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INTRODUCTION

The Training deals with the brewing and termination process at Mohan Goldwater Ltd. for the production of ethyl alcohol from malt and other raw materials by means of yeast cells. The products of fermanitaion units are measured by cold storage and waste products are treated chemically and biologically for reducing the biochemical oxygen demand of the waste to be disposed off.

The filter beer obtained after filtration is mixed with carbon dioxide by carbonation process so as cut off oxygen in the beer which might lead to disturbance in turbidity, colour, flavor of the beer thereby decreasing the life of beer. The filtered beer is then bottled and then marketed.

The report is divided into several sections as those in the industry, Each section deals with the process and drawing of the major equipment, material of construction of each unit, an estimated cost of the plant. The assumptions made are suitable specified. I hope that the readers will enjoy reading, the report and would come to know something new. ABOUT MOHAN GOLDWATER BREWERIES M/S Mohan Goldwater Limited is a leading autonomous beverages manufacturing industry in the field of fermentation products such as beer. The company was established in the year 1968 and was licensed in the year 1968 and was licensed in the in the 1969. It is situated in Daliganj, Sitapur Road, Lucknow. It is situated near about 10 Kms from the Charbagh railway station, Lucknow. Today, the industry has its production unit at Ghaziabad, Lucknow and Mumbai and various project works are in progress in Southern India. The production unit in Maharasthra is under the name of MOHAN ROCY SPRINGWATER BREWERIES in Khopoli Raigadh district with residential office at Mazgaon, Mumbai. Both Lucknow and Ghaziabad unit have their residential office at Solan Breweries, Solan, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.

Aims and Objectives of Mohan Goldwater Breweries:

The key objective of Mohan Goldwater Breweries: To promote the undertaken development and expansion of brewery industry. Production, processing and marketing of liquor and mild beer. Render technology, finance administration and all necessary assistance to member societies. Take up the survey of new areas.

Assist members societies in the selection of sites for brewery building centre. Advice guide and assist them in management and conduct of their business. Provide welfare amenities to the workers of Mohan Goldwater Breweries. To provide an efficient consultative service which aim at creating mutual faith among those who work in industry. Provide financial assistance to employees inside and outside the work establishment.

FAMOUS BRANDS MANUFACTURED AT MOHAN GOLD WATER BREVERIES LTD. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. KINGFISHER PREMIUM (STRONG) BLACK GOLD (STRONG) SUNBIRD (MILD) RED FEATHER (MILD) EGO (SUPER) PANTHER (SUPER STRONG) FIRE (STRONG AND MILD)

BEER Beer is an alcohol beverage produced by brewing and the fermentation of starches derived from cereals. The most common cereal for beer brewing is malted barley, although wheat, corn and rice are also widely used, usually in conjunction with barley. Most beers is flavoured with hops, which adds slightly bitter test and acts as a natural preservative. Occasionally, other ingredients such as herbs or fruit may also be included in the brewing process. Alcoholic beverages fermented from non-starch sources such as grape juice (wine) or honey (mead) are not classified as beer. ALCOHOLIC STRENGTHS Beer ranges from less than 3% alcohol by volume (abv) to almost 30 % abv. The alcohol content of beer varies by local practice or beer style. The pale lagers that most consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 4-6%, with typical abv of 5%. The customary strength of British ales is quite low alcohol content (1%-4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some schools.

The alcohol in beer comes primarily from the metabolism of sugars that are produced during fermentation. The quantity of fermentation sugars in the wort and the variety of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors the determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer. Additional fermentable sugars are sometimes added to increase alcohol content and enzymes are often added to the wort for certain styles of beer (primarily light beers) to convert more

complex carbohydrates (starches) to fermentable sugars. Alcohol is a byproduct of yeast metabolism and is toxic to the yeast, typical brewing yeast cannot survive at alcohol concentrations above 12% by volume. Low temperatures and too little decreases the effectiveness of yeasts, and consequently decreases the alcohol content.

