CORNELL
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND GIVEN IN 1891 BY

HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE

^f

Cornell University Library

1

S218.A4 E6
Fragments of Enipedocles;
tr.

into Englis

3

1924 028 975 923

org/cletails/cu31924028975923 . the United States on the use of the http://www. There are no known copyright restrictions in text.Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.archive.

.

.

D. Ph. ONIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN CHICAGO THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY LONDON AGENTS KEGAN PAUL. LTD.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH VERSE BY WILLIAM ELLERY LEONARD. TRENCH. . TRITBNER £ 1908 CO.. ENGUSH DEFASTMBNT.

Nor aught more holy. Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. Nay. . Sc yJ Empedocles . . wonderful. lofty Lucretius. . and dear Than this true man. COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO. 716 if. The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create.. I. . ever so far and pure . hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown.

: — — DEDICATION. Madison. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. 1906. . I found. N. when the long day's task was through. Wis. you That I richer having heard your voice.. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two. Dec.. in nights of friendliness with you. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. goes inland. L. The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often. and rejoice little. While you explored the Orphic liturgies.) winter by Atlantic seas. W. (To W. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. E. R.

.

in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. R. W. but I consin for medical references. THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R.. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. 1907. . William Ellery Leonard. May 14. B. Wis. I am indebted to Dr.PREFACE. Newbold. Madison. J.

.

the Philosopher. To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 . 4 9 13 On Nature. The Man. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography. PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. the Poet.TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day. The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 . On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications.viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. as it seems. and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN. falling at last from popular favor. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe. but. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — . the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. . LIFE. was born at in Sicily. He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. THE PHILOSOPHER. THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. according to the tradition of antiquity. THE POET.

. . rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. Akademie d. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant. P. Some traces of this imposing figure. 'From Empedocles. And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. Wissenschaften.. melancholy. And egotistic. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal . "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths. according to Aristotle. after two thousand years. and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. of PERSONALITY. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. the study of impulse. Cf. in purple vest and golden girdle.and now.. how throngs of his accompanied him along the road." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce. K. eloquent^ soul that he was. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive. but the poet. 1884. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem.. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher.

though but a small part of the whole. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 3 WORKS. who at least quotes from the On Nature at length.* works. Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. in the editions of Sturz . the poems On Nature and the Purifications. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. which. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show.. . But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve. Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. Of many menides. his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine.^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. The fragments were mine. who them into Latin. lost . however.

there are several translations into . There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. hexameters of W. We . the latter's in prose. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. and some work of distinguished scholars. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. and notes. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. TRANSLATIONS. with a few slight changes and additions. As Latin said above. the former's in verse. selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian. of which the former's is the better. all that I have seen being in prose. and subsequently (igo6). and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. C. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles.

if we philosophy and magic. •Various problems are discussed. the chemistry of later times. of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. even at the risk of some repetition. the allusions in the ancients . clitus is he affirms the principle of development. Love and Hate. 5 by no means precise. in the Notes. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things. To the water of the fire Thales. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . as they come up. the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. due to two eternal powers. With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . and declares them as universe. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. and alike primeval. albeit the lectician. but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. the air of Anaximenes. There is something in the conception suggestive of ." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing.

winning the upper hand. and in continual interchange follow one another forever. new world-periods arise. each separated and unmixed. as some maintain. rested." Whereupon. until Love. the . begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. And thus arose two hemispheres. : which. a whirling mass. "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. in the sarfte way. . which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. these four. came the elements one by one first. Moreover. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. and crowded air beneath her. again ''exultant in surrounding solitude. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere. of an egg then fire. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us." things. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. condensing or thickening. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere. air. like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. by the uniting bond of Love. which took the upper space.

when swung round and round in a boy's hand. And. Out void. took place. the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties. first he tells us. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. and night. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. conceived as endowed with feeling. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. for signs and seasons. worked within her. Furthermore. Then ani- . prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. as we have seen. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements. First the plants. germinations out of earth. "J the dafk of air. because still in unstable equilibrium. and the dry land appeared. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. bright entirely of fire. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. for this revothe cause of day earth. the greater light to rule the day. sprang up. The development of organic life. and for days and years. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. And the everlasting Law made two great lights.— . or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday.

so many later materialists. Behind pedocles. in company with to Haeckel. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist. some others from Vorlander. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. Leipsic. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion. Geschichte der Philosophie. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition. I. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. even down who puts the soul in the atom. 1903.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. in our day with our resources of knowledge." but he is of creation. eyes. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. sight. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world. modern sci- ence. the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. which. Band.* like for like. arms. would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. his theory of perception. they developed into the organisms we see about us. are. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. roaming ghastly through space. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. perhaps. .

The Milky Way. ii. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES. Ol3mipos outermost. . as Burnet conjectured. is in this their only successor. have suggested the innovation. the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun."* •Parmenides. and whence they all arose. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as sometimes in philosophic terminology. but in mood and manner. lo. is Homeric. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). And burning might of stars made haste to fr. FV. he recalls the Eleatic. but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. and occasionally even his phrase. and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. Lucretius. Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . Diels. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. And And all the starry signs along the sky. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. be. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher.

that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels. There is first the grandeur of his conception. towering over the wrecks of time. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. FV. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull. as thou art more than I. He was true poet. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES." ! . And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. and yet Much more than mine. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. the same yesterday.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. and an essential element in the poem. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever. his fragments as For. even the pseudoits validity.

all wonderful to see. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. as we have seen. comes full — . But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. circle forever. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. for "Night. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : . is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. the powers of life and death are at work. the heads. There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. this shaggy earth. the glaring eyes.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And Our and a poetic response." . in space. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. life the movement. the mystery. "awful heights of Air. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. the arms." amid the monstrous shapes. with her sightless eyes. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. argues greater mind of man than any truth. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. and at last we are in the habitable world. in the world of petty facts. the lonely. and of men and women. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive.

and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . the sympathy with "men and women. because so an austere simplicity. the pitied and bewailed.But I am the translator. There is the poet's relation to his kind. "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius. . in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. by Aphrodite. on the mountain side. not the critic. which suggests so much." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away. the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings.12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . how now down by the brook. is to adorn the temple . it may be." There little . of the poet. .

