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P PA AP PE ER R - - I I

Time Allowed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 200


Candidates should attempt any FIVE questions. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated
at the end of the question.
Assume suitable data, if found necessary, and indicate them clearly.
For air R = 0287 kJ/kg-K, C
p
= 1005 kJ/kg-K, = 14,
M = 28966 kg/kg-mole

1. (a) Prove the following relations:

T v
u p
T p
v T
c c | | | |
=
| |
c c
\ . \ .

and
p
T
h p
v T
p T
| | c c | |
=
| |
c c
\ .
\ .

(15)
(b) An air compressor is used to fill rapidly a 3 m
3
tank at 20C and 1 atm. The filling process is
governed by the law pv
14
= constant. The kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible.
The ratio of the final to the initial mass of air in the tank is 4. Work out the following:
(i) Sketch the system and list the assumptions made
(ii) Work input to the compressor
(15)
(c) Steam enters a turbine at an enthalpy of 3300 kJ/kg and a velocity of 180 m/s. The steam
comes out of turbine at an enthalpy of 2700 kJ/kg with a velocity of 120 m/s. At the condition
of steady state, the turbine develops work equal to 550 kJ/kg of steam flowing through the
turbine. The heat transfer between the turbine and its surroundings occurs at an average
temperature of 370 K. The entropy of steam at inlet and exit of turbine are 6932 kJ/kg - K
and 7361 kJ/ kg-K, respectively. Neglecting the changes in potential energy between inlet
and outlet, work out the following:
(i) Sketch the system and show the process on p-v and h-s diagrams
(ii) Calculate the rate at which entropy is produced within the turbine per kg of steam
flowing.
(10)
2. (a) The lower calorific value of a liquid fuel at constant pressure is 44000 kJ/kg. The analysis of
fuel by mass is 84% carbon and 16% hydrogen. Determine the higher calorific value at
constant pressure, and the lower and higher calorific values at constant volume.
Take h
fg
for water at 25C as 2442 kJ/kg.
(15)
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(b) Derive an expression for the diameter of the injector orifice to spray fuel Q
cm
3
/cycle/cylinder in terms of injection pressure p
inj
(kN/m
2
), combustion chamber pressure
p
cyl
(kN/m
2
), density of fuel
f
(kg/cm
3
) and period of injection t seconds.
Calculate the diameter of the injector orifice of a six-cylinder, 4-stroke CI engine using the
following data :
Brake power = 250 kW, Engine speed 1500 r.p.m.; BSFC = 03 kg/kW; Cylinder pressure =
35 bar; Injection pressure = 200 bar; Specific gravity of fuel = 088; Coefficient of discharge
of the fuel orifice = 092; Duration of injection = 36 of crank angle.
(15)
(c) Explain the mechanism of formation of NO
x
in an SI engine. Discuss the effect of
(i) compression ratio
(ii) air-fuel ratio
(iii) retarding spark timing
(iv) exhaust gas recirculation
(v) temperature and pressure of the inlet charge on the concentration of NO
x
in the
exhaust of an SI engine.
(10)
3. (a) A refrigerated truck carrying foodstuff is speeding on a highway at 90 km/h in a desert area
where the ambient air temperature is 55C. The body of the truck may be modelled as a
rectangular box measuring 11 m long, 4 m wide and 3 m high. Consider the boundary layer
on the four walls to be turbulent and the heat transfer only from the four surfaces. The wall
surfaces of the truck are maintained at 10 C. Assume the flow to be parallel to 11m long
side. The thermo-physical properties at the mean-film temperature of 325 C are :
= 1165 kg/m
3
, C
p
= 1005 kJ/kg-K,
k = 2673 x 10
2
W/m-K,
v = 16 x 10
6
m
2
/s and Pr = 0701
Work out the following
(i) Sketch the system and show the boundary layer development along length
(ii) Heat loss from the four surfaces
(iii) Tonnage of refrigeration needed
(iv) Power required to overcome the resistance acting on four surfaces
(15)
(b) A flat plate solar collector with no cover plate is used to collect the solar radiation to heat
water in a commercial installation. The surface emissivity of the absorber is 012 while its
solar absorptivity is 095. At a given time of the day the absorber surface temperature is 130
C when the solar irradiation is 850 W/m
2
, the effective sky temperature is 8C and the
ambient temperature is 27C. Assume that the heat transfer convection coefficient for the
calm dry condition is given by
h = 023 (T
s
T

