Nokia Siemens Networks LTE-Advanced The advanced LTE toolbox for more efficient delivery of better user

experience

Technical White Paper

1 Overview 3.8 Outlook 4. 3. Overview 1.2 Carrier Aggregation 3.2 Status of LTE-A (as of January 2011) 2.5 Relay Nodes 3. the evolution of LTE 1.Table of contents 1.6 Heterogeneous Networks 3.1 LTE-Advanced. Drivers The LTE-A toolbox 3.3 Advanced MIMO schemes 3.7 Self Organizing Network and network architecture evolution with LTE-A 3.4 Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception 3. Summary 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 15 2 LTE-Advanced white paper .

initial trials and commercial networks have given ample proof of the fact that LTE delivers superior mobile broadband user experience in real deployments. LTE has been a commercial success. features and enhancements to existing technologies. as well as a toolbox to support further enhancements like MIMO and Higher Order Modulation. while LTE-Advanced white paper 3 . ITU-R has already approved LTE-Advanced as IMTAdvanced RIT or “true 4G system” in November 2010. This paper introduces the advanced toolbox of LTE-A. with a view to deliver faster mobile broadband services to a constantly increasing user base. It allows operators to deploy larger bands than 20MHz in particular by carrier aggregation. ITU initiated the IMT-Advanced process to define the requirements for the next generation of Radio Interface Technologies (RIT) that were released in a circular letter in early 2008. going by its adoption rate.2 Status of LTE-A (as of January 2011) LTE has been specified in 3GPP Releases 8 and 9. In comparison with basic HSPA networks. a similar toolbox has been applied to HSPA for facilitating a seamless evolution to HSPA+. In fact. that has exceeded any other mobile network technology. in accordance with the requirements of ITU for IMT-Advanced. 1. thereby necessitating further enhancement in the overall efficiency. Meeting the IMT-Advanced requirements has been the goal that 3GPP has to achieve and standardization in 3GPP has progressed well. the evolution of LTE The introduction of LTE was driven by the industry’s quest for a more efficient technology that could help deliver ever faster mobile broadband services. Thanks to these advanced features. LTE delivered this enhancement by offering the state of the art combination of new air interface base technology (OFDMA/SC-FDMA). One of the main drivers of the technical enhancements and timetable for LTE-A development has been IMT-Advanced. The first LTEAdvanced specifications are expected to be frozen in early 2011 while evaluations conducted by 3GPP contributors and external parties have demonstrated that LTE-A meets all the IMT-Advanced requirements. it is fully backwards compatible with the earlier LTE releases. At the same time. implying that legacy devices can operate in LTE-A networks but may not necessarily benefit from all the new features of LTE-A. as well as discusses the benefits that LTE-A provides to operators and end-users. The first LTE-A 3GPP standard compliant products are expected to enter the markets from 2012 onwards.1 LTE-Advanced. including information on new technologies. The LTE standard has been stable and backwards compatible since March 2008. By the end of 2010. LTE-Advanced – abbreviated as LTEA – has primarily been conceptualized to address both the aforementioned demands. As a consequence. more than 120 operators were committed to rolling out commercial LTE networks. it continues to deploy the air interface base technology of LTE which provides highest efficiency and a smooth evolution in the deployment of the existing LTE ecosystem towards LTE-A. LTE-A marks the evolution of LTE. Overview 1. we continue to witness exponential growth in mobile broadband traffic. LTE makes its transition to a true 4G technology.1. greater flexibility for utilizing spectrum like for example support of 20MHz bands and TD-LTE for using unpaired spectrum. while also enabling an advanced toolbox with advanced MIMO schemes and totally new features like Relaying. Moreover.

