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Republic of the Philippines Pangasinan State University (Urdaneta Campus)

Events During the Process of Fertilization and What is Inherited?

Submitted by:

Jessa P. Garcia BSEd-I

Submitted to:

Dr. Corazon Mipalar

SUMMARY EVENTS DURING THE PROCESS OF FERTILIZATION When fertilized egg or zygote is about to divide, its chromosome and genes are doubled. A complete set is passed on to each daughter cell. Through this process of chromosome replication and cell division, all cells except the productive cells receive identical inheritance. When fertilization takes place, the full complement of chromosomes is reestablished. The 23 chromosomes from the sperm cell will pair with the 23 chromosomes from the egg cell and resulting zygote starts life with 46 chromosomes. Fertilization the union of the sperm and the egg cells. Fraternal Twins twins that develop from two eggs which are fertilized at the same time. From the point of view of heredity they are no more alike than ordinary sibling combinations. - Develop from separate eggs and are no more alike in heredity than are ordering siblings. Identical Twins twins that develop as the result of the splitting of already fertilized eggs. The heredity of identical twins is identical. - differ from each other in certain ways. Some of these differences between organisms of the same species are due to heredity, others are due to environment. Meiosis the reproduction cells develop and undergo a kind of division.

WHAT IS INHERITED? Physical Traits. - We inherit many physical traits from our parents and ancestors. Some of the physical traits known to be hereditary are color and shape of the eyes, color and texture of the hair, curly and straight hair, color or shade of the skin, size and shape of the nose, quality of the teeth, shape of the lips, size of the ears, height, body build, shape of the face, some physical defects like polyactyl, fused digits, two joined fingers, and clubbed feet. Mental traits. - Many scientists believe that level of intelligence and special talents are inherited. Some mental defects like feeble-mindedness, and some forms of insanity can be traced to heredity. Other scientists, however, believe that environmental factors could have caused such mental abnormalities. Studies made of certain families show that both desirable and undesirable traits can be inherited.

Heredity is the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring. It is the process and the result of the process which the characteristics, or traits of a living organism, plant/animal, are produced and transmitted from parent to offspring. Genetics branch of biology dealing with the scientific investigations of the mechanisms of heredity. The Reproductive Process 1. Twinning and Multiple Births Identical twins result when an ovum splits into two after fertilization. They may also be called single-worm or monozygotic twins. Since each contains identical sets of chromosomes, they are always of the same sex both girls or both boys. Occassionally they may be mirror images of each other in ehich case, the right side of one twin would resemble the left side of the other. There is no definite hereditary background for the occurrence of single-ovum twins. The fertilization of separate ova or of a single ovum may result in twin pregnancies, and are called double-ovum, dizygotic or fraternal twins. The frequency of twinning is affected by age as well as age and heredity.

Reference: 1. Sanchez, Custodosa A., Ph.D. Et. Al; General Psychology; Fourth Ed.;2008; 2. Kahayon, Alicia and Berba, Ma. Rita, Teresa; Psychology Towards A New Millennium

QUESTONAIRE 1. Life starts with how many chromosomes? a. 46 c. 22 b. 23 d. None of the above 2. Reproductive cells develop and undergo a kind of division called a. Mitosis c. Reproduction b. Meiosis d. None of the above 3. Each reproductive cell, male or female, will only have how many chromosomes? a. 22 c. 46 b. 23 d. None of the above 4. Come from an incomplete separation of two identical twins. a. Identical twins c. Fraternal twins b. Siamese Twins d. None of the above 5. Develop from separate eggs and are no more alike in heredity than are ordering siblings. a. Identical twins c. Fraternal Twins b. Siamese twins d. None of the above 6. This twins may also differ in certain ways, some of thgese diff. between organisms of the same species are due to heredity, others are due to environment. a. Identical twins c. Fraternal twins b. Siamese twins d. None of the above 7. A branch of both psychology and genetics concerned with the inherited bases of behavior. a. Heredity c. Behavior genetics b. Genetics d. None of the above 8. A trait that can be inherited through intelligence and special talents. a. Physical traits c. Traits b. Mental traits d. None of the above 9. Traits from our parents and ancestors like heredity of color and shape of the eyes, color and texture of the hair, etc. a. Physical traits c. Traits b. Mental traits d. None of the above 10. Where can we inherit some physical traits? a. Neighborhood c. Parents and ancestors b. Friends d. None of the above