Microsoft Word 2003: Formatting Your Research Paper using APA Style Table of Contents I. Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................................

... 2 II. Formatting pages ................................................................................................................................................... 2 To set margins........................................................................................................................................................... 2 To set font ................................................................................................................................................................. 2 To set line spacing..................................................................................................................................................... 2 III. Creating a title page ............................................................................................................................................. 2 To create a title page: ................................................................................................................................................ 2 IV. Inserting a page break.......................................................................................................................................... 3 To insert a page break: .............................................................................................................................................. 3 V. Abstract................................................................................................................................................................... 4 VI. Body ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4 A. Headings............................................................................................................................................................... 4 B. Reference Citations in Text .................................................................................................................................. 4 C. Quotations ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 VII. References ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 To create a hanging indent: ....................................................................................................................................... 6 VIII. Appendixes ......................................................................................................................................................... 6 IX. Tables..................................................................................................................................................................... 6 X. Figure Captions and Figures................................................................................................................................. 6 Appendix: Examples of various reference sources................................................................................................... 7 Non-periodicals (including books, reports, pamphlets, brochures, and manuals) ..................................................... 7 Part of a Non-periodical............................................................................................................................................ 7 Periodicals (including journals, magazines, newsletters, and newspapers)............................................................... 8 Electronic Sources..................................................................................................................................................... 8 Audiovisual Media.................................................................................................................................................... 9

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Microsoft Word 2003: Formatting Your Research Paper using APA Style I. Introduction This reference guide provides instructions for formatting your research paper with Microsoft Word 2003. This guide is written for users who are familiar with the basic features of Word 2003. If, however, you need help using the basic features, you can refer to the Creating a Document with Word 2003 guide. When you write a research paper, it is important to follow a particular formatting style throughout your paper. A consistent style enhances readability and helps to give your paper a professional appearance. The following information is based on the format set out in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, or APA. This style is commonly used in the social sciences, education, and sociology content areas. Note: The information that follows is intended as a general guide and does not address all aspects of APA style formatting. For more detailed guidelines see the latest edition of the APA’s Publication Manual, available at any library, or visit the Marygrove College Writing Center, room LA005 in the Liberal Arts Building. II. Formatting pages Margins should be one inch in all directions (top, bottom, left, right). The proper font size is 12-point font; acceptable font types are Times New Roman (most common) and Courier. All type should be set flush with the left margin, creating an uneven right margin (NOT justified). The paper should be double-spaced throughout, including the title page, abstract, and body of the document; references, appendixes, author note, footnotes, tables, and figure captions. Note: The author note and footnotes are generally only required in manuscripts submitted for publication. To set margins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open a new document in Word 2003. From the File menu, select Page Setup. At the Page Setup dialog box, select the Margins. At the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes, select 1”. Click on the Apply to arrow and choose Whole document. Click on OK.

To set font: 7. 8. 9. 10. From the Format menu, select Font. If necessary, select the Font tab. Select the font (Times New Roman), font style (Regular), and size (12). Click on OK.

To set line spacing: 11. 12. 13. 14. From the Format menu, select Paragraph. If necessary, select the Indents and Spacing tab. Click on the Line Spacing arrow and select Double. Click on OK.

III. Creating a title page The first page of your paper is called the title page. This page includes the title of your paper, your name, the name of your institution, the manuscript page header, and the running head. A well-formatted title page can set the tone for your entire paper. To create a title page: 1. From the View menu, select Header and Footer. The Header and Footer toolbar should appear:

Insert Page Number

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Type the first 2 or 3 words of the paper title, and then hit the spacebar 5 times. On the Header and Footer toolbar, click the Insert Page Number button. Click the Align Right button on the Formatting toolbar. Finally, click Close on the Header and Footer toolbar. On the first line of the page type the words “Running head” followed by a colon, a space, and a short title of your paper. This short title should be no more than 50 characters in length, including punctuation and spacing, and should be typed in all capital letters.

Sample Header for title page:

7. 8. 9.

Press the [Enter] key 10 times. Click the Center button on the Formatting toolbar. Type the following information on separate lines: the full title of the paper, your name, and the name of your institution. 10. Press [Enter]. 11. Click the Align Left button on the Formatting toolbar.

IV. Inserting a page break In a research paper formatted in APA style, you must start a new page for each of the sections listed below and arrange them in the following order: • • • • • • • • • • Title page Abstract Body References Appendixes Author note (if required) Footnotes (if required) Tables (start each on a separate page) Figure captions Figures (place each on a separate page)

With the Page Break feature of Word, you can easily divide your paper into sections. To insert a page break: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place the cursor after the last text character you typed in a section (e.g., after the name of your institution on the title page). From the Insert menu, select Break. Under Break types, click on Page break. Click OK.

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V. Abstract The abstract is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most important elements of the paper. The abstract begins on a new page (page 2) and should not exceed 120 words. All numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Click the Center button on the Formatting toolbar. Type the word “Abstract” on the first line. (Do not use quotation marks.) Press [Enter] to go to the next line of the page. Click the Align Left button on the Formatting toolbar. Type the text of your abstract. (Do not indent the first line.) Press [Enter]. From the Insert menu, select Break. Under Break types, click on Page break. Click OK.