as well as reducing the costs per bit. booklets.. LTE-A defines a large set of tools focused on enhancing the mobile broadband user experience. netbooks. Mobility Figure 1: Evolution of data speeds for stationary and mobile use cases 4 LTE-Advanced white paper . Also. which in turn implies the costs per bit/Hz. the laws of physics imply that conventional mobile broadband networks are approaching the theoretically achievable spectral efficiency. Drivers Looking ahead.) • achine-to-machine communications M stepping alongside human users A detailed analysis reveals that data traffic is distributed in an uneven way. the exponential growth in data traffic is expected to continue on the same lines owing to certain key drivers: • Increased adoption of mobile broadband • nhanced coverage (spreading E across more locations) • Increase in usage intensity • reater availability & choices in G terms of devices (smart devices.. Consequently the need for higher bandwidths and higher efficiency can only be answered by combining several tools optimized for specific network scenarios. phones. This is the prime reason for using the term “toolbox” in this paper. Eventually mobile broadband networks need to evolve in a manner which goes beyond the conventional approach of applying one standard remedy to the capacity squeeze.2. pads.

3. Therefore. Carrier aggregation provides almost as high spectrum efficiency and peak rates as single wideband allocation. The new technology components of LTE-A spell a host of benefits for the CSP community: enabling performance improvements in peak data rates. and ensures statistical multiplexing gain by distributing the traffic dynamically over multiple carriers. and some of them are a bit more difficult to implement due to interference problems caused e. Carrier Aggregation can provide bandwidths with a maximum range of 100 MHz. Even higher bandwidths could easily be supported by the concept. the focus has shifted to developing new features and technologies to extend the capabilities of LTE. Talking specifically about this basic use case. It enables operators to provide high throughput without wide contiguous frequency band allocations. with FDD since there can be uplink or downlink only frequency bands. New technologies of LTE-A include enhancements in uplink and downlink multi-antenna (MIMO) technologies. while a higher range of band combinations will be supported in later releases. In some heterogeneous deployment scenarios. LTE-A does not really provide significant performance improvements since no new technologies have been found to make this feasible. There are a lot of permutations and combinations. With Carrier Aggregation. as well as supporting new ways of deploying and operating networks ensuring optimal distribution of services. relay nodes (RN) and heterogeneous network deployments (Hetnet). bandwidth extension with carrier aggregation (CA). The LTE-A toolbox 3. but the need has not been identified yet. only intraband carrier aggregation is supported in uplink in LTE Release 10. operators can take asymmetrical bands into use LTE-Advanced Enhance macro network performance Capacity and cell edge performance enhancements by active interference cancelation Peak data rate scaling with antenna paths for urban grid and small cells Peak data rate and throughput scaling with aggregated bandwidth 8x Heterogeneous networks Relaying Enables focused capacity enhancement with small cells by interference coordination Coordinated Multipoint Enables focused coverage extensions with small cells by self-backhaul MIMO 4x Carrier Aggregation up to 100 MHz Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier3 … Carrier4 Enable efficient use of small cells Figure 2: LTE-A support both: enhancing the LTE macro network and enabling the efficient introduction of small cells Matti Kiiski. coordinated multi-cell transmission and reception (CoMP).3. so basically all the frequency allocations can be used. and with cells without fixed transport connections. based on macro base stations and for dual receiver and single transmit antenna single band terminals. 21 January 2011 LTE-Advanced white paper 5 . and for enhancing data rates for end-users. new ways of cost reduction in the process of deploying and operating networks with small base stations. Instead. the performance can be even better since flexible frequency reuse can be arranged between local area nodes to provide better inter-cell interference coordination. average spectrum efficiency. coverage. by intermodulation products of transmitted signals on different frequency bands.2 Carrier Aggregation Carrier Aggregation allows for combining up to five LTE Release 8 compatible carriers with the aim of increasing transmission bandwidth. cell edge performance. Aggregated carriers can be adjacent or non-adjacent even at different frequency bands.1 Overview LTE (as specified in 3GPP Releases 8 and 9) has been optimized for conventional wide area deployment.g.