)
4/3
W/m
2
-K
where T
s
is the surface temperature and T

is free - stream ambient temperature. Assume


steady-state condition, bottom surface is well insulated and the absorber surface is diffuse.
Work out the following:
(i) Sketch the system and show the control volume
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(ii) The useful heat removal rate in W/m
2
from the collector
(iii) The efficiency of collector
(iv) Comment on the results
(15)
(c) For a solid cylinder with uniform heat generation, derive the following expression:

2 ''' ''' 2
. .
1
2 4
g g
q R q R
r
T T
h k R

(
| |
= + +
(
|
\ .
(


(10)
4. (a) In order to keep off foodstuff in better condition, a food storage locker requires 20 tons of
refrigeration. The evaporator temperature is 8C and the condenser temperature is 30C. The
refrigerant used in the refrigeration plant is Fr-12. This is subcooled by 5C before entering to
the expansion valve. The vapor is superheated to 6C before leaving the evaporator coil. The
compressor employed is of two cylinder, single-acting having stroke equal to 15 times the
bore. The speed of the compressor is 900 r.p.m. The compression process may be assumed to
be isentropic. Work out the following:
(i) Sketch the system and show the process on T-S and p-h diagrams
(ii) The refrigerating effect per kg of refrigerant
(iii) The mass flow rate of the refrigerant circulated
(iv) The theoretical piston displacement
(v) The power input to compressor if mechanical efficiency is 09.
(vi) The coefficient of performance
(vii) The bore and stroke if volumetric efficiency is 90%.
Use the following properties for the solution:
h
1
= 356 kJ/kg
h
2
= 377 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 2255 kJ/kg
v
1
= 0077 m
3
/kg
where, 1, 2, 3 and 4 refer to inlet to compressor, outlet of compressor, exit of subcooler and
capillary tube/expansion valve exit respectively.
(15)
(b) With the help of a neat sketch, discuss the working principle of a practical vapor absorption
system. Derive the expression for its coefficient of performance.
(15)
(c) Discuss the various loads for estimating the cooling load of an auditorium.
(10)
5. (a) What is the difference between the Bernoullis equation and the steady flow energy equation?
Derive the steady flow energy equation and reduce it to the Bernoullis equation.
(10)
(b) Show that for sonic flow, the deviation between the compressible and incompressible flow
values of the pressure coefficient of a perfect gas ( = 14) is about 275%.
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(10)
(c) A convergent-divergent nozzle has an exit area ratio of 2. Air enters the nozzle with a
stagnation pressure of 950 kPa and a stagnation temperature of 350 K. The throat area is 490
mm
2
. Determine the mass flow rate, exit pressure, exit temperature, exit Mach number and
exit velocity for the following conditions:
(20)
(i) Sonic velocity at the throat, diverging section acting as a nozzle.
(ii) Sonic velocity at the throat, diverging section acting as a diffuser.
Table below gives the one-D, isentropic, compressible flow functions for an ideal gas.
*represents the critical values at the throat where the Mach number is unity:
M M* A/A* p/p
0
T/T
0

0308 0326 200 0936 09812
100 100 100 0528 08333
2197 1717 200 00939 05089
6. (a) In a compressor, the frictional torque is T in the impeller. If the diameter is D, speed N, fluid
viscosity and density , prove using Buckinghams t-theorem of dimensional analysis that

