Cornell University Library


S218.A4 E6
Fragments of Enipedocles;

into Englis


1924 028 975 923

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716 if. wonderful. though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. Nor aught more holy. . lofty Lucretius. Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. Sc yJ Empedocles . hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. . ever so far and pure . COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO. . and dear Than this true man. . Nay. The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create. I..

N. when the long day's task was through. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. 1906. .) winter by Atlantic seas. you That I richer having heard your voice. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. While you explored the Orphic liturgies.. Dec.. E.: — — DEDICATION. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. W. L. The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often. I found. goes inland. Madison. (To W. in nights of friendliness with you. Wis. R. and rejoice little. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token.


PREFACE. I am indebted to Dr. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. Dr. but I consin for medical references. W. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R. B. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. . Newbold. May 14. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. William Ellery Leonard. Wis. Madison. J. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references.. 1907. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. R.


4 9 13 On Nature. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. the Poet. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 .TABLE OF CONTENTS. To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate. The Man. PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. the Philosopher.

PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day.viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 .

the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — . was born at in Sicily. THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. . tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy. THE POET. but. according to the tradition of antiquity. falling at last from popular favor. LIFE. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles. The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. THE PHILOSOPHER.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. as it seems.

He was not only the statesman and philos6pher. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. 'From Empedocles.. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. Wissenschaften.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities. And egotistic.and now. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths. after two thousand years. of PERSONALITY. . eloquent^ soul that he was. according to Aristotle. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. melancholy. P. in purple vest and golden girdle.. K. 1884. Some traces of this imposing figure. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem. and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. Akademie d. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant. how throngs of his accompanied him along the road. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal .. the study of impulse. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. Cf.. but the poet. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds.

are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance. Of many menides. who them into Latin. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine. The fragments were mine. though but a small part of the whole. confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement. the poems On Nature and the Purifications.^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. lost . Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. which. But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show. possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. however. . who at least quotes from the On Nature at length.* works. in the editions of Sturz . Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. 3 WORKS..

selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. the latter's in prose. There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. C. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. all that I have seen being in prose. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. As Latin said above. with a few slight changes and additions. We . and subsequently (igo6). can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. and some work of distinguished scholars. of which the former's is the better. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. and notes. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. hexameters of W. Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles. TRANSLATIONS. the former's in verse. there are several translations into .4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

•Various problems are discussed. albeit the lectician. may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. even at the risk of some repetition. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. and declares them as universe. The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. To the water of the fire Thales. the allusions in the ancients . With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . the chemistry of later times. in the Notes. as they come up. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. due to two eternal powers. 5 by no means precise. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. and alike primeval. the air of Anaximenes. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things. Love and Hate. the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. There is something in the conception suggestive of . of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. if we philosophy and magic.

begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. by the uniting bond of Love. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. which took the upper space. again ''exultant in surrounding solitude. winning the upper hand. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system. of an egg then fire." Whereupon. each separated and unmixed. "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. the . new world-periods arise. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. came the elements one by one first. rested. a whirling mass. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. and crowded air beneath her. these four. until Love. like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. in the sarfte way." things. air. and in continual interchange follow one another forever. : which. And thus arose two hemispheres. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. condensing or thickening. as some maintain. Moreover. . together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such.

in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. "J the dafk of air. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements. Then ani- . Furthermore. as we have seen. for signs and seasons. First the plants. sprang up. And. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. and the dry land appeared. and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. conceived as endowed with feeling. The development of organic life. and night. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. the greater light to rule the day. took place. first he tells us. germinations out of earth. bright entirely of fire. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is.— . worked within her. Out void. because still in unstable equilibrium. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. And the everlasting Law made two great lights. and for days and years. for this revothe cause of day earth. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. even down who puts the soul in the atom. in company with to Haeckel. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. in our day with our resources of knowledge. Leipsic. Band. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. his theory of perception. 1903.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. so many later materialists. Geschichte der Philosophie. perhaps. which. are. Behind pedocles. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads. would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. arms. I. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition." but he is of creation.* like for like. roaming ghastly through space. eyes. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. sight. some others from Vorlander. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. modern sci- ence. they developed into the organisms we see about us. . probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist.

"* •Parmenides. as Burnet conjectured. the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. but in mood and manner. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). The Milky Way. And burning might of stars made haste to fr. but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Lucretius. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. he recalls the Eleatic. ii. and occasionally even his phrase. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. and whence they all arose. Diels. is in this their only successor. . And And all the starry signs along the sky. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. as sometimes in philosophic terminology. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. have suggested the innovation. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters. be. lo. is Homeric. FV. Ol3mipos outermost.

and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. and an essential element in the poem. his fragments as For. even the pseudoits validity. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace. FV. as thou art more than I. the same yesterday. towering over the wrecks of time. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever. He was true poet. and yet Much more than mine. There is first the grandeur of his conception." ! . although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels.

life the movement. comes full — . the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : . argues greater mind of man than any truth. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. for "Night. in space. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. the heads. all wonderful to see. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. this shaggy earth. And Our and a poetic response. and at last we are in the habitable world. and of men and women. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive. the mystery. the arms. with her sightless eyes. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution." . circle forever. the glaring eyes. "awful heights of Air. in the world of petty facts." amid the monstrous shapes. the powers of life and death are at work. as we have seen.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. the lonely.

on the mountain side. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. . in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. because so an austere simplicity. it may be. is to adorn the temple . not the critic. There is the poet's relation to his kind. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away. the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. . . how now down by the brook. the pitied and bewailed.12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints ." There little . though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius. the sympathy with "men and women. by Aphrodite. which suggests so much. and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth.But I am the translator. of the poet.

but by Laurie Magnus.. tions. Four Phistoire de la science helline. (Beautifully written. E. pendent. L. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet. who answered.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1887. (Keen trans. trans. London. Fairbanks. New York.) Tannery. Burnet. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. (Contains partial prose translation. fanciful. and independent. vol.") Symonds. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. VII. 1904. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. acumen . London. Source Book in Greek Philosophy. New York. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles. be II Principio (Rome. 1898. inspiring. (Good critical appreciation. 1907.") WiNDELBAND. York. for the general reader the following will. Greek Thinkers. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz. The First Philosophers of Greece.. Studies of the Greek Poets. vol."). I. 1901. man. New York. chap. Cited as "Tannery. History of Ancicnt Philosophy. 1899•This book seems to Paris.) (lOMFERZ. however. with some prose transla1893. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. by H. perhaps. Early Greek Philosophy.) 1892.