Four Phistoire de la science helline. but by Laurie Magnus. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles. 1901. 1904.) 1892. trans. inspiring. Burnet. who answered.. vol.") WiNDELBAND. tions. York. L. (Good critical appreciation. be II Principio (Rome. with some prose transla1893. 1899•This book seems to Paris.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. chap. History of Ancicnt Philosophy. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. (Keen trans. pendent. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. (Beautifully written. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. I. Studies of the Greek Poets. Cited as "Tannery. acumen . London. The First Philosophers of Greece.. New York.) (lOMFERZ. VII. 1898. E. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. Greek Thinkers. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher."). I wrote to Professor Diels about it. Fairbanks. Source Book in Greek Philosophy.") Symonds.) Tannery. vol. man. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. fanciful. perhaps. New York. for the general reader the following will. London. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz. by H. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. New York. and independent. Early Greek Philosophy. however. 1887. 1907. (Contains partial prose translation.

") And DiELS. (Contains German translation. funfte Auflage. Cited as "Diets. Die Philosophic der Griechen. Cited as "Diels. sic. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. FV. Zeller.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.") . I. Teil. but very useful. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. and a few. Berlin. the above mentioned texts of Berlin. Leip- 1892. 1901. original notes in Latin. zweite Auflage. erster Band. (Cited as "Zeller. 1906.

And having viewed Their little share of life.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire. Ilav(rapir). Hear thou. to. ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. Friend.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. crv 8e Kkvdi.6vov TreLcdepTes. Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. . to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. cttci too eAtaort/ijs. Pausanias. Believing only what each chances on. iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. 2. t d.ON NATURE. To His I. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. with briefest fates. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie.

ti tSjv aXX<ui/. But turn their madness. Never be heard by men. i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv.. itrji. But thuswise never shall these things be seen. vdci ff iKacrrov.(riv aKoveiy. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app.. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs. . ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Movaa. avTOfiai.a. p. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}.. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. (re. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed.T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. ZrjfKov iKaarov. since hither now withdrawn apart. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast.-qi. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp. Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all. Gods from tongue ! of mine.. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive. . &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. nor seized by mind And thou.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Yea. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. . having sight. Nor. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out. life-bringing Here. Whose lives are but a day. 6. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus. Dis. 8e irap' qp. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov. So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. But come. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. The Elements. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth.. : — .

" and though I too assent to use. . . dXoLTTjV. or bush. eis •^ atUep i. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<. Birth and Death. S' Kal auTOS. dyevTjTa. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart.. icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'.19 [ou] KaXeovcri. The uncreated elements.. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal.s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. 7. 8. or bird. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Avenging Death.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. ddvWTOV . and birth is but its name with men. nor end in ruinous death. 'tis "doom of Law. la death. <j)v<ri. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light. . wild beast. vofiai. But when in man.

ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? . Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. can wholly die away. No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set. 12. But with the All there is no Void. Ex nihilo II. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t.. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The Plenum.. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji. 14. Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed.

TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. Our Elements Immortal. Kal cirtreTat. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. . oia».kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart. And ere as mortals we compacted be. ovBev ap aaw.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt.20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore. ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. ouSe iror'. Love and Hate. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill..Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . We are as nothing. dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. T6<f>pa p. The Cosmic Process. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev. the Everlasting. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain. . KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris.

a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov.evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. Now grows now The One from Many into being.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci. vo[ii^eTcu ep.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. . aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei. CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra.p.trepe<i.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. fwjS' 6p. eaa-i. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/.

shut from them apart. Earth and awful heights of Air. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. death of things: Twofold the I birth. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. again. the Even from One disparting come the Many. for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. the meeting of the . Fire. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. To birth and death and. Many brings 1 . now Even from the One disparting come the Many. And this long interchange shall never end. And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many.. and sit not there With eyes astonished. Behold her now with mind. the deadly Strife And In equipoise. through her . Now grows The One from Many into being. now. twofold the LEor. I will report a twofold truth. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. and the Many. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. whatever grew From out their sundering. Water. now. flies apart and dies. For as before I spake. Naming the utter goal of these my words.

might they to ruin come. as they course along Through one another. 20. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. Firm-clasping Lovingness. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. and. these are all. And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. besides. Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No.— — — . Love and Hate in the Organic World. now this. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 23 She speeds revolving in the elements. 18. each rules its task. They were no longer. now that is born And And . Perfect the works of concord. Love. a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. And so forever down Eternity. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . 19.

XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi. tree. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev.. water-fowls that skim the long blue sea. hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide . The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes. And mortal members take the body's form. dXX' dye. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. . iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. a-wfia / yvla. We See. TO. From the Elements is All 21. So too with thicket. Kuju/Sais.x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti.

in honors excellent.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. see Also the Rain. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei. By varied mingling and enduring change. and. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. beasts and birds. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. Similta Similibus. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. For these>are all. the warm. yuyverai dXXoicoTra. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. long-lived gods. as they course along Through one another. they take new faces all. obscure and cold and dark. aye. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. Behold the eternal Stars. . Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. the bright-diffused. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. 22.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. and men and women.

air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs.cri. and love by Aphrodite's best.[S' a] irXela-Tov re. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL. aXXa S* cXacrtro). . And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. miserable and lone. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. both in birth. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp. deov irapa da-irera.p. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. Far driven and scattered. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv. After the counsels of their father.v. fv SeSaoiTe.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like.kv irXccu. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep... dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. j^c/airiv. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. Hate.

. . aye. may well be said twice o'er. An Aphorism.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And like to all things. 24. From which they fashion forms innumerable. . And not complete one road that has no turn. To join together diverse peaks of thought. . beasts and birds. . O guard this knowledge well. now more. leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. and men and women. What must be said. . Even so the spring of mortal things. 25- . now less).Lav. . KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast). peopling a fresh world With trees. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . And fishes nourished in deep waters. 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. The Speculative Thinker. and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p.

roll. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. once more go under and succumb. T'^i jno' 171. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. So far have they a birth and mortal date. when grown into the One and All Once more. as they course along Through one another. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. still. . KoX (j)6Cv€i.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. 26. The Law of the Elements. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. again. . they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all. ravrrii.a Xijyei. Till they. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. and the Many. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many.. And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all.