VI. Body The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3). Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on new pages. The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header (follow instructions for centering your abstract title, above). The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line following the paper title. This and all subsequent paragraphs are to be indented 5-7 spaces from the left margin. A. Headings Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the relative importance of sections. • Main (first level) headings use centered uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Method, Results, References). • Subheadings (second level headings) are italicized and use flush left, uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure as subsections of the Method section). B. Reference Citations in Text Following APA style, source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The underlying principle here is that ideas and words of others must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. Paraphrased or summarized material is documented in the following manner: • If the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors: Smith and Jones (1997) found Einstein’s theory flawed. • If the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons: Subsequent research supports these results (Brown & Greene, 2003; Hamilton, 2001). • The same general rules regarding author(s) and date(s) apply to electronic sources cited within your research paper. For any source that does not have an identified author, use the first few words of the title to document the source within the text, followed by the date of publication, if given: His status as a figure in pop culture has grown in the last generation (“Einstein Online,” n.d.). Note: The ampersand symbol (&) is used when multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material, but “and” is used when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Note: If you refer to a work more than once in a paper, give the author and date the first time you mention the work, and then give only the author in subsequent mentions.

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C. Quotations When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number(s) as part of the citation. Use p. for one page or pp. for more than one page. Give the page number(s) immediately after the quotation, even in midsentence. The key is to remember that all 3 elements of the citation – author, year, page number – must be given, whether in parentheses or as part of the sentence. For example: In their 1992 article, Williams and Martinez claimed the results of the university study were inconclusive due to the “unscientific method of data collection” (p. 121). OR Williams and Martinez criticized the university’s “unscientific method of data collection” (1992, p. 121) that led to the study’s inconclusive results. OR Numerous members of the scientific community were critical of the “unscientific method of data collection” (Williams & Martinez, 1992, p. 121) that led to the inconclusive results of the university study. Note: For a quotation from an electronic source such as an online article or web page, give the paragraph number if no page number is available. You may use the abbreviation para. or the paragraph symbol. You can find the paragraph symbol (¶) by going to Insert and selecting Symbol. A quotation of fewer than 40 words (such as the example above) should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. However, a long quotation of more than 40 words should be set off (without quotations marks) from the surrounding text. A long quotation is double spaced, in block format, and indented five spaces from the left margin. Place the parenthetical reference 2 spaces after the end punctuation of the last sentence. To format a long quotation: 1. Begin the quotation on a new line. 2. Type the quotation, and then select the text. 3. With the text still selected, go to the Format menu and select Paragraph. 4. If necessary, select the Indents and Spacing tab. 5. Under Indentation, click on the small “up” arrow to increase the left indent to 0.5”. 6. Click OK. VII. References All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper. The References section begins on a new page with the heading “References” centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. The references (with hanging indent – see below) begin on the line following the References heading. Entries are organized by last names of first authors. Most Reference entries have three components: 1. Author(s): Multiple authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using last names and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use “et al.” to represent the remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference. 2. Year of Publication: Place the year in parentheses following the author(s), with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” in parentheses following the author(s). 3. Source Reference: For a journal article, this includes the article title, journal title, volume (and sometimes issue) number, and page number(s); for a book, it includes the title, city of publication, and publisher. In general, the source reference for web documents includes author and date (if known) as well as title, date of retrieval, and URL (web address). Italicize titles of journals, books, and web pages, and periodical volume numbers. Note: See below for examples of formatting reference sources.

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To create a hanging indent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select all references on the References page. From the Format menu, select Paragraph. At the Paragraph dialog box, check that the Indents and Spacing tab is selected. In the Special box, select Hanging. In the By box, select 0.5". Note that the Preview box at the bottom of the window displays a sample of the hanging indent. Then, click on OK.

VIII. Appendixes A common use of appendixes is to present unpublished tests or to describe complex equipment or materials. • Each Appendix begins on a separate page. • If there is only one appendix, the heading Appendix is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. If there is more than one, use the heading Appendix A (or B, or C, etc.) IX. Tables A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses. Tables must be referred to in the text. • Each table begins on a separate page. • Each page should have a heading of Table 1 (or 2 or 3, etc.) flush left on the first line below the manuscript page header. Double space and type the table title flush left, italicized in uppercase and lowercase letters. X. Figure Captions and Figures A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). Figure captions provide, on a single page, captions for the figures that follow. • Center the heading Figure Caption(s) on the first line below the manuscript page header. Double space and type Figure 1 (or 2 or 3, etc.) italicized and flush left, followed by the caption for the figure (not italicized), capitalizing only the first word and any proper nouns.