Kiiski. 21 January 2011 multiplexing Matti i. but the improvements seem quite marginal for the scenarios evaluated in LTE Release 10.g. energy efficient machine-to-machine communication. since the UE can not always utilize multi-carrier transmission due to limited transmit power. e. Future releases might include extension carrier for specific use cases. to have lower control channel overhead and better efficiency.g. Studies have been conducted on the benefits of extension carriers. Gain in uplink is lower than in downlink. underlining its significance as a powerful technology for effective utilization of radio resources. scheduling over multiple carriers provides significant throughput gain since all radio resources can be 6 LTE-Advanced white paper . 1x2 for UL allocated to the user(s) with the most favorable radio conditions. transmit power and usage of resources. implying that the control channel at one carrier can be used to allocate resources at another carrier for user data transmission. There must be enough (but not all) inter-band capable UE before the feature can improve network performance.e. However. by statistical Carrier Aggregation supports cross component carrier scheduling. Inter-band Carrier Aggregation provides more flexibility to utilize fragmented spectrum allocations but one must take UE capabilities into account. Carrier Aggregation’s capability to improve single user throughput depends on the number of users in a cell. far-off UE could be better served with a low frequency carrier and near cell center UE with a high frequency carrier. so scheduling high number of users over multiple carriers provides only marginal gain.g. e. • 2x2 SU-MIMO 15 20 Offered Load [Mbps] 25 30 • Dynamic traffic with Poisson arrival and finite buffer Average UE throughput [Mbps] 200 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 Downlink • Rel-8 UE case (one CC per UE) and LTE-A UE case (2-CCs per UE) back-off assumed for UL with Tx on two CCs • 1 dB power 40 50 Offered Load [Mbps] 60 70 Figure 3: Carrier Aggregation improves average cell throughput both in uplink and downlink due to more efficient utilization of radio resources. e.Average UE throughput [Mbps] 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 Uplink LTE Rel-8 LTE Rel-10 • 3GPP macro #1 with 2x20MHz for DL. If carriers are at different frequency bands they have different propagation losses and different interfering systems which affect achievable data rates. The number of users is directly proportional to the overall statistical multiplexing gain even on a single carrier. if the number of users is low. without common control channels. It can be used to provide both frequency diversity and interference coordination in frequency domain at the same time.

Smart Rel-10: case3 Offered Load [Mbps] Rel-8: 3km ISD. Release 10 extends the MIMO support for eight transmit and receiver antennas in downlink and introduces uplink MIMO by supporting up to four transmit and eight receiver antennas. the number of transmitter and receiver antennas can be seen in Fig. Multiple Output) technology is based on transmitting and receiving with multiple antennas and utilizing uncorrelated communication channels when radio signals propagate through the physical environment. Smart Rel-10: 3km ISD The better the system can utilize these communication channels for multiple transmissions.1GHz carrier 25 20 Coverage gain in Rel8 by assigning cell edge UEs on 800MHz carrier 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Offered Load [Mbps] Carrier Aggregation of 800 and 2100MHz: Rel-8: case3. The maximum peak data rates vs. for multiple users Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO). feedback of channel estimation data from the receiver to the transmitter and spatial encoding methods. RR Rel-8: case3. TP loss in Rel8 by assigning cell center UEs on 2.2x20 MHz Carrier Aggregation and 64QAM with 9/10 code rate Figure 5: Carrier Aggregation and MIMO provide high peak data rates bounded by allocated bandwidth and the number of transmit and receiver antennas Matti Kiiski. the used bandwidth and the configuration of radio parameters like the resource allocation for control channels. LTE-Advanced white paper 7 . If the multiple transmissions are for a single user. RR Rel-8: 3km ISD. Average UE throughput [Mbps] Figure 4: Inter-band Carrier Aggregation enables to benefit from different propagation characteristic of different frequency bands # of UE antennas 8 Matti Kiiski. but only single antenna transmission in uplink. the downlink and the uplink. 21 January 2011 Downlink [Mbps] Uplink [Mbps] 1102 3.80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 Coverage [Mbps] Marginal Avg.3 Advanced MIMO schemes 4 555 610 304 161 152 1 2 4 8 305 # of eNB antennas 2 1 . 5 for 40 MHz band allocation for both. the higher is the capacity that the system can provide. then the technology is called SingleUser MIMO (SU-MIMO). MIMO performance is subject to a large number of parameters: the number of transmitter and receiver antennas. LTE Releases 8 and 9 support multi-antenna (MIMO) technology with up to four transmit and receiver antennas in downlink. Transmission peak date rates depend on the number of antennas on the transmitter and the receiver. 21 January 2011 Multi-antenna or MIMO (Multiple Input. Consequently a comprehensive design is crucial to provide optimum system performance. then multiple data transmissions can share the same frequency resources. reference signals and algorithms for channel estimation. If there is enough isolation between the communication channels.

081 183% 0.060 100% 107% 112% 117% 0.025 0.075 0.Correlated 0.088 0.084 0.050 0.088 199% 0.00 Ideal MMSE/SIC Average SE [bps/Hz/cell] Capacity . it can be safely concluded that the higher the number of antennas.080 0.84 173% 2. This limitation is overcome by the new reference symbol design of Release 10. In most cases it is best to operate two TX antenna eNBs in Release 8 SU-MIMO mode.02 2.09 3. SU-MIMO provides mainly increased data rates in lightly loaded networks for high-end multi-transmitter UE.000 0.052 155% 0.06 100% 1.00 2.Correlated Realistic MMSE/SIC 2.00 Ideal MMSE/SIC 3. 21 January 2011 Figure 6: an example how uplink MU-MIMO improves system performance with different TX/RX antenna configurations Release 10 has enhanced the reference signal design with user specific reference symbols for signal demodulation and common reference symbols for feedback purposes in downlink and more orthogonal reference signal structure in uplink.075 0. which is also more effective when the number of transmit antennas is higher. 6 and 7.045 133% 1x2 no MIMO 2x2 SU-MIMO 1x4 no MIMO 2x4 SU-MIMO 4x4 SU-MIMO Ideal: Perfect knowledge of interference assumed at the receiver Realistic: Only have estimate of interference power available at the receiver.060 100% 113% 123% 122% 1x4 MU-MIMO Rel-8 1x4 MU-MIMO Rel-10 2x4 MU dual Ideal: Perfect knowledge of interference assumed at the receiver Realistic: Only have estimate of interference power available at the receiver. The LTE-A system can operate in both SU and MU-MIMO modes at the same time using dynamic user specific MIMO transmission configuration.45 1.000 1x4 no MIMO Ideal MMSE/SIC 0.075 0.00 0.57 148% 180% 1.00 2.02 1. 21 January 2011 Figure 7: an example how uplink SU-MIMO improves system performance with different TX/RX antenna configurations 8 LTE-Advanced white paper .055 Ideal MMSE/SIC Realistic MMSE/SIC 0. With two eNB and two UE antennas. Uplink MIMO provides significantly higher peak rates and improved spectrum efficiency in uplink direction. but the channel state information feedback from UE to eNB could have been more accurate.00 1x4 no MIMO 1x4 MU-MIMO Rel-8 1x4 MU-MIMO Rel-10 2.055 0.25 1.064 190% 0.25 Capacity . Downlink MIMO has already been included in LTE Release 8.100 0.125 0.Correlated Realistic MMSE/SIC 2.00 1.35 162% 1.06 194% 2.075 169% 0.049 Coverage .77 121% 136% 2.17 1.44 2.044 100% 0.30 100% 113% 133% 147% 2x4 MU dual Cell-edge user SE [bps/Hz/user] 0.00 100% 116% 127% 1x2 no MIMO 2x2 SU-MIMO 1x4 no MIMO 2x4 SU-MIMO 4x4 SU-MIMO Cell-edge user SE [bps/Hz/user] Capacity . whereas MU-MIMO can offer significant improvement of spectrum efficiency even with single transmitter UE.00 1. the higher is the gain that Release 10 MIMO provides in downlink.034 100% 123% 0. The enhanced design enables better performance when the number of antenna branches is high. Release 10 downlink MIMO provides no improvements over Release 8 in SU-MIMO mode but small performance improvements have been gained in MU-MIMO mode.00 0.Correlated Realistic MMSE/SIC 0.049 146% 0.050 0.This can boost network capacity at low costs and is depicted in Fig. The LTE Release 8 codebook and reference symbol design was found to be quite optimum for two and four transmit antennas (2x2.57 100% 108% 1.4.75 2. 2x4 and 4x4 antenna configurations).47 198% 2. Matti Kiiski.100 0. Matti Kiiski.025 0. When eNB has four transmit Average SE [bps/Hz/cell] 4. Based on the studies and numerous contributions in 3GPP.

in which the communication is between the sectors of a single eNB. but not at the cost of excessive overhead or additional energy and radio resource consumption.4 Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception simulations and field tests that CoMP technologies have high potential from a single user point of view but there are open issues on the operation of large scale networks and the signalling between UE and network to characterize the radio environment for multi-site transmission. CoMP studies in 3GPP continue in a Release 11 study item kicked off in December 2010 and will focus on finding practical Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception (CoMP) shows great potential to improve the cell edge performance and system capacity. realistic reference symbol overhead (10%) and ideal inter-cell D communication • plink with ideal feedback. An important point worth remembering is that the network should also support Release 8 and 9 UE which does not benefit from the Release 10 enhancements. Cell Edge Intra-site 2TX (4TX) 5% (10%) 12% (20%) Intra & Inter-site 20% 21% Intra-site joint reception 5% 5% Uplink Inter-site macro diversity 6% 8% Inter-site joint reception 15% 25% • System simulations • ownlink with ideal CSI feedback. Reference symbol overhead effects on system performance are significant with four and eight transmit antennas. 500 m inter-cell distance. The capacity gain from Release 10 downlink MIMO enhancements could even be negative since new reference symbols create overhead for all UE. Joint Processing/Dynamic Cell Selection (JP/DCS) and Joint Processing/Joint Transmission (JP/JT). Release 10 downlink MIMO gain is more than 20% over Release 8 and with eight transmit antennas a bit higher. 3. Consequently. Intra-site CoMP deployment. It has been demonstrated with Downlink CoMP Category Cell Avg. The system performance gains of realistic CoMP deployments with an ideal channel state information (CSI) feedback is presented in Fig. However. these overheads can be decreased by decreasing the Release 8 and 9 specific reference symbols. there would be negative effects on common control channel performance. The studied CoMP technologies are Coordinated Scheduling/Coordinated Beamforming (CS/CB). Additionally. the technology was not seen mature enough for including it in Release 10. ideal inter-cell communication. is likely the most feasible system solution. Therefore the selection of MIMO operating modes and system parameters for both Release 8 and 10 UE is a critical network optimization task. 8 and 9. realistic MMSE/SIC receiver and realistic closed loop U power control • 2 RX and 2 TX antennas in eNB • 2 RX and 1 TX antennas in UE • Gain over Release 8 Single User MIMO • Typical Urban Micro. the timing of the introduction of the new features and the configuration of the system parameters are essential for an optimum performance of the LTE network. The critical system deployment issue is the communication between the cells. realistic CQI feedback. 10 users per cell Figure 8: JP/JT CoMP system performance gain in an urban environment with ideal CSI feedback and realistic system and receiver implementation LTE-Advanced white paper 9 . However.antennas. Signalling should provide enough information to enable high performance. ideal cell selection. max. but this would prevent non-LTE-A UE to operate in MIMO mode and thus lower their data rates.

5 Relay Nodes Relay nodes enable the deployment of small cells at locations where conventional fixed line or microwave backhaul is not possible or commercially viable. U ideal cell selection. ideal inter-cell communications. D realistic reference symbol overhead (10%). LTE Release 8 supports simple amplify and forward relays (also called repeaters) that can be used for coverage extension. Cell Edge Intra-site CS/CB 13% 13% Inter-site CS/CB 14% 13% Uplink Inter-site CS 15% • System simulations • ownlink with ideal CSI feedback. single stream) • 3GPP Case 1 3D. 1 DRS. realistic CQI feedback. which serve multiple relay nodes. Relay nodes use the LTE-A air-interface for selfbackhaul to a so-called Donor eNB. see Fig.Downlink CoMP Category Cell Avg.g. eNBs and transport technologies. 10 users per cell Figure 9: CS/CB CoMP system performance gain in an urban environment with ideal CSI feedback and realistic system and receiver implementation concepts with real performance benefits. large donor cells. The enhanced relaying technology in LTE-A is based on selfbackhauling base stations sharing features with (pico) base stations. 500 m inter-cell distance. The management of the network is straightforward. four and ten Relay Nodes per a macro-cell 10 LTE-Advanced white paper . LTE Release 10 specifies a new interface Un between Donor eNB and Relay Node (RN). For the user equipment the relay node is just a cell of the Donor eNB. realistic MMSE/SIC receiver and realistic closed loop power control • 4 RX and 4 TX antennas in eNB with λ/2 antenna spacing • 2 RX and 1 TX antennas in UE • Gain over Release 8 Beamforming (1 CRS. However. where needed. ideal inter-cell communication and MRC receiver • plink with ideal feedback. The gain from relay nodes is most pronounced in coverage limited scenarios. 5%-tile Throughput gain 600% 500% 400% 300% 200% 100% 0% ISD 500m 1 relay 4 relays 10 relays -100% downlink ISD 1732m ISD 500m uplink ISD 1732m Cell Throughput gain 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% ISD 500m ISD 1732m ISD 500m ISD 1732m downlink uplink Figure 10: System performance gain of Relay Node deployment of one. 3. 11. The new interface uses MBSFN (Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network) subframes which were introduced in Release 8 already to hide the Un interface from UE operating on the same carrier and thus make it fully backward compatible: UE interprets Un transmission as MBSFN transmission for which they are not subscribed and simply ignore them. The so called Proxy S1/X2 concept forwards both S1 and X2 messages towards the RN transparently for the Core Network which sees a Relay Node as a sector of the Donor eNB as well. e. those do not use the radio resources efficiently. into buildings or other areas receiving poor signal from the macro cell directly. Thus relaying is also backwards compatible for both the MME and Serving Gateway which serve the UE. They in turn provide an expansion of the coverage. taking into account implementation and interoperability issues of UE.

App. new methods and evaluation cases for ICIC have been included in LTE Release 10. signalling principles and messages for inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) over X2 interface (direct eNB – eNB interface to support mobility). In many expected deployment scenarios. Since X2 interface is typically not available with Home eNBs (HeNBs) and distribution of the interference is different in local area deployments. Benefits from these Release 8 technologies are yet to be proven. heterogeneous networks spread accross multiple radio access technologies. Autonomous or automated interference coordination and handover optimization in such hierarchical network architectures are key aspects of heterogeneous networks. The eNB interference reduction algorithms are considered vendor-specific implementation issues. TCP/UDP IP GTP-u UDP IP PDCP RLC MAC PHY User Equipment PDCP RLC MAC PHY Relay PDCP RLC MAC PHY GTP-u UDP IP PDCP RLC MAC PHY Donor eNB GTP-u UDP IP L2 L1 IP GTP-u UDP IP L2 L1 (serving the UE) (+“Home eNB GW”) S-GW/P-GW Figure 11: Protocol architecture for Relay Nodes 3. LTE Release 8 specifies eNB measurements.6 Heterogeneous Networks The term “Heterogeneous Networks” does not necessarily refer to a specific technology or feature as such. Other coordination technologies like self-configuration and self-optimization have been covered under Self Organized/Optimized Networks (SON) and Minimized Drive Testing (MDT) related study and work items since Release 8. Local area base stations and access points are deployed and in many cases operated by end users directly without Wide Area sites Majority of cell sites today • > 300 m • > 5 W output power Share of sites growing • 100 – 300 m • 1–5W Share will grow in future • 10 – 100 m. LTE Release 8 inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) methods are mainly targeted at improving radio resource utilization of cell edge users. since advanced packet scheduling methods have been demonstrated to provide equal or better performance in wide area deployments. but is instead used to describe networks that have both wide area and local area (small cell) deployments. • < 500 mW License exempt growing & Secondary services emerging • 10-100 m • < 100 mW Medium area sites Local area Local area Local area Medium area sites Local area Local area WLAN WLAN WLAN WLAN WLAN Figure 12: Heterogeneous network deployment LTE-Advanced white paper 11 .

Part of the transmitted signal is muted by sending Almost Blank Sub-frames. Later releases are likely to introduce new cost efficient small cell interference coordination and rejection technologies.7 Self Organizing Network and network architecture evolution with LTE-A LTE development is not only focusing on air interface performance enhancements. The evaluation cases for heterogeneous network deployments have been included in LTE Release 10. As such. e. automated management methods are required to remove the need for manual maintenance of a large number of local area base stations. optimization of handovers.network planning by an operator.g. TDM eICIC needs time synchronization between the macro and femto layers. as well as other radio resource management parameters. that allows other eNBs to transmit with lower inter-cell interference. LTE Release 10 includes one new interference coordination technology based on coordinated muting of the transmission of overlapping cells. Cost of deployment and operation can be decreased with self organizing and optimization (SON) technologies. for automated fault recovery and energy saving for complex deployments. 13. e. as well as to prevent excessive inter-cell interference that could degrade the performance of the wide area base stations and other local area nodes. 3. a pre-condition that could be difficult to guarantee with respect to HeNBs deployed by the users. Automatic Neighbour Relation (ANR) and Minimization Drive Test (MDT) technologies have been developed to enable automatic configuration. other SON technologies are also in the process of being developed. since cost effective small cell deployment offers the most promising way to increase the capacity of mobile broadband networks in a focused way. Some deployment concepts and network architectures are common for HSPA and LTE: Home base stations are a way to provide reliable and Macro – CSG Femto case One sub-frame Macro-layer Requires strict time-synchronization between Macro & HeNBs Victim = Macro UE drowned by femto interference HeNB-layer Sub-frames with normal transmission Almost blank sub-frame (ABS)  only CRS is transmitted Figure 13: Inter-cell interference reduction with Almost blank sub-frames of TDM eICIC 12 LTE-Advanced white paper . HeNB power control and escape carrier or using Carrier Aggregation of LTE Release 10. Simpler frequency domain methods are then more likely to be used in case the operator’s frequency and deployment plans allow. This technology is called TDM eICIC (Time Domain enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination) and its basic principle is described in Fig.g. Moreover. These local area nodes create interference with each other and wide area base stations may also translate into degraded system performance like lower throughput and an increase of call drops. There are multiple technologies that can be used for the interference coordination based on LTE Release 8 specification.

duplex filters. so more baseband processing capacity is needed in both the base stations and the terminals. devices. thus the bits per Hz ratio increases. LTE-A already has means for flexible spectrum management. 14 summarizes relations between the evolution of implementation technologies and LTE-A system technologies. Many of the new technologies introduced by LTE-A are based on complex algorithms. its preceding technologies. Such balancing considerations are most relevant in the hot zones of the network. Network operation should be reliable and cost efficient. along with end-user behaviour and expectations. In that case the introduction of LTE-A features would not provide the expected system performance gain. have to be in a good balance and tightly integrated. with the consequence that the modulation accuracy of the transmitters also needs to improve in order to have sufficiently low inter-symbol interference. implementation technologies LTE-A LTE-Advanced white paper 13 . Fig. Power amplifiers. Multi-site CoMP technologies need fast connectivity between base stations and remote radio heads which can be provided by modern optical transport solutions and open interface specifications. adoption of these methods can be easily adopted in LTE-A.secure mobile broadband services in home and office environments. the described LTE-A system features are closely related to network element implementation for the complete base station sites.8 Outlook Development of LTE-Advanced will continue in future 3GPP releases. One example of these dependencies is the case where the power amplifier of the eNB gets into saturation with the consequence that the quality of signal deteriorates to an extent that higher order modulation can not be supported anymore. including transport. Without a compact multi-antenna site solution. Decreasing power consumption of the network and the user equipment enables the usage of battery powered devices for machine-to-machine applications’ wide bandwidth demand. where additional bandwidth will be needed first. Given the fact that a majority of mobile broadband networks fall under the domain of multi-radio networks. common solutions for HSPA+ and LTE-Advanced translate into lower cost for operators and seamless service experience for end users. More spectrum Carrier aggregation MIMO enhancements CoMP Heterogeneous networks Baseband processing capability Multiple power amplifiers in UE Multi-antenna BTS site Low cost small BTS Multiband UE and BTS capability 4-8 antennas in UE Optical transport availability Relays Figure 14: LTE-A new system technologies vs. services. multiple antenna system technologies cannot be cost effective. In real-world network deployments. Local Break Out solutions (LIPA and SIPTO) decrease cost of transport and enable lower end-to-end latency for distributed services. In a majority of cases. transmitters’ analogue and digital parts etc. The new features of LTE-A increase spectrum efficiency and cell edge performance. This means that the probability of multi-stream transmission. In fact. Carrier aggregation provides higher system bandwidths which need wide bandwidth high efficiency power amplifiers in base stations and terminals. suppliers of LTE-A networks need to develop a core competency in terms of integrating a variety of products to support multiple modes to deploy the network. There are various multi-system multi-band combinations which need tight control of spurious emissions and good receiver blocking performance. Once the spectrum regulation defines the framework for usage of cognitive radio resource management methods. 3. Therefore the supplier needs to have a good understanding of LTE-A. while maintaining optimum levels of customer satisfaction. self-configuration and multilayer deployments. Multi-hop and moving relays could increase efficiency in providing broadband services in high-speed trains and interference cancellation receivers will improve air interface capacity. there are other wireless and cellular technologies to inter-work and co-exist with. higher order modulation and lower coding rates increases.

Nokia Siemens Networks’ track record in LTE-A related research • 003: OFDM TDD demonstration 72Mbps (on 20MHz. this makes Nokia Siemens Networks the partner of choice when planning and implementing LTE-A. Combined with its leading role in commercializing LTE. The text box above shows Nokia Siemens Networks’ long track record in LTE-A research. using Multihop) 2 • 004 World’s first OFDM demonstration of 1Gb/s over the air 2 (100MHz aggregated spectrum. MIMO) • 008 World’s first LTE-A relay demonstration 2 • 009 World’s first LTE-A field trial in Berlin 2 • 010 Relay trial for enhanced indoor network performance 2 • 011 World’s first LTE-A dynamic carrier aggregation demonstration on commercial LTE BTS 2 on a typical carrier combination LTE-A provides a powerful and versatile toolbox. As the interdependencies between the tools and the network implementation are complex. an experienced partner with a holistic view is needed to make the most of this toolbox. Spectrum efficiency Savings in deployment Multi-RAT Relays Multi-Layer Multi-Layer UL MIMO DL MIMO SON Relays CA LIPA/SIPTO CA DL MIMO UL MIMO SON Spectrum utilization Figure 15: LTE-A toolbox reduces cost and improves performance Savings in operation 14 LTE-Advanced white paper . which helps network operators to differentiate in mobile broadband user experience and to increase network efficiency.

which require an experienced partner when planning and implementing LTE-A • okia Siemens Networks has N always been at the forefront of LTE-A research and development.4. Summary • LTE-A enables a smooth and backward compatible evolution of LTE towards true 4G performance • TE-A comprises of various tools to L enhance mobile broadband user experience and network efficiency • here are serious interdependencies T between network implementation and the various tools of LTE-A. with a strong focus on real operator opportunities in terms of efficiency and user experience Peak rate Average rate (capacity) Cell edge rate (interference) Coverage (noise limited) Carrier aggregation MIMO enhancements* CoMP** Heterogeneous networks Relays*** ++ ++ (o) o o o + ++ (+) (+) ++ o (+) ++ ++ (+) (+) ++ + (++) + o ++ + ++ = clear gain * without increasing the number of antennas ** not in LTE Release 10 *** with multiple Relay Nodes per cell = moderate gain Figure 16: Radio performance gains of LTE-A system features LTE-Advanced white paper 15 .

com . Other company and product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation.O. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy.Nokia Siemens Networks P. www. and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Finland Switchboard +358 71 400 4000 (Finland) Switchboard +49 89 5159 01 (Germany) Order-No: C401-00703-WP-201103-1-EN Copyright © 2011 Nokia Siemens Networks. This publication is issued to provide information only and is not to form part of any order or contract. All rights reserved.nokiasiemensnetworks. Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. ESPOO. Box 1 FI-02022 NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS Finland Visiting address: Karaportti 3. The products and services described herein are subject to availability and change without notice.

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