2 5
2
T N D f
ND

(
=
(


(10)
(b) Determine the position in which a solid cylindrical block of wood of diameter 03 m and
length 04 m will float in water. Take specific gravity of wood as 05.
(20)
(c) Describe the working principle of a Pitot tube with the help of a neat sketch and explain how
it can be used to measure the stagnation pressure.
(10)
7. (a) In an open-cycle gas turbine plant, the air enters at 15C and 1 bar, and is compressed in a
compressor to a pressure ratio of 15. The air from the exit of compressor is first heated in a
heat exchanger which is 75% efficient by turbine exhaust gas and then in a combustor to a
temperature of 1600 K. The same gas expands in a two-stage turbine such that the expansion
work is maximum. The exhaust gas from h.p. turbine is reheated to 1500 K and then expands
to 1.p. turbine. The isentropic efficiencies of compressor and turbine may be taken as 86%
and 88% respectively. The mechanical efficiencies for compressor and turbine are 97% each.
The alternator efficiency is 98%. The output of turbo-alternator is 250 MW. Work out the
following:
(i) Sketch the system and show the process on T-S diagram.
(ii) The cycle thermal efficiency
(iii) The work ratio
(iv) The specific power output
(v) The mass flow rate of air
(15)
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(b) A centrifugal pump is required to lift 9100 lit/s of water against a head of 6 m while running
at 500 r.p.m. The velocity of flow through the wheel is 2 m/s and the manometric efficiency
is 60%. The angle of vane tip with the direction of motion is 150. Work out the following:
(i) Sketch an impeller of centrifugal pump and draw the velocity triangle.
(ii) The diameter of impeller
(iii) The width of impeller
(15)
(c) Discuss the factors affecting stage pressure ratio in an axial flow compressor. Draw the
velocity distribution through a blade passage.
(10)
8. (a) What is the purpose of steam generator control ? With the help of sketches, discuss the
various methods of steam generator control.
(15)
(b) Discuss the need of governing of steam turbine. With the help of a sketch, discuss the
working principle of hydro-mechanical speed governing loop. List the various speed
governors used in practice.
(15)
(c) With the help of a sketch, discuss the working principle of boiling water reactor and explain
in brief the function of main elements.
(10)








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P PA AP PE ER R I I I I
Time Allowed: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 200
Candidates should attempt Question 1 in Section A which is compulsory, TWO questions from Section B
and TWO questions from Section C.
Question 1 is of short answer type, limiting answer of each part to 30 words.
Assume suitable data, if found necessary and indicate them clearly.

S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. (a) At a point in a loaded structure, a pure shear stress state of t = 400 MPa prevails on two
given planes at right angles. (i) What would be the state of stress across the planes of an
element taken at 45 to the given planes ? (ii) What are the magnitudes of these stresses?
(b) A coil spring of stiffness k is cut to two halves and these two springs are assembled in
parallel to support a heavy machine. What is the combined stiffness provided by these two
springs in the modified arrangement ?
(c) What is the value of Eulers buckling load for an axially loaded pin-ended (hinged at both
ends) strut of length l and flexural rigidity EI ? What would be the order of Eulers
buckling load carrying capacity of a similar struct but fixed at both ends in terms of the load
carrying capacity of the earlier one ?
(d) Suggest most suitable and cheapest material for the following
(i) Body of screw jack
(ii) Belts
(iii) Piston rings
(iv) Rivets
(e) An oil ring bearing supports a shaft of diameter 95 mm which runs at 230 rpm. The
maximum load on the bearing is 18 kN. Determine the bearing characteristic number for l/d
15 and absolute viscosity 00225 kg/ms.
(f) Mention two best reasons why accelerometer is preferred over seismometer to measure
vibration in mechanical system ?
(g) The type of cam used in cam shaft of I.C. engines is of specified contour or specified motion.
State it and give reasons for your answer.
(h) A six cylinder 4 stroke multicylinder in line engine is completely balanced in respect of
reciprocating masses.
State 4 reasons for it.
(i) Mention the names of 4 plastics which are used for bearings. Also mention four advantages
which plastics offer over other materials.
(j) Explain the following in brief :
(i) Effect of size on the tensile strength
(ii) Effect of surface finish on endurance limit.
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(k) What is the principle of resistance welding ? Indicate where the resistance is maximum in
spot welding operation.
(1) Sometimes the parting plane between two forging dies is not a horizontal plane, give the main
reason for this design aspect, why is parting plane provided, in closed die forging ?
(m) What is permeability ? Permeability is more important in the basic process of sand casting
than porosity. Give one important reason for this feature.
(n) Metal powders are compacted by many methods, but sintering is required to achieve which
property ? What is hot isostatic pressing ?
(o) Cast iron with impurities of carbide requires a particular rake angle for efficient cutting with
single point tools, what is the value of this rake angle, give reasons for your answer ?
(p) From the data of a pilot study, the percentage of occurrence of an activity is 60%. Find the
number of observations for 95% confidence level and an accuracy of 2%.
(q) A typical activity i-j in a CPM network has activity duration (t
ij
) of 25 time units. The earlier
expected time (T
i
E
) and latest allowable occurrence time (T
i
L
) of event i are computed as 8
and 11 units respectively. The corresponding times of event j, i.e. T
j
E
and T
j
L
are respectively
135 and 135 units. Find the three floats of the activity i-j.
(r) State any four basic elements of a Robot. Give one line statement for each.
(s) With the following printf ( ) statements in C, express how the value x = 384625 appears:
(i) printf (% 72 f, x)
(ii) printf (% 74 f, x)
(iii) printf (% f, x)
and (iv) printf (% 72 f, x).
(t) What for FORTRAN commands REAL and DIMENSION are used and what are their
equivalents in C language ?
(20 x 2 = 40)

S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
2. (a) A simply supported beam made of rolled steel joist (I-section : 450 mm x 200 mm) has a span
of 5 m and it carries a central concentrated load W. The flanges are strengthened by two 300
mm x 20 mm plates, one riveted to each flange over the entire length of the flanges. The
second moment of area of the joist about the principal bending axis is 35,060 cm
4
. Calculate:
(i) the greatest central load the beam will carry if the bending stress in the 300 mmJ2O
mm plates is not to exceed 125 MPa.
(ii) the minimum length of the 300 mm plates required to restrict the maximum bending
stress in the flanges of the joist to 125 MPa.
(20)
(b) A solid shaft is to transmit 300 kW at 120 r.p.m. If the shear stress is not to exceed 100 MPa,
find the diameter of the shaft. What percent saving in weight would be obtained if this shaft
were replaced by a hollow one whose internal diameter equals 06 of the external diameter,
the length, material and maximum allowable shear stress being the same?
(20)
3. (a) Two gears mesh externally to provide velocity ratio 3:1. Both the gears have standard
addendum and pressure angle is equal to 20. Determine minimum number of teeth on the
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pinion to avoid interference. Instead of using a pinion of these numbers of teeth another
pinion having three teeth less than the above number is to be used. Determine the minimum
amount of stubbing of gear teeth in terms of module which is to be done now for this pinion.
The velocity ratio is to be maintained same.
(20)
(b) A machine of mass 500 kg. It is supported on helical springs which deflect by 5 mm due to
the weight of the machine. The machine has rotating unbalance equal to 250 kg mm. The
speed of the machine is 1200 rpm. Determine the dynamic amplitude. The damping factor of
the viscous damper is 04.
Now this machine is mounted on a larger concrete block of mass 1200 kg. The stiffness of the
springs is changed such that the static deflection is still the same with the same viscous
damper as in earlier case. Determine the change in the dynamic amplitude.
(20)
4. (a) Design a flat belt drive system for the following specifications:
Power to be transmitted = 100 kW
Pulley diameters = 08 m and 1 m, respectively
Centre distance between the pulleys = 3 m
Belt speed = 20 m/s
Coefficient of friction between the belt and pulleys = 03
Slip = 12% at each pulley
Friction loss at each shaft = 5%
Overload capacity = 20%
Density of leather belt material = 1000 kg/m
3

Safe stress for the belt = 25 MPa
Thickness of the belt = 12 to 16 mm
Take into account the effect of centrifugal tension.
Find the width and the length of the belt.
Draw a schematic diagram of the belt drive.
(20)
(b) A shaft ABCD is supported at one end A and at point C. The other end D consists of a pulley
which has belt tensions in the vertical direction. The distance AD is 1200 mm. AC distance is
800 mm. A spur gear having pressure angle 20 is mounted at point B which is at a distance
400 mm from A. The diameter of pulley is 450 mm and that of the gear is 300 mm. The gear
is supplied power equal to 20 kW at 500 rpm by another gear at the top of it. The tension on
the tight side is 3 times the tension on slack side in the belt. The combined shock and fatigue
factors for bending moment and torsional moment maybe taken as 15. The tensile strength of
the material of the shaft and key is 700 MPa. Design the shaft and key for the pulley
assuming factor of safety equal to 5. Assume allowance for the key way for stress as 075.
(20)

S SE EC CT TI I O ON N C C

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5. (a) A cylinder of height 60 mm and diameter 100 mm is forged at room temperature between two
flat dies. Find the die load at the end of compression to a height of 30 mm, using slab method
of analysis. The yield strength of the work material is given as 120 N/mm
2
and the coefficient
of friction is 005. Assume that volume is constant after deformation. There is no sticking.
Also find the mean die pressure.
(20)
(b) Chvorinov and Caine gave rules for solidification time and freezing ratio for a riser. Using
these rules or otherwise find the size of a cylindrical riser of height to diameter ratio as one
for a steel casting of size 250 x 250 x 50 mm
3
, when the casting is fed horizontally and riser
is a side one. Thickness of the casting is 50 mm. For steel a = 010, b = 003 and c = 100.
Consider it as a long bar of cross-section 250 x 50.
(20)
6. (a) Two steel sheets of thickness one mm are welded by resistance projection welding technique.
A current of 30,000 A for 0005 second is made to flow. The effective resistance of joint can
be taken as 100 micro ohms. The joint can be considered as a cylinder of diameter 5 mm and
height 15 mm. The density of steel is 000786 gm/mm
3
. The heat needed for welding steel is
10 J/mm
3
. Calculate the efficiency of welding.
(20)
(b) Prepare part program using APT language for milling the contour shown in Fig. 6(b) in a
single pass.
(20)

7. (a) Two products A and B are to be machined on three machine tools P, Q and R. Product A
takes 10 hrs on machine P, 6 hrs on machine Q and 5 hrs on machine R. The product B takes
75 hrs on machine P, 9 hrs on maching Q and 13 hrs on machine R. The machining time
available on these machine tools P, Q, R are respectively 75 hrs, 54 hrs and 65 hrs per week.
The producer contemplates profit of Rs. 60 per product A, and Rs. 70 per product B.
Formulate LP model for the above problem and show the feasible region
graphically/geometrically. What are the basic feasible solutions to the above problem?
Estimate graphically/geometrically the optimum product mix for maximizing the profit.
Explain why one of the vertices of the feasible region becomes the optimum solution point.
(Note: Graph sheet need not be used).
(15)
(b) An assembly of an equipment involves the tasks A to N, the precedence tasks and processing
times of these tasks in minutes are given in the following table. Considering cycle time of 20
minutes at any work station, balance the assembly line and find the optimum number of work
stations. Also find the, idle time at each work station.
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Task Predecessor Duration
A 6
B 5
C 4
D A 8
E B 5
F C 4
G D 7
H E 6
I F 10
J G 10
K I 7
L J, H 10
M K 6
N L, M 9
(c) Draw flow chart and write source code in FORTRAN to solve the following problems:
A reciprocating engine has crank radius r and crank length l. The crank is rotating with
uniform angular velocity e. It is required to find the velocity and acceleration of piston at
different crank positions. Also find the position of crank and piston at maximum acceleration
and at acceleration nearer to zero.
Hint:
Velocity of piston is
p
sin 2
v =r sin
2n
u
e u
| |
+
|
\ .

Acc. Of piston is
2
p
cos 2
a =r cos
n
u
e u
| |
+
|
\ .





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