thou arouse the blasts. nourishing the mountain trees. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents. at seasons good for men. .52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

112. OL p. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. XatpeT.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends.vpioL i^epeoi/T£^. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos.iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p.. The Healer and Prophet. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk . On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i. fillets and well. THE PURIFICATIONS. no more as man. As god immortal now. All hail.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi. ye stewards of good works.v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap. ft) (^tXoi. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. axrirep Ibt/ca. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come . ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi.. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's.

oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju.a'^prjyia'p.ij. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me. I am sought by prayers. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai[ia TraXaidi/.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. . I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p. iiil <j)peva TTumo.vdoi9. To thriving cities.p.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi. S> <j)C\oi.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms. O friends. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe. XcXd^aai /Sioio. craving some oracles. ovs iyo) i^epeo}. doomed to many deaths! — 114. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains. For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis.

. Or swear Shall forsworn. made fast With amplest spirits. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land.aLvofiev(oi. irCcrvvo's. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea. And in that brood I too am numbered now. Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p. Neucel' p. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. ii6. iraires. OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven. oaths.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. Charis abhors intolerable Fate.09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL. as failing of their pledge. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?. aWepiov p.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei.kv yap <r<^e p. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life.— . 8e i/Sv ei/ii. . oTvyiovai.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre. There is a word of Fate. 6 S' aldipo^ ip.

fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. And then we came unto a roofed cave. voaoi. rj\vdop. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. A Where besides. and troops of Dooms . . /tcTa OvrjTois.v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . This Vale of Tears. o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. For I This Earth of Ours. 118. 117. and mute fish in the waves. place. was once already boy and girl. Kal (rTJ\lii. ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi. Thicket and bird. joyless land. a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World. drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. beholding the strange 119. wept and wailed. Slaughter and Grudge.'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. 120.

Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. . ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia.epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. 123. and Silence and prevaihng Voice. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. Action and Rest. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. & iroTTOi. There was Earth-mother. a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. And Filth. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! . and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep.. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays. . There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun. 124. 122. And Labors. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. burdened with the water-jars. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. and Glory many-crowned. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late.

when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men.oe afieiprnv. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv. Their forms exchanging. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. All things doth Nature change. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls.os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. For from the living he the . ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The Changing Forms. The Golden Age.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei. 'tis. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs .. I2S.ei' yap l. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127. Are taway-lions. IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes. dead did make. €K ju. 126. arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t.T(ovi. flesh. But. 128. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side.

Tavpwv S' a. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease. . nor Kydoimos. . limbs. Zeus. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. rjia yvZa. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge. ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv. gainer of large wealth Of understanding.. 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. I2g. nor . TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. nor Kronos. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage.d?. With painted images of living things.. the king of gods. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. redolent fumes of frankincense. . Poseidon then. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all.

throve. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro. and friendship's flame blew fair. oX)8to?. 132. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. 131. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more. KaXXtoTreta.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding. afi^pore Movtra. For since. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice.e[n)\€i/. All things were tame. O well with him who hath secured his wealth . dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. O Muse undying. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. and gentle toward men. All beasts and birds. Orjpes T olo)voiT€. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. thou couldst deign soul.(f>aCvovTi. 130. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. The Divine. SeiXos 8'. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods.

We may not bring It near us with our eyes. Ojig^holy mind. For from Its back there swing no branching arms. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^s. ineffable. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. ov iroSes. We may not grasp It with our human hands. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. ov doa yovva. With neither hands nor eyes.ovvov. . but It lives.kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat. ov p. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p. pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. It hath no feet nor knees alert. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. nor form Of tufted secret member. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. alone. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. Of thoughts Is]t.

And slits A But the poor victims press. «us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. children the mother seize. The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. unthinking as ye are. And reave of life and eath 138. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo. Thus too the son Seizes the father. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa. Imploring their destroyers. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast.evoi. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. their own dear flesh. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. . Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. 136. ^uoj^Tas.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Animal SacriUpe.

TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai. . 142. 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. 140.. Sin. tree SaXoi.. Ye ye altogether wretched. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. nor dire Hecate's venging house. O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai. irdvhaXoi. . ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos.