TYPES AND STYLES OF BEER CATEGORISING BY YEAST The most common method of categorizing beer is by the behavior of the yeast used in the fermentation process. In this method of categorising, those beers which use a fast-acting yeast, which leaves behind residual sugars, are termed ales, while those beers which use a slower and longer acting yeast, which removes most of the sugars, leaving a clean and dry beer, are termed lagers. Differences between some ales and lagers can be difficult to categorise. Some beer, Kolsch, Alt and some modern British Golden Summer Beers use elements of both lager and ale production. Baltic Porter and Biere de Garde may be produced by either lager or ale methods or a combination of both. However, lager production results in cleaner tasting, drier and lighter beer than ale.

ALE A modern ale is commonly defined by the strain of yeast used and the fermenting temperature.

Ales are normally brewed with top-fermenting yeasts(most commonly Saccharonmyces cerevlslae), though a number of British brewers, including Fullers and Weltons, use ale yeast strains that have less pronounced top-fermentation characteristics. The important distinction for ales is that they are fermented at higher temperatures and thus ferment more quickly than lagers. Ale is typically fermented at temperatures between 15 and 24 oC (60 and 75 oF). At these temperatures, yeast produces significant amounts of esters and the other secondary flavor and aronia products, and the results is often a beer with slightly fruity compounds resembling apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among others. Typical ales have a sweeter, fuller body than lagers. A particularly well- known ale type is India Pale Ale (or IPA), developed by British brewers in the 19th century. The ale was light, and suited to a), developed by British brewers in the 19th century. The ale was light, and suited to a hot climate, but with a moderately high alcohol strength and strong hop content, intended to preserve it over a long ocean voyage. Some mass-

produced beers (e.g. Alexender Keith brewed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada) use the term India Pale Ale, but are not in any way true IPAs. Real ale is a natural product brewed using traditional ingredients and left to mature in the cask (container) from which it is served through a process called secondary fermentation where the beer slowly ferments in its cask producing its own natural CO2. This causes a build up of pressure in the cask which literally forces it out of the barrel when it is being poured.

LAGER Lager is the English name for bottom-fermenting beers of Central European origin. They are the most commonly consumed beers in the world. The name comes from the German Lagern (to store). Lagers originated from European brewers storing beer in cool cellers and caves and noticing that the beers continued to ferment and also to clear of sediment. Lager yeast is a bottom fermenting yeast (e.g. Saccharomyces pastorimaus), and typically undergoes primary fermentation at 7-12 oC (45 and 55 oF) (the fermentation phase), and then is given a long secondary fermentation at 0-4 oC (32-40oF) (the lagering phase). During the secondary stage, the lager clears and mellows. The cooler conditions also inhibit the natural production of esters and other byproducts, resulting in a cleaner tasting beer. LAMBIC BEERS: Spontaneous Fermentation Lambic beers, a speciality of Belgian beers, use wild yeasts, rather than cultivated ones. Many of these are not strains of brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevislae), and may have significant differences in aroma and sourness. Yeast varieties such as Brelianomyces bruxellensis and bretianomyces lambicus are quite in lambies. In addition, other organisms such as lactobacillucs bacteria produce acids which contribute to the sourness.

PALE AND DARK BEER The most common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale malts. Pale lager is a term used for beers made from malt dried with coke. Coke had been first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it wasnt until around 1703 that the term pale ale was first used. In terms of sales volume, most of todays beer is based on the pale lager brewed in 1842 in the town of Pilsen, in the Czech Republic. The modern pale lager is light in colour with a noticeable carbonation, and a typical alcohol by volume content of

MANUFACTURE OF BEER

RAW MATERIALS (INGREDIENTS)