The Sphere on every side the boundless same. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai.v. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. Exultant in surrounding solitude. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. Trepirjyii yauov. It hath no feet nor knees alert. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. The Sphere. « 27. 29. Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth. 27a. ov 0od yovva. '^ ov iroSes. Exultant in surrounding solitude. nor Sea. But in the strong recess of Harmony.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. For from its back there swing no branching arms.Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. nor form . ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere.

and will bind it 34- fast. 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. . . . 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . to Love. times arrived to Strife. SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. . 32. . irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. old. For one by one did quake the limbs of God. . . as the Which unto each in turn. . . 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. Should come by amplest oath and 31. and like unto itself. 30. decree. . on all sides was. and rose To her own honors. Physical Analogies. Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. . Cementing meal with water . The joint binds two.. . a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra.

I now will To paths of festal song. \6yov \6yov e^o. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai.^eTcua»v. When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. ovK tS)v a(f)ap. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all. laid make return down before. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each . iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^.i. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra.iive^ fiekecov to. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. 3 of ^ove. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES..a IBeadaL. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. Toi' irporepov KareXefa.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. ?] dddvar eivai.(Ti. The Conquest 35. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv. reached Yet not a-sudden. But hurrying back. Be t e^e^efirJKei. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO.

her figure magnifies. Then ever the more. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge. inward pressed The gentle minded. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. As much as Hate still held in scales. exchanging highways of new life. aloft. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. Similia similibus. And ever the more skulked away and fled. all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. . And as they came together. the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. and nearer. see. But partwise yet within he stayed. partwise Was he already from the members gone. aWepa 8' ald-qp. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^.

THE FRIVGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
The World
as It
38.
, . .

33

Now
t

Is.

ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd

a.p-)(y\v^

eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,

yaia

re.

Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv

'^8'

uypos

a,tqp

TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—
!

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,

And

Aether, the Titan,

who

binds the globe about.
Illimitable.

Earth and Air Not
39-

eiwep aireipova
<w?

y^s re

^ddif]

Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs

eKKej^yraL

a-Top,d.T(iiV^

okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps

were

endless,
5

and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.
40.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.
41.

aXX' o

fjiev

a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,

.

.

34

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPBDOCLES.
42.

cot'

av

trji

KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s

yXavKcamSos

errXero firjvrji.

And
The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.
43-

ws avyrj rv^axra

crcXijj'aMjs

kvkKov evpvv

.

.

As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.
44.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.
45-

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov

«^a)S.

Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.
46.

ap/taro? ws irepi

)(yoLri

e\«r(reTai

rj

re irap' aKpijv

.

Even as revolves a The outmost
.
.

chariot's nave,

which round

47-

ddpel

fiev

ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.

.

.

.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

35

But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.
49.

sun.

WKTO^

iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?

.

.

Of

night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and
SO.

Rain^

'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.
rain.

Iris

from sea brings wind or mighty
Fire.
SI.

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'

apoTraLov

.

And

fire

sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.
52.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many

a

fire

there burns beneath the ground.
Air.
S3.

ovTCt)

yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci
its

aXXcDS,

For sometimes so upon

course

it

met,

And

ofttimes otherwise.

X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times. s6.] In isolation wandered every limb. . S8. yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. . smit by beams of sun. 57. \- [. Hither and thither seeing union meet. oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p.36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . Earth's sweat. . ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav. . . shoulderless and bare. iiovvop. And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by. / aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt. Things Passing Strange. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. And arms were roaming. .€\T) ert ra yvla . There budded many a head without a neck.ai^.erdm(av. the sea. ovra cTrXavaro . The salt grew solid.

. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life. born with twofold brow and breast. Sometimes like men. But now as God with God was mingled more. man on bovine stock.ei'a yuiois. oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. Many were vvv S' ay. and sometimes womangrowths.evov iTvp. aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u. . ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head. with the face of 62.v6p. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi. ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'. feet. 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt.KO<j>vrj . S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'. to.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' . These members fell together where they met. 60. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. .

Of men and women. when contrariwise they meet with Warm. The Process of Human Generation To-day. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a. nor yet a human cry. and when Therein they meet with Cold. 63. For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark. reminding him 6s. common to the male. the pitied and bewailed.v dppeva Oepfiov]. erst whelmed in night. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft.7rdki. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs.v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. And boys. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov. 64. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. dwiatrai'Ta.. [rd 8' ip.. Love-longing comes. who sees. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.vBp6s .. human limbs. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d. But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of . iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. Nor secret member. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured.€. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov. . First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress. . That had their shares of Water and of Warm. the birth is girls.

dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. On the tenth day. Twice bearing. 70. On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants.. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav . 66. . . in pus. 68. vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . Sheepskin. aiiviov. 'A^po8iTi79. . month the eighth. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys. iv yap depfioripai roKa. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . the blood Becomes white 69. and therefore men are dark. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. 67. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. More stalwart and more shaggy. SCyovoi. ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns.

compact with outsides loose. <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. the Ether and the S)Xm. t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i. 72.. 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . the palms of Aphrodite shaped. . fish. cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. if belief And lack pith. .. Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. Zealous to heat her. as have come to be. . Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being.ej/ irvKvd. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. . to. after watering Earth with Rain. 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. .. then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. As the tall trees and fish in briny floods. . . The Earth and Water. in Got this their sponginess. inside Which. 73. As Kypris.

\hevZpta 8'] ifnre. 80. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. Since fed forever by a fruitful air. 77-78. oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. ocean-dwellers. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs. perennial fronds. aye.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. . Wine but water fermented in the wood. Laden with fruit the whole revolving year.. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts.o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles. ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa. Trees bore perennial fruit. And issues from the rind. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. 81. of shell-fish wreathed. 76. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p.

Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p. to sally forth. scales plumes. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. on sturdy limbs grow hair.a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. of fish. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev. In horny lantern shielding from all winds. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs.Tre<f>piKau(Ti. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. From the same Leaves. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v. SiieaKov. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp. keen-piercing. 84. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. As when a man.v. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . TavTtt T/3i. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. Stiff hairs. . Our Eyes.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 82.

And thus kept off the watery deeps around.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. Its beam darts outward. y6p.. fj fine and thin. 86. . The untiring eyes were formed. One vision of two eyes is born. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. 87. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love. Whilst Fire burst outward. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye. the divine. as more fine and thin. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^. as more 8s.