147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. whence germinate the gods. And The excellent in honors. O fast from evil-doing. diroKhrjpoi. dreipei^. The Progression 146. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become.64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. feast At hearth and tals. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. seers at last. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. . and singers of high hymns. of Rebirth. 61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi. Physicians sage. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains.

yrjpa^ -^[lepas. 149. iv eirra €phop. ISO. isi- Life-giving. Evening. iSSa. 148.axn. Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost. the day's old age.v.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . The blood-full liver. 65 Man-enfolding Earth. In seven times seven days. 152. The belly. iroXvatftarov -^Trap. The cloud-collecting. IS3.


Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. unlike Parmenides. 3. Fr. and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. here E. Cf. fr. etc." Lucr.. 4. in altas aeris auras. ceu fumus. fr. : Meek Piety's lit. way fr. 4SS-6. Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices".. 2. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . Addressed to Pausanias. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. of knowing: by every passage. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. (rroXd/tg) cf. the simulacra of Lucr. may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception.NOTES. so elsewhere. Trust sight no more than hearing. 4. Fr. I. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). Ill. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna. Like smoke cf. Parmenides and other philosophers. 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. : . Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. 2. "from [the realm of] Piety. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. cf. Fr. ON NATURE. or device Empedocles." By every . IV). Than mortal ken may span: more literally.

for the reverent attitude. E. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf. the "mistiform" . Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation. Burnet (p. the gods Love and Strife. 245) at the most E. 6. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. Fr. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed. 3. if. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. 243) and Bodrero (p. Zeller (p.De an. and Aidoneus fire. also the "flowing" (like water). all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow. Aristotle (. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). De arte poetica. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. four elements." : PPF.' The Roman critic (Hor. The four-fold root the four elements. without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. — calls the stoffe. 427a 21-29) says that E. though it had never made them GrundCf. Here earth. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. one sense as acting as a check consider." Moreover. .. following Knatz. the roll of his splendid verse. 'road. make Zeus air.' 'pore. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology. was poet no less than philosopher. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault. p. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out. reflected in this fragment. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF). also Gomperz. 78). Ill. with the sensationalists of modem psyon another. may chology.68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. 759) makes Zeus fire. and to Fr." a very different. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. s. Here air. : me less effective figure.

759." Fr.THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES. Plut. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. 15. at least I take Fr. Elements (amx^ta). End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. monism Fr. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. Ppanl denotes with E. 935 est sceleris vindex. p. Burnet. Gesch. PPF. etc. not only men but 267) I do all per- . 10. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. the case of man. Thales. fr. not believe. PPF). e. upon as is the idea of birth. Zeller. however. 8. Cf. where any one every time puts it. it so.. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr." Fr.. is nowhere preserved to us by E.) E. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. "doom of death" Fr. quoted by Diels. d. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. Cf. 17. p. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. any given object] be right there. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. the psychic (Siebeck. 7. Psychol. "in In man.." Diels. etc. Heraclitus. 53. had made ultimate reality a material One. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold .: properly. Parmenides. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. Plato. is a Plenum. etc. 9. 207-8). E. Pjfthagoras. supplied here and elsewhere. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. in a connection similar to 9 (cf. 13-14. : For there 'twill be. in- Fr.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. (cf." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. 11-12.

and the most difficult of the fragments. fr." "Aphrodite" under varying names. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. p. are part of the physical system. 16. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus." Diels. "The One" is tlie Sphere. 11 must apply. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). the thought of fV. ishable beings." etc. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. Efforts to relate them . Thought and feeling with E.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. are the four elements. or to the Fr. and "our being" is but a physical being. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense. 771 Tannery. But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. p. Love and Hate: and "Strife. conception are still in dispute (cf. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. "the Many. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying. the most significant. Many details of the . "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. 306). as Fr. with the increased tendency ration. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. as the dynamic powers of the universe. preserved by Simplicius. however. and these are eternal only Zeller. as the elements come together. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere. until. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) . in so far as their elements are eternal. "Lovingness" and "Wrath. 17. 26. of the Egyptian. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements. 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". deed. The longest. again. as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv). Zeller." Cf. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for. in- however. Two-fold the birth. to which. as to every thing." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). conceived by E. .. p. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again.

but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. e. The early philosophers corporealities . Burnet (p.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. Tannery. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf. etc. 7I It must be noted that. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space. while Love. whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn. So far have they a birth.. Thus Strife is in equipoise. there is a freshness : . p. are in the former period. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules. and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p. i." i. etc. "speeds revolving in the elements. Anaximander (but cf. we have the harmony of the Sphere. the m3fthological names of fr. Burnet. a complete dissipation. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. 305). out the thought with consistency of detail. 6). everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. almost as diffused gases. is situated inside.). and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. Burnet. : : "thejr" refers.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. when Hate is supreme. 248 ff. and ciples. e. p. I believe. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things. equal in length and breadth. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. who believes we period. when Love is supreme. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists. if — of the world. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal." And shut from them apart. Cf. etc.