RAW MATERIALS (INGREDIENTS) 1. MALT Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate (by soaking them in water) and are then quickly halted from germinating further (by drying/heating it with hot air before the plant develops). Malting is thus a combination of two processes; notability the sprouting process and the kiln-drying process. These latter terms are often preferred to the field of brewing for batches of beer or other beverages as they provide more in-depth information. USES Malted grain is used to make beer, wine and malt vinegar. Malting grains develops the enzymes that are required to modify the grains starches into sugars, including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, etc.) and disaccharides (sucrose, etc.). It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases which break down the proteins in the grain into forms which can be utilized by yeast. Barley is the most commonly malted grain in part because of its high diastatic power or enzyme content. Also very important is the retention of the grains husk even after threshing, unlike the bare seeds of thrashed wheat or rye. This protects the growing acrospires (developing plant embryo) from damage during malting, which can easily lea to mold growth. It also allows the mash of converted grain to create a filter bed during sparging. Other grains may be malted, although the resulting malt may not have sufficient enzymatic content to convert its own starchcontent fully and efficiently and may create a stuck sparge. MALTING A malting, sometimes called maltings, malthouse, oast house or malting floor, is a building that houses the process of converting barley into malt, for use in the brewing or distilling process. This is done by kiln-drying the sprouted barley. This is usually done by spreading the sprouted barley on a perforated wooden floor. Smoke, coming from a oasting fireplace (via smoke channels) is then used to heat the wooden floor (and thus, the sprouted grain with it). The temperature thus employed around 55o Celsius. A typical floor malting is a long single-story building with a floor that slopes slightly from one end of the building to the other. There are a number of malting buildings still in existence, and a handful are still atinnal 2. HOPS

Hops are the female flower cones of the hop plant ( Humulus lupulus). They are used primarily as a flavoring and stability agent in beer, and also in other beverages and in herbal medicine. The first documented use in beer is from the eleventh century. Hops contain several characterstics favorable to beer, balancing the sweetness of the malt with bitterness, contributing flowery, citrus or herbal aromas and having an antibiotics effect that favors the activity of brewers yeast over less desirable micro-organisms. The hop plant is vigorous climbing herbaceous perennial, usually grown up strings in a field called a Hopfield, hop garden or hop yard. The flavor imparted by hops varies by type and use: hop boiled with the beer (known as bittering hops) produce bitterbess, while hops added to beer later impart some degree of hop flavour (if during the final 10 minutes of boil) or hop aroma (if during the final 3 minutes, or less, of boil) and lesser degree of bitterness. Adding hops after the wort has cooled and the beer fermented is known as dry hoping, and adds hop aroma, but no bitterness. The degree of bitterness imparted by hops depends on the degree to which otherwise insoluble alpha acids (AAs) are isomerised during the boil, and the impact of a given amount of hops is specified in International Bitterness units. Unboiled hops are only mildly bitter.

3. YEAST Beer brewers classify yeasts as top-fermenting and bottom fermenting. Top fermenting yeasts are so called because they form a foam at the top of the wort during fermentation. They can produce higher alcohol concentrations and prefer higher temperatures, producing fruiter ale-type beers. An example of a top-fermenting yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known to brewers as ale yeast. Bottom- fermenting yeasts are used to produce lager-type beers. These yeasts ferment more sugars, leaving a crisper taste, and grow well at low temperatures. An example of a bottom- fermenting yeast is Sacchoromyces pastorianus. For both types, yeast is fully distributed through the beer while it is fermenting and equally flocculate (clump together and precipitate to the bottom of the vessel) when it is finished. By no means do all top-fermenting yeasts demonstrate this behavior, but it features strongly in many English ale yeasts which may also exhibit chain forming (the failure of budded cells to break from the mother cell) which is technically different from true flocculation. Lambic, a style of Belgian beer, is fermented spontaneously by wild yeasts primarily of the genus Brettanomyces.

TOP FERMENTING YEAST Ale yeast strains are best used at temperatures ranging from 10 to 25oC, though some strains will not actively ferment below 12oC (33). Ale yeasts are generally regarded as top- fermenting yeasts since they rise to the surface during fermentation, creating a very

thick, rich yeasts at these relatively warmer temperature produces a beer high in esters, which regard as a distinctive character of ale beers. Top Fermenting yeasts are used for brewing ales, porters, stours, Altber, Kolsch, and wheat beers.