Similia similibus. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra.€i\divTa tov -)(a. o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. 92.\K6v . ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. t5i KaTTiripoii p. . Water But to wine more nearly is allied. ocra eyevovTO . . . . 44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Knowing that all things have their emanations. Thus Sweet seized Sweet. 91. atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris. [idpirre. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin. The Black River Bottoms.. will not mix with oil. flew. . 89. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. 90.. otvcM . ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. and upon Hot rode Hot. . yj/ous.

in the palms of Kypris shaped. . 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. Eyes. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade. they first Began to grow together . 98. Bones. KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots. pakurra. S' aiyXrjs. "^^^ 97- pdx. Blood and Flesh. Xupevecraiv . As. and one may same In hollow caves. ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis. ' And of Hephaestos four.Lv. Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra.if ^^X^ NiyariSos to. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}. Thence came white bones. The back-bone. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony..

ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u. A bell . From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh. diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp. 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei.. Sometimes a little more than theirs). aafe KevOav. e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp . ^ The Rushing Blood and 100. she met-wlt. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. irdKiv e/orveiei.~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Siapirepe^. Of Aphrodite anchored lay.rj(r6cu. after The Ear. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red. a fleshy twig. 99- KtoStav. And Rain and Ether. (Tapxivo^ 0^09.ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos. ako^iv <j>6vov p. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd.. the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. the Clepsydra.dv (TTop. And Earth within the perfect ports u.

bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. but the own weight. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed. And when from here the thin blood backward streams. Keeps it in check. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored.. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx.Kpa Kparvvtap.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. iraXij'. ws S' avrcD. But when again it forward leaps. dp. until the child at last . is cut a passage free. and. and so the blood remains within. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji.^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel. That falls inside against the countless holes. For air. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe. the air In turn breathes out. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water. oiSjuari ^Coi/. at their outlets.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Over the body's surface. In all. however.

then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk. holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. as air gives way. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in. that from without Comes pressing inward. 48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a. Until her hand will loosen. Scent. And thus got all things share of breath and smells. As the child keeps possession of the top. Left by their feet along the tender grass .. The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs. Even so it is. . But when again it forward leaps. When in the belly of the brazen clock lies. 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. As air drops down and in.: —— . sets free the thickened air.a)i>. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way. 102.. Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward. lOI. ..

106. Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa. 107. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought. According to the body's thrift and state. Even so through these men think. or grieve. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together . 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance. For unto men their thrift of reason grows. . The heart That men is nourished. 104..cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^.. where prevails the power call thought. On the PsychicJLife. --^i 105. In the blood-streams. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. back-leaping unto it. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye.^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia. 103. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi. For as of these commingled all things are.. rejoice.

50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op.pKvvovcri p. . . ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai. Through Ether. arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. . divine Ether luminous. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj.va^.€voLO p. devouring Fire. oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav.aro^ dttrav. so far night their thinking changes 109. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup. And Love through Hate. o aiaepa olov. e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op. ota kot avopa<s a t dp.epLp. through Fire. . oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji. Through Water. and endeavor pure.vpCa 8ciX. As By far as mortals change by day. Water. . io8. and Hate through doleful no. .oi'. For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju.. . reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL. Love.

rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands.a. drjcrei. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for service. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. III. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. myriad and vile. As men be after. — Dominion. vaXCvrLTa irvevp. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them. aye.evos oi t yarai/ opvup.ra CTrafcis* ef op. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds. <j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures. ^v ideXrjLO-da. where his essence lies. .

shalt thou arouse the blasts.52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. nourishing the mountain trees. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. . As down they stream from ether. at seasons good for men. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents. And watch them shrill. take their vengeance. And if thou wilt. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought. wild and For that before thou cowedst them.

112. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. XatpeT. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i.. The Healer and Prophet. no more as man. As god immortal now. All hail. fillets and well. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come . ft) (^tXoi.ai /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. THE PURIFICATIONS.iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^.. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends. ye stewards of good works.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk .v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap.vpioL i^epeoi/T£^. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos. axrirep Ibt/ca. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis. OL p. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's.

To thriving cities. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage. I am sought by prayers. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe. For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms. .a'^prjyia'p. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis.p.vdoi9. ovs iyo) i^epeo}. I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi. craving some oracles. S> <j)C\oi.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.cr[ia TraXaidi/. iiil <j)peva TTumo. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai opp.ij. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i. doomed to many deaths! — 114.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains. O friends. XcXd^aai /Sioio.

OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. There is a word of Fate. oTvyiovai.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. Charis abhors intolerable Fate. And in that brood I too am numbered now. 8e i/Sv ei/ii.aLvofiev(oi. ii6. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<. as failing of their pledge. . iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?. aWepiov p. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense. 6 S' aldipo^ ip. iraires. Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor.. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life. Neucel' p. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei. oaths. irCcrvvo's.kv yap <r<^e p. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven.09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL. made fast With amplest spirits. Or swear Shall forsworn.— . thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed.

es ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara. 117. . drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. 120. rj\vdop. joyless land. Slaughter and Grudge. place.e. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. voaoi. And then we came unto a roofed cave. a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World. For I This Earth of Ours. and troops of Dooms . was once already boy and girl. ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi.v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . A Where besides. beholding the strange 119. fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov. This Vale of Tears.ai /tcTa OvrjTois. 118..'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. 121. o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv. Kal (rTJ\lii. wept and wailed. Thicket and bird. and mute fish in the waves.

Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. 122. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! . And Filth. and Silence and prevaihng Voice. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. . Action and Rest. 123. 124. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . There was Earth-mother. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. burdened with the water-jars. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. And Labors. And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia..epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun. o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. . and Glory many-crowned. & iroTTOi.

the bays are worthiest fo^' souls. I2S. For from the living he the .. The Golden Age. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. Their forms exchanging. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. dead did make. But. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs . Are taway-lions.ei' yap l. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side. All things doth Nature change. 'tis. IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 126.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei. arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t. The Changing Forms.oe afieiprnv.os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live. flesh. €K ju. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv.T(ovi. 128. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127.

With painted images of living things. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . limbs. Poseidon then. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. Tavpwv S' a. ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. the king of gods. nor Kronos.. rjia yvZa. nor Kydoimos. . Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease. I2g. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage.. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv. 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. gainer of large wealth Of understanding. dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy.d?. Zeus. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all. redolent fumes of frankincense. nor . not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. .

oX)8to?. afi^pore Movtra. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. 131. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro.(f>aCvovTi. Orjpes T olo)voiT€. The Divine. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. throve. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. O Muse undying. KaXXtoTreta. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. SeiXos 8'. 132.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. and friendship's flame blew fair. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding. All things were tame. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more. O well with him who hath secured his wealth .e[n)\€i/. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. All beasts and birds. 130. For since. and gentle toward men. thou couldst deign soul. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s.

kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat. ineffable. We may not grasp It with our human hands. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. It hath no feet nor knees alert. Of thoughts Is divine. alone. ov p. Ojig^holy mind.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^s. but It lives. pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. ov iroSes.ovvov. (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. . And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu. For from Its back there swing no branching arms. With neither hands nor eyes. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p.er]t. ov doa yovva. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head. nor form Of tufted secret member. We may not bring It near us with our eyes. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai.

«us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv. Imploring their destroyers.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. Thus too the son Seizes the father. ^uoj^Tas. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. unthinking as ye are. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. . Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast. children the mother seize.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p.evoi. Animal SacriUpe. 136. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo. And reave of life and eath 138. their own dear flesh. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa. The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form. And slits A But the poor victims press.

... 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai. 143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. 140. nor dire Hecate's venging house. irdvhaXoi. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. tree SaXoi. Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. Ye ye altogether wretched. 142. . Sin. tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai.

61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi. And The excellent in honors. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains.64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Physicians sage. of Rebirth. O fast from evil-doing. feast At hearth and tals. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. and singers of high hymns. whence germinate the gods. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. diroKhrjpoi. The Progression 146. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. . seers at last. dreipei^.

152. Evening. 65 Man-enfolding Earth. iroXvatftarov -^Trap. .v. The cloud-collecting. iSSa. In seven times seven days. 149. IS3.axn. Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost. 148. The blood-full liver. ISO. the day's old age. The belly. isi- Life-giving.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. iv eirra €phop.

.

may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception." Lucr. the simulacra of Lucr. IV). (rroXd/tg) cf. 4. here E. of knowing: by every passage. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . "from [the realm of] Piety. I. 4. Trust sight no more than hearing. 2. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. Like smoke cf. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. Fr. 2. affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. 3.NOTES.. Cf. unlike Parmenides. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. Addressed to Pausanias. so elsewhere. Ill. 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf." By every . ceu fumus. etc. Fr. way fr. Fr. ON NATURE. in altas aeris auras. fr. Parmenides and other philosophers.. and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. : . cf. fr. 4SS-6. or device Empedocles. : Meek Piety's lit. Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna. "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices".

and to Fr. Here earth. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. the roll of his splendid verse. The four-fold root the four elements. is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf.. without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. though it had never made them GrundCf. and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth. and Aidoneus fire. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow." a very different. make Zeus air. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology. 245) at the most E. Fr. Here air.De an. for the reverent attitude. Zeller (p. soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence. 759) makes Zeus fire. — calls the stoffe." : PPF. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF). may chology." Moreover. reflected in this fragment. 78). Burnet (p. Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault. instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV).68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. also Gomperz. 'road. 3. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. Aristotle (.' The Roman critic (Hor. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. s. four elements. the "mistiform" . with the sensationalists of modem psyon another. following Knatz. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out. 427a 21-29) says that E. one sense as acting as a check consider. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things.. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. Ill.' 'pore. if. 243) and Bodrero (p. 6. also the "flowing" (like water). . De arte poetica. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. p. : me less effective figure. was poet no less than philosopher. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed. E. the gods Love and Strife.

PPF. is a Plenum. in- Fr. p. Elements (amx^ta).: properly. 8. fr. Psychol. it so. is nowhere preserved to us by E. etc.. : For there 'twill be. 759. E. "in In man." Fr. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. Cf.. the psychic (Siebeck. not believe. not only men but 267) I do all per- . Ppanl denotes with E. Parmenides. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. upon as is the idea of birth. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold . e. "doom of death" Fr.. supplied here and elsewhere. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. 207-8). 7. (cf.) E. had made ultimate reality a material One. d. 17. 10. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new. PPF). monism Fr. etc. the case of man. in a connection similar to 9 (cf. Heraclitus." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. etc. Pjfthagoras. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. Burnet." Fr. 53. Zeller. sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. however. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. any given object] be right there. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. quoted by Diels. p. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum. 9. 13-14. Gesch.THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES. 935 est sceleris vindex. 11-12." Diels. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov. 15.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. Plato. The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides. at least I take Fr. Plut. where any one every time puts it. Thales. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. Cf.

p. Zeller. 11 must apply. Two-fold the birth. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements. as the dynamic powers of the universe. 26. again. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying. "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense. 306). Thought and feeling with E. are part of the physical system. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for. ishable beings. conceived by E. the most significant. to which. . but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again." etc. The longest. But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. p. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). however. "The One" is tlie Sphere. 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". fr. and "our being" is but a physical being. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) . Efforts to relate them . PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere." "Aphrodite" under varying names.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 771 Tannery. as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv)." Cf." Diels. as Fr. 16. "Lovingness" and "Wrath. or to the Fr. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). as to every thing. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. p. preserved by Simplicius. as the elements come together. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. are the four elements. the thought of fV. of the Egyptian. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. 17. deed. in- however. Many details of the ." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text). and the most difficult of the fragments. and these are eternal only Zeller. in so far as their elements are eternal. "the Many. until. conception are still in dispute (cf. with the increased tendency ration.. Love and Hate: and "Strife.

almost as diffused gases. the m3fthological names of fr.. etc." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. who believes we period. Cf. Burnet (p. if — of the world. p. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things. and ciples. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p. out the thought with consistency of detail.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. are in the former period." And shut from them apart. when Love is supreme. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. "speeds revolving in the elements. 248 ff. whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn. I believe. equal in length and breadth. when Hate is supreme. a complete dissipation. Anaximander (but cf. e. Thus Strife is in equipoise. 305).. Burnet. etc. there is a freshness : . and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p. i. while Love. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf. Burnet.). The early philosophers corporealities . if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. Tannery. we have the harmony of the Sphere. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. p. 7I It must be noted that. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules." i. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists. So far have they a birth. e. 306) special properties nite thought in mind. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere. : : "thejr" refers. 6). is situated inside. etc. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

p. qualitatively distinct from the others. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. water conquers fire. by the way.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. are told that wood conquers earth. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. ments).72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 762. perfectly clear. Cf. 1907. with a passion. allusion to the theory of the pores. But there is nothing in E. 767. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. primeval. earth conquers water. There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. log). in the life of man. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. fr. or material. without ever ending in fire's dominating all. Cf. with (cf. to me at least. Zeller. p. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe." Paul Carus. its E. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. I think. translator has The ing (pCKlii . p. and metal conquers wood. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names. E. in this identification of a cosmic principle. p. 47. 26. Plut. 787). quoted by Diels. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf. Fr. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. 18. or simply to the fact that now this. that E." etc. : Behold these elements own equal strength. but each. Cf. Chinese Thought. etc. or a faculty. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. fr. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. fire conquers metal. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller. PPF. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. or Earth.'s thought that seems to correspond. with identified which usually by the commentators. or Water. Zeller.

'the beginnings of things. and earth to the earthy. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere). with this Fr. 608) phrases which. as I understand them. formed. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. But were it so interpreted. Air seems to be unrepresented. fragment fr. and both as formed of fire separated from the air. like tree or fish. Fr. are not. There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. 231).' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott)." Diels." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. 57-62. Fr. The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. out of the elements . "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. 19. e. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. But come. 20. though "in honors excellent. 73 With reference here to water. or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. hardly the bright heaven. 41. . the planets as free. I.. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. rain to the watery. is here speaking of things as they are. Cf. 62. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. hence. 21. the aery expanse of day. on fr. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk. however. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for E." they are not immortal. 1. I. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air. Line i has been supplied by the translator. PPF. etc. one might well note that E.

this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. eh ha Kiaiiov. The simile were then doubly striking. till. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. fr. Whiles in fair order: Or. 'divinitjf" (Seov). Gomperz. as analogous to the four elements. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. 5. is reasonable reason. : The goddess: lit. p. Cf. Fr. One may Cf. 4. . repetition. 23.. gi. p. 17. Tannery.74 Fr. 237. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. cf. XV. mentioned several times by E. . as the unifying process goes on. which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. and can only mean. Cf. 247. as I understand it. important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings." none the worse for Byron. note to fr. 21. note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E.succumb : i. (cf. fragment to the four primary colors. 17 . . 22. 26. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements. Fr. . 247 ff. "A If good. etc. undoubtedly the Muse. 308. Fr. mixing harmonious. in the dead harmony of the Sphere. 131). this Gomperz (p. cf. I think. the universal law of being. e.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. 233) sees a reference in etc. f r. Also Burnet. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Heaven : air . Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. 25. when grown.. Burnet.. For amber Sun. fr. Cf. after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. p. Don Juan. .

when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. The figure may be Pythagorean. their equilibrium". 27. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance." universe. Harmony. as a noun (meaning. a (1. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr. Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. fitted. e. were the personified "fitting. all . for the figure. and perhaps. p.'s present spherical universe. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur. interpretations of the nature of the ff. i." Diels. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. though not altogether satisfactory. as here. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love." Bodrero assumes (p. of the point of view adopted in these pages. if Pythagorean. but the union of Love and Hate.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. There: in the Sphere. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading." If examined narrowly. Burnet. as . however. composed. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought. y is. Moreover. Sphere. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone. latebris PPF. which was spherical and immovable. as it seems to here. but Kp<i*os. and is usually. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai. one would "adaptation. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars. For various ancient cf." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai.. and wonders if a line may have been lost. not as hiding it somewhere in space. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. however. Prof.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but the four elements. then. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. difficulties must be admitted.

Ht. Nor form Fr. is Fr. the naked and the swift. 134. £. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. and says "e Plut. I say." Diels. and the things of time to come and of time that is past. . not ex- Tannery thinks (p. God: the Sphere. itXot&s : SpKov. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense.' Cf. 30. fr. 32.902. in part identical. PPF." 814.the final resultant of the disordered movements .'" Fr. e. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. Cf. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact." And again (p.. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. the totality of divine beings and powers. Fr. Zeller. 35. Amplest oath Gr. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man. 813 . and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere. i. 33. . Cf. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. 3) "If thou wilt separate. in con"Hate . like a baker. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. p. pressit Fr. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. though in a corrupt form. Fr. note to fr. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. fr. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. and in its joyous : rest reposing. apparently of the Divine. learn from the doxographers. according to Karsten and Burnet. 31.48. where expressions. 314) is the principle of division and movement. 'broad oath. 34. 29. itself cf.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. 'AH round. Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere. 115. Fr. are used fr.

. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. PPF. Zeller. 116. although this seems. 784. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. Fr. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf. 30) . 22. and is finally excluded altogether. and fr. Not all blameless i. however. 3. This chaos. Heidel. preceding fragment . it was. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex. but with the 26. W. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek." etc. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. "and from their mingling. The two states are again contrasted in p. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. Cf. 36. 787. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. mixed. right and wrong. identified with the Sphere. attraction of Cf.. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low. Class. e. Philology. 130. note to : fr. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity." Bodrero." They The elements. Hate retreated under protest." But cf. July 1906). fr. if anything more than a poetic touch. : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. I. p. caused. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. 17 and 26. : the circumference of the vortex. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. according to Tannery by Hate. : Cf. The members: the elements. fr. A. or vortex.

was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. But cf. fr. How the sun." Emerson." the vaulted sky of his imagination.). day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. a mere reflection. tal vault of heaven. involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower." the "awful heights of Air. "Bread. however. 39. thicker. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. As forsooth Heraclitus. 'light up. 100 (q. 44. at versus recuperari nequit. : "With Ether.. Deorum. unless ether be here used.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf. p.) Cf. and sky that holds them all. as opposed to the upper air. 786. 38. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air. Stickney. . with reference to the fiery sky (cf. Fr. notes to Cicero's De Nat. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. v. Lucr. Days." the earth. I. PPF. 109 on sense perceptipn. Fr.78 Fr." Diels. E. and of Emerson's etc. the pure ether. This. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 41. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements.. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i. p. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). ''cetera Cf. indeed. "Moist air" is .'s "Ether. one finds nothing representative of fire. stars. Burnet.' •blaze')—a sense. some tongues. e. "without. for fire. assuming any elemental difference." Tannery. note to fr. it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. II 1114 sq. its 254. for slight differences of interpretation. however. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. 37. fools. mist" by Burnet. 317. the all splendorous. but is in keeping with E. and Zeller. kingdoms. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. 789." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E. as by Anaxagoras." p.

Fr. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. followed here. and. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. E. irapb. the olive. Fr. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. Kal yX'qvti \i.' or something of the sort. The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. on Apoll.. 790. 48. and one-half . ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri. 47. E. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . Zeller. Odys. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. p. "Seirii Cf." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac. see note on fr. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth. Zeller." used especially of Athene. II. fr. and E. I. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr." whom the Iliad (A.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. air. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. : by Merrill and Riddell. Schol. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations. bearing with it its sun (see fr. 43. Fr. 45. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. A.ii. Cf." is used of the willow. himself uses 93) of the elder. E. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. Her lord: the sun. it 7XouKos (fr. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. a darker of Cf. who speaks of "Selene mild. Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v. 41). a lighter of fire." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen. Fr. 31). 46. Fr. 42. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):. whose revolution produces day and night. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor.irta>. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. 200) says. 786 flf. Rhod. ." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air. 43. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf. 41).

see fr. which. in E. For authenticity cf. condensing function. : Cod with god There seems Gr.: of fire. so. B 3. "It" refers to air. as air a downward (see fr. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. Fr. fire has a crystallizing. 62. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i. 55. is 17) fr. Fr. 52. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as criticized the water gush forth. e. Burnet (p. Fr. with the other elements. Burnet. p. {. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. Fr. totle. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. had an upward. 35] made Burnet." And upward. II. 56.e." i. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. Zeller. S7-6i. Cf. The phrase is not. increasing . The Greek imagination was long fato be . See note to fr.'s thought. fr. the fourth period . 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. was at first mixed with water. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. sometimes advanced. 73. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air...). but the inFr. p. S3. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf. Diels. that E. 51.80 Fr.. tific charming poetry. 79S) . then. etc. Fr. 261. "Met. as common in Sicily. in the period of the present Cf. S4) tendency. when Hate world). 54." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr. its pores in the form of drops. PPF. Love and Hate. no reason for the conjecture. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. functions attributed by E.. Sal/tovi Salnuy. e. et corr. With E. p. e.. 51. on the other hand to another process (i. 256.

whole Warm warm : ditions in E.. we perhaps. 63." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom. For 'tis in part in man's : i. This present is. 65. The sundered Are: Gr. Cyclops." Williams. Fr. so a medical colleague informs me. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. as rational as most modern theories. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. by a collection (originally from Marburg). the latter inducing decay." Though E. sleep. dites 8 miliar with centaurs.'' Lucr." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched. old age. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. Fr. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex. Fr. Cf.'s system. See notes to fr.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. satyrs. The genera. 1239. it is an anticipation of modern embryology.143- . containing some 936 old volumes on monsters. fire "Of men and women.." Fr. IV. in part in the male semen. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. chimxras. lit. as he gazes. 62. death. is speaking here of mankind. the pitied and bewailed. An alternative reading. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Obstetrics (1904)1 P. e. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. waking well Old memories. E. 64. S7-6j. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum. explained conception as a union of male and female semen. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him.

with the skin. finger-nails. turtle's shell. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. Aristotle {Pneumat. 80. Trees were supposed by E. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. 66. quite in the spirit of our own physiology. 56. 73. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). present in the breast after the first few months. however. consisting chiefly of keratin.. not A tC^s ('colostrum'). like horn. Colostrum is. E. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). 74. Kypris: Aphrodite. 75-76. Here the bones. Fr. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter.82 Fr. 69. Fr. Twice-hearing: i. 79. Fr. The Fr.. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. etc. morphologically connected. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. however. if my be- available lexical information be correct. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. 68. E. fr. 484a 38) says that E. White pus: Gr. could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. 70. To speed of fire that she might Cf. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. the earthen part (in modern science. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. t6 iriov. — Fr. Fr. Fr. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. to the shells on the outside of is. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . 77-78. Love.e. the "embryo" Fr. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. others. the lime) within some animals are related. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. 71. laid Fr. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds.

: a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. 96. give to the emanations of each a free passage.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 82. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr. however inadequate. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. p. Cf." bringt. and "horny." though not in the text." Gomperz. of the poet-scientist Goethe. Cf.. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern. p. From which Bolts of love i. 87. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn. who has preserved us the fragment. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln . Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. following Aristotle. 801. was an attempt. 235. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering. Fr. Burnet. Fr. 83 thick skin. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. water for the dark. apple." Zeller. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. 84. e. which admitted. Dort aber geht es. 86. the pores of which. but for the slangy connotations. Fr. Fire serves for perceiving the bright. fr. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. the subjective factor. must be understood here. moreover. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes. note on fr. eine harte Verhindung zustande. Fr. 2. however reluctantly. 89. Fr. 88. to explain percepIt was an attempt. 92. go. Cf." Fr. of the eye contains "Emp. : p. Diels (FV). from these elements. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. alternately arranged for each element. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt. Fr. 267. 77-78.

96." . andere bei Nacht heller sehen. 39). 43. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood. the eyes. p. Bodrero. dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. This fragment (cf. 107 ff. Ether. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. ovviKvpae. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis." Fr. 98. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. Silvery : See note to f r. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus. Fr. aquae." Fr. 102. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not." as Bodrero translates it. fr. 100. 93. 99. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. Thus bones are formed fire. dass einige bei Tag. following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. Fr.'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. Thus completed by Diels (FV). Cf. Cf. . Cf." Fr. 97. as grotesque as it is ingenious. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. Aeshy sprout E.. fr. of 2 parts earth. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. it is As a theory of respiration. She met: Gr. following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii." : Fr.84 Fr. 103. They I e. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV).. aeris arcessit. among others. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. 9S. inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science. Quaest. gests in Empedocles' system. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us. a word. : A The — Fr. 2 parts water. 94. admisceatur. will sometimes emphasize a term.

loi. upoij scientific experiment. 802. with consciousness. note on fr. as in some passages Cf. though in form of a Burnet points out. rests. (cf. p. e. perhaps. e. The mites are the emanations. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down. p. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. Cf. 103. Fr. but E. 98. Gomperz. but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. 803. 102. Got: lit.. Fr." But E.i seems to be a hylozoist. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. a cor- All that is left of E. did not mean here. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. 245). I think. p. as 85 the clepsydra. Here. 104. The top b was not altogether open. fr. PPF). following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. unless fr. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics. Zeller. it : Diels. . Zeller. Fr.'s theory of scent. 230) will. elsewhere. 105.. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . 100. The lightest: supply "bodies." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. . The comparison with Homeric simile. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. In the blood streams : cf. Cf." Fr. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 109 be so interpreted (but cf. Fr. 98. E. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs." i. Chance: cf. etc. nowhere credits the elements as such. : i. note to f r. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus.

Burnet. possibly "charms" is better. addressing Pausanias. Italian school of medicine. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. 802. as sugme by a friend.. consciousness.: . : Cf. Galen makes E. note on fr. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. The dominion over human ills. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. 107. note on fr. 109. quoted by Diels. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking. Through Earth. a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature.. Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Cf. was early imputed to . and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. windstorms. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. gested to Drugs: Gr. Fr. e. Cf. io6.'' Lucr. Plotinus yeyevTiniros. is the microcosm. III. E. 106. my sound psychology. 108. e. as elsewhere. sondern er hat das.. sickness. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft. . For of themselves. 86 Fr. doctrine. no.they grow. etc. drought and death. PPF. and Philop. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. etc. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. 802). (p&p/iaKa. Fr. All things have Axed intent Fr.. These: the elements. the founder of the Cf. : i. p..: interpretation just above be correct. — Zeller. p. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. here promised to Pausanias. Ill. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. 445-6. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf. "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. p. 215. 17). Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr. . All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here.

One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. p. "Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following. As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed. conservatively by Burnet (p. 112. to Study of Greek Religion. the courage of man). and. Harrison. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. (cf. if an (cf. Empedocles himself tue of these lines. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. 213. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. p. e. followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. as the latter. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. Burnet. has here .. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. Fr. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. 113. radically by Bodrero (passim). of the THE PURIFICATIONS. perhaps.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Proleg. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition." Cf. Fr. and his references). though attempts at a reconciliation have been made. 87 Introduction) .. our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation. I. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. a god and so much above mankind?" E. 271). The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. and not. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. to the citizens of Acragas. 589. The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum.

269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. etc. Fr. essere arbusto. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr.. Zeller. 249 S." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. p. p. In the On Nature (fr. bloodshed of animals. Cf. fr. Sat/ioves. by some interpreted as 10.000 years.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. Fr. Burnet (p. : Be born through time. fr. also Gomperz. Fr. rpU iivplai «5pot. fr. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. e tomo ad Bodrero. In offense: in sin. 30. Cf. refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. compatible with the On Nature. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. IIS. fanciullo e giovinetta. Cf. With amplest oaths: cf. 35) E. 117. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. 116. though apparently certi determinati esseri. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. sinfully. 780. 147. e. Cf. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. Those far spirits: Gr. 139]. 136. 146). etc. p. familiar four elements." according to Bodrero (p. pesce. uccello. it i. Charis: Aphrodite. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: . is probably Pythagorean in origin. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. p. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. 271). the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. Moreover.

was . notes to loc. as he entered. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf. 122 and 123 itself. 118.^nd I was a maiden. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). parallels see Munro and Guissani. 226. if the scene be earth." According to this. A joyless land it. which. 118. 119." If this interpretation be correct. : with fr. banishment from heaven. plains. 614 ff.'' I. Newbold. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I. "Infans. . wander... Proleg. a bird. after 119). it has been suggested to me by Prof. 590. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell.) but that E. Fr. representing. p. cf. upon his earthly career (cf." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean. Chap. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell. p. Harrison. sed agri inundationibus vexati. Cf.. For other Fr. V." Lucr. Prometheus Unbound. note to fr. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits. which. 169. cit.' Harrison." etc. earth if the literary tradition be reliable. fr. XI. to Study of Greek Religion. to Study of Greek Religion. this refers. A bush. Fr. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari. is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. 121. vagituque locum lugubri complet. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. Cf. Proleg.

90
Fr. 122.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
There:
i.e.,

in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this

earth.

Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
"&«'
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv

that

follow are

feminine.
II.

E.

evidently

imitates the catalogue of

Nymphs

in

S

39:
Kt\,

TXaiKV

re,

edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the

life,

of the

blessed to the (relative) death

on

this earth,

where souls are

wrapped
"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,
:

PPF)
0af

:

"X^et

dt Kal

'E.
ii

ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having
antiquity.

souls,

a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate

A

On

the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in

battle.

Unmixed blood:
as such,
is

the figure

is

from unmixed wine, which,

thick

and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.

(PPF)

In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
cumque
sive decern sive viginti

9I

hominum

saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose
:

e

comuni"

(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,

etc.

:

"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,

aether

und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."

FV.

Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.
'

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.

fr.

"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to
105],

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note

on

fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle
;

«

92
.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
of
.

life

(cf.
,

Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,

p.

628).

t:
Fr. 142.
fr.

''etiam sensus incertus,
13s,

utrum lovis
Diels,

et

Hecates regna

(cf.

2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus
fr.

sit

scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."

PPF.

Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.

Fr.

144.

George Herbert uses the same

figure

somewhere

in his

poems.
Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.

The

last

words

left

us of the

all

too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human
Tf/i

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.

p.

683

E

\post

fr.

80],

quoted by Diels, PPF).

Of
Of

air.

Aphrodite.
21,

Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,
Gr.
/Soi//3<J,

quoted by Diels, PPF.
irop'

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is

•E/iveSok\€:."

Hesych., quoted by Diels,

PPF.
mal

Fr. iS3a.

Diels

(FV)

translates the doxographer: "In sieben

sieben

Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung

nacK)

durchgebildet."

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful