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Fragments of Enipedocles;
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1924 028 975 923

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TRITBNER £ 1908 CO. ENGUSH DEFASTMBNT. Ph. D.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH VERSE BY WILLIAM ELLERY LEONARD. LTD. . TRENCH. ONIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN CHICAGO THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY LONDON AGENTS KEGAN PAUL..

wonderful.. . 716 if. and dear Than this true man. The Lifts up its voice music of his breast divine and tells of glories found That scarce he seems of human stock create. ever so far and pure . lofty Lucretius. Whom that three-cornered isle of all the lands which. I. COPYRIGHT BV THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING igo8 CO. Nor aught more holy. hath ne'er Possessed within her aught of more renown. . though for much she seem Bore on her coasts The mighty and the wondrous isle. Sc yJ Empedocles . . Nay. .

and rejoice little. . E. Dec. 1906. when the long day's task was through. The quiet comer of the scholar's ease In last my How often.. Or old Pythagoras' mystic One and Two..) winter by Atlantic seas. Madison. following his star goes inland where the strangers are Build him a house of goodly memories So take this book in token. W. in nights of friendliness with you. (To W. Wis.: — — DEDICATION. N. I found. you That I richer having heard your voice. Or heartened me with Plato's larger view. Or the world-epic of Empedocles: It cost When man When man am but such things as these. While you explored the Orphic liturgies. R. goes inland. L.

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THIS translation was made at the suggestion of my R. May 14.. R. It is a genuine pleasure to acknowledge my special obligations to Professor Newbold and to Professor E. . I am indebted to Dr. McGilvary of the philosophical department at Wisconsin for their kindness in reading the manuscript and adding several valuable suggestions. My indebtedness to the critics frequently have in all points tried to exercise an independent judgment. B. Dr. W. Most citations from works not accessible in English are given in translation. to illustrate the text: they touch only incidentally on the doxographical material and give thus by no means a complete account of all it is possible to know about Empedocles's is philosophy. 1907. Newbold. William Ellery Leonard. Wis. in the hope of interesting here and there a student of thought or a lover of poetry. Professor of Greek Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. J. Blackman of the department of physiology at the University of Wisattested in the references.PREFACE. The introduction and notes are intended merely friend. Madison. but I consin for medical references.

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To his Friend IS 15 Limitations of Knowledge The Elements 17 19 19 Ex Nihilo Nihil The Plenum Our Elements Immortal Love and Hate. the Poet. The Man. PAGB Preface v : Empedocles Life. I Personality 2 3 3 Works History of the Text Translations 4 The Ideas of Empedocles The Poetry of Empedocles Bibliography.TABLE OF CONTENTS. the Everlasting The Cosmic Process Love and Hate in the Organic World 20 20 20 23 24 25 26 From the Elements is All We See Similia Similibus An The Analogy Speculative Thinker An Aphorism The Law of the The Sphere Elements 27 27 28 29 30 31 Physical Analogies The Conquest The World of Love Similia Similibus as It 32 Now Is 33 Earth and Air not Illimitable 33 . the Philosopher. 4 9 13 On Nature.

The Healer and Prophet Expiation and Metempsychosis This Earth of Ours 53 This Sky-Roofed World This Vale of Tears The Changing Forms The Golden Age The Sage 54 56 56 56 58 58 59 60 60 62 Those Days The Divine Animal Taboos Sin Sacrifice The Progression Notes of Rebirth Last Echoes of a Song Half Lost 63 63 64 65 67 . On Animals and Plants 35 3° 3° 3° 39 4^ Our Eyes Similia Similibu'S The Black River Bottoms Eyes Bones Blood and Flesh The Ear The Rushing Blood and the Clepsydra Scent 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 48 On The the Psychic Life 49 Si Dominion Purifications.viii THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. PAGB Sun and Moon The Darkling Night 33 35 35 35 35 Wind and Rain Fire The Volcano Air Things Passing Strange Strange Creatures of Olden Times The Process of Human Generation To-day.

and flourished just before the Peloponnesian war. He might: but the de- are all too imperfectly recorded. The brief references in other philosophers and the vita of Diogenes Laertiys contain dictory or legendary. falling at last from popular favor. much that is contraThough apparently of a wealthy and conservative family. he left Agrigentum and died in the Peloponnesus his famous leap into Mount Aetna being as mythical as his reputed — . but. according to the tradition of antiquity. the city while Anaxagoras unfolded to so different from his own. the contemporary of the He might have heard the Prometheus in the theatre of Dionysus and have talked with Euripides in the Agora. THE common Agrigentum philosopher Empedocles. he took the lead among his fellow citizens against the encroach- ments of the aristocracy. was born at in Sicily. or have seen with Phidias the bright Pallas Athene on the Acropolis or have listened in the groves beyond great Athenians about Pericles. tails of his life him those half-spiritual guesses at the nature of the universe. THE POET. LIFE. as it seems. . THE PHILOSOPHER.EMPEDOCLES: THE MAN.

Diels's Gorgias und Empedocles in Sitsungsberichte d. after two thousand years.and now. "Crowned both with fillets and with flowering wreaths. P. the study of impulse. restores the exiles: Florence at last set Dante before the gates of Santa Croce... . and alley thousands of the fearful and the sick crowded upon him and besought oracles or healing words. in purple vest and golden girdle.. But time the image translation after a sacrificial meal . 'From Empedocles. the hardy democrats of Agrigentum begin to cherish (so I have read) the honest memory of Empedocles with that of Mazzini and Garibaldi. The personality of this old Mediterranean Greek must have been impressive.. eloquent^ soul that he was. Wissenschaften. rhetoric got its first men and women how from house indeed. And stories have come down to us of his wonderful deeds. as the waking of a woman from a long trance and the quite plausible cure of a madman by music. according to Aristotle. And egotistic. with elements frankly drawn from legends not here mentioned appear in Arnold's poem. 1884. but the poet. Akademie d. how throngs of his accompanied him along the road. He was not only the statesman and philos6pher." and he tells us of his triumphal passage through the Sicilian cities. Cf.2 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. K. he seems to have considered himself above all as the wonder-worker and the hierophant. Some traces of this imposing figure. of PERSONALITY. melancholy.

^ HISTORY OF THE TEXT.. It is impossible to : determine when the poems were lost they were read doubtless by Lucretius and Cicero. confusing diversities in the readings as well as in the general arrangement. lost . Of many menides. and of these we possess but the fragments preserved in the citations of philosopher and doxographer from Aristotle to Simplicius. Stephanus published Empedoclis Fragmenta at Paris in 1573. though but a small part of the whole. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. imputed to Empedocles by presumably only two are genuine. who at least quotes from the On Nature at length. possibly as late as the sixth century by Simplicius. . 3 WORKS. Each except Stein's is accompanied by Latin trans- The writings of Democritus are conjectured to have been between the third and fifth centuries. But till not the nineteenth century did they get the at( tention they deserve.* works. 1805) Karsten ( 1838) Stein ( 1852) and Mullach ( i860) which show. are much more numerous and comprehensive than those of either Xenophanes or Parthe antiquity. The fragments were mine. as far as I have been able to detertranslated by the great German Xylander. however. in the editions of Sturz . his first imperfectly collected late in the Renaissance. the poems On Nature and the Purifications. who them into Latin. which.

and Burnet and Fairbanks in their works on early Greek philosophy literal English translations. all that I have seen being in prose. the former's in verse. and subsequently (igo6). and some work of distinguished scholars. LawWarner's Library of the World's Best Literature. But our best text is unquestionfirst ably that of Hermann Diels of Berlin. Diels in his Fragmente one in German. can reconstruct something of Empedocles's system out of the fragments themselves and out of from references 'I have not seen the original of Sturz's edition. in his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. but I gather in my reading that it contains a translation. selections in the English ton may be found in THE IDEAS OF EMPEDOCLES. There is one in German hexameters from the earlier decades of the last century. none assuredly does any kind of justice to his poetry. hexameters of W. and notes. C. The works of Frere and of Symonds contain specimen renderings. Bodrero in his // Principio one in Italian. the latter's in prose. Tannery gives a literal French translation in his work on Hellenic Science. and a few brief rather loose for the The late P. We . of which the former's is the better. Probably Diels does most justice to the meaning of Empedocles. pub- lished in 1901 in his Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta. TRANSLATIONS. As Latin said above.4 lation* THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. with a few slight changes and additions. there are several translations into .

in the Notes. There no real creation or annihilation in this universal round of things but an eternal mixing and unmixing. To the water of the fire Thales. yet our knowledge is and even from the earliest times has there been diversity of interpretation. but his a brief survey of what seems to be thought as a whole." These are the celebrated "four elements" of later In the beginning. and declares them as universe. Love and Hate. There is something in the conception suggestive of .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. more the natural scientist than the diamore the Spencer than the Hegel of his times. With Parmenides he denies that the aught can come from or return to the naught with HeraSicilian is . if we philosophy and magic. the air of Anaximenes. the allusions in the ancients . 5 by no means precise. albeit the lectician. as they come up. •Various problems are discussed. even at the risk of some repetition. the of all Heraclitus he adds earth. which seems to transcend may so speak of a vision . may help the general reader to get his of the bearings. the chemistry of later times. due to two eternal powers. clitus is he affirms the principle of development. The philosophy On Nature may be con- sidered as a union of the Eleatic doctrine of Being with that of the Heraclitic Becoming. and alike primeval. of one world-stuff in its sum unalterable and eternal. "The fourfold root of all promise and the potency of the things.

each separated and unmixed. Moreover. came the elements one by one first. Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex. And thus arose two hemispheres. beside one another in the shape of a perfect sphere. these four." things. which took the upper space. together forming the hollow vault of the terrestrial heaven above and below us. means the complete dissipation and destruction of things as such. a whirling mass. : which. that seems to be the first stage in the worldprocess after the motionless Out of this harmony of the sphere.6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. in the sarfte way. rested." Whereupon. new world-periods arise. "Knit in all forms and wonderful to But the complete mastery of Hate. by the uniting bond of Love. . again ''exultant in surrounding solitude. like the nebula in Orion or the original of our solar system. like the secular aeons of the nebular hypothesis of to-day. until Love. winning the upper hand. the origin of which he may have explained in some lost portion of his poem. the . and crowded air beneath her. of an egg then fire. condensing or thickening. held together to develop at last into the world and the individual see. which ends in the still and lifeless sphere of old. which by the entrance of Hate was gradually broken up time. air. as some maintain. begins to unite and form another 'world of life and beauty. encompassed the rest in the form of a glolae or. and in continual interchange follow one another forever.

Then ani- . the quantitative differences of the combinations pro- duced qualitative differences of sensible properties.— . of the other elements came the ably something It too warm and slimy. sprinkled with the patches of fire we call stars. through the unceasing mixing and separation of the four elements. The development of organic life. in the period of the conflict of Love and Hate. for this revothe cause of day earth. the greater light to rule the day. First the plants. prob- ing and the evening of the lution of the vault is. took place. for signs and seasons. worked within her. sprang up. or because of fire's intrinsic push and pressure for Em- — pedocles's physics are here particularly obscure this vault begins to revolve: and behold the mornday. without form and was involved in the whirl of things. and the same force which expels the water from a sponge. Furthermore. when swung round and round in a boy's hand. and night. because still in unstable equilibrium. and for days and years. Out void. "J the dafk of air. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. germinations out of earth. And. first he tells us. or because bearing something of the swift motion of the vortex. in which the interest of Empedocles chiefly centers. bright entirely of fire. as we have seen. and the lesser light to rule the night and it made the stars also. and the moist spurted forth and its evaporation filled the under spaces of air. and the dry land appeared. conceived as endowed with feeling. And the everlasting Law made two great lights.

" but he is of creation. some others from Vorlander. of the subjective element in man's experience with the outer world. Geschichte der Philosophie. perhaps. I. they developed into the organisms we see about us. and his affirmation of the consciousness of matter. his theory of perception. are. arms. the chance unions of which resulted in grotesque shapes until joined in In another passage fit — number and proportion. the earliest recog- with the possible exception of Alcmaon of Croton. which. Band. modern sci- ence.— 8 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. • Some portions of the above paragraphs are translated and condensed from Zeller. in our day with our resources of knowledge. mals arose piecemeal he tells us in one passage h^ads. so affinities of His theory of the attraction of suggestive of the chemical nition. in company with to Haeckel. would have been in the forefront of the world's seekers after that Reality which even the last and the greatest seek with a success too humble to warrant much smiling at those gone before. for our purposes sufficiently explained in the notes. Behind pedocles. probably speaking of two separate periods Empedocles was a crude evolutionist. eyes. sight. in- and generalizing power of a profound mind. all the absurdities of the system of Em- we recognize the keen observation. 1903.* like for like. we hear how first rose mere lumps of earth "with rude impress. roaming ghastly through space. . Leipsic. so many later materialists. even down who puts the soul in the atom.

the resplendent works of that clear lamp Of glowing sun. and occasionally even his phrase. And And all the starry signs along the sky. Lucretius.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And burning might of stars made haste to fr. and Xenophanes was more poetsatirist than poet-philosopher. Parmenides had written "And thou shalt know the Source etherial. The Milky Way. . Likewise of wandering works of round^eyed moon Shalt thou yet learn and of her source . and then Shalt thou know too the heavens that close us roundBoth whence they sprang and how Fate leading them Bound fast to keep the limits of the stars How earth and sun and moon and common sky. ii. lo. for Heraclitus had written in crabbed prose. as sometimes in philosophic terminology. be. Diels. is in this their only successor. the only Greek philosophers 9 Empedocles and his forerunner Parmenides were who wrote down their systems in verse. and whence they all arose. FV. have suggested the innovation. he recalls the Eleatic. but in mood and manner. the poetical disciple of Empedocles (though not in the same degree that he was the philosophic disciple of Epicurus). but both Parmenides and Empedocles were poets by nature. and I see no reason why they should not naturally and spontaneously have chosen the poet's splendid privilege of verse for their thought."* •Parmenides. as Burnet conjectured. The Ionic dialect of Empedocles's hexameters. Ol3mipos outermost. Contemporary reflective satire and the metrical forms of the Orphics may. is Homeric. THE POETRY OF EMPEDOCLES.

There is first the grandeur of his conception. even the pseudoits validity. He was true poet. And an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates like the stupendous error Hegelian logic of history. his fragments as For. A science of Goethe's vertebral theory of the skull.® the Ittttol raC fie <j)epov(nv. and an essential element in the poem. and we might add thereto those verses of another it is And as if poet of more familiar times "And thou shalt write a song like mine.: : — lO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. that yet suggests the great principle of morpholog'Diels. the same yesterday. as thou art more than I. long after the intellect has settled with the dogmas of orthodoxy. Arnold has borrowed from it one of the best lines of Empedocles on Aetna "Ye sun-born Virgins on the road of truth. The nine circles of the subterranean Abyss lose none of their impressiveness for us because the author of the we know more of geology than Inferno. although Empedocles has left a whole seem much more worth while. he were addressing the Agrigentine and bequeathing him his spiritual heritage. towering over the wrecks of time." ! . FV. Its untruth for the intellect of to-day should not blind us to for power the imagination. The Ptolemaic astronomy of Paradise Lost is as real to the student of Milton as the Copernican to the student of Laplace. and yet Much more than mine." us no passage of the gorgeous imagination of Parmenides's proem. The imagination can glory in the cross of Christ. to-day and its truth and perhaps forever.

the mystery. But the aeons of change never end and the revolution. circle forever." .THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. with her sightless eyes. for "Night. the powers of life and death are at work. and at last we are in the habitable world. the arms. Love and Hate contend in the bosom of nature as in the bosom of man we sweep on in fire and rain and down the silence of the primeval : . There is too the large poet's feeling for the color. this sky-roofed cave of the fruitful vine and olive. for Empedocles is strikingly concrete. the thrill and the enthusiasm before the large idea. comes full — ." amid the monstrous shapes. argues greater mind of man than any truth. the lonely. the heads. the : of the world about us for the wide glow of blue heaven. this shaggy earth. "awful heights of Air. for the rain streaming down on the mountain trees. ical II things for the and functional metamorpfcosis. of the multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts. life the movement. for the wind-storm riding in from ocean. and of men and women. but out of the darkness and the abyss there comes a sound one by one do quake the limbs of God. all wonderful to see. And Our and a poetic response. is impressive to imagination to intellect : we stand with him amid the awful Sphere that yet exults in surrounding solitude. as we have seen. in the world of petty facts. in space. however the response of the soul poet's conception is ingeniously discovered. the glaring eyes.

There is the poet's relation to his kind. . of the poet. the sympathy with "men and women. ." the interest and the joy in the activities of man: how now one lights his lantern and sallies forth in the wintry night how now another mixes his paints . because so an austere simplicity. in the sunlight for a variegated picture of trees and birds which a little girl. not the critic.12 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. .But I am the translator. the diverbird skimming the waves with its wings. "Plays with a waterclock of gleaming bronze. which relates the author by achievement to that best period of Greek art to which he belonged by birth. how now down by the brook." who fates after their little share of lifted life with briefest "Like smoke are up and flit away. though that soil was the birth-place of Lucretius. which suggests so much. the pitied and bewailed. is the poet's instinct for the eflfective it tells phrase. on the mountain side. and a roll of rhythm as impassioned and sonorous as was ever heard on Italian soil. is to adorn the temple ." There little . by Aphrodite. and for the lion couched "The songless shoals of spawning fish" that are "nourished in deep waters" and led. it may be.