BOTTOM-FERMANTING YEAST Larger yeast strains are best used at temperatures ranging from 7 to 15oC. At these temperature, lager yeasts grow less rapidly than ale yeasts than ale yeasts, and with less surface foam they tend to selide out to the bottom of the fermenter as fermentation nears completion. This is why they are often referred to as bottom yeasts. The final of the beer will depend a great deal on the strain of lager yeast and the temperatures at which it was fermented.

BYPRODUCT OF YEAST Yeast impact the flavor and aroma of beer more than you might think. The flavor and aroma of beer is very complex, being derived from a vast array of components that arise from a number of sources. Not only do malt, hops, and water have an impact on flavor, so does the synthesis of yeasts, which forms byproducts during fermentation and maturation. The most notable of these byproducts are, of course, ethanol (alcohol) and carbon(CO2) but in addition, a large number of other flavor compounds are produced such as : Acetaldehydes (green apple aroma) Diacetyl (taste or aroma of buttery, butterscotch) Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) (tatse of arome sweet corn, cooked veggies) Clove (spice character reminiscent of doves) Fruity/ estery (flavor and aroma of bananas, strawberries, apples, or other fruit) Medicinal (chemical or phenolic character) Phenolic (flavor and aroma of medicine, plastic, Band-Aids, smoke, or cloves) Solvent (reminiscent of acetone or lacquer thinner) Sulphur (reminiscent of rotten eggs or burnt matches)

4. CLARIFYING AGENT Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents to beer, which typically precipitate out of the beer along with protein solids and are found only trace amounts in the finished products. Common examples of these include isinglass finings, obtained from swimbladders of fish; Irish moss, a seaweed; Kappa carrogeenan, from the seawed Kappaphycus cottoni; Polyclar (artificial); and gelatin. If a beer is marked suitable for Vegans than it has either been clarified with seaweed or with artificial agents.

Clarity of beer is affected by the amount of line dusty starch and husk particles created during milling. Most of these particles can be removed during sparging and recirculation the wort through the mash bed prior to run-off. Coagulation of protein occurs during the wort boil. A successful boil means a more efficient coagulation of proteins resulting in large flocks which can be more easily removed as well as the removal of polyphenolic material which reduces chill-haze. A successful boil is one that begins with a high wort pH with sufficient proteins present. The boil should be around 215oF for at least one hour. If the boil is not successful then fine flocs are created and remain suspended in the wort. Clarifying agents during the end of the boil can aid in the removal of particles and help to produce a clear beer. The most popular clarifying agent is, no doubt, Irish moss is a type of seaweed gathered along shores of the north Atlantic, including Ireland from whence it derived its name. It sometimes is referred to as carrageen, the name of its active ingredient, Irish moss coagulate and reduce haze forming proteins. Recommended usage is 1 teaspoon per 5 gallons of beer (wort).

PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR MANUFACTURING BEER

1. MILLING The most commonly used mills in breweries are dry grist mills. Mills are usually either of the roller type based on impact i.e. hammer mills. If the wort separation process is mash/lauter tun, foller mills are employed. Hammer mills are largely used for the later generation of mkash filters and continous brewing systems. However, new generation mash filters, for example, Meura 2001, require the use of hammer mills. ROLLER MILLS The principles of roller milling involves passing the melt between two closely spaced rolls; roller mills can be of the two, four or six-roll format. In general, the more rolls, the reater the flexibility and capacity of the mil. Multi-roll malt mills provide a degree of control that favors gentle treatment. The grind is controlled by the rate of the feed of the unground malt, the roll corrugations and size, the spacing between the rolls, and the sped at which the rolls are driven. It crushes the malt, leaving the husk intact while producing a minimum of flour. Every grain is properly milled.

2. MASHING Mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled grain and water, known as wort (typically malted barley with supplementary grain as corn, sorghum, rye or wheat; in ratio of 90-10 upto 50-50), and heating this mixture up with rests at certain temperatures (notably 45oC, 62 oC and 72oC and 76 o C ) to allow enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars, typically maltose. The end product of this process is called a wort.

