SOCIAL STUDIES III

TOTALITARIANISM • Definition • Example • Features • Differences between Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism .

Definition • A form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of the individual’s life to the authority of the government. .

which he further described as: ‚All within the state.• Italian dictator Benito Mussolini coined the term totalitario in the early 1920s to describe the new fascist state of Italy. none outside the state.‛ ‚Britannica Online Encyclopaedia‛ . none against the state.

A political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible. page 74 . Robert Conquest Reflections on a Ravaged Century (2000) ISBN 0-393-04818-7.

Examples These regimes had totalitarian elements: • Nazi Germany. 1933-1945 • Stalinist Soviet Union. 1925 to 1953 • China under Mao Zedong. 1949 to 1970 • Cambodia (Kampuchea) under Khmer Rouge. early 1970s .

• The USSR and Stalin • Stalin vigorously followed a policy of strengthening Communist party power. .

In a totalitarian state. the government is a single-party dictatorship that controls every aspect of the lives of its citizens. today called a totalitarian state. Individual rights count for nothing. he created a new kind of government. .• To achieve his goals.

and critics are silenced. censorship.• Citizens must obey the government without question. Also. Stalin used propaganda. and terror to force his will on the Soviet people . the totalitarian state supports extreme nationalism.

and anyone who refused to praise Stalin and the state faced severe punishment.• Secret police spied on citizens. . even death.

hierarchically organised.Friedrich and Brzezinski‘s theoretical model of totalitarian governing boy. derived from the history of the twentieth century. closely interwoven with the state bureaucracy and typically led by one man. had six key features: • An official ideology to which general adherence was demanded. the ideology intended to achieve a ‘perfect final stage of mankind‘. • A single mass party. Features .

• Central control and direction of the entire economy.• Monopolistic control of the armed forces. . • A system of terroristic police control. • A similar monopoly of the means of effective mass communication.

Forms of Totalitarianism: • Military dictatorship • Fascism (Nazism is a form of fascism) • Totalitarian communism .

• There are two basic differences: Communism Fascism Hopes for international change Main support comes from city workers and agricultural workers Pursues national goals Allies among business leaders. wealthy landowners and lower middle class .

Differences between Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism .

Totalitarianism Authoritarianism Charisma Role conception Ends of power Corruption High Leader as function Public Low Low Leader as individual Private High .

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