Cited as "Tannery. New York. London.) Tannery. Source Book in Greek Philosophy. Four Phistoire de la science helline. acumen . New York. man. perhaps.") Symonds. (Contains partial prose translation. New somewhat Cited as "Gomperz. but came to hand after the present volume was in press. Greek Thinkers. 1907. and independent. I wrote to Professor Diels about it. cited as found sufficient Blakewell. BoDRERO in his fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle' "Bodrero") gives a valuable bibliography. inspiring.) 1892. be II Principio (Rome. York. chap. tions. Cush- me as remarkable for its scholarship and as for the speciousness of its views. fanciful. vol. pendent. I.) (lOMFERZ. New York. Studies of the Greek Poets. London. who answered. 1899•This book seems to Paris. for the general reader the following will. Burnet. (Good critical appreciation. VII. Fairbanks. History of Ancicnt Philosophy. with some prose transla1893. (Contains translations of the doxographers on Empedocles.") WiNDELBAND. vol. but by Laurie Magnus. E. (Keen and inde- Cited as "Burnet."). by H. save for the surprising omission of the work of Burnet. The First Philosophers of Greece. that he had not as yet found time to examine it. 1887. 1904.. L. however. Bodrero is presumably known and accessible to the special student. Early Greek Philosophy.. almost exhaustive for the study of our philosopher. (Keen trans. trans. (Beautifully written.: BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1901. 1898.

I. FV. zweite Auflage. the comments of the doxographers in the Greek. original notes in Latin. sic. Teil. Cited as "Diets. (Contains Poetamm Philosophorum Fragmenta. PPR") " Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. and a few. erster Band. the above mentioned texts of Berlin. Berlin. 1906. Leip- 1892. 1901. (Cited as "Zeller. Zeller. funfte Auflage. Cited as "Diels. but very useful.14 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.") . Die Philosophic der Griechen.") And DiELS. (Contains German translation.

Like smoke they are lifted up and flit away.fL^\vvov(rt fiepCfivas. t d.6vov TreLcdepTes. Pausanias. to S' o\ov [iras] ei/. Hear thou. wevcreav ov trXeov 'qe crv o ovv. Believing only what each chances on. And many a vile surprise Blunts soul and keen desire.(6Tai evpelv owTws ovr eiTLOcpKTa rao avopacriv ovo eiraKovora oure vooi TrepiM]irra. . iraj/Tocr' iXavvofievoi. with briefest fates.ON NATURE. 2. And having viewed Their little share of life. To His I. For narrow through their members scattered ways Of knowing lie. son of wise Anchitus! Limitations of Knowledge. aravomoi [lev yap iraXdfiat Kara yvta Kej^wrai* iroWa 8e SciX' efiircua. cttci too eAtaort/ijs. ^poreiiq [i'^tls opapev. to. crv 8e Kkvdi. Sattjjpovo? 'Ay^irov vie. Travpov Se ^tuijs iSiow fiipo^ adprj(ravTe<i oiKVfjLopoi Kairvoto Sikt^v apdevres drreTrrav oroji Trpo<r€Kvp(r€v acao'Tos auTO p. Ilav(rapir). Friend.

. Shelter these teachings in thine own mute breast. eSi $* otrCrji irkiov eiireiv Odpare'C Kal Tore Si) ao^urfs iir aKpouri dod^eiv. itrji. vdci ff iKacrrov. The Hither and thither driven yet they boast larger vision of the whole and all. TToKviivrjaTq XevKatKeve irapdive. O white-armed Maiden-Muse. irefMre Trap' Eiucrc/Snjs eXaovcr* evtjviov app. (re. Movaa. nor seized by mind And thou.. 4- dWa KoX deal t&v fiev fiavit]v av(yrpe\jtaT€ •yXcaaonjs. &v difii^ ia-rlv i<f>r]iiepioi.a. Thee I approach O drive and send to me : Meek Piety's well-reined chariot of song. €/c 8' oaixiiv aTOfLartov Kadap^v 6)(er€V(raT€ irrjyijv. And drain through holy lips the well-spring clear And many-wooed. dXX* ay' ddpei liiJTe Ti mfiiv ri rrao-Tji iroKdp.-qi. €)((iiv irioret irkiov ^ Kar dKoxjrjv dK07]v ipiSovTTov virep Tpavtofiara yXtucrcrr}. — areydcrai <f)pevo^ cXXojtos cmtg). .(riv aKoveiy. since hither now withdrawn apart. ti tSjv aXX<ui/. Shalt learn ^no more than mortal ken may span. ZrjfKov iKaarov. oirocrji iropo^ i&rl vo'^crcu. But turn their madness.T}8e ere ir/oos y evSo^oio ^njacTat dvdea i<f>' Ti/i'^S dvTjTwv dpeKeadau. ! l6 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. i^i S':7Xoi' fi/iyre yvuiiv iritrTiv epvKe. . Gods from tongue ! of mine. Never be heard by men. p. avTOfiai. But thuswise never shall these things be seen...

Yea. Dis. by every way of knowing see How each thing is revealed. But come. Trust echoing ear but after tasting tongue Nor check the proof of all thy members aught Note by all ways each thing as 'tis revealed.erepris Kekerai TriorTw/iara Mouoijs. 6. having sight. Trust sight no more than hearing will bear out. . So far as lawful is \^ for men to iiear. riaaapa yap N^o-Tis -^ irdvrcov pi^dfiara irpwrov re. When once her words be sifted through thy soul. Whose lives are but a day. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. The Elements. Nestis whose tears bedew mortality. Nor. 8e irap' qp. : — . 5- dXXa KaKois «as ^Jkv Kapra fieXei Kpariov<riv dirurretv. aKovc Zeus dpyr)^ 'HpTj 0'f ^epeafiio^ ^8* 'AiScufcvs SaK/3voi9 reyyei KpowafMa ^poreiov. yvSidk SiacrtrqdevTOi ivl <rir\dy)(uouri Xoyoto. but the base distrust the High and Strong Yet know the pledges that our Muse will urge. all And And first the fourfold root of things hear ! White gleaming Zeus.. Nor shall desire To pluck the flowers of fame and wide report Among mankind impel thee on to dare Speech beyond holy bound and seat profane Upon those topmost pinnacles of Truth. life-bringing Here.

The uncreated elements. and birth is but its name with men. tc StaXXa|'is re fnyevTeov dWa fiovov fiC^us iorrC. vofiai. 8. Avenging Death. nor end in ruinous death. S' Kal auTOS. These elements commingle and arrive The realms of Not this the light. rd S' aS SucrSat/oioj^a TroTfiov eTrufyrjfjLi § dEJu. <j)v<ri. la death. 7. icTiv airavratv 6vr)TS)v. ddvWTOV . Birth and Death. the thoughtless deem it "birth" When they dispart. wild beast. l8 TliE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. or bird. owSe ns ovXofievov davdroio reXevn. But mingling only and interchange of mixed There is. or bush. .19 [ou] KaXeovcri." and though I too assent to use. dyevTjTa. . 'tis "doom of Law. But when in man.s S' eirt tois ovofJid^eTcu dydpamoKTiv. eis •^ atUep i. dXoLTTjV.\^K(ovTaij Kajd ddfivoiv ^e TOT€ /tev TO [Xeyoutri] yevecrdoL' evre o' dvoKpLvdacrL. : More will I tell thee too there is no birth Of all things mortal. .. 9- oi o rj ore fiev Kara <p<UTa jutiyevr Kara dyjpwv dyporipav yevo? KttT oKui'ei)^'. aWo Se TOL ipeo)- j^utrts ovSev6<..

The All hath neither Void nor Overflow. Fools ! for their thoughts are briefly brooded o'er. But with the All there is no Void. ot T€ yap ovBdfi i6vTo<s dp. 14. so whence Could aught of more come nigh ? . No force could compass and no ear hath heard For there 'twill be forever where 'tis set. Ex nihilo II. can wholly die away.rf'^^avov cctti yevecrdai KaC T iov i^aiToXicrdai dvrjwcrTov koX dirvcTTOv aiet yap TrJL y eorai. I9 nihH vrjmof ov yap tr^iv hoki)(6^povi<i elcn ot St) fiepLfivcUf yiyviaOai trdpo's ovK iov i\m^ov(riv ^ Ti KaTadvijia-Kav re koI i$6\\v(rdai airdvTr)t.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 12. Tov wavTos 8* ovSev Keveov iroOev ovv ri k iirekOoi. So that what-is should e'er be all destroyed. 13- ou8e Ti Tou iravTos Kevehv TreXei ouSe irepLtrirov. ottjji k€ tls alev ipcCSrji... The Plenum. From what-is-not what-is can ne'er become. Who trust that Or aught that what is is not can e'er become.

. 8' drroXeiApi^- 8e dvrjT&v yeVctris. And ere as mortals we compacted be. KaC a^iv irdpa ociXa km ccrpXa.kv 'ovv elaCvy No wise man dreams such folly in his heart. Soil) T^v pev yap travroiv otJi'oSos tiktci t oXeicet re. ovBev ap aaw. 17- SmtX* ipeoi. oia». dWdacrovTa SiapTrepes ovSapd Xijyci. <us o<f>pa fidv TC ^Lcocrif to 8'^ fivorov Kokeovcrt. That only whilst we live what men call life We have our being and take our good and ill. ^i yap KoX vdpo<i iaKe. . TOVTOiv dfLif)OT€p(ov KeveaaeTai datriTos cdau. Love and Hate. For even as Love and Hate were strong of yore. aXXoTC pev ^tXdrjjTi awepxopev cis li/ aTra^ra. Kal cirtreTat.Tore pey yap aS ev rjv^ijOr) povov etvai Ik ifK^ovoiVy Tore . ouSe iror'.20 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. n 8e iraXiv Zia^vopivoiv Kal TaCr' 0p€<}>d€i(ra Bieimj. the Everlasting. T6<f>pa p. They shall have their hereafter nor I think Shall endless Age be emptied of these Twain. And when as mortals we be loosed apart. The Cosmic Process.8oit) 8' 8ic<^v vXeov' i^ ivo^ cTvai. . We are as nothing. IS- oiiK av avTjp roiavra (to^o<s ^peal /utai^cutroiTO. irplv 8e wdyev re ^porol koX [ewel] \v0ev. Our Elements Immortal.

eaa-i. totc 8* ait pofoi Bepxev. NetKos T* ovkofievov Stj^a Tmj/. Ef 8e fiepei KpaTeovat ireptirXofievoio xpovoio. Kal ^ik6rr)<s iv toIo-lv. aTaXawoi/ avavrrji. ytyi'erai 81' dWrfkoiv he deovra rjveKe^ aJih/ o/uoia. aXXoTC aXXa Kal I will report a twofold truth. Kal eire TT/Jo? Tots ovT dp Te to Ti yiverai ovr dTrokrjyei' yap e^deipovTo 8' eiraviTJaeie hLap. ^i fikv ix irXeovav jiejjiddTfKe <j>v€<Tdai] •qoe irdKiv rrji [lev •qi Sia^vpTO^ ei/05 irKiov iKTeKidovtri. TTvp Kal vSap Kal yala Kal "qepo^ dirXerov wjios.a(riv ^(to tc^tjitcSs* Kai dvrjTOLO'i.[idBr] yap rot ^peva^ av^et. utt} firJKo^ re wkdro^ tc* r^u ijTis irXeovcjv. .evy]v Ti]do(r6i/Tju T^v ov Tts /tera SeSdrjKe Bt^to^ dvrjp' (TV 8' n/x'^s 8' aXXt}. fwjS' 6p. aXXore [ouTct)? 21 8* a5 Stj^' e.' CDS yap Kai irpiv eeiira Tn^avaKcav ireipara fivdtov. Now grows now The One from Many into being.v eKao-ra ^opev/i^a Ncwccos ^^a. vo[ii^eTcu ep. KaXeovre^ iiT(ow[iov ^8' 'Atjypohinrjv Toicrii/ eKuT<roii. omtX' epeo)' Tore fiev e/c yap ev Tji^ijOrj [lovov eTvai aS 8tci^u TrXeov* e^ ej/os etj'ai. CTrel Ta)»'8' dXX' avTa ecTTW' TaSra.trepe<i. irai/ ovkct av ^(rav ovhev ep^p-ov. Tovrqi o alkv eaxriv aKivrfroi Kara kvkKov. 8e KC /c^l^airoXoiTO.<^VTO% dpOpoi^^ r^i re ^C\a ^poveovcTL Kal dpdfita epya TeXovci.p.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. TaCra ya/o lad re travra Kal rjXiKa yevvav dWo [leSei. oXX aye fjivdcav KXvdi. aK0V6 Xoyou oroXov ovk aTranjXoi'. TovTO TT^i ti kc Kal iroOev ekdov. irdpa 8* ^do$ cfcacrTcui. e/t7reSos yiyvovrai re koX ov (r<]iia-vv aldv oe oia\kd(r(rovTa Siafiirepe^ ovSa/ia Xi^yei.

shut from them apart.. twofold the LEor. again. Whiles too the same are rent through hate of Strife. and sit not there With eyes astonished. Through her they cherish thoughts of love. now. whatever grew From out their sundering. Water. through her . Naming the utter goal of these my words. To birth and death and. So far have they a birth and mortal date And in so far as the long interchange Ends not. Fire. and Love within their midst In all her being in length and breadth the same. and the Many. And this long interchange shall never end. for 'tis she inborn Abides established in the limbs of men. — 22 ( THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained Makes strong thy soul. now Even from the One disparting come the Many. death of things: Twofold the I birth. flies apart and dies. Whiles into One do all through Love unite. the meeting of the . And in so far as is the One still wont To grow from Many. the deadly Strife And In equipoise. the Even from One disparting come the Many. Earth and awful heights of Air. Many brings 1 . Behold her now with mind. Now grows The One from Many into being. Spring from primeval scattering of the One. For as before I spake. now. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. I will report a twofold truth.

a~)(eSvvr]v ^iXorrjTa. Love and Hate in the Organic World. each rules its task.— — — . 23 She speeds revolving in the elements. as they course along Through one another. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. But this no mortal man hath ever learned Hear thou the undelusive course of proof: Behold those elements own equal strength equal origin. calling her By name Delight or Aphrodite clear. Love. besides. and. and the great Al l were then How to be plenished and from what far coast? And how. 18. Perfect the works of concord. TOVTO fikv av Pporioiv [juekecov apiheiKerov ets ej/ oyKov aXXore fiev ^iXott/ti awep^ofiev airavTa . now that is born And And . might they to ruin come. now this. And so forever down Eternity. 20. unto each its primal mode and each Prevailing conquers with revolving time. 19. They were no longer. these are all. And more than these there is no birth nor end For were they wasted ever and evermore. Since nothing lives that empty is of them ? No. Firm-clasping Lovingness.

ttdvff Sera r iK TOVTOiv ydp ^v o<Ta t -^he cctti Kal eoroi. . The world-wide warfare of Well in the mass of human the eternal Two And And so with beasts that couch on mountain slopes. criiv 8* i^Tf iv 4>iXor>jTi Kal aXXi/Xouri •nodarai. tree. They wander far and wide and up and down The surf-swept beaches and drear shores of life. XeXoy^^j jS"'" dakidovTo^ iv aKiirji' aXXoTC «us 8' S' aSrc KaK'^uri SiaT/xij^cW 'E/aiScaai TrXa^erai dvBi. So too with thicket. a-wfia / yvla. aureus ddfivoiai Kal l^dvaiv vSpofieXddpoi^ drjptrC T opeiXexeeainv i8e TTTepo^diio<Ti. Kuju/Sais..x ocacrra veplppiqyiuvi ^ioio. iv Se Korcdi hidjiop^a koX dvhi)(a irdvra TreXovreu. We See. eiTi Kal iv irporepotcri •qekiov fikv depfjiov Xivo^Xov eirXero /io/9(^^i. hevBped T i^\d<rTr)<re Kal dvdpe^ yvvoLKe^. opdv Kal Xafiirpov dvdvnji. and gleaming fish Housed in the crystal walls of waters wide . water-fowls that skim the long blue sea. TO. re- ajujSpora 8* oa'(r' ISei ofi^pov eic 8' iv irdai Svo^oevrd Te piyaXiov 8* awjs irpopeovtri diXviivd re Kal (mpeomd.y re koI dpyeri Several aiy^t. Again dissevered by the Hates perverse. dXX' dye. twvB' odpwv irporepcav iirifidprvpa Bepxev. limbs is shown Whiles into one do they through Love unite. And life doth flower at the prime and whiles. And mortal members take the body's form.: 24 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. From the Elements is All 21.