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Appendix: Examples of various reference sources Non-periodicals (including books, reports, pamphlets, brochures, and manuals) Basic form Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher. Examples 1. One author Hull, M. (1999). Censorship in America: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. 2. Two to six authors Strunk, W., & White, E. B. (1999). The elements of style. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 3. Seven or more authors Hunt, T. C., Joseph, E. A., Nuzzi, R. J., Williams, R. B., Traviss, M. P., Shimabukuro, G., Polanski, P. J., et al. (2001). Handbook of research on Catholic education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 4. Group author National Institute for Literacy. (2002). Research-based principles for adult basic education reading instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Literacy. 5. Edited work Gavrilovich, P. & McGraw, B. (Eds.). (2003) The Detroit almanac: 300 years of life in the Motor City. Detroit, MI: Detroit Free Press. 6. Encyclopedia or dictionary Macdonald, D. (Ed.). (2001). The encyclopedia of mammals. New York: Facts on File. Part of a Non-periodical 1. One selection from an anthology or edited book Basic Form Selection Author, A. A. (year of publication). Selection title. In A. A. Book Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. #-#). City of Publication: Publisher. Example Wollstonecraft, M. (2003). Vindication of the rights of men. In H. L. Smith & B. A. Carroll (Eds.), Women’s Political and Social Thought: An Anthology (pp. 156-172). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. 2. Encyclopedia entry Basic Form Entry Author, A. A. (year of publication). Entry title. In Encyclopedia Title (Vol. #, pp. #-#). City of Publication, Publisher. Example Murphy, B. A. (1996). Civil rights. In The World Book Encyclopedia (Vol. 4, pp. 608-611). Chicago: World Book.

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Periodicals (including journals, magazines, newsletters, and newspapers) Basic Form Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, #, page(s). Examples 1. Article in a journal with continuous pagination Troester, J. D. (2002). Working through family-based problem behavior through activity group therapy. Clinical Social Work Journal, 30, 419-428. 2. Article in a journal that paginates each issue separately Lott, B. (2001). Low-income parents and public schools. The Journal of Social Issues, 57(2), 47-59. Note: The following 3 sources do not use volume or issue numbers. 3. Article in a monthly or bimonthly periodical Jenkins, P. (2002, October). The next Christianity. The Atlantic Monthly, pp. 53-68. 4. Article from a weekly or biweekly magazine or newspaper Sloan, A. (2002, July 1). Will corporate America really change? Don’t count on it. Newsweek, pp. 44-45. 5. Article from a daily newspaper Carter, D. (2002, December 2). Casino has its doubters. [Rochester, NY] Democrat and Chronicle, p. B3. Electronic Sources 1. Internet article based on a print source Benitez, M. (1998). Neurotic imperatives: contemporary art from Puerto Rico [Electronic version]. Art Journal, 4, 74-85. 2. Article in an Internet-only journal Seligman, M. E., Schulman, P., & DeRubeis, R. J. (1999, December 21). The prevention of depression and anxiety. Prevention & Treatment, 2, Article 8. Retrieved October 23, 2005, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume2/pre0020008a.html. 3. Journal article from a database Song, S. (2002). Harry Potter vs. library censorship. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 39(4), 410-419. Retrieved August 19, 2006, from WilsonSelect database. 4. ERIC document from the ERIC database Stevenson, K. (2006). Educational facilities within the context of a changing 21st century America. Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED491306). Retrieved September 9, 2006, from ERIC database. 5. Web document within a larger web site (no date) Heim, M. (n.d.). Responsible reparations: Can America really account for its bitter past? Retrieved August 1, 2002, from http://www.readsatellite.com/news/2.5/reparations.heim.2.5.1.htm. 6. Web document within a larger web site (no author, no date) Talking with kids about HIV and AIDS (n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2006, from http://www.talkingwithkids.org/aids.html.

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7. Multipage web document created by a private organization (no date) The International Re-evaluation Counseling Communities. (n.d.). Re-evaluation counseling. Retrieved March 2, 2006, from http://www.rc.org.

Audiovisual Media 1. Film or video recording Notes: • • • • Give the name and, in parentheses, the function of the originator or primary contributors (the director or the producer or both). Identify the work as a motion picture in brackets immediately after the title. Give the motion picture’s country of origin (where it was primarily made and released) as well as the name of the movie studio. When a motion picture is of limited circulation, provide the distributor’s name and complete address in parentheses at the end of the reference.

Examples Hales, J. & Batchelor, J. (Directors). (1955). Animal Farm [Motion Picture]. United States: Hollywood Home Theater. Phillips, M. & Phillips, J. (Producers), & Scorsese, M. (Director). (1976). Taxi driver [Motion Picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures. Films for the Humanities and Sciences (Producer). (1998). The bridge: How Islam saved western medicine [Motion Picture]. (Available from Films for the Humanities and Sciences, Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053) 2. Audio Recording Notes: • • • Give the name and function of the originators or primary contributors (the producer, conductor, or speaker). Specify the medium in brackets after the title. Give the location and name of the distributor.

Examples Kramer, L. S. (Speaker). (2001). European thought and culture in the nineteenth century [Compact Disc Recording]. Chantilly, VA: Teaching Co. Ritberger, C. (Speaker). (2003). Your personality, your health, and your life [Cassette Recording]. Carlsbad, CA: Hayhouse Audio. Tillery, L. & Ostrow, L. (Producers). (1999). Hippity hop [Compact Disc Recording]. Redway, CA: Music for Little People.

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