1901. (Cited as "Zeller. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. but very useful. FV.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Cited as "Diets. Leip- 1892. Berlin. zweite Auflage. funfte Auflage. Cited as "Diels. 1906. I. and a few. Die Philosophic der Griechen.") And DiELS.") . the above mentioned texts of Berlin. sic. Zeller. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. (Contains German translation. Teil. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. original notes in Latin. erster Band.

And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. Ilav(rapir). Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. Pausanias. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. cttci too eAtaort/ijs. Believing only what each chances on.6vov TreLcdepTes. to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. And having viewed Their little share of life. To His I. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. Friend. crv 8e Kkvdi. 2. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie. with briefest fates. to. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. . ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev.ON NATURE.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. t d.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. Hear thou. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge.

&v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi. But thuswise never shall these things be seen. But turn their madness. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. . avTOfiai.-qi. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. vdci ff iKacrrov. ZrjfKov iKaarov.. i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe.. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. (re.a. Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song.(riv aKoveiy. since hither now withdrawn apart. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs..T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). Movaa. €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv. p. ti tSjv aXX<ui/. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive. itrji. nor seized by mind And thou.. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. Never be heard by men. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp. Gods from tongue ! of mine. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all. .

So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. Yea. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. Nor. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. The Elements. . : — . life-bringing Here. Dis. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov. having sight. 8e irap' qp. Whose lives are but a day. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. But come. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. 6.

and birth is but its name with men.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. or bush. wild beast. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. la death. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart. 'tis "doom of Law. nor end in ruinous death. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. eis •^ atUep i. ddvWTOV . Birth and Death. or bird. The uncreated elements. But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is.. <j)v<ri. 7. Avenging Death. But when in man. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light. dyevTjTa.19 [ou] KaXeovcri.. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal. S' Kal auTOS. . dXoLTTjV. icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. 8. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'. vofiai. .s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu." and though I too assent to use. . owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn.

Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji.. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t. 14.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. can wholly die away. 12. But with the All there is no Void.. Ex nihilo II. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. The Plenum. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? .

^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa. And ere as mortals we compacted be. . That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. Kal cirtreTat. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau.kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart. ouSe iror'. the Everlasting.20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. ovBev ap aaw. . The Cosmic Process.Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . Love and Hate. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. oia». n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj.. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris. We are as nothing. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev. T6<f>pa p. Our Elements Immortal. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re.

CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio.p.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. Now grows now The One from Many into being. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. vo[ii^eTcu ep. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei. eaa-i. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov.trepe<i. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e. . 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev. fwjS' 6p. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv.

the Even from One disparting come the Many. flies apart and dies.. Earth and awful heights of Air. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. whatever grew From out their sundering. and the Many. twofold the LEor. and sit not there With eyes astonished. shut from them apart. I will report a twofold truth. the meeting of the . And this long interchange shall never end. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. For as before I spake. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. Naming the utter goal of these my words. To birth and death and. Behold her now with mind. through her . Water. now. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. death of things: Twofold the I birth. Fire. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Now grows The One from Many into being. now. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. the deadly Strife And In equipoise. Many brings 1 . again. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul.

And so forever down Eternity. Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. each rules its task. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. might they to ruin come. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa .— — — . now this. Perfect the works of concord. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. and. 18. now that is born And And . And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. as they course along Through one another. 19. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. Love and Hate in the Organic World. Love. besides. these are all. 23 She speeds revolving in the elements. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 20. Firm-clasping Lovingness. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. They were no longer.

hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev.x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. From the Elements is All 21. And mortal members take the body's form. dXX' dye.. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite. TO. .: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide . water-fowls that skim the long blue sea. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes. tree. a-wfia / yvla. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. So too with thicket. Kuju/Sais. We See. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd.

. the bright-diffused.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. beasts and birds. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra. as they course along Through one another. and men and women. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. and. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. they take new faces all. aye. By varied mingling and enduring change. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. see Also the Rain. For these>are all. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. long-lived gods. the warm. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. obscure and cold and dark. yuyverai dXXoicoTra. 22. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. Similta Similibus. Behold the eternal Stars. in honors excellent.

.. j^c/airiv. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p. both in birth. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs. and love by Aphrodite's best. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. . SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev. air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji. deov irapa da-irera.v.cri. After the counsels of their father. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ. Hate. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. miserable and lone. irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like.p. fv SeSaoiTe. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt.[S' a] irXela-Tov re.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv.kv irXccu. Far driven and scattered. aXXa S* cXacrtro). oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp.

2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . and men and women. . And not complete one road that has no turn. Even so the spring of mortal things. may well be said twice o'er. beasts and birds. now less). 24. fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. An Aphorism. What must be said. . The Speculative Thinker. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast).THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. peopling a fresh world With trees. 25- . and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. . . leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. . KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. aye. From which they fashion forms innumerable. .Lav. . And fishes nourished in deep waters. O guard this knowledge well. now more. To join together diverse peaks of thought. And like to all things.

roll. So far have they a birth and mortal date. T'^i jno' 171.a Xijyei. once more go under and succumb. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. 26. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. KoX (j)6Cv€i. . Till they. ravrrii. still. . and the Many. they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all. as they course along Through one another. The Law of the Elements. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. again. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs. when grown into the One and All Once more..

Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. 29. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai. 27a. '^ ov iroSes. Exultant in surrounding solitude. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. But in the strong recess of Harmony. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere. « 27. It hath no feet nor knees alert. The Sphere on every side the boundless same.Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa.v. ov 0od yovva. nor form . Exultant in surrounding solitude. The Sphere. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. Trepirjyii yauov. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. nor Sea.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. For from its back there swing no branching arms.

Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. . . 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . . times arrived to Strife. . on all sides was. . and like unto itself. 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . decree. . For one by one did quake the limbs of God. 30. to Love.. — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. Cementing meal with water . as the Which unto each in turn. and rose To her own honors. . Physical Analogies. . Should come by amplest oath and 31. life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. 32. SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. . irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. . The joint binds two. . old. a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra. . 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . and will bind it 34- fast.

and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. 3 of ^ove. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each . ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. ovK tS)v a(f)ap. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. I now will To paths of festal song. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^.. ?] dddvar eivai. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO. The Conquest 35. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv. Be t e^e^efirJKei. \6yov \6yov e^o. reached Yet not a-sudden. laid make return down before. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo.(Ti. Toi' irporepov KareXefa. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp.i. But hurrying back.a IBeadaL. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip.^eTcua»v.iive^ fiekecov to. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all.

Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge. partwise Was he already from the members gone. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. see. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. inward pressed The gentle minded. As much as Hate still held in scales. .32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And as they came together. And ever the more skulked away and fled. But partwise yet within he stayed. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. Similia similibus. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. Then ever the more. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. exchanging highways of new life. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36. aloft. and nearer. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. aWepa 8' ald-qp. her figure magnifies.

The World
as It
, . .




ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd


eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,



Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv




TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,


Aether, the Titan,


binds the globe about.

Earth and Air Not

eiwep aireipova

y^s re


Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs



okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps



and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.

aXX' o


a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,








KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s


errXero firjvrji.

The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.

ws avyrj rv^axra


kvkKov evpvv



As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov


Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.

ap/taro? ws irepi




re irap' aKpijv


Even as revolves a The outmost

chariot's nave,

which round




ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.






But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.



iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?




night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and


'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.


from sea brings wind or mighty

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'





sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many



there burns beneath the ground.


yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci


For sometimes so upon





ofttimes otherwise.

. aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. 57. . oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p. The salt grew solid. ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav.€\T) ert ra yvla . Things Passing Strange. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. s6.36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. S8. . . And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. There budded many a head without a neck. ovra cTrXavaro . . Earth's sweat.erdm(av. X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. . iiovvop. shoulderless and bare. . Hither and thither seeing union meet. the sea.] In isolation wandered every limb. yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. And arms were roaming. smit by beams of sun. \- [. / aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero^.

But now as God with God was mingled more. Many were vvv S' ay. to. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' .ei'a yuiois. ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. 60. feet.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. . ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa.KO<j>vrj . 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt. born with twofold brow and breast. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . Sometimes like men. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life.v6p. These members fell together where they met. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head. . with the face of 62. and sometimes womangrowths. man on bovine stock. . oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u. aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro.evov iTvp. Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi.

Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs. reminding him 6s..€..vBp6s . . iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. nor yet a human cry. erst whelmed in night. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. That had their shares of Water and of Warm. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured.. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft. who sees. the birth is girls. dwiatrai'Ta. when contrariwise they meet with Warm. Love-longing comes. human limbs. .v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark. 64.v dppeva Oepfiov]. the pitied and bewailed. [rd 8' ip. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov. and when Therein they meet with Cold. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress.7rdki. common to the male. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov. And boys. Of men and women. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of . The Process of Human Generation To-day. 63. Nor secret member.

On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. 67. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. . Twice bearing. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav .. . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . 68. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. and therefore men are dark. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys. in pus. 'A^po8iTi79. 70. SCyovoi. More stalwart and more shaggy. On the tenth day. . aiiviov. 66. Sheepskin. . ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . month the eighth. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. the blood Becomes white 69. iv yap depfioripai roKa.

inside Which. cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . . to. the Ether and the S)Xm... the palms of Aphrodite shaped. . 72. as have come to be. The Earth and Water. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . . . As Kypris. 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. 73. if belief And lack pith. Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. As the tall trees and fish in briny floods.. after watering Earth with Rain.ej/ irvKvd. Zealous to heat her. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being. compact with outsides loose. <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. fish. . Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. in Got this their sponginess. .

oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. 80. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Since fed forever by a fruitful air.. aye. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be. . ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa. Wine but water fermented in the wood. Trees bore perennial fruit. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year. of shell-fish wreathed. ocean-dwellers. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. perennial fronds. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. 77-78. 76. And issues from the rind.o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles. 81. \hevZpta 8'] ifnre. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts.

As when a man. on sturdy limbs grow hair.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros. Stiff hairs.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. of fish.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev. Our Eyes. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. SiieaKov. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . . TavTtt T/3i. In horny lantern shielding from all winds. keen-piercing. 84. to sally forth.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. From the same Leaves.Tre<f>piKau(Ti. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. scales plumes. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp.v.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v. 82.

. fj fine and thin. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. 87. as more fine and thin. . y6p. 86. Its beam darts outward. The untiring eyes were formed. One vision of two eyes is born. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. And thus kept off the watery deeps around. as more 8s. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. Whilst Fire burst outward. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the divine. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri.

91. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. 89. Water But to wine more nearly is allied.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. The Black River Bottoms.. ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s. 92. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin. .€i\divTa tov -)(a. flew. . and upon Hot rode Hot. ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj. 90. Knowing that all things have their emanations. Thus Sweet seized Sweet. Similia similibus.\K6v . ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. t5i KaTTiripoii p. will not mix with oil. 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. . [idpirre. . . yj/ous. atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris. Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. ocra eyevovTO . 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra.. . otvcM .

Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo. As. Bones. Thence came white bones. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis. Eyes. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. and one may same In hollow caves.Lv.. ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}. S' aiyXrjs. 98. .if ^^X^ NiyariSos to. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. pakurra. Blood and Flesh. they first Began to grow together .oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ' And of Hephaestos four. Xupevecraiv . KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. "^^^ 97- pdx. The back-bone. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. in the palms of Kypris shaped. 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade.

eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp. Of Aphrodite anchored lay. A bell . a fleshy twig. Sometimes a little more than theirs).~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And Earth within the perfect ports u. 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei.. the Clepsydra. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai. after The Ear.. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh. ^ The Rushing Blood and 100. diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa. she met-wlt.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos. (Tapxivo^ 0^09. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. irdKiv e/orveiei.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. And Rain and Ether.rj(r6cu.dv (TTop. ako^iv <j>6vov p. ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp. e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp . the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red. 99- KtoStav. aafe KevOav. Siapirepe^.

In all. But when again it forward leaps. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell. however. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. and so the blood remains within. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. at their outlets.^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. Keeps it in check. oiSjuari ^Coi/. Over the body's surface.Kpa Kparvvtap. m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed.. and. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out. And when from here the thin blood backward streams. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water. until the child at last . dp. is cut a passage free. but the own weight. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ws S' avrcD. That falls inside against the countless holes. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm. the air In turn breathes out. For air. iraXij'. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe.

a)i>. 102. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. Until her hand will loosen.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. As the child keeps possession of the top. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in. holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. that from without Comes pressing inward. KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. Scent. As air drops down and in. as air gives way.. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on.. Even so it is. And thus got all things share of breath and smells.: —— . . 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. lOI. Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs. sets free the thickened air. But when again it forward leaps. Left by their feet along the tender grass .. [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a. .

back-leaping unto it. Even so through these men think. rejoice. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought. For unto men their thrift of reason grows.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. On the PsychicJLife. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi. 103. For as of these commingled all things are. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. where prevails the power call thought. 107.. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together . 106. In the blood-streams. The heart That men is nourished. or grieve.. According to the body's thrift and state. --^i 105..^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^. . Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa. 104. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv.

.vpCa 8ciX. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj. so far night their thinking changes^. e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op. And Love through Hate.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji.pKvvovcri p. . oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. As By far as mortals change by day. through Fire. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup. o aiaepa olov.oi'.€voLO p.aro^ dttrav. .. reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm. devouring Fire. oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL. ota kot avopa<s a t dp. divine Ether luminous. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. . Through Ether. and endeavor pure. . . arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. and Hate through doleful no.epLp. Love. Through Water. io8. .a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op. Water.

<j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L. where his essence lies. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them. — Dominion.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. As men be after. ^v ideXrjLO-da. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands. aye. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll.ra CTrafcis* ef op. for service. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds. III. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra. myriad and vile. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock. drjcrei.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures.a. vaXCvrLTa irvevp.evos oi t yarai/ opvup. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought. . rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina.

As down they stream from ether. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought. take their vengeance. wild and For that before thou cowedst them. .52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. at seasons good for men. nourishing the mountain trees. shalt thou arouse the blasts. And watch them shrill. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. And if thou wilt.

vpioL i^epeoi/T£^. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk . tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. THE PURIFICATIONS.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi..v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap. ft) (^tXoi. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come .iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^. All hail. OL p. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri. fillets and well. As god immortal now.. ye stewards of good works. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. 112. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's. The Healer and Prophet. no more as man. axrirep Ibt/ca. XatpeT. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends.

. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. craving some oracles. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai opp. XcXd^aai /Sioio.ij. ovs iyo) i^epeo}.cr[ia TraXaidi/. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju. To thriving cities. iiil <j)peva TTumo.p. S> <j)C\oi. doomed to many deaths! — 114. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms. O friends.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains. I am sought by prayers. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me. For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe.a'^prjyia'p.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p.vdoi9.

Or swear Shall forsworn. oTvyiovai.— . as failing of their pledge. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. And in that brood I too am numbered now. Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor. Charis abhors intolerable Fate. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed.09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL. made fast With amplest spirits. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea.. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. . Neucel' p.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life. 8e i/Sv ei/ii. There is a word of Fate. oaths. irCcrvvo's. OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven.aLvofiev(oi. iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre. 6 S' aldipo^ ip.kv yap <r<^e p. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX. ii6. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<. iraires. aWepiov p.

117. beholding the strange 119. was once already boy and /tcTa OvrjTois. Slaughter and Grudge. place. voaoi. o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv.e. rj\vdop. wept and wailed. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. And then we came unto a roofed cave. This Vale of Tears. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. joyless land.. and mute fish in the waves. For I This Earth of Ours. . Kal (rTJ\lii. A Where besides. Thicket and bird. 118.v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. and troops of Dooms . ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi. 121. a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World.

& iroTTOi. 122. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. and Glory many-crowned. . o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia. a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Action and Rest. 124. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. There was Earth-mother. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. And Labors. Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. 123. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! .epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. burdened with the water-jars. and Silence and prevaihng Voice. Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays. . And Filth. There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun.. ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re.

os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. dead did make. 126. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. For from the living he the . arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv. The Changing Forms. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs . those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side. IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes. when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live. 128. The Golden Age.. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men. I2S. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.T(ovi. All things doth Nature change. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. €K ju.oe afieiprnv.ei' yap l. But. Their forms exchanging. Are taway-lions. flesh. 'tis.

nor Kydoimos. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. rjia yvZa. the king of gods. . a supreme man Of vastest knowledge.d?. Poseidon then. . ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease. redolent fumes of frankincense. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv. . Zeus. not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. gainer of large wealth Of understanding. nor . With painted images of living things. nor Kronos. and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. Tavpwv S' a. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh.. limbs. I2g. Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god.

6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. O Muse undying. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. 132. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. SeiXos 8'. 131. 130. afi^pore Movtra.e[n)\€i/. All beasts and birds. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding. Orjpes T olo)voiT€. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro. All things were tame. The Divine. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. throve. O well with him who hath secured his wealth . KaXXtoTreta. oX)8to?. thou couldst deign soul. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. For since. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei.(f>aCvovTi. and friendship's flame blew fair. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. and gentle toward men.

of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO]t. pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. It hath no feet nor knees alert. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. For from Its back there swing no branching arms. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^s. nor form Of tufted secret member. alone. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. Ojig^holy mind. We may not grasp It with our human hands. ineffable. ov p. ov doa yovva.ovvov. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu. but It lives. Of thoughts Is divine. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head. ov iroSes. .kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat. We may not bring It near us with our eyes. With neither hands nor eyes.

«us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. And slits A But the poor victims press. children the mother seize.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. Animal SacriUpe. And reave of life and eath 138. Imploring their destroyers. Thus too the son Seizes the father. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa. their own dear flesh. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast. ^uoj^Tas.evoi. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. . unthinking as ye are. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo. The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form. 136.

! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. irdvhaXoi. Sin. nor dire Hecate's venging house. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. .. TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. 142.. tree SaXoi. Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos. 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. Ye ye altogether wretched. O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. . 140. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141.

O fast from evil-doing. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. dreipei^. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. feast At hearth and tals. 61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi.64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And The excellent in honors. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. Physicians sage. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. The Progression 146. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. of Rebirth. . ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. seers at last. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains. and singers of high hymns. diroKhrjpoi. whence germinate the gods.

In seven times seven days. . 65 Man-enfolding Earth. 148. ISO. Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost.axn. IS3. The belly.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The cloud-collecting. iSSa. iv eirra €phop. the day's old age. iroXvatftarov -^Trap. Evening.v. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. isi- Life-giving. The blood-full liver. 152. 149.


Fr. here E. 4SS-6." Lucr. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. the simulacra of Lucr. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. fr. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna.NOTES." By every . (rroXd/tg) cf. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). : . ceu fumus. : Meek Piety's lit. Cf. Parmenides and other philosophers. 4. etc. Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. ON NATURE. "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices". 2. may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception. 2. Fr. I. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. IV). Like smoke cf. Trust sight no more than hearing. so elsewhere. of knowing: by every passage. cf. 3. unlike Parmenides. fr. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. or device Empedocles. 4. and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. Fr. Ill. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. in altas aeris auras.. way fr.. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. Addressed to Pausanias. 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. "from [the realm of] Piety.

Aristotle (. Here earth.' 'pore. the "mistiform" . and Aidoneus (Dis) earth.. Ill. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. though it had never made them GrundCf. : me less effective figure. also the "flowing" (like water)." a very different.. Fr. 'road. if. with the sensationalists of modem psyon another. 243) and Bodrero (p. p. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. the roll of his splendid verse.68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and to Fr. following Knatz. . for the reverent attitude.' The Roman critic (Hor. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. four elements. E." Moreover. and Aidoneus fire. De arte poetica. Burnet (p. The four-fold root the four elements. reflected in this fragment. is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. s. one sense as acting as a check consider. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault. 6. without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. 3.De an. 78). Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF). and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. make Zeus air. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology. 427a 21-29) says that E. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed. the gods Love and Strife. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). may chology. was poet no less than philosopher. 245) at the most E. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. also Gomperz. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out." : PPF. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf. Zeller (p. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. 759) makes Zeus fire. Here air. — calls the stoffe. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow.

"But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. : For there 'twill be. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. Cf. the case of man. PPF. Parmenides. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. 17. e. 15. is a Plenum. etc. The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. p. "doom of death" Fr. E. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix.) E. not believe. however.. it so. supplied here and elsewhere. 759. Plut. etc." Fr. 13-14. Plato.: properly. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. 8. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold . End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. etc. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. Gesch. at least I take Fr. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. where any one every time puts it. Elements (amx^ta). 10. upon as is the idea of birth." Fr. Heraclitus. Burnet. the psychic (Siebeck. PPF)." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. (cf. 7. 53. quoted by Diels. not only men but 267) I do all per- . Zeller. 935 est sceleris vindex. monism Fr.. 11-12. d.THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES.. Thales. p.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. Psychol. Cf. "in In man. fr. 9. in a connection similar to 9 (cf. any given object] be right there." Diels. is nowhere preserved to us by E. had made ultimate reality a material One. 207-8). Pjfthagoras. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. in- Fr. Ppanl denotes with E.

"Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements." Cf. as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv). or to the Fr. conceived by E. p. 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". two-fold the death of things: a dark saying. the thought of fV. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense." Diels. 306). are part of the physical system. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. conception are still in dispute (cf. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." "Aphrodite" under varying names. as Fr. The longest. 16. But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. 26. preserved by Simplicius. in- however. deed. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) . from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). "Lovingness" and "Wrath. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again. of the Egyptian. however. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). are the four elements. 17. and "our being" is but a physical being. the most significant. ishable beings. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). "the Many. with the increased tendency ration. fr. again. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere. as the dynamic powers of the universe. 771 Tannery. 11 must apply. as the elements come together. Efforts to relate them . Two-fold the birth. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. to which. "The One" is tlie Sphere." etc. Thought and feeling with E. as to every thing. Many details of the . p. p. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels.. until. . Love and Hate: and "Strife. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for. Zeller. in so far as their elements are eternal. and the most difficult of the fragments. and these are eternal only Zeller.

not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf. Anaximander (but cf. are in the former period. 6). 248 ff.. 7I It must be noted that. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things. e.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. etc. "speeds revolving in the elements. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists." i. when Love is supreme. but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space.). and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. who believes we period. if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. Cf. we have the harmony of the Sphere. etc. Thus Strife is in equipoise. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere. when Hate is supreme. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world. So far have they a birth. a complete dissipation. Tannery. the m3fthological names of fr. 305). and ciples. p. : : "thejr" refers. out the thought with consistency of detail. e. The early philosophers corporealities . whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn. is situated inside. Burnet. there is a freshness : . I believe." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. if — of the world.. almost as diffused gases. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules. equal in length and breadth. etc. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. p. i. Burnet. while Love." And shut from them apart. Burnet (p.

are told that wood conquers earth. I think. p. Cf. or material. with a passion. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. p. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. primeval. Zeller. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. 762. 47. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. to me at least. or Water. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength.'s thought that seems to correspond.72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. p. 26. water conquers fire. fr. allusion to the theory of the pores. 767. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. PPF. But there is nothing in E. quoted by Diels. but each." etc. or Earth. Plut. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names. Chinese Thought. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf. p. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. perfectly clear. with (cf. or simply to the fact that now this." Paul Carus. by the way. and metal conquers wood. in this identification of a cosmic principle. Fr. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. Zeller. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. 787). its E. fire conquers metal. etc. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. 1907. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. Cf. earth conquers water. Cf. fr. translator has The ing (pCKlii . : Behold these elements own equal strength. in the life of man. qualitatively distinct from the others. log). without ever ending in fire's dominating all. E. 18. or a faculty. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. that E. ments). with identified which usually by the commentators.

41. and earth to the earthy. . Line i has been supplied by the translator. 73 With reference here to water.. etc. I. 57-62. the aery expanse of day. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E. But come. The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. with this Fr. one might well note that E. 20. rain to the watery." they are not immortal. Fr. e. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. though "in honors excellent. fragment fr. or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. for E. 21. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air. Fr. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. on fr. hardly the bright heaven. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. PPF. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. Air seems to be unrepresented. 'the beginnings of things. as I understand them. 231). 19. Cf. and both as formed of fire separated from the air. 1. like tree or fish. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). are not. 62.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." Diels. the planets as free. formed. is here speaking of things as they are. 608) phrases which. hence. But were it so interpreted.' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott). "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. however. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere). out of the elements . unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. I.

233) sees a reference in etc. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. 17. . Whiles in fair order: Or. (cf. Burnet. 17 . f r." none the worse for Byron. in the dead harmony of the Sphere.. Heaven : air . till. XV.. 23. p. "A If good. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. 237. 4. this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. 247 ff. gi. Fr. important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. repetition. 25.. p. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. the universal law of being. as analogous to the four elements. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as the unifying process goes on. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. Cf. as I understand it. Cf. mentioned several times by E. e. 308.74 Fr. 5. . : The goddess: lit. fragment to the four primary colors. 247. One may Cf. undoubtedly the Muse. note to fr. Don Juan. . and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. Fr. mixing harmonious. 26. fr. . which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. fr. The simile were then doubly striking. For amber Sun. 21. Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. 131). cf. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. Cf. Fr. Gomperz.succumb : i. 'divinitjf" (Seov). and can only mean. . cf. when grown. is reasonable reason. p.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. 22. etc. Also Burnet. I think. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. Tannery. eh ha Kiaiiov. this Gomperz (p.

as here. were the personified "fitting. Moreover. if Pythagorean. one would "adaptation. which was spherical and immovable. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. Burnet. fitted. e. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone." Diels. then. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. There: in the Sphere. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. of the point of view adopted in these pages. but the union of Love and Hate.. all . for the figure. interpretations of the nature of the ff. though not altogether satisfactory. 27. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. y is." Bodrero assumes (p. and perhaps. p. but the four elements. but Kp<i*os. a (1." universe. however. Sphere. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai. For various ancient cf. as it seems to here. and is usually. as a noun (meaning.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. difficulties must be admitted. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought." If examined narrowly. not as hiding it somewhere in space. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. and wonders if a line may have been lost. however.'s present spherical universe. latebris PPF. their equilibrium". to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. Prof. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. composed. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love. i. as . One notes that the passage makes no mention of air. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw. The figure may be Pythagorean. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. Harmony. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars.

Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere." 814. according to Karsten and Burnet. 34. and in its joyous : rest reposing. like a baker. fr. 30.' Cf. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night.48. 'AH round. PPF. and says "e Plut. 32. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man. Cf.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. learn from the doxographers. itXot&s : SpKov. 3) "If thou wilt separate. Fr. £. . God: the Sphere. 35.the final resultant of the disordered movements . where expressions. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. pressit Fr." And again (p. is Fr. 'broad oath. 29. Fr. 813 .. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. Ht. 31. p. 134. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. and the things of time to come and of time that is past. Fr. note to fr. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. apparently of the Divine. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact. Amplest oath Gr. . i. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. the naked and the swift. 115. Zeller. Nor form Fr. 314) is the principle of division and movement. 33. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. fr. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. the totality of divine beings and powers. in part identical. itself cf. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. in con"Hate .'" Fr." Diels. I say. e. Cf. though in a corrupt form. are used fr.902. not ex- Tannery thinks (p.

784. however." They The elements.. preceding fragment . : Cf. e. 36. attraction of Cf. W. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid. 17 and 26." But cf. according to Tannery by Hate. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. although this seems. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf. PPF. Cf.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 130.. "and from their mingling. : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. Class. 22. 787. 116. but with the 26. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. Not all blameless i. identified with the Sphere. if anything more than a poetic touch. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. Hate retreated under protest. or vortex. July 1906). Fr." etc. 30) . as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. : the circumference of the vortex. caused." Bodrero. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. Heidel. p. note to : fr. and is finally excluded altogether. it was. A. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. and fr. I. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf. fr. fr. This chaos. 3. right and wrong. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. The two states are again contrasted in p. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low. Zeller. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. The members: the elements. Philology. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution. mixed.

it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. the pure ether. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. ''cetera Cf.. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf. I. E." the "awful heights of Air. with reference to the fiery sky (cf.)." p. p. This. 38. e. II 1114 sq. The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. one finds nothing representative of fire." the vaulted sky of his imagination. Fr. thicker. however. 'light up. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. Days. at versus recuperari nequit. PPF. and of Emerson's etc. fr. 37. as by Anaxagoras. unless ether be here used. but is in keeping with E. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. kingdoms. however. "without. fools." Emerson. As forsooth Heraclitus. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements. v. and sky that holds them all. Burnet. p. "Moist air" is . Lucr. some tongues. assuming any elemental difference. note to fr." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E. 789. for slight differences of interpretation. 100 (q. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). . 109 on sense perceptipn." Diels. a mere reflection. Deorum. 44. and Zeller." Tannery. How the sun. stars. "Bread." the earth. 41. 786. was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. tal vault of heaven.) Cf. Fr. the all splendorous. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E. notes to Cicero's De Nat. Stickney. for fire. its 254. : "With Ether. 317. as opposed to the upper air.' •blaze')—a sense. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i. 39. misty air (so i-fip in Homer).'s "Ether. But cf. indeed. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower.78 Fr. mist" by Burnet.

Fr.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Schol." whom the Iliad (A. and one-half . Zeller. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. irapb. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p. Zeller. himself uses 93) of the elder. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. and. A." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries..irta>. I. Her lord: the sun. it 7XouKos (fr. bearing with it its sun (see fr. see note on fr. 41). 48. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. 45. E. 46. 790. air. fr. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. Fr.' or something of the sort. . the olive. and E." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. Odys. whose revolution produces day and night. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. 43. "Seirii Cf. followed here. on Apoll. 42. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. 31). Fr. Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v." used especially of Athene. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. Cf. : by Merrill and Riddell. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . E. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. who speaks of "Selene mild. Kal yX'qvti \i. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. a darker of Cf. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. a lighter of fire. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven.ii." is used of the willow. 41). p. Fr. ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. 200) says. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. 47. Fr. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. 43. 786 flf. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf. II. E. Rhod.

). 261. With E. as air a downward (see fr. 256. which. was at first mixed with water. 35] made Burnet. Burnet. p. increasing ..80 Fr." And upward.. no reason for the conjecture. Love and Hate. {. Fr. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. the fourth period . fr. 73. Fr. Fr. 79S) . functions attributed by E. II. PPF. p. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. its pores in the form of drops. 51. The Greek imagination was long fato be . Diels. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. e. is 17) fr. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. Burnet (p. Zeller. etc. tific charming poetry. 55.. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr.. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. see fr. S3. e. "It" refers to air. 56. Sal/tovi Salnuy. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. See note to fr. 51. when Hate world). et corr. e." i. fire has a crystallizing.. as common in Sicily. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. in the period of the present Cf.'s thought. 52. Cf. Fr. sometimes advanced. : Cod with god There seems Gr. 62. that E. then. "Met. on the other hand to another process (i. "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr. S4) tendency.: of fire. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . with the other elements. but the inFr. in E. condensing function. totle. so. S7-6i. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. p.e. For authenticity cf. B 3. as criticized the water gush forth. The phrase is not. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. 54. Fr. had an upward.

each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. dites 8 miliar with centaurs. waking well Old memories. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate. Fr. Cyclops.. as rational as most modern theories. chimxras. we perhaps." Williams. E. death. e. Fr. by a collection (originally from Marburg). 65." Though E. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters.'' Lucr. IV." Fr. the latter inducing decay. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. is speaking here of mankind. in part in the male semen.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. Fr. so a medical colleague informs me. explained conception as a union of male and female semen. 1239. lit. The sundered Are: Gr.'s system. old age. satyrs. See notes to fr. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom. S7-6j. The genera. Obstetrics (1904)1 P. fire "Of men and women.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. 62. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum. This present is.143- . a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him. 63. 64. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. sleep. the pitied and bewailed. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring. An alternative reading. Cf. whole Warm warm : ditions in E. For 'tis in part in man's : i. as he gazes.." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched.

70. etc. 73. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. Twice-hearing: i. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds. Here the bones.. 79. The Fr. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. Fr. present in the breast after the first few months. however. others. Love. Fr. E. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. fr. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. to the shells on the outside of is. 74. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. 75-76. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. Fr. could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. White pus: Gr.82 Fr. Fr. 80. 484a 38) says that E. the lime) within some animals are related. morphologically connected. with the skin. 69. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). 68. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). — Fr. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. quite in the spirit of our own physiology. 66. finger-nails. t6 iriov. like horn. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. E. Aristotle {Pneumat. To speed of fire that she might Cf. 71. consisting chiefly of keratin. if my be- available lexical information be correct.e. Kypris: Aphrodite. Colostrum is. 77-78. Trees were supposed by E. turtle's shell. the earthen part (in modern science. Fr. 56. the "embryo" Fr. however. laid Fr..

The apple fire and water enclosed in films. 88. however reluctantly. Fr. Dort aber geht es. apple. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. alternately arranged for each element. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr. p.. 83 thick skin. go. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. which admitted. must be understood here. Cf. water for the dark. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. note on fr. was an attempt. Cf. Fr. p. Fr. : a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. 82. Cf. e. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. 96. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. Fr. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern." though not in the text. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn." Zeller. following Aristotle. who has preserved us the fragment. fr." Fr. 84. From which Bolts of love i. 87. the subjective factor. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. 92. and "horny. Fire serves for perceiving the bright. 2. 86. of the eye contains "Emp." bringt. give to the emanations of each a free passage. moreover. 89. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. however inadequate. the pores of which. Burnet. Diels (FV). 801. Fr. 77-78." Gomperz. : p. 267. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln . to explain percepIt was an attempt. from these elements. of the poet-scientist Goethe. Fr. eine harte Verhindung zustande. but for the slangy connotations. 235.

" : Fr. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us. Aeshy sprout E. 9S. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. Fr. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus." Fr. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood. 100. 103. of 2 parts earth. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. Cf. 2 parts water. Thus completed by Diels (FV). Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach." Fr. ovviKvpae. 39). 94." as Bodrero translates it. 107 ff. fr. fr. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. andere bei Nacht heller sehen. She met: Gr. inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science. 98. the eyes. Bodrero. 96. : A The — Fr. will sometimes emphasize a term. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV).'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. Fr. 93. Silvery : See note to f r. Cf. Quaest. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. a word. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not..84 Fr. Cf. 43. Ether. 102. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. p. They I e. aquae. . among others. as grotesque as it is ingenious. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. aeris arcessit. admisceatur." . following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. This fragment (cf. it is As a theory of respiration. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. 97. gests in Empedocles' system. Thus bones are formed fire.." Fr. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis. 99. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. dass einige bei Tag.

unless fr." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. upoij scientific experiment. 245). 802. as 85 the clepsydra. 230) will. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics. 104. rests. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. 803. though in form of a Burnet points out. Fr. 105. nowhere credits the elements as such. 98. E. PPF). but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. : i. The mites are the emanations.. e. Fr. e. perhaps.i seems to be a hylozoist. The comparison with Homeric simile. In the blood streams : cf." But E." i. . make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. p. 103. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p." Fr. The lightest: supply "bodies. Got: lit. elsewhere. . Fr. 100. as in some passages Cf. 102. I think. note on fr. Gomperz. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap. with consciousness. loi. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. fr. p. Here. 109 be so interpreted (but cf. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus. Cf. etc.'s theory of scent. Zeller. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs. Fr. it : Diels. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. 98.. Zeller. a cor- All that is left of E. did not mean here. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . (cf. but E.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Cf. Chance: cf. note to f r. p. The top b was not altogether open.

86 Fr. sickness. 802.. (p&p/iaKa. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. sondern er hat das. .: . drought and death. : Cf. Ill. Fr. and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. Plotinus yeyevTiniros. is the microcosm. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr.. Fr. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking.: interpretation just above be correct. quoted by Diels. 802). For of themselves. p. 106. a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. etc. consciousness. possibly "charms" is better. 215. was early imputed to . 107. The dominion over human ills. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. PPF. All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here. Cf. note on fr. . p. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. e. here promised to Pausanias. Burnet. 109.. Through Earth. the founder of the Cf. io6. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart.. E. and Philop. as sugme by a friend. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft. as elsewhere. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf.they grow. note on fr. : i. Cf. 17). "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. e. These: the elements. etc. my sound psychology. 445-6. gested to Drugs: Gr. III. windstorms. addressing Pausanias. p. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Fr. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. no. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. 108.'' Lucr. — Zeller.. doctrine. All things have Axed intent Fr. Italian school of medicine. Galen makes E.

Empedocles himself tue of these lines. the courage of man). Fr. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. perhaps. The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. Harrison. p. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. 112.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." Cf. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. has here . One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. of the THE PURIFICATIONS. I. Fr. Burnet. and not. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. to the citizens of Acragas. 113. (cf. radically by Bodrero (passim). and his references). followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. p. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. 87 Introduction) . The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum. 271). has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. conservatively by Burnet (p. and.. a god and so much above mankind?" E. Proleg. to Study of Greek Religion. as the latter. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. 213. 589. if an (cf. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. e. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following..

fr. etc. 35) E. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. Cf. Those far spirits: Gr. by some interpreted as 10. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. 249 S. though apparently certi determinati esseri. familiar four elements." according to Bodrero (p. p. e tomo ad Bodrero. 780. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. 147. sinfully. rpU iivplai «5pot. p. Zeller. fanciullo e giovinetta.000 years. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. bloodshed of animals. e. fr. etc. compatible with the On Nature. is probably Pythagorean in origin. In offense: in sin. essere arbusto. 30. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. Cf. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: . pesce. IIS. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. 146). p. With amplest oaths: cf. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. 117. Charis: Aphrodite. Fr. Burnet (p.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. : Be born through time.. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. 271). something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. p. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. Cf. Moreover. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. 116. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr. Fr. Fr. 136. uccello. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. Sat/ioves. Cf. In the On Nature (fr. fr. also Gomperz. the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. it i. 139].

For other Fr." If this interpretation be correct. A bush. notes to loc. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum." etc. 118. this refers.^nd I was a maiden. Proleg. upon his earthly career (cf.) but that E. note to fr.. parallels see Munro and Guissani. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I. and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean. sed agri inundationibus vexati. 226. plains. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits.. which. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). if the scene be earth. Fr. after 119).' Harrison." Lucr. a bird. Prometheus Unbound." According to this. representing. to Study of Greek Religion. XI. fr. Harrison. V. it has been suggested to me by Prof. cit. wander. to Study of Greek Religion. 122 and 123 itself. 614 ff. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell. Chap. "Infans. Fr. Cf. cf. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. . Newbold. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. 119. 169. is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. : with fr.. p. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. p. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. was . "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf. as he entered." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. A joyless land it. Proleg.'' I. 118. 590.. vagituque locum lugubri complet. banishment from heaven. 121. which. Cf.

Fr. 122.


in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this


Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv


follow are




imitates the catalogue of







edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the


of the

blessed to the (relative) death


this earth,

where souls are

"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,




dt Kal


ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having


a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate



the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in


Unmixed blood:
as such,

the figure


from unmixed wine, which,


and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.


In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

sive decern sive viginti



saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose



(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,



"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,


und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."


Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.


"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note


fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle






Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,



Fr. 142.

''etiam sensus incertus,

utrum lovis


Hecates regna


2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus


scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."


Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.



George Herbert uses the same



in his

Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.





us of the


too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.







quoted by Diels, PPF).




Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,

quoted by Diels, PPF.

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is


Hesych., quoted by Diels,


Fr. iS3a.



translates the doxographer: "In sieben


Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung



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