aye. And each through Love draws near and yearns for each. For these>are all. .— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 81' dXk'ijXcav Se deot/ra dfieCjSei. forever steeped In liquid heat and glowing radiance. Similta Similibus. 22. beasts and birds. in honors excellent. and. And how from Earth streams forth the Green and Firm. For from these elements hath budded all That was or is or evermore shall be All trees. And The fishes nourished in deep waters. Behold the eternal Stars. see Also the Rain. urjpe^ : 25 T olatvoC re Kal uSaTo^/aefijuoves t^dv^t Tijiiijitn <j>€pi(rToi. the warm. Aught that behooves the elemental forms Behold the Sun. long-lived gods. yuyverai dXXoicoTra. By varied mingling and enduring change. ocrira ^iv iu dvTjTolcnv dtroTrka^divTa ire^vK&f. the bright-diffused. and men and women. / ( apOfiia fiev 'tjkiKTfop yap ravra iavrcjv iravra fiepecraiVf T€ )(dmv re koX ovpavog rjSe doKaxraa. they take new faces all. Kai re 6eol SoXi^aitui/cs aura yap icmv raSra.too-ov 8ia Kpy\<n^ But come. And all through Wrath are split to shapes diverse. obscure and cold and dark. as they course along Through one another. and to my words foresaid look If their wide witness anywhere forgot well.

dijdea Kal fiaXa \vypa HetKios ivve(TCrji. in the mortal world So too those things that are most apt to mix Are like. j^c/airiv. irdvrrji {rvyyCvecOai.aKa dpfiovCrji fieC^aj^e e/f rd p. .[S' a] irXela-Tov re. a»S S' aureus ocra aWijXoi^ ecTepKrat opuOLOidivT ix'^po'. After the counsels of their father. Hate. Kpaaiv itrapxea jmSlWov ecunv. irtjyTJvy pJudov dKovcras. 26 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 'A<f)po8Crr}i. otrtra ye 8^\a ytyaKocriv dXXa TopSt^ TavT urdi.ovas i^Ov^ Ttjaijtcrt Kai re deoii^ SoXu^auova^ ^e/Jitrrovs" ovTQ} p/q <r diraTT] <f)peva KaLvuTw aXXoOev etvai 0p^Zv. And in their mixing and their molded forms— Unwont to mingle. SevS/QEa TC KTt^ovre koL dvepa<s ^Se yuvaiKas d'^pd^ T ol(i>vov<s T€ Kat vSaTo9pep. and love by Aphrodite's best.cri. fv SeSaoiTe. aXXa S* cXacrtro).p. both in birth. rSiv eiSca irafriv dXiyKia iropcrvvovcrL. Far driven and scattered. An <us 8' OTTOTai* y/oa^eies Analogy. re Kprjtra koX elSea-iv iKiiaKTOLcn. oiT iirei oHv iroXvxpoa <f>dpp.kv irXccu. 23- dpadijfiaTa iroiKiWoKriv jliijtios dvepes dfji^l Texvqq imo fidpylKotrt. miserable and lone. air' dXXTJXcov Stexoucrt fiaXuTTa yevvrji.v.. oti a<]>icrL yevvav eopyev.. But hostile chiefly are those things which most From one another differ. For amber Sun and Earth and Heaven and Sea Is friendly with its every part that springs. deov irapa da-irera.

. To join together diverse peaks of thought. and men and women. 24. . . O guard this knowledge well. KaXov ia-nv ivurireiv. An Aphorism. aye. Even so the spring of mortal things. fivdcDP TeKiiiv arpwrrov p. now more. leastwise Of all the host born visible to man. for thou hast heard In this my song the Goddess and her tale. . The Speculative Thinker. From which they fashion forms innumerable. KOI Sis yo^Pi ^ Sei. . may well be said twice o'er. 25- . . and will seize in hand poisons pied and red and gold (Mixing harmonious. beasts and birds. Kopv<f>a^ erepas erip7)Lai jiri vpoadTrTav . And not complete one road that has no turn. . 2^ —^men whc^know Through wits of cunning—paint with And even as artists their craft streak and hue The oozy Bright temple-tablets. And like to all things.Lav. And fishes nourished in deep waters. What must be said. And long-lived gods in honors excellent: Just so (and let no guile deceive thy breast). now less). peopling a fresh world With trees.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

KoX (j)6Cv€i. Whiles rent asunder by the hate of Strife. 28 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 26. iv Se fiipa Kpareovcri vepinXofievoLo kvkXolo. So far have they a birth and mortal date. aS 81^' ekatTTa <))opovfJi. again. roll..a Xijyei. ets aWrfXa koX av^erai iv fi^epev aicnjs.eva Nei/ceos ex^^'> irai/ eicrd/cev Iv '^t virevcpde yevrjTOi. . . and the Many. fiev ei' e/c TrXedi'toi' ixefiddi^Ke ^vecuaif aituv •^8e 7raXti» Si. yCyvovrai re Kal ov (r^urvv e/oiTreSos Se Ta8' dXXacrcroi'Ta Sia/iirc/oes ovSap. still. Till they. The Law of the Elements. In turn they conquer as the cycles And wane The one the one to other to other in turn all.a<f)vvTO^ ivo? irXeov' cKTcXe^ovcri. T'^i jno' 171. 8' aiei' eaaiv aKCvrjTOL Kara kvkKov. as they course along Through one another. and wax by olden Fate For these are and. ravrrii. And in so far as this long interchange Ends not. auTci -yap iaTLV ravra. 8t' dWijXojj' 8e Oeovra yCvovTau avOpomoiTe koX aWav i9vea drjpav ets aWoTC aXXore ouTws [lev 8' ^iXorqTL crvvep^ofJiev' crvii^vvra to o'a Koa-fiov. so far forever established gods Around the circle of the world they move. when grown into the One and All Once more. they become both men And multitudinous tribes of hairy beasts Whiles in fair order through Love united all. once more go under and succumb. And in so far To grow from as is the the One still wont Many. Spring from primeval scattering of the One.

The Sphere on every side the boundless same. nor Sea. nor form . It hath no feet nor knees alert. ov 0od yovva. 29 eud^ mn /lei/ 'HeXioio SieiSerai b)Kea yuia ou8' aii^s Xacrioi' fievog ouSe Oakacraa- ouSe OUTCD? 'ApflOVLT]^ TTVKLVOiL KpV(f)(Ol icmjpiKTai S^at/aos KuxXorep'^s fiovCr}!. ( ov trracris ouSe re Srjpus dvaurip-o^ iv fieXeetra'i. ov [iij8ea yevvijevTa. EstabHshed firm abides the rounded Sphere. Nor faction nor fight unseemly in its limbs. 29. aXX' o ye irdvroOev Tcros [«?!'] koX trdp. « 27. Exultant in surrounding solitude. But in the strong recess of Harmony. The Sphere.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.v. For from its back there swing no branching arms. '^ ov iroSes. Exultant in surrounding solitude. There views one not the swift limbs of the Sun. 27a.Trav aTreCpcav %<^aLpos KVKXoTC/aijs povirfi irepiy^yii yaCav. ov yap diro vwtolo Svo KXaSoi dicrcrowai. Trepirjyii yauov. dWd (T^xupos eqv /cat \jrdvTodevl^ Tcros eaurwi. Nor there the strength of shaggy Earth.

life-producing it Of A sphere airap iirel member. . irdvra yap efeiijs TreXe/ii^cTO yvZa OeoLO. 05 c^tj' a/tot^aio? TrXaTcos Trap' iXijXaTai opKov . on all sides was. For one by one did quake the limbs of God. . . — fieya Neifcos ivliiiMeXeecra-iv idpi^^dt} cs Ti/xas T dv6pov<r€ reXeiOfievoLO xRovolo. times arrived to Strife. . Yet after mighty Strife had waxen great Within the members of the Sphere. . old. decree. . 33- (US 8' St oiros ydXa XevKov eyo/Lw^tuaei' Kal eSi/cre . and like unto itself. as the Which unto each in turn. But as when rennet of the fig-tree juice Curdles the white milk. and will bind it 34- fast. 30 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Physical Analogies. . to Love.. and rose To her own honors. . SvQ) 8&EI dpdpOV. The joint binds two. . Cementing meal with water . . Should come by amplest oath and 31. . . 32. . a\<f>LTou vSari KoWi^cra. 30.

When down the Vortex to the last abyss Had foundered Hate. aKprfa fiuTyofLevoiv lBe-qi. ovK tS)v a(f)ap.(Ti. Draining each flowing thought from flowing thought. Ke- ^(opd re Ta vpiv. rav Be re TravTouiL^ X^'''"' ^^vea p^vpia dvT]T<ov^ dp7]p6Ta^ 6avp. Toi' irporepov KareXefa. but only as willingly Each from its several region joined with each . \6yov \6yov e^o. 6(T<Tov S' aleu VTreKTrpodeoi. 3 of ^ove.u BiaWd^avTa Xeu^ous. reached Yet not a-sudden. laid make return down before.. But hurrying back. 8' dfieiKT eoTfjKe Kepaiofiivounv ocrcr' &i Nei/cos ivaWd^. dXXa dekyjfia (rvvurrdfiev' x^^''"' dWodeu aXXa. Se re fhia-yo^ivoiv e^vea [ivpia dviyrav TToXXo. 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. aiirap iyo) wakivopcro^ Ikeva-ojjLai e? iropov viivotv. ipvxe fierdpcnov ov yap d[ie[i^e(i)<s iir' ecr)(cLTa T&v irav i^eoTTjKeu fiev repixara kvkXov. iv TTJi Srj TaSe travra o-vvep^eTaL ev fiovov elvai.^eTcua»v. iirqieL opjjiij- aXXd Ta t ivip. behold Around her into Oneness gathered all.i. Be t e^e^efirJKei. and Lovingness had The eddying center of the Mass. iv Be ^iXodjs arpo^dkiyyi yevryrai. The Conquest 35. I now will To paths of festal song. eiret Kiivov Net/cos fiev iveprarov lkcto j3evdo^ fi4(rt)i BivT]^. ?] dddvar eivai. tocov alev •Tjino^poiv ^iXoTTjTOS dfiefi^eo^ dfju^poro^ au/ra Be dpiJT i^vovTO.iive^ fiekecov to. ra Trplv fiddov [K/jijra.a IBeadaL.

all (Knit in forms and wonderful to 36. erstwhile long wont to be Immortal. and the erstwhile pure and sheer Were mixed. Twv 8e trwepxofievav e£ ecrxo-TOP icrTaTO NetKos. aWepa 8' ald-qp. Yet much unmixed among the mixed reijnained. and nearer. 37- av^ei 8e j^^oij/ /tev a-^irepov Sifia^. Thence grew apace Those mortal Things. her figure magnifies. partwise Was he already from the members gone. And as they came together. the divine Desire Of blameless Lovingness.32 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And from their mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things. aloft. But partwise yet within he stayed. . And Earth through Earth And Air through Air. inward pressed The gentle minded. see. And ever the more skulked away and fled. Hate began To take his stand far on the outer verge. exchanging highways of new life. For not all blameless did Hate yield and stand Out yonder on the circle's utmost bounds. As much as Hate still held in scales. Then ever the more. Similia similibus. their And from mingling thence are poured abroad The multitudinous tribes of mortal things.

THE FRIVGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
The World
as It
38.
, . .

33

Now
t

Is.

ci 8'

aye toi Xc^cu

TrpStd' rfkiKd

a.p-)(y\v^

eg (OP 07J\' iyevovTO to. twv iaopa/xev diravra,

yaia

re.

Kai irovro? irokvKviLOiv

'^8'

uypos

a,tqp

TiTttj/ "qo

aidrjp cr(f>Lyyo)v irepl kvkKov diravra.

Come I will name the like-primeval Four, Whence rose to sight all things we now behold—
!

Earth, many-billowed Sea, and the moist Air,

And

Aether, the Titan,

who

binds the globe about.
Illimitable.

Earth and Air Not
39-

eiwep aireipova
<w?

y^s re

^ddif]

Kal Sat/riXo? ai0TJp,
pnqOevra fia/rauo^

oia TToWSiv

8'^ yXcucrcrijs

eKKej^yraL

a-Top,d.T(iiV^

okiyov tov irawos iS6vT0)v.

If Earth's black deeps

were

endless,
5

and o'er-fuU

Were the white Ether, as forsooth some tongues Have idly prated in the babbling mouths Of those who little of the All have seen ...
Sun and Moon.
40.

lyXios 6§v^e\rjs '^8' iKdeipa (reXijvri,

Keen-darting Helios and Selene mild.
41.

aXX' o

fjiev

a\i(rdel^ fieyav ovpavbv dfjL<f>Lno\evei,

But the sun's fires, together gathered, move Attendant round the mighty space of heaven,

.

.

34

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPBDOCLES.
42.

cot'

av

trji

KadvirepdeVf direcrKvi^QXTe 8e yaiij?

To<r(Tov o(Tov T e?)po<s

yXavKcamSos

errXero firjvrji.

And
The moon,

the sun's beams

in passing under, covers o'er.

And darkens a bleak tract of earth as large As is the breadth of her, the silver-eyed.
43-

ws avyrj rv^axra

crcXijj'aMjs

kvkKov evpvv

.

.

As sunbeam

striking on the moon's broad disk.
44.

dpTavyel irpos "OXvfnrov dTap^rj'TOKri Trpotramoi^,

Toward Olympos back he With fearless face.
45-

darts his beams,

KUfcXpre/Dcs irtpX

yalav IKurtreTaL dWorpiov

«^a)S.

Round le^rth

revolves a disk of alien light.
46.

ap/taro? ws irepi

)(yoLri

e\«r(reTai

rj

re irap' aKpijv

.

Even as revolves a The outmost
.
.

chariot's nave,

which round

47-

ddpel

fiev

ydp dvaKTos ivavrCov ayia kvkKov.

For toward the sacred circle of her lord She gazes face to face.

.

.

.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

35

But earth makes night for beams of sinking
The Darkling Night.
49.

sun.

WKTO^

iprffiaCr)? dXatuTTiSo?

.

.

Of

night, the lonely, with her sightless eyes.

Wind and
SO.

Rain^

'l/)is S'

CK ireXayous aiv€fiov ^ipei ^ fiiyav oji^pov.
rain.

Iris

from sea brings wind or mighty
Fire.
SI.

Ka/)iraXt/x,(us S'

apoTraLov

.

And

fire

sprang upward with a rending speed.
The Volcano.
52.

'iroXXa 8' ii/epOe

ouScos irvpa Katerai.

And many

a

fire

there burns beneath the ground.
Air.
S3.

ovTCt)

yap aweKvpcre

detov Tore, iroXXa/ci
its

aXXcDS,

For sometimes so upon

course

it

met,

And

ofttimes otherwise.

Things Passing Strange. And eyes that wanted foreheads drifted by.] In isolation wandered every limb. aXs iirdyj] piirrjuriv ioxTp-kvo^ '^cXioio. Earth's sweat. In Earth sank Ether with deep-stretching roots.€\T) ert ra yvla . The salt grew solid. Hither and thither seeing union meet. ss- y^s 'iZpayra daXaartrav. . \- [. . . . ovra cTrXavaro .36 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 57. iiovvop. / aWrjp [8* aS] fiaKp^uri Kara x^ova Bvero plt.erdm(av. oiiiiard T oTa iirXavaTO TKvrjTevopra p.ai^. shoulderless and bare. smit by beams of sun. yvfivoX 8' iTrkdl^ovTO Ppa^Coves evi'i8es afitov. There budded many a head without a neck. the sea. . S8. . And arms were roaming. TToXXal fiev Kopcrai dvav^eves ip\d(rr7}(rav. . s6. X iji Strange Creatures of Olden Times.

ei'a yuiois. 60. Many were vvv S' ay. Sometimes like men.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And many a birth besides was then begot In a long line of ever varied life. ouXof^ueis fiev irpSna Tvrroi ^^ovos c^ai'CTeXXoi'. . . feet. ^ovyevrj avhpoirpoiipa. Mixed shapes of being with shadowed secret parts. Creatures of countless hands and trailing >' iroXXa [lev . These members fell together where they met. oTTws dv8po)v re TToXvKXavrcov tc Kpi. man on bovine stock. 59- 3/ avrap iirei Kara fji€lt. dfi^orepcov vSaros t£ koI bSeos aTcrav e)(ovTes' . [lefiayfjiiva riji fiev drr* TTjL dv8pZv Se yvvai.ov i/JLCa-yero hatfiovi SaCfiaiVj Tavra re trujUHrMrretr/coi'.evov iTvp. S' efLiroKiv i^avareWetv dvSpo<f)xnj /3ovKpava. and sometimes womangrowths. . to. (TKiepols ^cr/cij/u. oTrrjc (rvv€Kvp(rev e/caora. ciXwroS' aKpLToxapa. ywaiKav ivvv)(tov? opwqKas dvijyaye Twi'Se kXu'' ov yap fiv0o^ dirocTKOTro^ ou8' dSa-qfiav. Some Some with man's form beneath a bovine head. with the face of 62. born with twofold brow and breast.v6p. aXXa re irpos tois rroXXd Sii/ve/c^ i^eyivoi/ro. ^\ djow^iTr/aocrtuTra Kot d/i^wrrcpi/a «^uea^ai. But now as God with God was mingled more.KO<j>vrj .