ENZYMATIC REST In step-fusion and decoction mashing, the mash is heated to different temperatures, at which specific enzymes work optimally. The table at rights show the optimal temperature for the enzymes brewers most pay attention to , and what material those enzymes break down. There is some contention in the brewing industry as to just what the optimal temperature is for these enzymes, as it is often very dependent on the pH of the mash, and its thickness. A thicker mash acts as a buffer for the enzymes. Once a step is passed, the enzymes active in that step are denatured, and become permanently inactive. ANALYSIS RESIS The analysis rests are responsible for the production of free fermentable and non fermentable sugar from starch in a mash. Starch is an enormous molecule made up of branching chains of glucose molecules. B analysis beaks down these chains from the end molecules forming links of two glucose molecules, i.e. maltose. B- analysis cannot break down the branch points, although some help is found here through low a- analysis activity and enzymes such a limit dextrinase. The maltose will be the yeasts main food source during fermentation. During this rest starches also cluster together forming visible bodies in the marsh. This clustering eases the lautering process. The a- amylase rest is also known as the saccharification rest, because during this rest the a-amylase breaks down the starches from the inside, and starts cutting off links of glucose one to four glucose molecules in length. The longer glucose chains sometimes called dextrins or maltodextrins, along with the remaining branched chains, give body fullness to the best.

3. LAUTERING (WORT SEPERATION ) Lautering is a process in brewing beer in which the mash is spectral into the clear liquid wort and the residual grain. Lautering usually consists of 2 steps mashout and sparging. MASHOUT

Mashout is the term for raising the temperature of the mash to 170 oF (77 oC). This both stops the enzymatic conversion of statics to fermentable sugars and make the mash and wort more fluid. Mashout is considered especially necessary if there is less than 25% wheat or oats. The mashout step can be done by using external heat or simply by adding hot water. SPARGING Sparging is trickling water through the grain to extract sugars from the grain. This is a delicate step as the wrong temperature or pH will extract tannis from the chaff (grain husks) as well, resulting in a bitter brew. Typically, 50 % more water is used for sparging than was originally used for mashin sparging is typically conducted in a lauter tun.

4. BOILING The brew kettle, a huge cauldron holding from 70 to 1,000 hectolitres and made of shiny copper or stainless steel, is probably the most striking sight in a brewery. It is fitted with coils or a jacketed bottom for steam heating and is designed to boil the wort under carefully-controlled conditions. Boiling, which usually lasts about two hours, serves to concentrate the wort to a desired specific gravity, to sterilize it and to obtain the desired extract from the hops. The hop resins contribute flavour, aroma and bitterness to the brew. Once the hops have flavoured the brew, they are removed. When applicable, highly-fermentable syrup may be added to the kettle. Undesirable protein substances that have survived the journey from the mash mixer are coagulated, leaving the wort clear.

5. WHIRLPOOLING

6. CHILLING

7. ALCOHOLIC

8. FILTERATION

Filtering the beer stabilizes the flavour, and gives beer its polished shine and

brilliance. Not all beer is filtered. When tax determination is required by local laws, it is typically done at this stage in a calibrated tank. Filters come in many types. Many use pre-made filtration media such as sheets or candles, while others use a fine powder made of, for example, diatomaceous earth, also called kieselguhr, which is introduced into the beer and recirculated past screens to form a filtration bed. Filters range from rough filters that remove much of the yeast and any solids (e.g. hops, grain particles) left in the beer, to filters tight enough to strain color and body from the beer. Normally used filtration ratings are divided into rough, fine and sterile. Rough filtration leaves some cloudiness in the beer, but it is noticeably clearer than unfiltered beer. Fine filtration gives a glass of beer that you could read a newspaper through, with no noticeable cloudiness. Finally, as its name implies, sterile filtration is fine enough that almost all microorganisms in the beer are removed during the filtration process.

9. CARBONATION

10. BOTTLING

11. PASTEURISATION

12. LABELLING

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