26. or simply to the fact that now this. fire conquers metal. with identified which usually by the commentators. p. without ever ending in fire's dominating all. Cf. Plut. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. to me at least. 1907. Fr. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. water conquers fire. Chinese Thought. p. 47. But there is nothing in E. primeval. with (cf. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. etc. are told that wood conquers earth. E. I think. by the way.'s thought that seems to correspond. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. 762. p. or material. log). translator has The ing (pCKlii . conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. in this identification of a cosmic principle. p. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. qualitatively distinct from the others. quoted by Diels.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. earth conquers water. or Water. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf. PPF. or Earth. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. with a passion. that E. fr. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. 18.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. 767. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf." Paul Carus. and metal conquers wood. Zeller. Zeller. Cf. ments). allusion to the theory of the pores. : Behold these elements own equal strength. perfectly clear. Cf. fr." etc.72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but each. its E. in the life of man. 787). as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. or a faculty.

formed. 62.' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott). PPF. 57-62. 19. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. with this Fr. are not. Cf. as I understand them. is here speaking of things as they are. "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. 'the beginnings of things. the aery expanse of day. Fr. for E. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. fragment fr. I. rain to the watery. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. 231). 608) phrases which. The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. Air seems to be unrepresented. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk. though "in honors excellent.." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). out of the elements . . or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. 73 With reference here to water. Line i has been supplied by the translator. on fr. hardly the bright heaven. 1. the planets as free. 21. hence. and earth to the earthy. and both as formed of fire separated from the air. But were it so interpreted. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere)." Diels. I." they are not immortal. one might well note that E. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E. like tree or fish. But come. e. etc. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. 41. however. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air. Fr. 20.

note to fr. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements.. and can only mean. The simile were then doubly striking. One may Cf. as analogous to the four elements. e.. . 17 . cf. when grown. 247 ff." none the worse for Byron.. 'divinitjf" (Seov). I think. Also Burnet. Fr. 131). For amber Sun. mentioned several times by E. 308. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. etc. mixing harmonious. p. XV. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results.74 Fr. Fr. 233) sees a reference in etc.succumb : i. Gomperz.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. 4. 23. as the unifying process goes on. Heaven : air . p. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Fr. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. Cf. Cf. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. Whiles in fair order: Or. (cf. . fragment to the four primary colors. 26. cf. undoubtedly the Muse. which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. . important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. . Don Juan. : The goddess: lit. till. 21. fr. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. f r. Cf. gi. 25. in the dead harmony of the Sphere. . eh ha Kiaiiov. this Gomperz (p. 5. 22. fr. 17. "A If good. is reasonable reason. the universal law of being. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. Tannery. as I understand it. p. this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. Burnet. 237. 247. repetition. Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other.

one would "adaptation. fitted.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. but Kp<i*os. a (1. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone." Bodrero assumes (p. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air. There: in the Sphere." If examined narrowly. which was spherical and immovable. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. not as hiding it somewhere in space. The figure may be Pythagorean.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Moreover. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr.'s present spherical universe. however. however. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. composed. 27. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars. interpretations of the nature of the ff. Sphere. and perhaps." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love." universe. but the union of Love and Hate. and wonders if a line may have been lost. y is. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. were the personified "fitting. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. if Pythagorean. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere. for the figure. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. though not altogether satisfactory. latebris PPF. as it seems to here. as a noun (meaning. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought. their equilibrium". p. Prof. Burnet. difficulties must be admitted. all . Harmony." Diels. and is usually. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur. i. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. For various ancient cf. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. of the point of view adopted in these pages. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai. e. as here.. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love. then. but the four elements. as .

patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. 'broad oath. 3) "If thou wilt separate." Diels. Ht. Fr. not ex- Tannery thinks (p." 814. is Fr. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man.48. . pressit Fr. 29. Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere. Cf. itXot&s : SpKov. 33. where expressions. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. Fr. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. Zeller. 'AH round. . like a baker.' Cf.'" Fr. 813 . e. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. PPF. in part identical.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. p. i. Nor form Fr. the totality of divine beings and powers. and in its joyous : rest reposing. 30. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. apparently of the Divine. though in a corrupt form.. 34. Cf. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. 32. Amplest oath Gr. according to Karsten and Burnet. 35. fr. are used fr. 31. I say. and the things of time to come and of time that is past. 115. note to fr. fr. 134. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. itself cf. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. the naked and the swift. £. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense.the final resultant of the disordered movements . Fr. in con"Hate .902. and says "e Plut. 314) is the principle of division and movement. God: the Sphere. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact." And again (p. learn from the doxographers.

but with the 26. 3. and is finally excluded altogether. Not all blameless i. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity. Philology. caused. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. fr. : Cf. Hate retreated under protest. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error. "and from their mingling. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. identified with the Sphere. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf. although this seems. and fr.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. preceding fragment . 30) . The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. attraction of Cf. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. Class. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf. 130. Zeller. it was." But cf. : the circumference of the vortex. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times.. 787. July 1906). according to Tannery by Hate. Fr. 36. : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low. right and wrong. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels." Bodrero. 784. Cf. if anything more than a poetic touch. 22.. however. mixed. p. PPF. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution. I." etc. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. This chaos. note to : fr. 116. A. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. fr. The members: the elements. W. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. e. The two states are again contrasted in p. or vortex. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. 17 and 26. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere." They The elements. Heidel.

indeed. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air. "Bread. 786. 789. 41. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. . the pure ether." Emerson. 44. Deorum. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. But cf. for fire. 'light up. p. I. and Zeller. v.. II 1114 sq. as by Anaxagoras. one finds nothing representative of fire. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i. fools.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. assuming any elemental difference. and sky that holds them all. p. with reference to the fiery sky (cf. E. mist" by Burnet." Diels. thicker. however. ''cetera Cf. was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf." p. however. and of Emerson's etc.78 Fr. Days. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf." the earth. but is in keeping with E. some tongues. notes to Cicero's De Nat. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Burnet. Fr. a mere reflection. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower." Tannery. 109 on sense perceptipn. its 254. at versus recuperari nequit. "Moist air" is . 317. unless ether be here used. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements. Fr. Stickney.. e. How the sun. PPF. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). 37. as opposed to the upper air. the all splendorous." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E.) Cf." the "awful heights of Air.'s "Ether. 100 (q.' •blaze')—a sense. As forsooth Heraclitus. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. stars. 38." the vaulted sky of his imagination. tal vault of heaven.). for slight differences of interpretation. Lucr. This. note to fr. fr. "without. kingdoms. 39. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. : "With Ether.

31). and one-half . himself uses 93) of the elder. a darker of Cf. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . Zeller. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr.ii. The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. Fr. p. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p. fr. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. Fr. it 7XouKos (fr." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac. E. E. bearing with it its sun (see fr. air. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. Kal yX'qvti \i. 41). of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. 200) says. whose revolution produces day and night. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf. see note on fr.' or something of the sort. ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. Schol. Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v. Fr. 42." is used of the willow." whom the Iliad (A. ." used especially of Athene. 43. 43.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. who speaks of "Selene mild.. 46. "Seirii Cf. A. Fr. on Apoll." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. I. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. followed here. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. II. a lighter of fire.irta>. 47. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. Zeller. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. 45. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. Cf. E. 790. irapb. : by Merrill and Riddell. Rhod. Odys. the olive. and. and E. 48. Her lord: the sun. 41)." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. Fr. 786 flf.

Fr. 52.: of fire. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. {. Diels. Fr. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. the fourth period . fr." i. p. 261. was at first mixed with water. et corr. in the period of the present Cf. S3. e. see fr. II. as criticized the water gush forth. "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr.). e. then. sometimes advanced. The Greek imagination was long fato be . "It" refers to air. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . e. 54. 35] made Burnet. PPF. Fr. that E." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. so. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. For authenticity cf. See note to fr. 73. functions attributed by E. as common in Sicily. had an upward. S7-6i. no reason for the conjecture. 62. etc. which. S4) tendency. when Hate world).'s thought. 51.. With E... Sal/tovi Salnuy. 55. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. Fr.. its pores in the form of drops. The phrase is not. with the other elements. "Met. Burnet (p. Burnet. Cf. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. tific charming poetry. p.. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i. totle. 79S) . innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. condensing function. on the other hand to another process (i. B 3. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. Love and Hate. in E. is 17) fr. 51. increasing . 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Fr.80 Fr. 256. but the inFr. p. 56.e." And upward. Zeller. : Cod with god There seems Gr. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. fire has a crystallizing. as air a downward (see fr.