7rdki. cyx^awovras our' ivoTT^v olov t ewi^^cupioi/ dvBpd<ri yviov. That had their shares of Water and of Warm. dwiatrai'Ta. . the birth is girls.vBp6s . Nor secret member. irvp dveveiirre 6e\ov irpos o/ioioi' i/cecrpai. Into clean wombs the seeds are poured. dXXa StetTTraorai fiekioiv ij>v(n^' 17 fiev iv d. owe Ti wct) fieXiav iparov Se/j>a.€. common to the male. who sees. Love-longing comes. erst whelmed in night.v TeXedovai yvi/aiKCS. Of men and women. and when Therein they meet with Cold.. Albeit not yet had they revealed a form Of lovely limbs. . But come! now hear how 'twas the sundered Fire Led into life the germs.. 64. reminding him 6s. First rose mere lumps of earth with rude impress. human limbs. when contrariwise they meet with Warm. [rd 8' ip. nor yet a human cry. 63. the pitied and bewailed. 38 TOWS jJ-ev THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. And boys. iv 8' iyyOiq Ka6apot(ni/wp(eos ra p. For 'tis a tale that sees and knows its mark.. These then by Fire (in upward zeal to reach Its kindred Fire in heaven) were shot aloft.v dppeva Oepfiov]. But separate is the birth For 'tis in part in man's of . The Process of Human Generation To-day. rm S' ivl Kal Ilodos eicri Si' oi/rios dii[uiiprJL(rK(ov.

. More stalwart and more shaggy. Twice bearing. ttSs uSttTos yaCrj^ re koI KLpvafievav Too'o"'. 70. 67. in pus. 'A^po8iTi79. aiiviov. vCv yeydaai (rwapfiotrdei/r 'A^poSCnrii . SCyovoi. . the blood Becomes white 69. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Into the cloven meads of Aphrodite. For bellies with the warmer wombs become Mothers of boys. . month the eighth. On ei 8e Ti croi Animals and Plants. . On the tenth day. Sheepskin. 39 [cis] or^iOTOus XeifiSivas . and therefore men are dark. dppevo^ eirXero yacrrqp- KoX [iiXave? Sta tovto koI avhpu&iaTepoi dvSpe^ Kal \axviJ€VTe<s fiaWov. firfvos iv oySootTov ScKanji irvov erXero XevKov. iv yap depfioripai roKa. 71- vepl rSivSe Xnro^vXo^ eirXero wwrns. 66.. otra eiSrj re yci'oiaTO aWepo^ -^eXCov re xpoid re dvriTav . 68.

Leading the songless shoals of spawning 7S. . Kv7r/3i8os iv Trakdii-qta-L irXaSrjs ToiyjaSe TV)(6vTa Of beasts. if belief And lack pith. .ej/ irvKvd. the Ether and the S)Xm. 73. . then did give Earth o'er To speed of Fire that then she might grow firm. 40 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. fish. compact with outsides loose. As the tall trees and fish in briny floods. t5)v 8' Oct' «ro) /i.. inside Which. iTa><i KoX SivBpea fiaKpa koX avaXioi Kafiaarjve^ . after watering Earth with Rain. in Got this their sponginess. As Kypris... 8' eKToOi (lavd ireirqye. <us 8e TOTS x^^^"" Kuir/)is. 72. and thou still doubt from the mingling of the elements. Zealous to heat her. The Earth and Water. to. . the palms of Aphrodite shaped. . . as have come to be.^ikk So many forms and hues of mortal things Could thus have being. Each framed and knit by Aphrodite's power How . 74- ^v\ov afiovcTov ayovtra iroKvo'iKpioiv Kafiaaifivaiv. cttci t' iSCrfvev iv ofifipcjif rSea TTOiirvvovcra OoSti irvpX h5>K€ Kparvvat . .

oTi'os avo is (jiXoiov TreXcrai (xairkv iv ^uXtui vocop. And apples grow so plentiful in juice. Since fed forever by a fruitful air.86<f>vWa Kot ifiireBoKapna tc^t^Xo' Kapir&v aL(f}$oviy]L(TL kot' ^epa iravr iviavrov. ovvcKev o^iyovoC re ctSai koi VTrep^Xoia fJLTJXa. 80.aKpai BevSpea Trparov i\aCa^. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 76. 77-78. of shell-fish wreathed. 4I TovTO (lev iv Koy^aKTi 6a\a<Tcrov6p. Wine but water fermented in the wood. And issues from the rind. 79- ovTci) 8' oiioroKEi p. aye. Trees bore perennial fruit. ocean-dwellers. 81. perennial fronds. where thou mark'st The earthen crust outside the softer parts.. Thus first tall olives lay their yellow eggs. . Laden with fruit the whole revolving year.o)v ^apvvaroi^y VOL O'^' firiv oi/jei KrjpvKmv re XiOoppivwv j^eXucui' re* )(d6vaL xpojTos uire/araTa vaifrdovfrav 'Tis thus with conchs upon the heavy chines Of Or stony-hided turtles. Wherefore pomegranates slow in ripening be. \hevZpta 8'] ifnre.

a SiatrxiSvao'iz' dkvTOiv. ais 8' ore ns trpooBov voicov o}Tr\Ccr(TaTO \&yyov \€vp. ttu/oos creXas at/fa? . Our Eyes.j(es Kal ^uXXa koI oIcopZv irrepa irvKva Kal XciriScs yiyvovrai iirX cTTiySapoicri fif\e<r(Tiv. bristle on the chines Of hedge-hogs.v at 8' uSaTos iTvp 8' e^co /u. aWofiepoio vavTouav dvefiiov XafMTT'^pa^ dfiopyovs. From the same Leaves. [at] ^odvr^KTi BCavra TerprjaTO d^cnreo'i'quri.42 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. keen-piercing.v. In horny lantern shielding from all winds. 84. ocrov Tavad/repov ^€v. TavTtt T/3i.ei' ^evdos direcrreyov dfitftLvaivros. As when a man.epCT)v Sia vvKTa. SiieaKov. avrdp e^wois o^v^eXel^ ^alrab j^turots iiri. ol T dvifioiv fiep iTvevp. Stiff hairs. to sally forth. . scales plumes.Tre<f>piKau(Ti. of fish. and bird's thick-feathered stuff 83. about Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze Of flaming fire against the wintry night. <^5s 8' efcu hiadpatKTKQv^ oarov XdfjLTrea-Kev Tavaampov ^ev. on sturdy limbs grow hair.rjviy^iv iepyfjiivov oyyvyLOif Trvp XeirrrjurCv [t] odovtfuri Xoj^a^ero icvfcXoTra kou/mjj'. 82. Kara ^iqXov drupkcriv aKTivetrtrii'* ws 8e tot' ei* p.

86. Whilst Fire burst outward. the divine. The gentle flame of eye did chance to get little Only a of the earthen part. €^ wv OfifiaT eirr]^ev arapia Si' ' A<f)po8i'n] From which by Aphrodite. 87. SI ^Xo^ iXdapa fjLLPwdaBCrj^ ''^X^ yaii)^. with untiring rays lights up the sky: Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid In the round pupil of the eye.(f>0L? da-Kija-acra KaracrTo/syois 'A^poBirri. The untiring eyes were formed. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.. enclosed In films and gauzy veils. y6p. /xi'a yCyverai dfi^orepav oip. 43 Though it protect from breatb of blowing winds. One vision of two eyes is born. . fj fine and thin. Its beam darts outward. as more fine and thin. as more 8s. And thus kept off the watery deeps around. And which through and through Were pierced with pores divinely fashioned. Thus Aphrodite wrought with bolts of love.

44 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Thus Sweet seized Sweet. With flax is mixed the silvery elder's seed. will not mix with oil. 91. Bitter on Bitter Sour sprung for Sour. 90. . flew. ws yXvKV o^v 8' iv' fikv y\vKv e^Tj. o^v Baepov 8* eiro^eiTO Saiqpm. yj/ous. ^ucrcroji 8e y\avKy\<i k6kko<s KaTajMicryerat a/CT^s. mKpop o eiri iriKpov opovcrev. .. Water But to wine more nearly is allied. 92. ori irdvTav elcrlv airoppoai. . . .\K6v . The Black River Bottoms.fiSWov ivdpdiiiov. atque cavernosis itidem spectatur in antris. Knowing that all things have their emanations. [idpirre.€i\divTa tov -)(a. . Similia similibus. otvcM . t5i KaTTiripoii p. and upon Hot rode Hot. ocra eyevovTO . 89. 94- et niger infundofluvii color exstat ab umbra. avrap eXaicui ovK iOekei. As when one mixes with 93- the copper tin..

ricra-apa 8' 'H<^awrToto* 'Kpp. KoWyfLCiv dpiijpoTa aH Kind Earth for her broad-breasted melting-pots.oviri^ ocrTca XeuKa yivovro deairea'C'rjdev. The back-bone. they first Began to grow together . 98. pakurra. Xupevecraiv . Blood and Flesh.if ^^X^ NiyariSos to.. 45 And the black color of the all ri»ver's deeps see the Comes from shade. As. Of the eight parts got two of Lucid Nestis. 'H^awTTOJi T op^pai re koI aWepi KvTT/siSos oppurdutra. S' aiyXrjs. Thence came white bones. ' And of Hephaestos four. 17 8e XOeov rovTowTiv ta-ij crvveKvpcre. in the palms of Kypris shaped. 17 8e xdav iirurjpois iv evarepvoi^ xoapouri TO) 8vo t5>v okto} fiep€Q}. . reXeiois ej/ ira/K^ai'ocui/Ti. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Divinely joined by glue of Harmony. Bones. Eyes. Kuw/oiSos iv TTa\d[iriL(rvv ore ^vfL vpSir i(f>vovTo.Lv. and one may same In hollow caves. "^^^ 97- pdx.

(Tapxivo^ 0^09. Of Aphrodite anchored lay. And Rain and Ether..ira<ri XC^axfioi trapKciu aijpiyye^ irvp. And Earth within the perfect ports u. From these There came our blood and all the shaples of flesh. A bell . diraif^Tji oirorav pev ripev atpa. oXCyov fieC^av etre irXeoveo'a'iv ikaxTtroyv tK T&v at[id re yevro Kot aXXiys elSea trapKos. aafe KevOav. al0^p Trac^Xa^Qjv Karaicrcrerai olSpaTL papyai. the Clepsydra. 99- KtoStav. irdKiv e/orveiei. aldepi evBep eiraff' 8' eviropCrjv SidSoicri TeTp. Sometimes a little more than theirs). ako^iv <j>6vov p. Siapirepe^. ^ The Rushing Blood and 100.ioi% irvKivai's Terptrfyrax pivav ia~)(aTa ripOpa.aTov cr<f>Lv iirl Kara (r&iia rerawai.^-'^^^— Almost in equal parts Hephaestos red. she met-wlt.dv (TTop. 58c KaC 8' avatrvii irdvra Kot iKtrvei. the all-splendorous (Although the parts of Earth were sometimes less. eSre 8' dvadptouricqi. a fleshy twig.. ou8' er cs dyyoaS' op^po^ i(rep\er(u. acinp orav irais KKexfwBprji Trat^TjMrt Sieiirereos xaX/coio* cSre pev avXou vspdpov iir' eveiSeX X^P'' ^cio"** CIS i!8aTos ^dirrqiai ripev Bepa^ dpyu^e'oio. irea-otv itrl dWd piv eireira elpyei depo^ oyKO^ earwde TpijpaTa irvKvd. e'uroK dirooTeyctcnjt wukivov poov avrdp .~ 46 eiT THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.rj(r6cu. after The Ear.

Keeps it in check. off' fievdea ^aX/coO TTopdfiov \oiarffivTo<s aidrip S' ^porecM XP°^ V^^ iropoio^ CKTOS area XcXiijju. That falls inside against the countless holes. as when a little girl Plays with a water-clock of gleaming bronze: As long as ever the opening of the pipe Is by her pretty fingers stopped and closed. and so the blood remains within. TTvevfiwro^ 47 iWeCiromos io'ep^eram aurtfiov vBap. And Of ^ thus does all breathe in and out.Kpa Kparvvtap. is cut a passage free. Over the body's surface. vScop fiev exV" 'f'*''"^ atq 8' avTQx. elaoKC xei/oi fiedrji- totc S' aw ^^aXii' 17 Tr/aw. dp. can the Wet no more air's Get in the vessel.ei'os ofi^pov ipvKa Sv(r'q-)(eo<s. p&jjjia KaT€p-)^erat. at their outlets. And when from here the thin blood backward streams.^1 inJXas itr^/ioio a. iraXij'. aWepo^ eu^v? eSre 8' avadpwurKrji. But when again it forward leaps. bloodless tubes flesh are stretched. jLiei/ ripev aTfia Kka^aa-croiiepov SioL yuitai' oiTTTOTe irakivopa-ov diraifeie iiv^ovSe. m/eu/xaTos efiTTMrroiTos vireKOea atcnfiov vScop. and.. And Of thuswise plunged within the yielding mass silvery water. rifts /Innumerable along the outmost rind Are bored. For air. iraXiv iK-irvea Ixrov oTruTtrm. however. The air comes rushing in with roaring swell.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. but the own weight. oiSjuari ^Coi/. the air In turn breathes out. ws S' avrcD. until the child at last . In all.

48 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. as air gives way. 58e (ikv ovu irvoLT]^ re XeXo-y^acri irdvra koX 6crju. . holds the water back About the gateways of the gurgling neck. And thus got all things share of breath and smells. When in the belly of the brazen clock lies.. sets free the thickened air. The water and the girl's finger tip Shuts pipe and tube: the air. 102. then Amain a flow of air comes rushing on.a)i>. Even so it is With the thin blood that through our members drives When hurrying back it streams to inward. As air drops down and in. Scent. . Until her hand will loosen. when amain Quite contrariwise to way and wise before Pours out and under the water?s destined bulk..: —— . KipfJiara OrjpeCcov [leXeav [ivKT-^pcriv ipeuvZv. But when again it forward leaps. the air In turn breathes out along the selfsame way.. Left by their feet along the tender grass . [^(uoj'^'] oacr direXewre voBwv a. that from without Comes pressing inward. Uncovers and When Gets of a truth the water's destined bulk in.TraX'^t irepl irovqi . Sniffing with nostrils mites from wild beasts' limbs. As the child keeps possession of the top. lOI. Even so it is.

In the blood-streams. For as of these commingled all things are.. 104. rejoice. CK TovTcov [yap] irdvra ireTnjyacriv apfiocrdepTa Kal Tourois ^poviova-i koX rjSovT '^8' dvLcUvTai. 107. or grieve. And in so far the lightest at their fall Do strike together . According to the body's thrift and state. 103. 106. On the PsychicJLife.. . back-leaping unto it. --^i 105. where prevails the power call thought.. 49 Thus all things think their thougm^ will of Chance.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Kai Kaff o<rov fikv dpaioTara ^veicvpcre vecrovTa. For unto men their thrift of reason grows. Trpo<s irapeov yap jof^Tis ai^erai avdpcmouriv. The heart That men is nourished. T'^i re vorffjua /ictXiora Kikk'qa'KeTcu avOpmnoKriv aifia yap avdpanoi.^ irepi-KoipBiov icrn vorjfia. for lo the blood that is stirs About the heart man's controlling thought.cTa'i redpafifievr) avTidopovro^. Even so through these men think. atfiaro^ iv ir^Kdye.

and Hate through doleful no.v ipeicra^ evp-eveo)^ Ka&aprjuriv crrowTcvtrTjis fiekerquriv ravrd ri oroi ju. and endeavor pure. Through Ether. o(r(rov [S'] dWoioi jieri^w^ t6<tov dp <r^uriv aiei KoX TO ^povelp dWola tTapixTTaraj. . . so far night their thinking changes 109. devouring Fire. . yaCrjL fiev aitfepi yap yalav otrdmaficv y uSan 8' vStup. 50 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. divine Ether luminous.. (rTopyr/v 8e a-Topyrji. For 'tis through Earth that Earth we do behold.vpCa 8ciX. ei ydp Kcp (rtj)' dBtvrjicnv viro iTpawiSe(rtTi. . . reliant For if With inclination on a spirit firm.oi'.a TT^Xovrai •^ cr' a^ap ^povoLO (T^aiv irdpTa avT&v irodiovra ^ikiqv em yevvav iKecrOaf ydp ladi <]>p6vr)<riv ^eiv koX v(op.€voLO p. As By far as mortals change by day.va^. arap irvpi irvp aioiyA. aXXa TavT CI re ttoXX' diro t&vB' CKTijo-eai. Through Water. through Fire. o aiaepa olov.avra CIS ydp av£« ^Oo^ eKacTTOv. . io8. e»cXeM/»ov(n n€pnr\op. I'etKos 8e re veiKe'C \vypoii.epLp. Water. Love.aro^ dttrav.aXa irdvra 81' al&vo? TrapecrovraL.pKvvovcri p. oe (TV y aAAouuv eiropegeav. ota kot avopa<s a t dp. oinji ^utris ia-rlv e/catrTwi. . And Love through Hate.

<j)dpfiaKa 8' oo'tra yeyacri Trev<T7]L. which forevermore Blunt soul and keen desire O then shall these Most swiftly leave thee as the seasons roll. ^v ideXrjLO-da. That burst on earth and ruin seedlands. all th«se things shall be Forever thine. drjcrei. For all their yearning is a quick return Unto their own primeval stock.fvoi TTVoiaicri Kwra^divvOcnxTiv dpovpa^- Kol ttoKlv. But if for others thou wilt look and reach Such empty treasures.% 8e koX i^ avxf-oio OepeLOv pevfiara SevSpeodpeina. Thou — — 1 5 wilt behold them.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.evos oi t yarai/ opvup. For know: All things have fixed intent and share of thought. As men be after. and besides Thereof full many another shalt thou gain.ra CTrafcis* ef op. rd t aiOipi vavqcrovraiy a^eis 8' ef 'Ai8ao KaTa<f)0L[ievov fievo'S dij<rei^ 8' dv8p6i.a. . III. For of themselves into that core they grow Of each man's nature. iirel fiovvcM crol KaKmv Kai yrjpao^ okKap iyw Kpaveco TciSe irdvra. for service. myriad and vile. vaXCvrLTa irvevp.^poLO KeXaivov Kaipiov avxp-ovdvdptoiroL^. where his essence lies. — Dominion. And Was And thou shalt master every drug that e'er made defense 'gainst sickness and old age all this I will fulfil For thee alone thou shalt calm the might of tireless winds. ctti TTaucreis 8' dKa/iaTOiv dvifimv /x. aye.

52 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Thou shalt change Black rain to drought. at seasons good for men. shalt thou arouse the blasts. take their vengeance. And if thou wilt. nourishing the mountain trees. wild and For that before thou cowedst them. . As down they stream from ether. And the long drought of summer shalt thou change To torrents. And thou shalt From Hades beckon the might of perished men. And watch them shrill.

The Healer and Prophet. THE PURIFICATIONS.ai /Licra ttScti rerifievo^. XatpeT. OL p. fid^Lv Brjpov Srj ^aXeTroicri ireTrappivoi [dp^i p. The stranger's refuge venerable and kind. darv Kara ^avOov AKpdyavros dyadZv [leXeStJiiove? ipycov.6yoi(riv\ Ye friends. no more as man. On all sides honored Crowned both with wreaths. ye stewards of good works.. raiz/tais re 7rep[(rTeirTo<s ar4<^ecri. tre^i^o/iaf oi S' eirovTai p.v re ^aXeiois* TOLcriv ap. otttji irpos KepBo<s aTapiro's. As god immortal now. ajoi' dvhpd<Tiv yvvai^i. ol S' ettI voiiroip iravToioyv iirvdovTo Kkueiv evr)Kea. 112. ovKeri OvrjTo^ 7rft)XeG/u. All hail. O friends! But unto ye fittingly I walk .iyo} vpXv deo<i dfi/SpoTo^. ft) (^tXoi. 01 fiiya vai£T av aKpa S' TrdXeos.ev p-avToavvioiv Ke)(jfyiqpivoi.. [evr'J rjl^k av iKCDpao e? dcrrca TrjXeddovTa. and with flowering When with my throngs of men and women I come .vpioL i^epeoi/T£^. ' geivav aiSoioi Xifieves KaKOTrjros direipoi. fillets and well. who in the mighty city dwell Along the yellow Acragas hard by The Acropolis. axrirep Ibt/ca.

p. O friends. as if forsooth I wrought Some big affair do I not far excel The^ mortals round me. ovs iyo) i^epeo}.aXa avhpdo'i KoX Svcr^i^Xo.ij. I am sought by prayers. oTSa [lev ovveK dXij^cwj irdpa 8' ju. IIS- eariv 'Afdy/cTjs XfiVH-^-t ^^^v cSre ^t]<f>i.Lijvriiy [Ncwcet ^'] OS Kc inrCopKov afiaprijcra's BaC/iov^s olre fiaKpaiavo^ CTro/ioo-cnyi. Troacra'OiVf Yet why urge more. doomed to many deaths! — 114.a'^prjyia'p. S> <j)C\oi.ivov opKoiS' n? d//. To thriving cities. But greatly troublous unto men alway Hath been the emulous struggle of Belief To reach their bosoms.cr[ia TraXaidi/.vdoi9. I know indeed in these the words Which speak that very truth abides. craving some oracles.irXaKi'>jia'i i^oz^cui ^iXa yuia p. XcXd^aai /Sioio. I will Expiation and Metempsychosis. atSioVf 7rXaTeetro"i KaTe.54 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . For 113- dXXa ei Ti ToitrS' eTfiKeifi irepueLfii dvajrav oxnl fieya ^f/r/fia ti 'iro\vtf>0epeo)v avOpmroav. iiil <j)peva TTumo. whilst others seek to hear AJiealing word 'gainst many a foul disease That all too long hath pierced with grievous pains. apyoKii) [17] ye Teru/crai opp. And thousands follow me that they may ask The path to weal and vantage.

oaths. irCcrvvo's. thrice ten thousand wander Far from the weary years Blessed. yata S' cs auyas fjikiov <j)ae6oPTO<. and be born through time In various shapes of mortal kind. which change Ever and ever troublous paths of life: For now Air hunts them onward to the Sea. made fast With amplest spirits. iraires. 6 S' aldipo^ ip.^a\e SCvaLS' aXX.— .09 8' cf Twi/ Kttl e-yft) aXXou Se^eraL. Do foul their limbs with slaughter in oflfense.eTa\\d<r(Toma Kckevdov?. Or swear Shall forsworn. [ivpCa^ &pa<i airo (laKapoiv d\d\ri<r6aLf 55 r/919 fiLv <j>vqfi€vov<i vavToia 8ta )(^p6vov etoca dvrjTav apyaXea^ ySioroio p.€vo<s vovTovSe Skukei. . Neucel' p. A fugitive and vagabond from heaven. There is a word of Fate. ^vyd<s deodev Kot dXtJTT]?.^^ As t5iIe'^edient"unto raving Strife. aWepiov p. Now Earth will spue toward beams of radiant Sun Whence he will toss them back to whirling Air Each gets from other what they all abhor. Charis abhors intolerable Fate. 8e i/Sv ei/ii. OTuyeei SvarXrjrov 'AvdyK7)v. iroKTos 8' es j^^ofos oSSas direTTTvcre. that whosoe'er of those lot of with their age-long life. And in that brood I too am numbered now. - THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. an old decree And Far everlasting of the gods.kv yap <r<^e p.aLvofiev(oi. as failing of their pledge. Now the wild Sea disgorges them on Land. ii6. oTvyiovai..

A Where besides. 56 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.ai /tcTa OvrjTois. and mute fish in the waves. 121. and troops of Dooms .v ToS' utt' dvrpov virocrTeyov . o-kotos 'Q\dcrKova-Lv. i^ oiTjs Tt/A'^s T€ Kal 6(T(rov [iiJKeos oXjSov dva(TTpe<f>o[ji. This Vale of Tears. wept and wailed. was once already boy and girl. For I This Earth of Ours. rj\vdop. a»8e [^7T€(ro)v Kara yaiai*] From what large honor and what height of bliss Am I here fallen to move with mortal kind! This Sky-Roofed World. joyless land. fcXavcra re /cal KtoKvcra ISwp I aavvqdea -^wpov.es ipya re pevard dv XeLfiava Kara.e. 120. . Kal (rTJ\lii. 117. beholding the strange 119. Slaughter and Grudge.'qv Kovpo? re Koptj re dd[ivo<i oicDi/os re /cat efaXos cXXotto? i}(0vs. place. drepTrda ^wpov^ evda <^6vo? re Kotos re Kal dWcov idvea Krjpav avxp-yjpaC *Attjs re. And then we came unto a roofed cave. 118.. Thicket and bird. voaoi. ijBr) yap vor T iyot yevofi.

Xamij re Kal Growth and Decay. There was Earth-mother. Kal Evvacrj Kal *Eye/0(ris. burdened with the water-jars. 122. evO ^(rav KdoviTj re Kal 'HXiowrj TavaZvi^f ArjpC^ 6' aijuaroEO'cra Kal 'Kpfiovir] defiepamSy KaXXioTc!) N'r}p. 123.epr>j^ t' Attrxpij re. ©ococrd re Arjvair) tc. And Labors. 124. ^craJ T€ ^difiiirq Kiz^<u re. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . And bloody Quarrel and grave-eyed Harmony. And there was Fair and Foul and Speed and Late. Black-haired Confusion and sweet maiden Sure. and Sleep and Roused-fromsleep. Meyiorw Kal ^opvTj. There the far-peering Virgin of the Sun. . & iroTTOi. T ' AareiMtfyyjs re. and Silence and prevaihng Voice. o) lie SeiXov dvqrSiv yevos. ir6kvaTi<\>av6<i re '0[i<f>aLy) . O From mortal kind! O ye poor sons of grief! such contentions and such sighings sprung! . a> Zvcdvok^ov Touov T iptSoiv €K TC OTOvaxi^v iyevea-de. Do wander down the dismal meads of Bane. and Glory many-crowned.. t ipotcraa fieXdyKovpos t 'Atrd^eia. And Filth. Action and Rest. 57 Where shriveled Diseases and obscene Decays.

IhfdxJot-toJive When in forms of brutes. 'tis. All things doth Nature change. The Golden Age.oe afieiprnv. 126.T(ovi.ei' yap l. dead did make. enwrapping souls In unfamiliar tunics of the 127.os ouSe Zeus ^acriXeus ovSe Kpovo^ ovSe llo<TeiSuvy dXXa Kuirpis T^v ol y (TfivpvrjS )8a(riXcia. The Changing Forms. Sd^vai 8* ivl SevSpecriv •^vKOfjuoicriv. iv 6rjpe(r(rL Xeoi^cs opetXe^ees j^a/iaicCvai yiyvovrai. Are taway-lions. arapKciv aWoyvZri irepurTeWovo'a '}(t. €K ju. those great beasts that sleep Couched on the black earth up the mountain side.oi(iiv eriC/ei vexpa ei. 58 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the bays are worthiest fo^' souls. I2S. flesh. y The worthiest dwellings for the SDiila_of men. evcre^4e<Ta'Lv dyaXfiacnv IkdcrKovro re SaiSaXedSjuois ypairrois tc ^(oloutl fjivpoi(rC T dKprJTOV dva-Cau's Xu^dvov re dvaSovS) es oSSas- ^ovdav re crirovBas iifkvrav piirTovTCs . For from the living he the . But.. when in forms of beautiful plumed trees They live. ou8e Tis "ffv KeipoLcrLV "Aprj^ 6eo^ ouSe KvSotju. Their forms exchanging. 128.

gainer of large wealth Of understanding. . THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. the king of gods. nor Kronos.KpiJTOLa'i (})6vol? ov Seuero )8(uju. but only Kypris queen Whom they with holy gifts were wont to appease. a supreme man Of vastest knowledge. With With gentle sacrifice of taintless myrrh. redolent fumes of frankincense. I2g. TravTatv XeucrcrecTKev peT 6 ye tZu ovto)v KaC re Seic' eKaarov dvOpdnrotv Kat t eiKocriv almve<T<riv Was one among them there. Zeus. . dvfjiov 59 diroppaLcravTas ive8fi€vat. But among men 'twas sacrilege most vile To reave of life and eat the goodly The Sage. rjia yvZa. dXXa fLViTos TovT €(TKev iv dvOpoTTOLcn fiiyiOTOv.d?. Poseidon then. of old libations out Pouring upon the ground Of yellow honey. ^v 8e OS Tis ip KeCpoicriv dvrjp irepiwtna eiSeu.. nor Kydoimos. 81) p/rjKLCTTOv irpaTTi^oiv iKrrjcraTO liKcnrrov travToutiv re /ActXtcrTa OTTiroTe cro^mv iiriTJpavo? epyav yap irdcrquTiv ope^cuTO irpairiSeo'a'iv. .. Nor unto them Was Nor any Ares god. With costly unguents of rich fragrancy. and chief master wise Of diverse works of skill and wisdom all. nor . not then with unmixed blood Of many bulls was ever an altar stained. Tavpwv S' a. limbs. With painted images of living things.

All things were tame. 130. thou couldst deign soul. €1 yap iijyqfiepuov ei/eKev nvo<s. and friendship's flame blew fair. The Divine. cSi CTKOToea-cra deav iripi 8o^a p. throve. ^(rav 8e /crtXa vaivra Kal avOpdmouri irpcxrqvri. ^L\o<f)po(rvv7j re SeSi/ei. To give for these our paltry A gateway to thy O human cares now much more.6o THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 132. Be near me now beseeching! —whilst I speak Excelling thoughts about the blessed ^ods. O Muse undying. dju^l Bewv fiaKoipcav dyadov \6yov ip. Kalliope of the beautiful dear voice. Orjpes T olo)voiT€. then 'twas his to view Readily each and every thing that e'er In ten or twenty human ages Those Days. oX)8to?. O well with him who hath secured his wealth . All beasts and birds. OS 9eCo)v irpam8o)v iicnjcraTO ttXovtov. | For whensoe'er he sought with scope and reach Of understanding.(f>aCvovTi. SeiXos 8'. Tj/ierepas jncXeras [fxeXe toi] 8ia <^povTiSos iKdeiv. and gentle toward men. For since. afi^pore Movtra. eixofievioi vvv aSre rrapuTToaro. 131. KaXXtoTreta.e[n)\€i/.

those highways twain Whereby Belief drops into minds of men. ineffable. pv fiijSea Xa^i/ijewa. And with swift thoughts darts through the universe. 135- aWa TO pev irdvTOiv But the wide law vopipov 8ia Sici t' evpvpedopTO^ aldepo^ ^veKeoD'S Terarai r dtrXeTov auy^s. ov doa yovva. O wretchel! he whose care shadowy speculation on the gods! 133- 6l oiiK eoTLV treXacraxrdai. but It lives. alone.er]t. It hath no feet nor knees alert. nor form Of tufted secret member. Ojig^holy mind. 134- ovoe yap dvSpop. With neither hands nor eyes. For from Its back there swing no branching arms.kv airaX vdrroio Svo KXaSoi ditrcowat. dXka ^pTjv lep'^ Kal d6e(r<]>aT0^ eirXeTO p. We may not grasp It with our human hands. ov p. . (ftpovTurt Kotrp-ov diravTa KaTataaovaa dorjitriv. of all extends throughout Broad-ruling ether and the vast white sky. Ke<j)a\rJL Kara yvla Ke/caorcu. For 'tis adorned with never a manlike head. ov iroSes. iv o^OaKiLoiaw i^iKTOv iT€i9ov^ avdpamoia-iv ajuafiTos eis <}>p€va TTHrra.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Of thoughts Is divine.ovvov. We may not bring It near us with our eyes.

their own dear flesh. 136. And reave of life and eath 138. unthinking as ye are. (r<f>oiias aS v7JKov(rTos iv p^eydpouri KaKrjv akeyvvaro SaiTa. ov navo'ea-de ^ovoio hvcrrjX'^o^i o^i^ i(ropaT€ dW^Xovs SaTTTOwes dKTjScwjto'i voouo. The father lifteth for the stroke of death his throat for sacrifice with prayers His own dear son within a changed form. Thus too the son Seizes the father. children the mother seize. Will ye not cease from this great din o£ slaughter ? Will ye not see. Each slits the throat and in his halls prepares blinded fool! A horrible repast. ^aX/cwi diro i/w^tjj' d/autras Drawing the soul as water with the bronze.evoi. How ye rend one another unbeknown? 137- fLop<f)'^v B' <T<j>di^ei dWd^avra 6 iraTr^p <j>l\ov vlov deipa^ ivev^op'^vo'S fiiya V7Jmo<i' 8' ol 8' iiropevvTca oju. «us 8' avTCDS ira/rip vio? Ikoiv koX firjTepa 7rai8es (f)L\a<i dvfiov dtrop pater avTe Kara aapKa? eZovcriv.— 62 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Yet not one But still is deaf to piteous moan and wail. And slits A But the poor victims press. Animal SacriUpe. ^uoj^Tas. Imploring their destroyers.o/cXeiwj' \ur(r6p. .

143- Kpr]vd(i)v diro irivre. 139oijit' 63 ^ ^eiXetn on ov irpocrdev joic SLoikecre vrjXeks ^ff-o-Pt irepl [jiTjTLcracrdai. rafiovr [ei'] drapii ^(aXKcDt . ! THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. ere yet my lips Did meditate this feeding's monstrous crime! Taboos. me me that never a pitiless day Bd(f>vr)^ [<l>oi)8eia)i'] (f)vk\(DV dvo vdfnTav ej^ccr^ai.. tree SaXoi. . O Tov 8' ovT dp T€ Alos Teyeoi Sojuoi alyi6\oio Te[/3iro6] av ouSe [aii/^s E]K[aT]i7S Teyo<s [^XiTO- ITOLVOV ]. Scooping from fountains five with lasting bronze. . Withhold your hands from leaves of Phoebus' 141. Neither roofed halls of segis-holding Zeus Delight it. 140. 142. Your hands from beans withhold! wretched. irdvhaXoi. Ye ye altogether wretched. TtpXv (T^erXt' ipya ^opa<i ! Ah woe is Destroyed long ago. nor dire Hecate's venging house. tcudfioav diro j^ei/aas ex^crOai.. Sin.

and singers of high hymns. . of Rebirth. whence germinate the gods.64 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. companioned with the Jmmor- From human pains and wasting eld immune. and chiefs o'er earth-born men Shall they become. Since wildered by your evil-doings huge. feast At hearth and tals. O fast from evil-doing. cvj/tes dvSpeuav dxeuv. dreipei^. The Progression 146. And The excellent in honors. ev6ev dva^XaaTovtri 6eol TifirjurL ^cpurroi. seers at last. Physicians sage. 147- dOavaroi^ dWoiariv ofiearioi avTorpdire^oi. 145- ToiydpTOi \a\eiTrjuTw dXvopre^ ouTTOTE KaKorqaw h&Xauov a)(io>v XnM^i^o'ere dvikov. diroKhrjpoi. ' Ne'er shall ye free your life from heavy pains. 144- V7)<rraj<r<u kokottjtos. 61$ Se TcXos [idvTa? re koX vfiuoiroXoi koi LTjrpot Kal irpofioi dvOpcmoLO-iv itn^dovioun iriKovTOJi.

149. iSSa.axn. The cloud-collecting.v. Last Echoes of a Song Hfilf Lost. 152. the day's old age.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. . The belly. Evening. 65 Man-enfolding Earth. isi- Life-giving. In seven times seven days. 148. IS3. ISO. iv eirra €phop. The blood-full liver. yrjpa^ -^[lepas. iroXvatftarov -^Trap.

.

so elsewhere. 4. but the notion of small passages is suggested by — — (TTeiywiro/. Trust sight no more than hearing. Than mortal ken may span: more literally. emanations (dirSppoai) from things (cf. Like smoke cf." By every . 89) whence man's portion such as it is of perception and knowledge (cf. : Meek Piety's lit. 2. may imply a distinction between the understanding and sense perception. Addressed to Pausanias. "Ways" (jroXo/tai) are literally "devices". Narrow ways: these are the pores (Tr6poi) into which pass the . 4. unlike Parmenides. Pausanias is the friend to whom Empedocles addresses himself throughout the poem On Nature. fr. way fr. cf. Fr. of knowing: by every passage. Fr. ceu fumus. (rroXd/tg) cf. Their madness: this evidently refers to the over-bold speculations of Fr. "from [the realm of] Piety. Matthew Arnold has made him a character in Empedocles on Aetna. or device Empedocles. 4SS-6. Their little share of life a note of sadness struck more than once by Empedocles. Cf. in altas aeris auras. the simulacra of Lucr. 2. I. Fr.NOTES. "than mortal skill may have power to move" (ipmpev). affirms the relative trustworthiness of the senses. Parmenides and other philosophers." Lucr. 3. IV). and one of the few elements in common with the personage in Arnold's poem. : . ON NATURE. the comments on : life and man in the : Gnomic writers. fr.. "Ergo dissolui quoque convenit omnem animai naturam. here E.. Ill. etc.

and to Fr.. is hinting at the elements as eternal (the "established gods" of fr. Sifted through thy soul an illustration of the dependence of a poetic value on an emendation. E. following Knatz. I am not persuaded that any peculiar theory is implied in this mythology.68 or he THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. four elements. De arte poetica. we read Siar/iTieivTos (PPF). soon gives way to dogmatism and grandiloquence.' 'pore. Fr. and he might have chided Empedocles with the contrary fault. for the reverent attitude. also Gomperz. drew no distinction between voelv or <ppovelv and ala6ivea0ai. and Aidoneus (Dis) earth.' The Roman critic (Hor. and Aidoneus fire. — calls the stoffe. though it had never made them GrundCf. was poet no less than philosopher. but there is some disagreement as to the interpretation of the symbols that follow. one sense as acting as a check consider. if. 78). instead of Sioo-ffijff^nToj (FV). with the sensationalists of modem psyon another." a very different.De an." : PPF. 6. Here air. reflected in this fragment. The High and Strong: "either philosophers or doctrines or Diels. 134 ff-) warns the poet against a beginning that promises bigger things than the work bears out. Earlier philosophy had recognized the materials which E. the translation might run: "Deep in thine inward parts dividing thought. 427a 21-29) says that E. all Note by ways "ways" here : translates v6pos. p. the roll of his splendid verse. The four-fold root the four elements. Burnet (p. 759) makes Zeus fire. as the old philosopher's soul thrills to his large thought and Later writers on the Unknowable and the limitations of human knowledge have not always been more consistent. Ill. the gods Love and Strife. Here earth. His theory of knowledge was apparently little developed." Moreover. 'road. 245) at the most E. the "mistiform" . s. make Zeus air. . Zeller (p. without realizing that there must still be something over and above them which weighs and decides. 243) and Bodrero (p. also the "flowing" (like water). : me less effective figure. Nestis is presumably a Sicilian water divinity. may chology. Aristotle (. 3. identified by van ten Brink and Heyne with Proserpina. and the context shows that she s3Tnbolizes water. 17) and primary "the four-fold root of all things. as Bodrero attempts to prove (cf..

had made ultimate reality a material One. fr. upon as is the idea of birth. the psychic (Siebeck. Avenging Death: evidently used in fr. and the which*Anaximander conceived as differentiated friJtn the &Treipov.. 207-8). 15. 9. Thales.: perhaps a more literal rendering would make the meaning more obvious to some readers "For every time will it [i. Plut. monism Fr. 11-12.) E. it so. End in ruinous death: this is not here enlarged it is. Burnet. Ppanl denotes with E. 17. "But that there life is here any aifirmation of the immortality of I. Not until Plato have we an approach to an idealistic and the dryniist contrasted warm ajsd cold . E. Plato. etc. 7. 53. Parmenides. but the other aspect of the latter: the interchange of the well. "in In man. (like air) 69 (like fire) of Heraclitus. where any one every time puts it. is a Plenum. 10. PPF. Cf. d. "ut 'ASitva &\olris Lycoph. etc. : For there 'twill be. in a connection similar to 9 (cf.. 935 est sceleris vindex. Elements (amx^ta)." Diels. (cf. not only men but 267) I do all per- . sic Mors peccatorum ultrix. The doctrine (and in part the words) of Parmenides." Fr. "doom of death" Fr. etc. Psychol. 759. Pjfthagoras. at least I take Fr. held with Parmenides that the world capable either of excess or of deficiency. (The five-fold division of Philolaos was probably derived from E. p. Gesch. supplied here and elsewhere." / too assent to use : how many philosophers have felt selves balked in the perfect expression of their thought themby having in their vocabulary to "assent to use. p. any given object] be right there. the case of man. however. Zeller. the dissolution of the old to mixed implies a scattering as form the new.: properly. quoted by Diels. Heraclitus. was the first absolute pluralist preceding thinkers. and was apparently first used in philos- ophy by Fr. e. is nowhere preserved to us by E." Fr. PPF).THE FRAGMENTS QF EMPEDOCLES. not believe. in- Fr. 8. afterwards developed with such energy and imagination and observation of the processes of the sensible universe in I of the Book De Natura Rerum.. Cf. 13-14.

to which. 16. PPF: "The wheel of nature runs a double coujse. conception are still in dispute (cf. Two-fold the birth. and the most difficult of the fragments. as the elements come together. again. 7^ &poro\ "wir Sterbliche". as the dynamic powers of the universe. fr.. one from the complete separation of the four elements to the union of the Sphere. it must also be the subject of |8«5<" ('live'). Thought and feeling with E. genetically to the Isis and Typhon Ormuzd and Ahriman of the Persian seem to me unsuccessful one is rather reminded of the "War" and "Harmonia" of Heraclitus. everything at last flies apart toward sepaand perishes. and "our being" is but a physical being. 306)." etc. conceived by E. and it is but natural to construe jSpoTo2 below in the same sense. their meeting ((ripoSos) brings things to birth. with the increased tendency ration." Cf. p. the same meeting is found at last to be no less the source of their destruction (thus dvoSos tIktsi t' 6\4Kei re) . "Compacted" and "loosed apart" refer to the mingling and the scattering of the bod/s constituent elements. 26. Many details of the . Zeller." "Aphrodite" under varying names. "Lovingness" and "Wrath. as Fr. the most significant. 11 must apply. deed. until. in so far as their elements are eternal. the thought of fV. but when the tendency to mingle has finally increased so far as to form the Sphere again. the other from the Sphere to the separation of the elements. however. Love and Hate: and "Strife. p." Diels. 17. But there is still presumably no reference to the immortality of the soul. preserved by Simplicius. or to the Fr. The longest. "the Many. renders (FV) "men" is evidently the understood subject of Ka\ko\>ai ('call'). and these are eternal only Zeller. Efforts to relate them . as the elements begin to separate (pvo/iivuv). In either course exist the certainties of creation and dissolution: for.yO THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. two-fold the death of things: a dark saying. are the four elements. . "The One" is tlie Sphere. from the Sphere (Sia- things are born into an orderly arrangement of (SUtttii) their elements. p. as to every thing. of the Egyptian. are part of the physical system. in- however. 771 Tannery. I paraphrase a Latin note of Diels. ishable beings." as we see from line 18 (of the Greek text).

Thus Strife is in equipoise. if — of the world. equal in length and breadth. who believes we period." i. Anaximander (but cf.: both Strife and Love are apparently conceived as material. whatever the difficulties in thinking 'Tis she inborn. "speeds revolving in the elements. Burnet (p. 64) and Heraclitus and the Pythagoreans seem also to have taught a succession of worlds bom and destroyed. p. out the thought with consistency of detail. and ciples. the m3fthological names of fr. I believe. everywhere of the same weight (iriXavrov s'entend de I'equilibre des poids. immortal and unshaken as gods (cf. 7I It must be noted that. : : "thejr" refers. there is a freshness : . we have the harmony of the Sphere. when Hate is supreme. not simply as dynamic prinwere a long way from the inand abstractions of modern science (cf. almost as diffused gases. and at this moment somewhere outside the Sphere. but it is very doubtful if Empedocles had such a defi- Tannery (p.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. or (2) from dissipation toward the Sphere. etc. and even the "Nous" of Anaxagoras was mindstufl in space. 248 ff. 305). 306) special properties nite thought in mind." regards them as "media endowed with and able to displace each other. The early philosophers corporealities . if viewed as the primeval sources of all things and as subject to the law of the four cosmic periods eternal interchange and revolution round "the circle the four elements mortal. to viewed as parts of the perishable things of our world. are in the former period. p. Cf. 246) sharply distinguished from their concrete expression in geometrical forms and material things.). e. etc. but which are still conceived to be as material as the imponderable ether of the modern physicists. Tannery. is situated inside." And shut from them apart. sible: In neither state is ans^thing we must be in either Uke our world posone or the other intermediate where the elements are making headway (i) away from the Sphere toward dissipation. a complete dissipation. i. media in the bosom of which are plunged the corporeal molecules. when Love is supreme. 6). while Love. So far have they a birth.. Burnet.. e. and a similar thought is implicit in the nebular hypothesis of modern astronomy. etc. Burnet. and even the Pythagorean numbers were by no means p.

ments). 767. or a faculty. or simply to the fact that now this. p. We Through one another: an the precursor of Atomism. its E. Schopen- and a grandeur hauer's identification of the dynamic principle of all nature with "will" offers a modem analogy. conceives the elements as each alike in quantity and strength. Zeller. p. qualitatively distinct from the others. Possibly he refers to the temporal sequence in the separation of the elements from the Sphere (for which see Zeller.'s language here makes it possible to interpret love ("thoughts of love. In Chinese philosophy "The elements are supposed to conquer one another according to a definite law. 787)." etc. 47. in this identification of a cosmic principle. Zeller. Cf. without ever ending in fire's dominating all. made no effort to be consistent in renderand 0i\6Tris into English by different words. 26. Nor should we overlook the prior significance in the very choice of the names. fr. as in the common interpretation of the system of Heraclitus. : Behold these elements own equal strength. 1907. But what he means by affirming that "each Prevailing conquers with revolving time" is not. but each.'s thought that seems to correspond. fire conquers metal. Cf. translator has The ing (pCKlii . There is evidently no vital difference of meaning in the Greek as used by E. quoted by Diels. But there is nothing in E. He speaks nowhere of an age of Air. water conquers fire. I think. with a passion. to me at least. and metal conquers wood. p. log). etc. makes a similar identification of Hate (cf." Paul Carus. 762.) as more than it is the physiological passion of sex for sex. earth conquers water. 18. are told that wood conquers earth. now that created object in natura rerum has more of this or more of that element in its composition. Plut. Cf. perfectly clear. primeval. that E. fr. or Earth. or Water. or material. E. p. in the life of man. with identified which usually by the commentators. PPF. allusion to the theory of the pores. Fr. by the way. and the peculiar agencies he imputes to fire (see infra) are apparently at all times at work. each alike peculiar function E's specific descriptive adjectives used in and appearance naming the eleCf. with (cf. drawn from the passions of men to stand for activities as funda- mental and wide as the universe. Chinese Thought.72 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.

But come.. . There is assuredly no reference to the primeval "lumps with rude impress" of fr. rain to the watery. Line i has been supplied by the translator. is here speaking of things as they are. 'the beginnings of things. The long-lived gods: the gods in the On Nature of Empedocles are part of the perishable world. The sun and the stars apparently correspond to the fiery element. con- sidered here as visible parts of the present universe no less than as the sources thereof. though "in honors excellent. like tree or fish. hence. out of the elements . 41. Fr. are not. and both as formed of fire separated from the air. I. as I understand them. for E. 73 With reference here to water. The green : the Greek is S&^viira. Air seems to be unrepresented. 62. e. one might well note that E. the aery expanse of day. and earth to the earthy. on fr. formed. regularly uses aUHip ('sky) and once oipar6s ('heaven') for air. 'observe if what I have already said does not give a sufficiently clear description of the form. 57-62. Fr. conceived the fixed stars as fastened to the vault (of the dark hemisphere). But were it so interpreted. based on an astronomy like that of Empedocles. 21. etc. fragment fr.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 1. I. "Polus dura sidera pascit" (Bk. however.' the 'semina rerum' of Lucretius (Liddell& Scott)." Diels. PPF. 19. 608) phrases which. The Sun The : see note : eternal Stars E. with this Fr. here possibly with some suggestion of the growth of the vegetable world (hence the translation "green"). Cf. and might compare Lucretius' — "Unde and Virgil's aether sidera pascit" (Bk. unless it be suggested by "glowing radiance. the planets as free. 231)." I am inclined to take the phrase merely as a bit of poetry it is the radiance of the night. or physical characteristics of the elements' "si quid materiae : — etiam in priore numeratione elementorum relictum erat formae explicandae. hardly the bright heaven. 20." they are not immortal.

fragment to the four primary colors. and may use language not always literally in accord with his system. Fr. Fr. 131). after having completed the process of coming together again which ends in the Sphere. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Cf. Don Juan. 17 . in the dead harmony of the Sphere. they again begin the process of separating which ends in dissipation. and Zeller (P- 77^) > who might question this interpretation. repetition. Fr. fr. 4. In turn they conquer: "they" means the elements. : The goddess: lit. Cf. 247 ff. Gomperz. f r. eh ha Kiaiiov. 308. The simile were then doubly striking. .74 Fr. 237. p. Cf. 247. this Gomperz (p. Heaven : air .succumb : i. 23. Tannery.: the mutual attraction of the like and the repulsion of the unlike are here referred respectively to the action of Love and Hate but elsewhere in his system Empedocles leaves us much in the dark on the matter. undoubtedly the Muse. when grown. 233) sees a reference in etc. note to fr. . Burnet. mentioned several times by E. fr.. it refers to that orderly arrangement of the elements which results. p. 5. and can only mean. as the unifying process goes on. . note on olden Fate: fate is mentioned several times by E. cf. 25. Whiles in fair order: Or.. "A If good. which ends and the destruction Whiles rent asunder: of all things. For amber Sun.. 21. till. p." none the worse for Byron. mixing harmonious. gi. 'divinitjf" (Seov). . . cf. 26. important as a hint that the author is poet as well as philosopher. etc. One may Cf. is reasonable reason. the universal law of being. (cf. I think. 17. this refers to the process in the complete dissipation of the elements Till they. Things that are most apt to mix: where the emanations of the one are peculiarly well fitted to the pores of the other. XV. regret that Empedocles has not left us more such pithy sayings. 22. Also Burnet. as analogous to the four elements. as I understand it. e.

" universe. one would "adaptation. but his whole interpretation of Empedocles is very far from that of other scholars. is "the close recess" completely under the reign of Love. all . Possibly is but the "surrounding solitude" below. however. when brought expect to find Kpiipoi applied to the Sphere rather than to the recess. 27. Burnet.'s present spherical universe. of the point of view adopted in these pages. where one could distinguish none of and none of the forms of things. One notes that the passage makes no mention of air. Newbold in a letter suggests Kpiv for Kpi^iw. The figure may be Pythagorean. Prof. to be taken any more literally than the reference to the Sphere as "exultant. l/iev iravaijjxvoi TovT&Kis oixaS' t6itio!" where the event portance. interpretations of the nature of the ff. p. if Pythagorean. not as hiding it somewhere in space. composed. "Go under and succumb" phrase found in Theognis " 'AXX' is 75 in tlie Greek irivepOe yivitrai." If examined narrowly. 250 In the close recess of Harmony: "in Concordiae fixus tenetur. Harmony. For various ancient cf. for the figure. as . Sphere. i. though not altogether satisfactory. y is. latebris PPF. which was spherical and immovable." and would refer to the closely fitted parts of the JliKivot ('closetogether by Love. their equilibrium". as it seems to here. but Kp<i*os. then. and is usually. must still maintain their respective qualthe elements ities. though in this sphere visibly indistinguishable. requires us to conceive "Harmon)'" as pervading the Sphere. as here. and wonders if a line may have been lost.' 'compact') were itself perfectly appropriate. 'a hidden place') would confuse the thought. but the four elements. 'in Harmonia's close-binding frost' as "better than the MS reading. little service to The rounded Sphere This primeval Sphere must never be confounded with E. were the personified "fitting.. 843) : 6-ir6Tav Ka0iirep9er li)v iirirepSe yivrirai." Bodrero assumes (p. but the union of Love and Hate. There: in the Sphere. fitted. hardly of the same cosmic im- Fr. The Sphere corresponds somewhat to the "Being" of Parmenides. difficulties must be admitted. and perhaps. as a noun (meaning. a (1.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 135) that Harmony "is not Love alone. e. A poetic figure for the idea that the Sphere is not. Moreover." Diels. however.

like a baker. e." Diels. where expressions. not ex- Tannery thinks (p. When down the Vortex: the origin of the vortex plained in any existing fragment of Empedocles. Amplest oath Gr.'" Fr. PPF. apparently of the Divine. 314) is the principle of division and movement. the totality of divine beings and powers. 134. are used fr. God: the Sphere. Cf. according to Karsten and Burnet. Cf. 813 .. Fr. fr. is Fr.the final resultant of the disordered movements . i. 34. though in a corrupt form. from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of sense. Ht. fr. and note that below in 31 the Sphere is called God. Fr. itself cf. and seizes at once on that which most identifies his manhood. 312) "the vortex is due to a disturbance of equilibrium. I say. 3) "If thou wilt separate. Yet after mighty Strife : it will be remembered that Strife breaks up and separates the elements in the Sphere. 29. by Marcus Aurelius (XII. Nor form Fr. "This mixture of all materials is divine only in the sense iii which antiquity in general sees in the world p. £. which Hate occasions in the Sphere. Diels (PPF) cites Homer. note to fr. patet Concordiae processum illustrari" it illustrates the process of — Love. the naked and the swift. Exultant in surrounding solitude: quoted with literary tact. and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' Sphere." 814. 35. 30. 33. Fr. to a free of life-producing member: a touch possible only and an austere imagination: Empedocles gazes upon man. 32. 'broad oath. "quod e coniectura scripsi artus iungit Una eleganter exMartianus Rota sive ingenio sive meliore libro fretus: articulis constat semper iunctura duobus. Zeller.' Cf." And again (p. . and the things of time to come and of time that is past. in part identical. of a revolving bright hemisphere of day and a dark hemisphere of night. . itXot&s : SpKov. pressit Fr.: 76 we THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 115. and says "e Plut. in con"Hate . 'AH round. and in its joyous : rest reposing.902. 31. learn from the doxographers. p.48.

according to Tannery by Hate. and fr. The Slvri in Anaximenes and Anaximander. however. Such cruxes recall the inconsistencies even in the more developed materialism of modern times. dementi etemi si formano esseri viventi e peribili. produces an agitation and then a movement of revolution. 784. : Cf. it was. but with the 26. preceding fragment . note to : fr. The eddying centre of the mass: "the mass" is not in the Greek. caused. attraction of Cf. right and wrong. The circle's utmost hounds not the Sphere. : Those mortal things the elements as eternal sources of creation. as constituents of physical objects in the perishable world. mixed. fr. sequence of its TJ very mobility it wvks its way naturally into the interior of the motionless Sphere. PPF. Oneness: not to be "fair order" of fr. The members: the elements. 130. A." etc. 787. Thereupon Hate is thrown off to the circumference where the movement is most rapid." But cf. Cf. Philology. I. Heidel. has suggested to some the "x&aiui" of Hesiod and the "rudes indigestaque moles" of Ovid. Not all blameless i.— THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 3. Fr. identified with the Sphere. : the circumference of the vortex. Only as willingly: possibly a reference to the like for like. to involve the inconsistency of a free will over against the fundamental necessity. which assumes the possibility of sense experience and of distinguishing truth and error. e. W. contrasted with the elements "Dagli Cf.. 17 and 26. The two states are again contrasted in p. or vortex. This chaos. Class." Bodrero. as seems clear from the lines that fol- low. differ- ing frqm "blameless Lovingness" in not willingly submitting to the "old decree" (see Diels. 22. fr. although this seems. p.. "and from their mingling. and is finally excluded altogether. 36. Zeller. if anything more than a poetic touch. "The erstwhile pure and sheer Were below. 116. but is to be understood rather than "the Sphere" which has properly ceased to be in becoming a vortex." They The elements. an accepted tenet of the older schools (cf. July 1906). Hate retreated under protest. 30) .

involves us in another difficulty: "moist air" (iypis i^p) has been already mentioned but with Zeller we may interpret it as the lower." the "awful heights of Air. 13s) and to the etymology of the word itself (from alOeiv. however. with whom ether regularly stands for the element air. Fr. : "With Ether." But this were quite a different sense than is usual in E. If the brief examples of "all things we now behold" are to correspond to the four elements. 38. Stickney." p. rendered "feuchten Luftkreis" by Diels (FV). its 254. v. Fr. PPF.). note to fr. Burnet. mist" by Burnet. Lucr. p. This. "without. fr. a mere reflection. one finds nothing representative of fire. and Zeller. thicker. I.. But cf. ''cetera Cf. assuming any elemental difference. with reference to the fiery sky (cf. it is used interchangeably with alBrip ('air") in fr. indeed. 100 (q. 39. Days." the vaulted sky of his imagination. 786. II 1114 sq. unless ether be here used. fools. misty air (so i-fip in Homer). for slight differences of interpretation. tal vault of heaven.' •blaze')—a sense." Emerson. ." the earth.'s "Ether. e. p." Tannery. was borne along track in the re- volving sky we are left to guess. stars. 'light up. 789. the pure ether. but is in keeping with E.) Cf. 109 on sense perceptipn. 41.. and "damp I may add that Burnet is evidently wrong in affirming that iiip never refers to air in E. some tongues. "Bread.: a gruffness reminding of line: "The brave Empedocles defying Fr. at versus recuperari nequit. Deorum. the Titan who binds the globe about:" cf. elementa duo commemorata fuisse veri simile (cf. as opposed to the upper air. day the bright hemisphere] and reflected upon the crysp. "Moist air" is ." Diels. and sky that holds them all. seems to have conceived the sun as "a luminous image of when the latter was lighted up by the fire of the [i. appropriate to the appellative "Titan. as by Anaxagoras. the all splendorous. 37. notes to Cicero's De Nat. however. E. 44. 317. and of Emerson's etc. kingdoms. As forsooth Heraclitus. The white Ether: "white" is not in the Greek. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. for fire.78 Fr. How the sun.

and one-half . The form of the clause shows that it served as a simile. Zeller.irta>. Her lord: the sun. a darker of Cf.ii. 44 with Diels I take the subject to be 'the (Burnet) . : by Merrill and Riddell. and "Olympos" is then the bright heaven. 43. fr. Kal yX'qvti \i. himself uses 93) of the elder. ." whom the Iliad (A." is used of the willow. ri y\ai(taeiv 8 iari Kal 'EApiitlniivifi. Fr. as far from the earth as the sun ("E. II. 41). 47. the knew the source of the moon's light (cf. Which round the outmost: probably 'goal is turning. 79 An anticipation of the modern scientific explanation of solar eclipses. Rhod. 200) says. 790. accordingly maintained a correct conclusion from incorrect premises that the sun's light requires a certain time to reach earth.' or something of the sort. 48. It refers properly not to color but to "brightness and flashing splendor. Tannery's "feu du jour'' (see note to fr. Zeller. on Apoll. irapb. p. 45. 47) but moon itself he held to be a disk of frozen air." 8tir\<i(7«oi' ivix^iv {rhv ViKiav) atrh t^s Plac." htl rijs acX^vTis ^XP'}"''"''' yXavKairls re arpi^erai if But it is doubtful E. it 7XouKos (fr. 44) ijXiiTl^ovtn 1280 (quoted "SiayXaiaaovatv AvtI toC yXavKairis. This line means only that earth shuts off the light p. darts his : He beams sun' and not 'the earth' — — Fr. and E. Kdpri Sijs rou i<j>BaXfu>v. of the fiery hemisphere that sinks below the horizon. 31). and. "Seirii Cf. 42. Diels' "blauaugigen" seems to me inadequate. Fr. E. followed here. 7^1 l^vep riiv ceX^yiji'. ii ^ StaXd/tTroviri. who speaks of "Selene mild. conceived our earth as surrounded by a hollow globe composed of two hemispheres. for the much discussed y\avKuTis see the Homeric dictionaries. Schol. a lighter of fire. whose revolution produces day and night. A. the olive. Fr. The silver-eyed: yXavKiimSos /h^ki):.. 786 flf. air." intended here anything stronger than "with eye of silvery sheen. E. Cf. E. Fr. S$ev Kal 4 'AffrivS. 41)." used especially of Athene. see note on fr. I. 46. of S4 ol Suae </>Aav$ev. Fr.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. bearing with it its sun (see fr. 43. Odys. explained the light of the heavenly bodies through his doctrine of emanations.

51. totle. 261. 35] made Burnet. on the other hand to another process (i. 256) says: "Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. 79S) .. Fr.e.80 Fr. no reason for the conjecture. With E. 73. as criticized the water gush forth. to fire led Aristotle (De gen. 52." by Aris- mere poetic metaphor. its pores in the form of drops. as common in Sicily. with the other elements. is here influenced by the monsters of Babylonian legend and art. then. condensing function. e. Diels. in E. they seem to refer to a process of animal genesis during the period when Love is increasing in power (i. "It" refers to air. Fr. PPF. 51. fire has a crystallizing. et corr. increasing . {.). the fourth period . p. but the inFr. p. Sal/tovi Salnuy. Fr. an interpretation developed with much ingenuity by Bodrero (Chap. etc. II. p. was at first mixed with water. 56. Burnet.. 55. "The earth creasing compression caused by the velocity of the world's revolution [the Vortex of fr. B 3. Cf. which. S4) tendency. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. Burnet (p. so. : Cod with god There seems Gr. Doubtless an allusion to volcanic phenomena. that E. e. e. Zeller. S3. as air a downward (see fr. The Greek imagination was long fato be .. The phrase is not. fr.'s thought. Fr. 330b 19) to separate it from the other elements of the system. had an upward. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. S7-6i. is 17) fr. functions attributed by E. 62. For authenticity cf. 54." i. in the period of the present Cf. when Hate world). tific charming poetry.: of fire. see fr. Love and Hate.. sometimes advanced. I am uncertain what scienmeaning this line had for Empedocles but for the modern . 256." And upward. Fr. See note to fr.. innate The peculiar powers apparently not elsewhere explained. which forced any water there might be in it out reader it is at least of Fr. "Met. These fragments contain the rude germ of the theory of natural selection and the origin of species (but cf.

E. Fr. e. 64.: 1 THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. "Aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. Obstetrics (1904)1 P." Williams. old age. S7-6j. Fr. 1239." The library of Johns Hopkins has recently (1906) been enriched. hermaphro- and other "mixed shapes of being." Fr. Cyclops. 65. as he gazes." typical for the he probably considers the process as animal kingdom. "At are almost absolutely ignorant concerning the causation of sex. as rational as most modern theories. chimxras. Cf. the latter inducing decay. waking well Old memories. containing some 936 old volumes on monsters. it is an anticipation of modern embryology. each furnishing parts for the formation of offspring. we perhaps. whole Warm warm : ditions in E." Though E. by a collection (originally from Marburg). This present is. explained conception as a union of male and female semen. in the last instance perhaps serving as the occasion for the separation of the elements by Hate. Kpiv6iuvav rSp. the and cold seem to have been important conformer favoring growth. sleep. In so far as this ancient belief recognizes that both sexes furnish the germs of the offspring..'' Lucr. The sundered Are: Gr.'s system. An alternative reading. 'self-sundering* —the which "burns beneath the ground" and has the "upward zeal. IV. For 'tis in part in man's : i. Fr. satyrs. lit. fire "Of men and women.1 idea is probably as old as speculation. 63. 62.143- . The genera. death. is speaking here of mankind. so a medical colleague informs me. in part in the male semen. the pitied and bewailed. though certain observers are inclined to suppose that the determining factor must be sought for in the ovum. which the curious reader may consult at his leisure for further parallels. a little freer "Love-longing comes upon him. dites 8 miliar with centaurs. See notes to fr..

however. with the skin. 70. 71. like horn. morphologically connected. Wherefore: Can any one suggests it\is tell me? Prof. — Fr. 74.82 Fr. etc. laid Fr. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. though the latter is probably meant (Burnet). 79. turtle's shell. 56. t6 iriov.e. Fr. 77-78. the lime) within some animals are related. could only have been familiar with the membranes which follow the birth of the young. and the matter of a suppurating boil—the teat of the former corresponding to the "head" of the latter. 69. others. 484a 38) says that E. Sheepskin: used of the membrane conceived as covering (foetus?). Fr. Colostrum is. 66. bearing offspring in the seventh and tenth month. The Fr. White pus: Gr. McGilvary happily "because the pomegranate has a very hard . Love. the "embryo" Fr. fr. 80.. E.. Fr. grow firm: fire has a con- densing property. quite in the spirit of our own physiology. if my be- available lexical information be correct. Aristotle {Pneumat. was probably guided by similarity no less of function than of form. Sun : this is of course here a symbol for the element fire. The comparison seems to however grotesque—between mother's milk (properly colostrum) in the breast enlarging during pregnancy. Fi"- The subject may be Aphrodite. the earthen part (in modern science. finger-nails. E. more or less vitalizing according to the mixture again a suggestion of modern science. Fr. In thus assimilating the seeds of the olive tree to the eggs by birds. Twice-hearing: i. explained fingernails as produced from sinew by hardening. however. 75-76. present in the breast after the first few months. Cloven meads: surely the labia majora. 68. consisting chiefly of keratin. Trees were supposed by E. To speed of fire that she might Cf. Kypris: Aphrodite. 73. to the shells on the outside of is. Fr. Here the bones. to derive their nourishment through their pores from the air. not A tC^s ('colostrum').

alternately arranged for each element. 801. give to the emanations of each a free passage. following Aristotle. Sour sprung for Sour: "'went for" (^jSij) would be a more effective rendering." Gomperz. Fr. must be understood here. Fire serves for perceiving the bright." Zeller. 96. 83 thick skin." though not in the text. fr. however reluctantly. : p. Fr. but for the slangy connotations. Cf. and from the "It joint meeting arises vision. eine harte Verhindung zustande. to explain percepIt was an attempt. apple. Fr. of the poet-scientist Goethe. e." Fr. Cf. When the emanations of visible things reach the outside of the eye. which admitted. water for the dark. the pores of which. 84. Fr. Fr. p. not admitting air as rwidily as the thin skin of an See fr. conceives the eye as a sort of lantern. there pass through the pores from within it emanations of its fire and water. 88. p. Diels (FV).THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 235. was an attempt. Denn nur Hohles and Dickies passt zu einander. 267. 89. From which Bolts of love i. The apple fire and water enclosed in films. wie wenn man Zinn und Kupfer mischt." bringt. makes the connection sufficiently clear "Die Samen: da zwei weiche Stoffe susammenkommen. note on fr. 87. Fr. however inadequate. A doctrine of comparative morphology that has reminded critics many Fr. go. 86. mischung bet der Erzeugung von Mauleseln . Dort aber geht es. moreover. and "horny. of the eye contains "Emp. Burnet. 92.. lantern Of horny : the ancients had lanterns made of trans- lucent horn. from these elements. Interesting as an early lesson in a sound theory of optics. who has preserved us the fragment. 2. 77-78. Cf. the subjective factor. 82. thus completing one stage of the journey whose ultimate goal tion by intermediate processes. is to recognize that our sense-perceptions are anything rather than the mere reflections of exterior objective qualities of things. : a metaphor for the uniting power of Aphro- dite.

This fragment (cf. gests in Empedocles' system. Quaest." Fr. p. 102. The thought is thus completed by Diels (FV). dass sie bei der Entstehung der Tiere durch eine sufdllige Wendung serbrach. Fr. the all-splendorous : an illustration of how E. 43. (PPF) has Preserved only in Latin (Plut. She met: Gr. which sugan implicit doctrine of chance. .84 Fr.. admisceatur. dass einige bei Tag. Fr. as grotesque as it is ingenious. following Simplicius: "ergab sich auch der Unterschied. 107 ff. Thus completed by Diels (FV). Diels (PPF) paraphrases: "Tellus ad sanguinem efficiendum fere pares partes ignis. by an epithet suggestive of that element as it appears in the world about us. though far enough from the discovery of Harvey. 100. Silvery : See note to f r. Bodrero. inner ear he likens to a bell which sounds as the air strikes upon it again an anticipation of modern science.. Diels irAei ev pivBei iroTo/wC ii£Kav in aKibevras Kal airriXai^SecriTiv i/uis evoparai i» ivrpoii. fr." Fr." . following Aristotle: "hat ihre Form daher. used sjrmbolically to denote an element as one of the four-fold roots of all things. Harvey's own work On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) for the anterior views. Aeshy sprout E. They I e. thus turned it into Greek: "/col not. Cf." Fr. the eyes. among others. andere bei Nacht heller sehen. aeris arcessit.'s picturesque definition of the outer ear. 93. Cf. Clue of Harmony : cf "bolts of love. Cf. sed fieri potest ut paulo plus terrae aut minus." as Bodrero translates it. : A The — Fr. ovviKvpae. will sometimes emphasize a term. 94. and 4 parts Broad-breasted melting pots: "ben construtti vasi. Thus bones are formed fire. 98. fr. it is As a theory of respiration." : Fr. aquae. 39). 97. a word. 103. 96. 105) shows some knowledge of the motions of the blood. of 2 parts earth. 2 parts water. Ether. ut quae pluribus elementis una occurrat. 9S. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. 99.

109 be so interpreted (but cf. 98. Zeller. Cf. 98. note on fr. 245).. rests. In the blood streams : cf. and is The doubly significant for its sound physics. 16) : The blood the ancients that stirs. Fr. p. elsewhere. 803. E. though in form of a Burnet points out. Gomperz. loi. I think.. 230) will. The top b was not altogether open. Fr. p. but was perforated so that the air might exert its pressure on the water inside. The mites are the emanations." Fr. PPF). as in some passages Cf. . .'s theory of scent. the verse was often alluded to by Tertullian seems himself (chap. with consciousness. upoij scientific experiment. nowhere credits the elements as such. but E. 102.i seems to be a hylozoist." The water's destined bulk responding mass of water. a cor- All that is left of E. 104. etc. Got: lit. where it chiefly {iiAXurra) exists. Here. e. The comparison with Homeric simile. following diagram and analysis from Burnet (p. Fr. 100. The instrument was filled by plunging it in water upside down. it : Diels. note to f r. Fr. 103. The lightest: supply "bodies. e. (cf. make the allusion clear: "The water escaped drop by drop through a single orifice at a. did not mean here. "chanced on" (\e\6yxa(ri) note on . 802. p. 105. : i. and stopping the orifice at it a with the finger before taking out again. to exclude some power of thought from other parts of the body he says "where prevails the power. and to have turned into Latin in his De Anima "namque homini sanguis circumcordialis et sensus. Cf. perhaps.THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Chance: cf." i. fr. as 85 the clepsydra." But E. unless fr. Zeller.

. Cf. Ill. 86 Fr. possibly "charms" is better. : Cf. All things have Axed intent Fr. e. PPF. Burnet. 106. as sugme by a friend. if and capable of serving as the basis for a chapter in the philosophy of living. Italian school of medicine. 107. Fr.: . — Zeller. note on fr. io6. consciousness. Fr. as elsewhere. Wie konnt' uns Gottliches entzticken?" Man Fr. All these things: perhaps the good thoughts of the master's is here. a soul as distinct from the composition of the elements in the body is nowhere found in the On Nature. "Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore et una crescere sentimus pariterque senescere mentem. . Cf. p. 108. quoted by Diels. 109.. "By day" and "by night" have been supplied here from references in Simpl. 17). 802. p. and Philop. Galen makes E. . etc. Fr. was early imputed to .. here promised to Pausanias. E. 445-6. sickness. For of themselves. etc. was wir Seelenthatigkeit nennen. eine vom Korper verschiedene Seele kennt seine Physik nicht" i. windstorms. is the microcosm. aus der elementarischen Zusammensetzung des Korpers erklart. Through Earth. doctrine. The dominion over human ills. 215. Plotinus yeyevTiniros. also Goethe "War' nicht das Auge sonnenhaft. my sound psychology. III.. e. 802). sondern er hat das. and the same holds true of Love and Hate (cf. p. gested to Drugs: Gr. addressing Pausanias. note on fr. : i. no. (p&p/iaKa.: interpretation just above be correct. THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. on the practical bearings upon character of right and wrong thinking. These: the elements. : Oi yhp &v wiiirore elSev j0da\/iis ^Xioi' ^XioeiS^! iiii Cf.they grow.. "we think each element with the corresponding element in our body" (Zeller. drought and death.'' Lucr. the founder of the Cf. "Empedocles hat nicht die Seele aus den Elementen zusammengesetzt. Die Sonne konnt' es nie erblicken Lag* nicht in uns des Gottes eig'ne Kraft.

"Why who am Orphic should I boast of my miracles and my following. to the citizens of Acragas.: THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. p. perhaps. p. 589. 113. Proleg. 112. KaTa<t>9iixivov fUvos AvSp6s. but the simplicity of the Jew is more impressive than Crowned both with fillets the display of the Greek. dead" seems hardly permissible with /t^ros (though the word is sometimes used of the spirit. Fr. though attempts at a reconciliation have been made.. and not. Harrison. chiefly by vir- * The might of perished men: "Spirits Gr. as the latter. radically by Bodrero (passim). As god immortal now an Orphic : line runs "Happy and blessed.. The work evidently owes much to Orphic and Pythagorean tradition. but there seems no reason for doubting its genuineness. a commonplace^ in the history of Greek thought. of the THE PURIFICATIONS. followed by the multitudes seeking a sign or a healing word. The yellow Acragas: The river beside the walls of Agri- gentum. if an (cf. but for the fact that it is addressed to Fausanias. e. has here . shalt thou be a god and no longer a mortal. and. and would render still more crass the contradiction with what E. to Study of Greek Religion. : and with flowering wreaths Empedocles' passage about the Sicilian cities reminds one of the peasant-prophet who went about the populous towns of Galilee. Empedocles himself tue of these lines. Fr. One would conjecture that the fragment belongs to the Purifications. has elsewhere told us in the On Nature of the psychic life. conservatively by Burnet (p. 87 Introduction) . 271). The inconsistency of the religious tenets of this poem with the philosophic system of the On Nature is. a god and so much above mankind?" E. like the relation between the two parts of Parmenides' poem. (cf. I. Burnet." Cf. 213. and his references). the courage of man). our materials seem too scanty for anything more than ingenious speculation.

refers to the unwillingness also of Hate to submit to the law of necessity. not entirely Pythagorean in form "Non e specializzata solo a ma riguarda tutti gli esseri organici : e giunge sino agli Dei. something is needed after all for metemphychosis besides "the reappearance of the same corporeal elements in definite combinations" (Burnet. 30. With amplest oaths: cf. the Buddhistic doctrine of reincarnation and retribution. sinfully. rpU iivplai «5pot.000 years. 146). Moreover. 147. etc. Cf. e. 271). In offense: in sin. p. fr. Here we have mention of the and below of Hate." according to Bodrero (p. Cf. also Gomperz. he will say with "So long as man Empedocles: . 780. is probably Pythagorean in origin." [in the Orphic belief] has not severed completely his brotherhood with plants and animals. fr. Charis: Aphrodite. bloodshed of animals. though perhaps Empedocles deemed that sufficient. IIS. Thrice ten thousand years: Gr. fr. docle ci fa sapere che dei beati. Cf. uccello. Sat/ioves. 136. not realized the distinctive marks and attributes of his humanity. Cf.88 little THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. pesce. familiar four elements. essere arbusto. no less than of probably refers also to the eating of flesh. the doctrine of metempsychosis in E. Possibly as a punishment for having tasted flesh: "Empeil suo spirito era gii pervenuto alia sede ma che cedendo alia tentazione accosto impuri cibi agli labbri [cf. but the realm of the Blessed and the curse pronounced upon the spirits seem in: For now Air hunts them. fanciullo e giovinetta. Burnet (p.. 269) these with "the long-lived gods" of the On Nature. In the On Nature (fr. p. p. etc. of even "the somewhat elaborate and self-conscious humility" of his sect. 116. 117. by some interpreted as 10. 249 S. it i. p. 139]. e tomo ad Bodrero. 35) E. Fr. Fr. Zeller. identifies With slaughter: fellowmen. Those far spirits: Gr. Fr. compatible with the On Nature. though apparently certi determinati esseri. : Be born through time.

' Harrison. XI. the figure is evidently taken from the conception of the Orphic Hell.) but that E. This must refer to Empedocles' feelings. and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean.. cf. as I under- stand to our mundane world And Labors burthened with the water-jars: this is a paraphrase of the puzzling ^pya 'pevari." : THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES. Prometheus Unbound. note to fr. "can hardly be anything other than the fruitless toil of the water-carriers. 118. Cf. V. 89 'Once on a time a youth was I. Fr. which. as he entered.^nd I was a maiden.'' I. to Study of Greek Religion. 118. 226. situated upon (for water-carriers in Hell.. to Study of Greek Religion. p. wander. it has been suggested to me by Prof. "Lightning and Inundation vexed the Shelley. Proleg. parallels see Munro and Guissani. For other Fr. plains. A bush. Newbold. 119. ut sequmst cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum. A joyless land it. Cf. sed agri inundationibus vexati. . earth if the literary tradition be reliable. banishment from heaven. 169." etc. Harrison. notes to loc. life's disappointments and the vanity of all human pursuits." According to this. Proleg. 590." If this interpretation be correct. which. is depicting scenes from the Orphic Hell itself may be questioned from what is preserved to us of the context: he seems throughout these adjacent fragments to be dwelling on the earthly abiding place unto which he and others must descend from the realm of the blessed. Chap. a bird. was . after 119). p.. upon his earthly career (cf. vagituque locum lugubri complet. cit. Fr." Lucr. "Infans.. this refers. if the scene be earth. fr. representing. 122 and 123 itself. But Diels (PPF) "nee sunt humanae res fluxae (Karsten) nee vero foedunt morbi genus (Stein). 614 ff. 121. it might run in English : "And slimy floods of wasting waters rise And Cf. : with fr.

90
Fr. 122.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
There:
i.e.,

in the joyless land," the "roofed cave," this

earth.

Virgin of the Sun: the moon(?).

The personages
"&«'
Fr. 125.
&p' iijv

that

follow are

feminine.
II.

E.

evidently

imitates the catalogue of

Nymphs

in

S

39:
Kt\,

TXaiKV

re,

edXetd re KvfioS6Kri re"

This refers, perhaps, to the passage from the

life,

of the

blessed to the (relative) death

on

this earth,

where souls are

wrapped
"in unfamiliar tunics of the flesh" (fr. 126.),

and have a hapless existence.
Fr. 126.
Fr. 127.

This refers to metempsychosis.

The worthiest dwellings

their purification;
inal passage is

for those who have proceeded in expanded from the context where the origfound (in Ael. nat. an., XII, 7., quoted by Diels,
:

PPF)
0af

:

"X^et

dt Kal

'E.
ii

ivOpiiirov, et fiiv is (wiov
el dk is (jniTov,

r^v iplarqv elvai lurolKiiaiv ri/v toD Xnfts airbv lurayiyoi, \4ovTa ylvea-

Sd^Kijv.VE. conceived the plants as having
antiquity.

souls,

a fancy not confined to

Fr, 128.

Golden Age seems incompatible with the biology of the Nature, but cf. Burnet (p. 271), who thinks it to be referred to the time when Hate was just beginning to separate

A

On

the elements.

•Kydoimos: personification of uproar, as in

battle.

Unmixed blood:
as such,
is

the figure

is

from unmixed wine, which,

thick

and dark.

Fr. 129. "Similiter mentis infinitam

vim (philosophi scilicet non vatis) Parmenides praedicat fr. 2 'XeOaae S' i/uas direSura j>6ut vapeivra Pepaltos ktX. unde apparet cur nonnulli Parmenidem hie respici arbitrati sunt, nee dubimn cur Pythagorae quater redivivi mentio ["a reference to Pythagoras, four times returned to life"] facta sit." Diels, PPF. But Burnet (p. 236), conjecturing that E. is still speaking of the Golden Age, thinks the "supreme man" is Orpheus.

(PPF)

In ten or twenty human ages: cf. paraphrase of Diels : "ubi sununa vi mentem intenderat, facile singula quae-

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
cumque
sive decern sive viginti

9I

hominum

saeculis fiebant per-

spicere solebat."

Fr. 132.

Bodrero in his attempt to interpret harmoniously all the thoughts of Empedocles explains this passage with reference to what has gone before in the On Nature as follows "Felice colui che ha una cosi perfetta composizione di elementi da .poter comprendere la natura degli Dei; misero chi per la poverti delle proprie risorse, segue le credenze superstiziose
:

e

comuni"

(p. 159).

Fr. 134.

Cf. fr. 29 and note. Burnet thinks that E. is here too speaking of the Sphere; but the last lines seem out of place in such a connection, even though we recall that E. has vaguely named the Sphere "God" (fr. 31).

Fr. 135.

Broad-ruling Ether,

etc.

:

"den weithin herrschenden FeuerDiels,

aether

und den unermesslichen Himmelsglanz."

FV.

Cf. note to fr. 38.

Din of slaughter: killing of animals. The reader need hardly be reminded of
against eating animal food.
'

Cf. fr. 137 and 115. the Orphic interdict

Vr. 138.

fr.

"As our philosopher placed life and soul in the blood [cf. it was not unnatural for him to speak of 'drawing the Diels, PPF. soul.' " The passage seems to refer either to
105],

the draining or scooping up into a bronze vessel of the blood of slaughtered animals, or to cutting their throats with a sacrificial knife of bronze.
Fr. 139. Fr. 140.
Cf. note

on

fr. 117.

For the probable reason of

this injunction cf. fr. 127.

Fr. 141.

A familiar Pythagorean commandment, on the meaning of which scholars have offered a variety of suggestions. Bodrero (p .149) and others connect it with the doctrine of metempsychosis (cf. fr. 139, 127) Burnet (p. 104) well compares it (and kindred Pythagorean rules) to the bizarre taboos of Possibly there was some fancied association, based savages. on shape, with the egg (as E. likened olives to eggs in fr. 79), which, as may be gathered from Plutarch, was held by Orphics and Pythagoreans to be taboo, perhaps as being the principle
;

«

92
.

THE FRAGMENTS OF EMPEDOCLES.
of
.

life

(cf.
,

Harrison, Proleg, to Study of Greek Religion,

p.

628).

t:
Fr. 142.
fr.

''etiam sensus incertus,
13s,

utrum lovis
Diels,

et

Hecates regna

(cf.

2?) opponantur an quattuor elementa, unde exclusus
fr.

sit

scelestus (cf.

115, 9)."

PPF.

Fr. 143.

Scooping Gr. raixSvr', 'cutting,' i. e., water for purposes of ceremonial lustration (?), for which bronze vessels were regularly employed.

Fr.

144.

George Herbert uses the same

figure

somewhere

in his

poems.
Fr. 14s.

Evil doings: presumably such "sin" as referred to above which doom souls to
"be bom through time In various shapes of mortal kind which change Ever and ever paths of troublous life." Fr. 115.

Fr. 146-7.

The

last

words

left

us of the

all

too few on the trans-

migration of the soul.
Fr. 148.

This does not refer to "mother earth," but to the human
Tf/i

body, "rb

\l/vxvt wepiKelufvov aa/ia"

(Plut. Quoest. Conviv.

V 8, 2,
Fr. 149. Fr. 151.

p.

683

E

\post

fr.

80],

quoted by Diels, PPF).

Of
Of

air.

Aphrodite.
21,

Fr. 152.

Preserved in Aristotle's Poetics,
Gr.
/Soi//3<J,

quoted by Diels, PPF.
irop'

Fr. 153.

a very rare word: "arnmlvet Sk koJ KoiKlav is

•E/iveSok\€:."

Hesych., quoted by Diels,

PPF.
mal

Fr. iS3a.

Diels

(FV)

translates the doxographer: "In sieben

sieben

Tagen wird der Embryo

(seiner Gliederung

nacK)

durchgebildet."

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