An alternative reading. we perhaps. old age. 64. sleep. S7-6j. This present is. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. dites 8 miliar with centaurs. Obstetrics (1904)1 P. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him. 1239. The genera. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. Cf. the latter inducing decay. in part in the male semen. death. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. Fr. Fr. lit." Fr.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. is speaking here of mankind. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being." Williams. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. The sundered Are: Gr. IV. See notes to fr. E. explained conception as a union of male and female semen." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom. 65.1 idea is probably as old as speculation.143- . as he gazes." Though E. chimxras.. For 'tis in part in man's : i. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. waking well Old memories. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. 63. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate.'s system. Cyclops. the pitied and bewailed. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum. whole Warm warm : ditions in E. satyrs. 62.'' Lucr.. as rational as most modern theories. e. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex. so a medical colleague informs me. by a collection (originally from Marburg). In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters. fire "Of men and women. Fr.

present in the breast after the first few months. the "embryo" Fr. Kypris: Aphrodite. like horn. The Fr. etc. however. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds.. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. Trees were supposed by E. laid Fr. Twice-hearing: i. t6 iriov. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. E. 75-76. morphologically connected. 68. Fr. others. 484a 38) says that E. turtle's shell. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). White pus: Gr. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. Fr. the lime) within some animals are related. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . E. Aristotle {Pneumat. Love. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. 73. 79. 77-78. the earthen part (in modern science. 74. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening.82 Fr. Fr.e. quite in the spirit of our own physiology. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. To speed of fire that she might Cf. 70. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). — Fr. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. finger-nails. Fr. 80.. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. Colostrum is. fr. to the shells on the outside of is. with the skin. 71. Here the bones. however. Fr. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. 66. 69. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. if my be- available lexical information be correct. consisting chiefly of keratin. 56. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

to explain percepIt was an attempt. 82. Fire serves for perceiving the bright. the pores of which. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. Cf. following Aristotle. apple. however reluctantly. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes. 235. From which Bolts of love i. p. p. Fr. was an attempt. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. which admitted. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. note on fr. 89. 87. Diels (FV). moreover." Gomperz. : p. Cf. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. Dort aber geht es. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision." though not in the text. go. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern. fr. Cf. e. who has preserved us the fragment. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. alternately arranged for each element. 267. must be understood here. 77-78. the subjective factor. 801. but for the slangy connotations. water for the dark. 88. 84. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln ." bringt. 86. Burnet. Fr. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr." Zeller. Fr. and "horny. give to the emanations of each a free passage. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. 96. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. of the eye contains "Emp. of the poet-scientist Goethe. 83 thick skin. 92. from these elements. Fr." Fr. eine harte Verhindung zustande. 2. however inadequate. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn. Fr. : a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. Fr.

Cf. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach. Thus bones are formed fire. 2 parts water. as grotesque as it is ingenious. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 102. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. will sometimes emphasize a term. gests in Empedocles' system. of 2 parts earth. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. aeris arcessit. 9S. fr. fr. ovviKvpae. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. 94. p... inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science. it is As a theory of respiration. 107 ff. Cf.'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. Fr. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood. Quaest." : Fr. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV). Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. This fragment (cf. among others. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis. aquae. 39). Fr. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus. 98." . 43. . 93." Fr. She met: Gr. following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. Bodrero. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. Ether. a word. Aeshy sprout E. They I e. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us." Fr. 99." as Bodrero translates it. andere bei Nacht heller sehen.84 Fr. Cf. Silvery : See note to f r. the eyes. 103." Fr. 97. Thus completed by Diels (FV). 96. dass einige bei Tag. 100. : A The — Fr. admisceatur.

's theory of scent. 98. but E. I think. a cor- All that is left of E. . 802. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. Gomperz. 803. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. The comparison with Homeric simile. : i. In the blood streams : cf. 109 be so interpreted (but cf. Zeller. The mites are the emanations.. Cf. p. p. note to f r.. Fr. e. PPF). did not mean here. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. as in some passages Cf. though in form of a Burnet points out. e. 245). 104. 100. Fr. 98. fr. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. Here.i seems to be a hylozoist. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." Fr. with consciousness. perhaps. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus. but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. upoij scientific experiment. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. it : Diels. Chance: cf. unless fr. The lightest: supply "bodies. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap. . The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down. The top b was not altogether open. Zeller. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . elsewhere. 230) will. rests. Got: lit. as 85 the clepsydra. 102. (cf. loi. E." But E." i. p. Cf. Fr. nowhere credits the elements as such. note on fr. etc. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs. Fr. 105. 103.

. . p. Cf. was early imputed to . For of themselves. 445-6. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. as sugme by a friend. possibly "charms" is better.. All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here. . etc. — Zeller. note on fr. Cf. and Philop. p. PPF. sondern er hat das. gested to Drugs: Gr.: interpretation just above be correct.they grow. p. 215. drought and death. The dominion over human ills. Italian school of medicine. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. All things have Axed intent Fr. Galen makes E. e. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl.. III. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. windstorms. my sound psychology. the founder of the Cf. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking. doctrine. 802). Fr. Ill. "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller.. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. e. E. 107. 109. 106. 108. note on fr. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. : Cf. These: the elements. (p&p/iaKa. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft. no. a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. Fr. io6. 86 Fr. etc.. Burnet. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. : i. Fr. is the microcosm.'' Lucr. Through Earth. consciousness. here promised to Pausanias. and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. Plotinus yeyevTiniros. addressing Pausanias. quoted by Diels. as elsewhere.: . 802. sickness. 17). Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr.

Fr. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. Empedocles himself tue of these lines. as the latter. and his references). a god and so much above mankind?" E. to Study of Greek Religion. One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. (cf. 87 Introduction) . and. perhaps. of the THE PURIFICATIONS. p. has here . Proleg. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. 113. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. the courage of man)." Cf.. The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. 589. 271). followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. I. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum.. though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. 112. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. and not. Harrison. if an (cf.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. to the citizens of Acragas. 213. conservatively by Burnet (p. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. p. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. Fr. our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation. e. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. Burnet. radically by Bodrero (passim).

fr.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. is probably Pythagorean in origin. p. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr. essere arbusto. familiar four elements. Fr.. 139]. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. p. 147. e. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. Fr.000 years. With amplest oaths: cf. IIS. pesce. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: . no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate. something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. fr. 249 S. Cf. 35) E. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. 117. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. : Be born through time. 146). Cf." according to Bodrero (p. 136. 780. it i. etc. In offense: in sin. e tomo ad Bodrero. Charis: Aphrodite. by some interpreted as 10. rpU iivplai «5pot. uccello." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. Those far spirits: Gr. sinfully. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. p. Moreover. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. fanciullo e giovinetta. bloodshed of animals. Zeller. Cf. etc. Fr. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. 271). also Gomperz. In the On Nature (fr. though apparently certi determinati esseri. Cf. 116. p. compatible with the On Nature. Sat/ioves. Burnet (p. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. fr. 30.

For other Fr. was . Proleg. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell. it has been suggested to me by Prof. to Study of Greek Religion. 118. vagituque locum lugubri complet. cit. 169." According to this. which. cf. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits. Cf. which. . and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean. V. a bird. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf." Lucr. : with fr. as he entered. upon his earthly career (cf. p. 121.) but that E. XI.. Fr." etc. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). 89 'Once on a time a youth was I.'' I. plains. p. representing. Prometheus Unbound. Chap. wander.. after 119). "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. 226. sed agri inundationibus vexati. notes to loc. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. A bush. Newbold. 590." If this interpretation be correct. fr. note to fr. if the scene be earth. 614 ff. Proleg.^nd I was a maiden. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. A joyless land it. parallels see Munro and Guissani. 119. Cf. Fr. "Infans.. 118. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. banishment from heaven. to Study of Greek Religion.." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.' Harrison. Harrison. 122 and 123 itself. this refers.

Fr. 122.


in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this


Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv


follow are




imitates the catalogue of







edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the


of the

blessed to the (relative) death


this earth,

where souls are

"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,




dt Kal


ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having


a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate



the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in


Unmixed blood:
as such,

the figure


from unmixed wine, which,


and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.


In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

sive decern sive viginti



saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose



(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,



"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,


und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."


Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.


"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note


fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle






Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,



Fr. 142.

''etiam sensus incertus,

utrum lovis


Hecates regna


2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus


scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."


Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.



George Herbert uses the same



in his

Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.





us of the


too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.







quoted by Diels, PPF).




Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,

quoted by Diels, PPF.

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is


Hesych., quoted by Diels,


Fr. iS3a.



translates the doxographer: "In sieben


Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung