,,-, ¸~

, = ,,






Volume 2 Volume 2 Volume 2 Volume 2


A Translation of

.,· . ¸ .·. ¸,,

popularly known as

,·· ¯ _,·
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

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Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah



All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in
critical articles and reviews.


Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic
Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South
Africa.


Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

Page 3


<<<<<<<<

¸· ¸· ,, ·,· = _. = ¸,_ ¸· ¸· ,· = ¸._ ,· ¸,
_,, ·,· ·,_, ¸´, ·· ·,,,·, ,´, .' ,´· ¸-' · .
, ¸-,-. _· ·_' ,

<<<<<<<<



Sayyidunā Ibn Úmar narrates that Rasūlullāh said,
“Whoever can speak Arabic correctly should not speak
Persian because it creates hypocrisy.”

(Mustadrak of Hākim)

Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

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Title

Arabic Tutor - Volume Two


Author

Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān (= ·~_)

Translated by

Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition

R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007

Published by

Madrasah In’āmiyyah
P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 031 785 1519

Fax +27 031 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com




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Contents

The first fifteen lessons were completed in Volume One.
Volume Two begins with Lesson 16.

Transliteration..........................................................................9
Preface.........................................................................................12
Lesson 16.....................................................................................14
The Categories of Triliteral Verbs .......................................14
Vocabulary List No. 14 .........................................................18
Exercise 15 ..................................................................................21
Lesson 17.....................................................................................25
The Intransitive and Transitive Verbs and the Active and
Passive Verbs..........................................................................25
Vocabulary List No. 15 .........................................................29
Exercise No. 16.......................................................................30
Lesson 18.....................................................................................35
Changes in the Verb due to the Doer .................................35
Vocabulary List No. 16 .........................................................39
Exercise No. 17.......................................................................41
Test No. 9 ................................................................................44
Lesson 19.....................................................................................46
The Different Types of the Perfect Tense...........................46
(1) The Recent Past Tense or Past Perfect Tense ( ¸.'
.,,).......................................................................................46
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(2) The Far Past Tense or Pluperfect Tense ( ¸.' ,· )..46
(3) The Past Continuous Tense or Past Habitual Tense
( ¸.' ¸_,¸ ) ....................................................................47
(4) The Doubtful Past Tense (` ¸ ´` ¸.') ........................51
(5) The Perfect Desirous Tense or Conditional Perfect
Tense (` ¸~, ¸.' ,' _ ¸.')......................................51
Vocabulary List No. 17 .........................................................54
Exercise No. 18.......................................................................56
Lesson 20.....................................................................................61
The Different Forms of the Imperfect.................................61
Vocabulary List No. 18 .........................................................68
Exercise No. 19.......................................................................70
Lesson 20 B .................................................................................73
The Emphasized Imperfect Tense.......................................73
Vocabulary List No. 19 .........................................................76
Exercise No. 20.......................................................................77
Test No. 10 ..............................................................................79
Lesson 21.....................................................................................81
The Imperative and the Prohibition ...................................81
Vocabulary List No. 20 .........................................................90
Exercise No. 21.......................................................................92
Test No. 11 ..............................................................................96
Lesson 22.....................................................................................98
The Derived Nouns...............................................................98
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The Active Participle Noun ( ¸ · ` ,` )..............................98
The Passive Participle Noun ( ¸` ,` · ` ,` )........................100
The Adverb (,= ,) ......................................................101
The Noun of the Instrument (·. ,)..............................103
Vocabulary List No. 21 .......................................................104
Exercise No. 22.....................................................................106
Lesson 23...................................................................................110
The Adjectival Nouns .........................................................110
Vocabulary List No. 22 .......................................................119
Exercise No. 23.....................................................................120
Lesson 24...................................................................................124
The Elative............................................................................124
Vocabulary List No. 23 .......................................................128
Exercise No. 24.....................................................................130
Test No. 12 ............................................................................136
Lesson 25 A...............................................................................138
The Categories Other than the Triliteral Verbs...............138
Vocabulary List No. 24 .......................................................147
Exercise No. 25.....................................................................151
Lesson 25 (B).............................................................................156
The Particles . ¸, . ' and . '....................................................156
Vocabulary List No. 25 .......................................................161
Exercise No. 26.....................................................................166
Supplement ..............................................................................174
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Some Beneficial Information..............................................174
(1) The definitions of (,. ,·) and (,- ,·)............174
(2) Analysis ( ¸` , ` -` ).............................................................175

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Transliteration

The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters
has been used in this book:


ā
.
b
.
t
.
th
_
j
_
h
_
kh
·
d
·
dh
_
r
_
z
¸
s
¸
sh
¸
s
¸
d
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t

z
_
á
_
í
` _
ú
_
gh

f
·
q
·
k
¸
l
·
m
.
n
,
ū
·
h
¸
ī, y


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Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows:


(Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam)
May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon
him - used for Nabî

(Àlaihis salām)
Salutations upon him – used for all prophets

(Radiallāhu ‘anhu)
May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the
Sahâbah

(Jalla Jalāluhū)
The Sublime – used for Allâh

(Àzza wa jall)
Allāh is full of glory and sublimity
(= ·~_) (Rahimahullāh)
May Allâh have mercy on him – used for
deceased saints and scholars

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,,-, ¸~, = ,,

= - ¸'· ._ , ··. , ·· ¸· ·· ·¯, - ·,_,
¸, ·,, _ ··',

Preface

It is only through the grace of the Almighty Allāh that, in
spite of my ill-health and unsuitable conditions that
prevailed, I have been able to present the second volume of
Arabic Tutor to the students of Arabic with changes and
new additions. All praises are due to Him.

The first volume forms part of the syllabus of the fourth
class in the high schools. Now, the second volume has been
prepared for the fifth class.

Although the previous edition was well accepted by the
scholars and intellectuals of the country, Bombay
University and the Department of Education Sindh and
several seminaries have included it in their syllabi, yet I had
the desire to do whatever I could to simplify Arabic. There
is no guarantee for life. Due to the lack of means, I could
not achieve what I wanted to. Nevertheless, one should be
grateful for whatever has been done. Now the benefit of
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this book has increased manifold. All praises are due to
Allāh for that.

Very few additions of grammar rules have been made
because the aim of this book is to learn the language and to
understand the Qur’ān. However, there has been a
considerable increase in the amount of examples, especially
from the Qur’ān, dialogues and exercises, so that this can
serve as an Arabic Reader to an extent.

It is not only a claim but an accepted reality that this series
is the only one which can be called an excellent syllabus
and the most beneficial one for high schools, Arabic
seminaries and the students of Eastern languages.

Nonetheless, whatever I could do, I have done. Now it is
the duty of those elders who have the control of the syllabi
in their hands, to allow the students to benefit from this
book. They can appreciate this service by looking at what
has been said and not who said it. They can afford every
Muslim student the opportunity of benefiting from it and
thus be entitled to immense rewards. Our duty is to merely
convey.

Servant of the best language
(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān
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Lesson 16
The Categories of Triliteral Verbs
1
(·,- ¸·· ¸· .,,')

1. You have read about the perfect (¸.') and imperfect
(__.') verbs in lessons 14 and 15 of volume one. You have
also learnt many verbs in the vocabulary lists, numbers 12
and 13. From there you may have understood that the
second root letter (·´ ¸·)
2
of the roots of certain triliteral
verbs (¸··) of the (¸.') perfect and (__.') imperfect is
sometimes similar and sometimes different.

The verbs of the word (` _` ·) are ( _ ·) and (` _ ,) where the
(·´ ¸·) is (_` ,` ·)
3
in both cases.
In the word (` · , ¯), the (¸.') - perfect tense is ( ·` , ¯) while
the (__.') is (` ·` , ´,). That is, the (·´ ¸·) of both are

1
The word (·,-) means denuded. It refers to the first stem of the verb that
contains only the root letters and is empty of any extra radicals.
2
See Lesson 3.7.
3
that is, having a fathah.
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(·` ,` ` . ·)
4
.
In the word (` .` -), the (¸.') - perfect tense is ( . -)
while the (__.') - imperfect is (` . ` -,). Therefore the ( ¸·
·´) of both are (_` ,` ´ ·)
5
.

Now observe the following verbs:
• in the word (` .` , .), the (¸.') is ( . , .) where the
(·´ ¸·) has a fathah, while the (__.') is (` . ,` .,),
where the (·´ ¸·) has a kasrah.

• in the word (` ,` . ), the (¸.') is ( , . ) where the ( ¸·
·´) has a fathah, while the (__.') is (` ,` .` ,), where
the (·´ ¸·) has a dammah.

• in the word (` _` ), the (¸.') is ( _ ) where the ( ¸·
·´) has a kasrah, while the ( ' __. ) is (` _ ` ,),
where the (·´ ¸·) has a fathah.

4
having a dammah.
5
having a kasrah.
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2. With regard to the (·´ ¸·) of the (¸.') and (__.'),
the verbs of (·,- ¸··) fall into six categories. In the
terminology of Arabic Morphology, these categories are
called (` . ,), the plural being (` . ,` , ').
The six categories are as follows
6
:

._, __.' ¸.' .,,.
¸ · ,
¸· _,´·
¸ · ·
¸· _,·
` . ,` ., . , . ¸,. .
¸` · ,
¸· ·,.·
¸ · ·
¸· _,·
` ,` .` , , . _· .
· , ¸
_,· ¸·
· · ¸
¸· _,´·
` _ ` , _ .· .
· , ¸
¸· _,·
¸ · ·
¸· _,·
` _ , _ · _,, .
` · , ¸
¸· ·,.·
` · · ¸
¸· ·,.·
` ·` , ´, ·` , ¯ ¸·- .
¸ · ,
¸· _,´·
· · ¸
¸· _,´·
` . ` -, . - . ¸·

6
Since Arabic is read from right to left, this table must be read in that
direction. The arrow sign will be used as a guide to indicate the direction of
the text.
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3. Verbs more often belong to one of the first three
categories. The verbs of the fourth category are slightly less,
the fifth category even lesser and very few verbs belong to
the sixth category.

4. When any word belongs to a particular category, it means
that the harakah of the second radical will correspond to
the (¸.') and (__.') of that category. For example, if it is
said that the word ( ¸` · - to wash) belongs to (.,. .,), it
means the (¸.') is ( ¸ ·) and the (__.') is ( ` ·, ¸ ).

Note: In the Vocabulary Lists No. 14 and 15, the (¸.') and
(__.') tenses have been written. Look at the verbs and
work out which category each verb belongs to.

5. It is essential to know which category every verb of
(·,- ¸··) belongs to so that the (¸.'), (__.') and the
imperative (,·.) can be correctly pronounced. It is for this
reason that the (` . ,) of every verb is written next to a verb
in the dictionaries. If the verb is from (.,. .,), a (¸) is
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written next to the verb.
7
If the verb is from (,. .,), a (.)
is written next to the verb, if it is from (_- .,), a (¸) is
inserted, if it is from (_· .,), a () is written, if it is from
(·,¯ .,), a (·) is inserted and if it is from (.- .,), a (_)
is written. We will follow the same procedure in the future
vocabulary lists.

In some modern dictionaries, a line with a harakah is
inserted after the (¸.') to indicate the harakah of the
(__.'), e.g.
( ¸ · ¸ ), ( , . ¸ ), ( _ , · ¸ ).

Vocabulary List No. 14

Word Meaning
¸ . - , . ,
to obtain
_ - _ , ¸ ,
to return
· _ _ , . ,
to give, to sustain

7
This applies to some dictionaries only. Others have their own methods of
indicating the category of verbs.
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· _ , . ,
to sleep
¸ ´ , . ,
to live, to reside
, ´ , . ,
to thank
¸` , ·¯
May it be so.
· . , . ,
to speak the truth
.` , · , · ,
to be near
. · , ¸ ,
to play
¸ , · , ¸ ,
to be ill
· , · , ¸ ,
to defeat
` · '
as far as, as for
` _, ·
radio
¸` , ·
just before
` , - . · `, , -
newspaper
, , ` , ~ · ` , ~ , , ,'
Britain
- ` , =` -
part, portion
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¸`, _ · , _· ·,· ,
the two worlds
` , ·
owner
8

· · ·
bliss, success
` ` , · – . ·`
fortunate
¯ ¸ ~ .` ,` ~
thought
. · · , ` · '
supper, dinner
. · ·, ·'
lunch
` _` , = ·
breakfast
· ` ¸ · ·`, ' ·
nowadays, in these days
. ·` ¯ ¯ ¸
lazy
` , - · `
glorious
· ,` , -` ·
destructive
· ´ ·
library, bookshop, desk
,` -
towards
` .` . ` .` '
half
, . ,
Japan

8
See Lesson 11 in volume 1.
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. , , '
parents
. · . ` , ·
sports field
` ¸ ·` ` ·
astonishing
Exercise 15

(A) In the following sentences, the harakah of the perfect
(¸.') and imperfect tenses (__.') has not been written.
Insert the correct harakah and read the sentences.
Read Note no. 5 of Lesson 2 in Volume One once again.

Answer Question
.` ,` - , · ' ¸ ·` ,, ¸ ¯ ¸ ´ ` ·` ·
, , · · ·` , .` ,` - .` . . ¸ ` . '
, · , ¸ · ` , ¯ , .¯` , ¸ ¯ '
· ¸` , - , ¸ ·` ,,
. - , ` .` ¯ · ` ¸` '
· _` - · ¸` , ¸ · ` .`
- . ` . ¯ '
, · , · ·
` ,, ¸ ¯ · ` ` - .` - ¸ · ` ¸ ¸
· - ,` - ·
, · , ·` , , : ` . . - ¸ ·
· ,` - · · -
´` ' ¸` ` - ¸ · ` ¸ ` , , ·` , , . , - ` , · .` ' · = , ¸ ,` , = ·
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¸` , · ,` - · · - ` · ' :` ~
¸ ´ ¸ · . ¸ ¸ ,` , ¯ ¸ ,` · ,
`, ·` ,, ¸ · · ¸ · .` ,`
¸` , - ,

¸` , ·¯ · _ , . - _ · = _
` ¸ ` ,
, ~ , . ¸` , ` ¸ ´ ` ¸ , , . ·
. ·' ` .` , . . ¸ · _ _ : ·
¸`, _` · · · =
· · ' ' _` , = ` · , ` . , · , ¸` , - , · ¸ · ¸ ¸ ` .
· · _`
¯ ` ¸` - ,` , = ¸` · . · ¸ , · , ¸ · , ¯ · . · .` ,
.` . ,` - · _` . · ,
¸ ¸` , ·
, , · · ` , · , ` · ' · `, , · · _`
, ` ¸ ´ ¸` , · , ¸ '` , ¸ ·
` ¸ ` , ` ` .` ,, ' ¸
: · ` · , ` .,` ' . , - .
, '

, - , ¸ · · ` · ¸` ` .,`
' ` ¸´` , ` , · _ - ` ¸ · ` · , , , · , ` ,` , ·` . ` , · ` ¸ ·
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· : · ·
, · · ` ·' · ' ` . . , · ·` , ` .
` · ,` - ,
, ·· , = , ,` · ¸` , ¸ .` , . . '
· ` ·` ,` - , ¸` ·`,
¸ ·` ,, ¸ ¯ ` .· ` , · . ` , ¸ · , ·· , ` · , ¸ ·` ,, ¸ ¯ .` ,` · ¸ ·
· ,` . ·
. ,` · ¸` , · ` _-` _ ' ' , ·· , . ` , · ` ¸ · ` _-` , ¸ ·
· . ·
. ,` · · · . ` · , ¸¯
· ¸ · , · _ ` - ' ` _` , .
_,
, ·. , · ¸· · ·
·` ` · , - ` .` · ` ¸ ` , , , ·~ , · · - _ .` · · ·
. ·, · ` · . , , . ' ` .` ·
` ¸ · · ´`, ,` · ' , ·` , ~` , , · ·
, ·` , , , , · ` · ` , ¸ · .¯ . ,
, ·· , · · · · ,
.` , - · · ` , ` ¸ · = = -
· ,` , -`
, ·· , . ´ · ` ¸ ,`, , · , . ·
.`, ' , - ¸ · ` _ ` - ' . . -

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(B) Translate the following sentences into Arabic

(1) O boys, how much do you read from the Qur’ān
every day? We read one part of it daily but today we
read half a part.
(2) Did you not learn the madrasah lessons at night? No,
but we learnt them in the morning.
(3) O boys, when do you go to the madrasah?
Nowadays, we go to the madrasah after breakfast.
(4) Is the madrasah far from your homes? Yes, the
madrasah is approximately one mile from our
houses.
(5) When do you return from the madrasah? We return
from the madrasah a little before Zuhr.
(6) Do you obtain the Zuhr Salāh with congregation?
Yes, all praises are due to Allāh, these days we obtain
the Zuhr and Àsr Salāhs with congregation.
(7) How is that? Because the madrasah is only opened
nowadays in the morning.
(8) Then what do you do after Zuhr? We sleep for one
hour.
(9) O Ahmad, what do you do after Àsr? Sir, I go for a
walk to the garden.
(10) Do you read the newspaper every day? By Allāh,
every day I read the newspapers in the library.
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Lesson 17
The Intransitive and Transitive Verbs and the Active
and Passive Verbs
( , ¸·', ·_· ¸· ¸,,-, ,,·' ¸· )

1. Verbs are of two types:
• Intransitive ( ·_· ): one which is complete with the
doer of the action, e.g. (` `, _ ·` , ¯ - Zaid became
noble.) The intransitive verb does not have an
object.
• Transitive ( ' ¸· ): one which requires both the
doer and the object to complete the statement, e.g.
( ,` ` - ` `, _ ¸ ¯ ' - Zaid ate bread.)

2. Most transitive verbs require one verb only but there are
some verbs that require two objects, e.g. when it is said,
( , ´ , ` `, _ . - - Zaid thought that Bakr), the sentence is
incomplete. What did he think of Bakr? When it is said,
( , ´ , ` `, _ . - ' , · - Zaid thought that Bakr was wealthy),
the sentence becomes complete.
( - . - ` · - , ·) – Hāmid knew that Khālid is pious.
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Such verbs are called ( ¸` , ` ,` · · ¸ ` ¸` · ` ) – transitive to
two objects.

3. There are two types of transitive verbs:
• the active verb (,,·'): a verb that is related to
the doer of the action and the doer is known, e.g.
( - . , . - ` · - Hāmid hit Khālid.) In this
sentence, the doer of the verb ( . , .) is known.
• The passive verb (¸,,-): a verb related to the
object and the doer is not mentioned, e.g. ( . ,` .
` - - Khālid was hit.) In this example, the doer is
not mentioned at all. Therefore the verb ( . ,` .) is a
passive verb.

4. The noun towards which the passive verb is related is
called ( ¸ · ` . - the representative of the doer). It is
(_` , ·` , · - in the nominative case) like the doer. In the
sentence, (` - . ,` .), the word, (` -) is the object in reality
and should have been (.,.· - in the accusative case).
However, due to the passive verb, it has taken the place of
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the doer of the action and is therefore (_` , ·` , ·).

Note 1: The ( ` . ¸ · ) is also called ( ` · · · ` , `, ` , · ¸,` · ·).

5. Those verbs that have two objects will also have two
representatives of the doer. But both will not be (_` , ·` , ·). The
second object will be (.,.·), e.g. ( - . ` - , ` · - Khālid
was thought to be pious.)

Note 2: The method of constructing the (¸.') passive and
imperfect passive tense was discussed in Lessons 14 and 15
of Volume One.

6. An intransitive verb is generally used in the active tense.
However, by adding a particle to a subsequent noun, it can
become transitive. In such a situation, the intransitive verb
can be used in the passive tense, e.g.
(¸ `, , , ` - . · · - Khālid took Zaid.)
Here the verb ( . · ·) has become transitive. The passive
form will be: ( · ¸ `, , , . · - Zaid was taken.)
Similarly, the passive form of the sentence (¸ . ´ , ` · - . - -
Hāmid brought a book) will be (¸ . ´ , _` , - - A book was
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brought).

Note 3: Although the verb ( . - - to come) is intransitive, it is
used like a transitive verb: (` .` ,` ´ · ` ¸ . - - A letter reached
me).
( ¸` ,` _ ` , ¯ . - - A messenger came to you.)
Sometimes the particle (¸ ¸) is used after it, e.g. ( :` , ¸ . -
` .` ,` ´ · - A letter came to you).

The verb ( ¸ - · - to enter) is intransitive. An adverb succeeds
it, that is, a noun showing place or time. Generally there is
no need to attach the particle (` ¸ ·) to it, e.g. ( ` `, _ ¸ - ·
.
-`
- . - Zaid entered the musjid in the morning). The words
( -` ) and ( - . ) are called (·,· ¸,··) which are
normally words denoting place or time and they are
(.,.·). The details will follow in Volume Four.

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Vocabulary List No. 15

Word Meaning
¯ _` _ '
rice
` . -
side
·` , ´ · `, -
the royal garden
¯ _ . , ¸ ,
to mount
` : – ` .` ,` -
fish
` _` ,` ` . . ` _` .
chest, heart
` , ~ ·
table
¸ ~ ' . ¸ ~
child
· , , ·
carriage, vehicle
¯ ¸ - ,` , ·
coachman, cabman
¯ ¸ , ´` ·
soldier, policeman
·` , _ ·
Persian
`
when
_` , · ·`
Singapore
, .` ,
Libya
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· , _ -` ·
war
` ¸
people
¸ , , ,
to rise
· _` ` . - ,
assignment, task

Exercise No. 16

(A) Change the active verbs into passive ones and vice
versa in the following sentences.

Note 4: When you want to change the active into the
passive, delete the doer and replace it with the object which
will now be (_,·,·).
Example: ( ¯ ` · - . , . - Hāmid hit a dog.) will change to
(` . ¯ . ,` . - A dog was hit).
( ¸`, ,` ` - ` ,,` , · ` . ¯ ' - Maryam ate two breads) will change to
( . ,` ` - ¸ ¯ ' - Two breads were eaten).

If you want to change the passive into the active, insert a
doer, change the (¸· .) to the object and render it
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(.,.·).
Example: (` · _ ¸ · - A thief was killed) will change to ( ¸ ·
· _ ¸` - _ - A man killed a thief) or ( · _ ` . · – I killed a
thief) etc.

, · , ¸ = . ,
, · , · , ' ¸ · - ` ,` - ' . ~
, · , ` _` _ ' , : ` ·` , , ¯ '
, . , ,` . · ¸ ¸ ` · - ' ¸ · - ` ,` , ' ¸ ` _ '
, ~ , ' ` , , ¸ · · ·` , _ :` ` -
, · , ¯ ¸ , ´` · ¸ · _` , · ·` · , _ -` · ` ¸ · ` · , '
, · , ` ,` , ¯ ` ' ¸ ·
, , . ,`,` ¸ · ·` ,` , ' . ~
, - , · · _` , , _ · ¸ ·
, · , · _` ¸ , , ` .` , _ · ` , ·
, ·· , ` ¸ · , · ` ,` , ' ¸ · , .` , · , _ -` ·
, ·· , · · ´ · ` ¸ · ' ¸ ` , . ` , , `, ¸ ·
, ·· , · ,¯ _ ` , - ¸ ¸ ` ·` ,` - ' . ·` ,
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, ·. , ` _ ´ ` · ,` ,` ,
, ·~ , .` , - ` ·` , · ¸ ·
, ·· , - . · - ' ` .` -

(B) Translate the following sentences into English.

, · , ,` , · . - · `, - ¸ ¸ ` . · , · , , · ` . ¯` , ¸ · . · , , · , ' ¸ -
· ·` , ´
, · , ` - ` ¸ `, . ` · ` _ ' ` ¸ ` · · ` ¸ · ` .` ,` ´ · ` ¸ . -
, · , ,` , ·` . · - ' ` .`, ' _ : ,` -` - ` . - · ` ` ¸ ` , ´ ¸ · -
· · ' · ` , = · _` . - , ` .` ´, ¸ · ¸ . - , ` .` - ·
· ,` , , ` ¸ . - , ´ ¸ ` , ¯
, . , - · ¸ ¯ , ` · ` - , · ´ ¸ _` ,` , . ¸ ,` · ' · ,` .· ` ¸ · · ,` , · ' ¸ ·
~ , · · ' ¸ · · ¸ , · · · = · · ` ¸ ´ · · = ¸
¯ ' _` , - ` , ¸` , ` · ` , , ·
, ~ , ` , ´ ` ' ` ¸ · ¸` ,` _ ` , ¯ . - `
, · , ` , ´` . - ` · ` ¸` ,', ', _` ,` ' . ¸ · . , ` , ´` , _ ` ¸ · · = ·`, ·
· ` - _ , ¸ ` · , ¸` , ·` ,`
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(C) Translate into Arabic.

(1) A man killed a big lion.
(2) I called Hāmid’s brother.
(3) My sister ate the fish and the rice.
(4) Ahmad regarded Mahmūd as being pious.
(5) This girl’s brother was killed in the war of Japan.
(6) My father sent me to Hyderabad.
(7) Is the Arabic language understood in Bombay?
(8) A letter came to me from my brother.
(9) I will write its answer tomorrow.

(D) The following sentences are complete. Ponder over each
sentence, determine the active and passive verbs and then
insert the correct (.,·) accordingly.

, · , · ' ¸·
, · , · .·
, · , ,_ .,
.
·,,
, . , ·,, .,,
, ~ , ,¯_,. ¸ · ,·, =
, · , ,· ,_ ,_ .-
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, · , ,· ,_ .-
, , ·-' .~
, - , ·,-' .~
, · , ·, _¸ ¸··· .··,
, ·· , ·, _¸ .··,
, ·· , · ·_' ¸ .´ · ', .' ¸·
, ·· , · ·_' ¸ .´ · ',, ¸·
, ·. , ., ¸·, ,· ¸·,
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Lesson 18
Changes in the Verb due to the Doer

1. When a verb precedes the (¸··), it will always be
singular, whether the (¸··) is singular, dual or plural.
However, it will correspond to the (¸··) in gender.
Examples:

Plural Dual Singular
¯ .` ,` ·` . . ·` . ¯ ` , ·` . ¯
` . ·` . ¯ . ·` . ¯ · ·` . ¯

However, if the (¸··) is a broken plural and a non-
intelligent being (¸·· _·), whether masculine or feminine,
the verb is generally singular feminine in both cases.
Examples:
( ¸ - . . -) – The (male) camels came.
(` ·` ,' . · ·) – The (female) camels went.

Note 1: The word ( ¸ -) is the broken plural of ( ¸ -) while
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(` ·` ,` ) is the broken plural of ( · · ).

If the (¸··) is a broken plural of an intelligent being,
whether masculine or feminine, the verb can either be used
masculine or feminine.
Examples:

Analysis Feminine
Verb
Masculine
Verb
The (¸··) is masculine. ¸ -` , . · ¸ · ¸ -` ,
The (¸··) is feminine. · ,` ` . · · ,` ¸ ·

Similarly, if the (¸··) is a collective noun (_~ ,)
9
or it is
(¸,- _· .,·)
10
, both forms are permissible.

9
See Terminology in Volume One.
10
A word that does not have a living masculine opposite.
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Examples:

Analysis Feminine
Verb
Masculine
Verb
The (¸··) is ( ~ , _ ) ` ·` , . , . - ` ·` , , . -
The (¸··) is ( _· .,·
¸,-).
` ¸` ` . · ~ ` ¸` ` _ ~

2. If the (¸··) is mentioned before the verb, the verb and the
(¸··) must correspond.
Examples:

Feminine Masculine Number
¯ · ·` ` . . ¯ ` , ·`
Singular
¯ . ·` ¯ . ·`
Dual
` . ·` ¸` ¯ ` ,` ¯ .` ,` ·`
Plural

Similarly, the sentence ( .` ,` ·` , . - ` ,` · · , - The teachers
were present and went away), has two verbs. The first one
is singular and the second is plural. The word ( .` ,` ·` ) is
the (¸··) of both verbs, succeeding the first verb and
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preceding the second. Therefore, the first verb is singular
and the second is plural.

Note 2: This rule could be understood in another way.
When the (¸··) precedes the verb in a sentence, it is not
called the (¸··) in Arabic Grammar but is the subject (·)
while the verb becomes its predicate (_-). The (·) and
(_-) form a ( ,- ·~ · ). It will not be a (·,·· ·~).

The analysis of the sentence ( . ¯ ` , ·` ) will be as follows:
The word (` , ·` ) is the subject (·). The verb ( . ¯) has a
hidden pronoun ( ,` ·) which is the (¸··). The verb with its
(¸··) become a (·,·· ·~) and then forms the (_-). The
(·) and (_-) constitute a (·,- ·~).

You learnt in Lesson 6 that the predicate must correspond
with the subject in number and gender. Accordingly, in
such sentences, the verb which is the predicate corresponds
with the visible (¸··) which is the subject. But when the
subject is the plural of a non-intelligent being, the verb will
be singular feminine, according to the normal rule of ( ·~
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·,-), e.g. (` . ` _ -` ' ) – The trees grew.

Hopefully you have understood the corresponding of the
verb and the (¸··). Carefully read the exercise that is to
follow.

Vocabulary List No. 16

Word Meaning
¸ , , . ,
to spend
_ _ _ , ,
to sow
' ¸ , ,
to ask, to question
, ´ , . ,
to thank
_ ~ , . ,
to rise
· · , ¸ ,
to come
` ¸ · , . ,
to narrate a story
. · , ¸ ,
to intend, to proceed
_ · , ,
to grant, to award
` -, - ,
to find
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. , , '
parents
` . ' ` ` , ' .
thousand
· · ¸
help
· , -
prize
. -
immediately
¸` - ·
income
·,` ,` _
sight, meeting
.
winter
· · ,
testimony, evidence,
certificate
` .` , .
summer
¯ . ~
medical science
· , ~
medical profession
. .` · ' . ` ,` .` ·
limb, member
· ·
superior, first-rate
· , ¯ · ` · ¯ , · .
fruit
· ` ·` ,`
to come, to arrive
¸ , · . ·,` , ·
village
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` ¸ ¯ · . ` ¸ ´` ·
house, dwelling
` ·` , ·` , . ` · ,
delegation
Exercise No. 17

Note 3: The important words will be typed in bold. Make a
careful note of these words. The future lessons will also be
done in the same manner.

Note 4: Note in the following exercise that when the verb
precedes the (¸··), it will always be singular and when it
succeeds it, the verb and the (¸··) will correspond.

, · , _ · | ` , .` ,` . ¸ · ¸ - ¸ -` , , | ¸ · · , . ` ¸ · · , · - .
` ,` , ¯ ·
, · , = = | ` ·` · · - , ` ` - ' ·` · · : - = · , · = - ¸ . · ,' ¸ · , ` · '
, · , _ ¬ · , . - ` · , ¸ · ` · .` , . · , ¬ · - · , -
, . , . ¬ ¬ · , ` . = , · ` ¸ · . ` · · · = - · ,` · · _ ¸ « ·
, `, - , · ` · , , ' v = , · ~ ` ¸ · . , ¸ · · ,` , · ¯ . ,` · '
, ·
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, ~ , ·· - - . ` ¸ ` · . ·` - _ · , ¸ = ¸ · . · ¬ · ,` , = ` · , ` , · ,` ,
; = | ¸ ¸ - _ · ,` · ·` , · ` · , , ` ¸ ` · · . · ,` ` ¸ · · , , · | · · ¸ ` ¸` ·
·` ,` = · _` . , · = · ` , , , ` · · ,` , · ' ` - ' ` ¸ `, . ¸ ¸
· · - · , · ,` . · ` · ¸ = · , · ·` ,` · ¸ · ` , ¸ , ¸ · , . - . · . ¸ - · ,
, ,` . · · . · - | ` , · `, ,` ` ¸ , ´ ¸ · = ·· - · ¯ , , ` ·` ·` ` -
` · · ¸ ·· - · ·· · · · | , ¸` , · ,` , . , ¸ = · , ¸` = ¸ =
· ,` , · , . .` · ' ` , , | = . ` ¸ · ` ,` , · ' ·` ,` · . = = « ·
·` . ·` , · _ · « · , . - ¸ ·` , ,` _ . ' · _` _ = | · · _` , · , _ · , ,
', , ¸ ·` , ,` _ . ' ,` - , ` - · ·· · ¸ ´ = · · ¸ · ,` , · ¯ , ´` :
, · · - - _ ` ¸ ` · · ¸ ¸ .

(B) Fill in the blanks:

, · , - , . ·` - _
, · , .` , ¸ ¸ ` , ` , ` _ · ¸` , - , . , ·
, · , ¸` , ¸ · , . ` . . -
, . , . ' , , ` .
, ~ , · · .` , . , ,
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, · , ,` ` - , ,` - ` ¸ ,` - ¸
, · , ` - ' ` . , - ' · _` ¸ ¸
, , ` ¸ , ´ ¸ · , · _` ¸ · ` . ·`
, - , · _` ¸ ¸ :` ` - ' ¸ ·
, · , ,` . · ` · , ¸ ¸ · · ¸ ·
, ·· , ¸ · ¸ · , ¸ - . , · ' ¸ · ¸ -
, ·· , ,` · :` , - ' ` · ' _` ¸ · :` ,` - ¸ ¸ ·
, ·· , ,` · ` ¸ · , _` ` ¸ ·
, ·. , ` ¸ , ` . - ` · , ¸ · , ` , ¯

(C) Translate into Arabic:

(1) The boys ate breakfast and then went to the
madrasah.
(2) The two boys were successful in the examination of
medical science and they were awarded a certificate
and a prize.
(3) Did your sisters go to the madrasah?
(4) No sir, they did not go till now. Now they will eat
lunch and then go to the madrasah.
(5) Three noble women came to me from a village and
sought help from me for the girls’ madrasah. I gave
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them fifty rupees. They thanked me and went away
to their village.

Test No. 9

(1) How many categories (.,,') of verbs are there in
(·,- ¸·)?
(2) When a verb belongs to a particular (.,), what does
it mean?
(3) What do you obtain by recognizing the (.,) of a
verb?
(4) To which categories (.,,') do the following verbs
belong: (.¯_), (¸-·), (.¯), (¸¯'), (,,·), ( ¸, ), (.·,),
(.··), (.,·), (,´) and (¸.-)?
(5) What is a transitive verb and an intransitive verb?
(6) From the above-mentioned verbs (in no. 4), which
verbs are intransitive and which ones are transitive?
(7) Define (,,·· ¸··) and (¸,,- ¸··).
(8) In a sentence, how can an active verb be converted to
a passive one and vice versa? Provide an explanation
with examples.
(9) Why is the passive tense not formed from an
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intransitive verb?
(10) Can the passive tense ever be formed from an
intransitive verb?
(11) If the doer succeeds the verb in a sentence, what
effect does the gender and number of the doer have
on the verb?
(12) If the doer precedes the verb in a sentence, what
changes occur in the verb due to the differences in
the doer?
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Lesson 19
The Different Types of the Perfect Tense

(1) The Recent Past Tense or Past Perfect Tense
( _=·'· .,¸«|· )

By adding the particle (` ·), the meaning of the recent past
tense is most often created, e.g.
( ·` ,' ¸ ¸ ` `, _ . · · ` ·) – Zaid just went to the market or Zaid
has gone to the market.

(2) The Far Past Tense or Pluperfect Tense ( _=·'·
|· =,-, )

The far past tense is formed by inserting the word ( . ¯)
before the (¸.'), e.g.
( . · · . ¯) – He had gone.

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(3) The Past Continuous Tense or Past Habitual
Tense ( _=·'· ,· ¸_·¸«·= )

The past continuous or habitual tense is formed by inserting
the word ( . ¯) before the imperfect (__.· ¸··), e.g. ( . ¯
` · ` ,` _` · ` ` - ' ` .` ´,) – Ahmad was writing his lessons or he
used to write his lessons.

Note 1: The word ( . ¯) is a verb of the perfect tense (¸.')
from the verbal noun ( .` , ¯ - to be). Its paradigm is like other
verbs:

.` ¯ ` ,` ` ¯ ` ` ¯ .` ¯ ` ¸ ¯ ¯ ` . ¯ ` ,` ¯ ¯ . ¯ ` ¸` ` ¯ ` ` ¯
` ¯ ` .` ¯

Note 2: Whichever word-form (··,.) of the far past or past
continuous you intend to construct, use the same word-
form from the above paradigm and add it to the same
word-form of the (¸.') or (__.') tense. You will
understand this well from the following paradigm.

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=,-,|· _=·'· ¸-«|·

Meaning
Person Gender Word-Form
Verb
He had written singular
. ¯ . ¯
They 2 had written dual
¯ ¯
They had written
masc.
plural
` ,` ¯ ` ,` ¯
She had written singular
` . ¯ ` . ¯
They 2 f. had written dual
¯ ¯
They f. had written
3
rd

person
fem.
plural
¸` ¯ ` ¸ ¯
You had written singular
.` ¯ .` ¯
You 2 had written dual
` ` ¯ ` ` ¯
You had written
masc.
plural
` ,` ` ¯ ` ,` ` ¯
You f. had written singular
.` ¯ .` ¯
You 2 f. had written dual
` ` ¯ ` ` ¯
You f. had written
2
nd

person
fem.
plural
` ¸` ` ¯ ` ¸` ` ¯
I had written singular
` .` ¯ ` .` ¯
We had written
1
st

person
m/f
dual/
plural
` ¯ ` ¯

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¸_·¸«·=,· _=·'· ¸-«|·

Meaning
Person Gender Word-
Form
Verb
He was writing singular
` .` ´, . ¯
They 2 were writing dual
¯ . ` ´,
They were writing
masc.
plural
.` ,` ` ´, ` ,` ¯
She was writing singular
` .` ´ ` . ¯
They 2 f. were writing dual
. ` ´ ¯
They f. were writing
3
rd

person
fem.
plural
¸` ` ´, ` ¸ ¯
You were writing singular
.` ¯ ` .` ´
You 2 were writing dual
` ` ¯ . ` ´
You were writing
masc.
plural
` ,` ` ¯ .` ,` ` ´
You f. were writing singular
.` ¯ ¸` , ` ´
You 2 f. were writing dual
` ` ¯ . ` ´
You f. were writing
2
nd

person
fem.
plural
¸` ` ´ ` ¸` ` ¯
I was writing singular
` .` ¯ ' ` .` ¯
We were writing
1
st

person
m/f
dual/
plural
` .` ´ ` ¯

Note 3: The ( .' __ ) of ( . ¯) is ( .` , ´,). The paradigm will be
as follows:
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g_·='· ¸-«|· · .,´,

Meaning
Person Gender Word-
Form
Verb
He was singular
.` , ´,
They 2 were dual
. ` , ´,
They were
masc.
plural
.` ,` ` , ´,
She was singular
.` , ´
They 2 f. were dual
. ` , ´
They f. were
3
rd

person
fem.
plural
` ¸ ´,
You were singular
.` , ´
You 2 were dual
. ` , ´
You were
masc.
plural
` ` , ´ .` ,
You f. were singular
¸` , ` , ´
You 2 f. were dual
. ` , ´
You f. were
2
nd

person
fem.
plural
` ¸ ´
I was
1
st

person
m/f
singular
.` , ¯ '
We were

dual/
plural
.` , ´

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(4) The Doubtful Past Tense ( _´=|· _=·'·)

By inserting the word ( ¸ · - perhaps) before the (¸.') -
perfect tense, the doubtful perfect tense is formed, e.g.
( -` ¸ ¸ . · · `, _ ¸ · ) – Perhaps Zaid went to the musjid.

The word ( .` , ´,) can also create the doubtful perfect
meaning, e.g. ( . · · ` `, _ .` , ´,) – Zaid may have went.

Note 4: The word ( ¸ · ) does not appear before a verb. It is
succeeded by a noun which is (.,.·) or by a pronoun
(_.).

(5) The Perfect Desirous Tense or Conditional
Perfect Tense (_|¸=|· _=·'· ¸| _«·|· _=·'·)

The meaning of the conditional perfect tense is created by
adding the word (` , - if, would that) to the (¸.'), e.g.
( .` . - .` · _ _ ` , ) – Had you sown, you would have
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harvested.

Note 5: The (¸) in the word ( .` . - ) has the meaning of
‘certainly’ or ‘surely’. This (¸) is inserted in the response to
the conditional sentence beginning with (` , ). Sometimes it is
not inserted.

For the perfect conditional tense, sometimes ( . ¯) or any of
its other word-forms is inserted after (` , ). The (¸.') or the
(__.') tense can be used after it. There is a slight
difference in meaning.
Examples:
( .` . - .` · _ _ .` ¯ ` , ) – If you had sown, you would have
certainly harvested, or ‘Had you sown, you would have
harvested’.


( .` - - : ` ,` _` · ` - .` ¯ ` , ) – If you had been learning
your lessons, you would have succeeded, or ‘Had you been
learning your lessons, you would have succeeded’.

By inserting the word ( ` , ) or ( .` , ), the desirous perfect
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tense is created, e.g.
(` .` - - ` , ) – How I wish I succeeded.
( `, _ .` , _ - ) – Would that Zaid was successful.

Note 6: Like ( ¸ · ), the word ( .` , ) also appears before a noun
or a pronoun and renders it (..).

6. Also remember that the word ( . ¯) or its derivatives
most often appear before a nominal sentence. The predicate
will then be in the accusative case (.. ·-).
Examples:

( - ` ` , _ . ¯) – Rashīd was sitting.

( ¸` , · ` · .` , ' . ¯) – The boys were standing.

Note 7: You have read the paradigms of ( . ¯) and ( .` , ´,).
Conjugate the verb ( ¸` , , ¸ ·) in a similar manner because
you will be able to form more sentences with the aid of this
paradigm.

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Vocabulary List No. 17

Word Meaning
` ,` - ¸ , , . ,
to strive, to take pains
¸ , - , ¸ ,
to be ignorant
_ , ,
to overlook, to permit
· . , . ,
to speak the truth
_ · , ¸ ,
to excuse
¸ · , ¸ ,
to reproach
¸ · , ¸ ,
to understand
. . · , ¸ ,
to be angry
*` _` , , _ ·
to succeed, to achieve
. , ¸ ,
to stay, remain
¸ , . ,
to decrease
·, · ,
to advise
` , ·` _ '
Al-Azhar University
` . ,`
sand
` ` ,` -
effort
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¸` , ` - . ¸ -
field
` , -
seal, final
` ,` , ·
fire, hell
` . -` . ' . ` . - .
companion
` ` ,` ,` . . ` .` , .
guest
· , - .
outskirts
` ,` , ·
knower
` · · ·
very learned
` , · ` , · . · ·
room, upper storey
` .` ,` , · . ` .` , ·
unseen
¸` , ·
just before
` , - ` . ¯
protecting book
¸ ' , .
no harm
· ·
statement
` _ -
successful

* The paradigm of (` _` , , _ ·) is the same as ( . ¯).

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Exercise No. 18

(A) Translate the following sentences into English. The
words in bold are particularly connected to this lesson.

ANSWER QUESTION
,` · _ ¸ - = | · , -` . ¸ ¸ .. , · , · .` , ¸ · ·` ,` - ' ¸ ·
. · . -· - | ¸ - ¸ ¸ , · , ¸`, ' , · ·` ,` , '
= | = | ¸ | , , · _ ` ¸` _`
· ¸`, ,` · ¸` _` , · ' ` ,
, · , ¸ ¸` _ · ` ¸ ' = | ¸ | · ·` , ,
` ¸ ` , , ¸ | | . · · | · `, , - , . , ` .` ` ,`, : | ¸ « · . · · · -
· · - _
· `, - · ` · · ` .` · ` .`, ' _ ,
, ,` - '
, ~ , , . · · , · . . : ¸ ¸
· ·,` ,
` , · ¸ = · · ·· · · ·` ,` · ¸ · , · , ¸ · . ¸ ¸ = · · , · · · · ` , ¸
¸ · . = « - . ·· · · - , ` ,` _` · , · , ` `, _ , , . , = - ` - ' ¸ · :
· · ·`
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' ` ¸ - ' , . · · | = « - ¸ ·` ,, ¸ ¯
· ¸` · ' , ` ¸ ´ . = « - ` .` ¯ ` ¸` '
` ,` ,' . · ·` - ` ¸ · .` ,` ·` ·
, , .` ' ¸ · = « ¬ · ¸ ·` ,, ¸ ¯
· : ` _ ·
. .` , · · , ·· · , ·` _ ' . ` · ` ¸ · , - , · ` , ¯ ` · ` .` ,` . . ¯ ` ¸ ·
` ,` , · . , · , · , ¸ ·`, ' · ` - ` · , · , ` ¸ ` , , . « · - ` , , ,
= ¸ = ¬ · ·` ,, ` , ¯ . ` , , _, ,
. , · , · , · ` , ¯ ` ·
` ¸ , ' ` ¸ - ' , ¸ ' , . _ ¸ « , : ,` ,` , ,
.` ' · · `, . ` ¸` ,
, ·· , ` , _ « = ·` ,` , ' = ¸ = ¬ |
. ,` · ` · ,
. - ` · , ¸ · - - . ¯ ,` · ` , ·
, _· · · · ,` ,
, ·· , ¸ · ` ` , · , .· · ·` ,` - '
- - , _· · · · ,` , ·
` ¸ ` , , . ¬ ¬ · , = ¸ · ` , · · , , ·· , ¸ · . ¬ ¬ · · . - ` · , ¸ ·
. | = = ` ¸ ` , , , ·. , ` , . | = , · ` ,` - . ¬ ¬ · |

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

, · , ` · ` · · ` ¸ ` ¸` _ ' ` ,` ,` · · , ` . ¯ , -
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, · , ` · ` ¯ · , ,
, · , , · , ` , ` ¯ ` _ ` ` , ' ¸ ` · · ` ¯ ¸ · . -` . ' _ ·`
, . , ` , , ` ,` ,` ' , · · · · , ., = ·,`, . ´ ,` , - ` ,` , ` ' , , ·
, ~ , . ¸ ` . ¯ ` ·` · ` · ` · ` · ` , ` · · ¸ ¸ · . , ` · ' ` , · ¸ · :
:` ¸ . ' ` · · · .,` ,` ·
, · , ¸, , , ` , · ´ , ¸ ` , ` . ¯ , ,`
, · , . ¯ , ` · ,, , · , ´ -
, , . ¯ , ¸` . · · :` , · , = ·
, - , · . ¯ ` ` -` · , ' ¸ - ' ¸` · ` , ´ -` _ ¸,` ` _ ¸ ´ , · , , -
¸` , ` . ¯ , ` · ¸ ´ , ¸ .` ¸ , ·

(C) Hereunder follow two verses of Khalīl, the celebrated
grammarian. They are extremely enjoyable and worthy to
ponder over.

When Àllāmah Khalīl was inventing the science of verse
and he was engaged in forming the scales of poetry, his son
thought that the father was uttering nonsense. He began
making an uproar about his father’s mental derangement. It
was on this occasion that Khalīl uttered this response.

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` , ¸` , · ' · ` , ` · .` ¯ ` ¸ ` _ ·
´` · ¸` , · ` , ` · .` ¯ ` , '
` ¸ · · ` ¸ · . , - ` ¸ ´
´` ` _ · · ¸ · - :` ' ` .` · ,

Note: The word ( ´` ·) at the end of the first verse was
originally ( :` ·). Similarly, the word ( · ´` ` _ ) was ( :` ` _ ·).
It is permissible to append an (), (,) or (¸) at the end of a
verse to prolong the sound.

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) My brother just went to the garden for a walk.
Perhaps he may return a little before Maghrib.
(2) Yesterday I had gone to a village. Were you looking
at me?
(3) Yes, I was looking at you from the minaret ( · _ ·) of
the musjid. You were mounted on a horse.
(4) We saw your paternal uncle. He was reading the
newspaper last night.
(5) Had you not learnt your lesson yesterday?
(6) I had learnt my lesson yesterday.
(7) Mahmūd used to learn his lesson everyday but today
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he was busy in the service of the guests.
(8) Had we taken pains, we would have certainly
succeeded in the final examination.
(9) Were you drinking tea in Hyderabad?
(10) I used to drink tea in the morning in Bombay but I
left the tea in Hyderabad.
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Lesson 20
The Different Forms of the Imperfect

1. Only the imperfect (__.' ¸·) is declinable (. ,` ·` ·)
among all the verbs.
11
See 10.10. The perfect tense ( · ¸
¸.') and the imperative (,·.) are indeclinable ( ¸ ` ).

Note 1: Remember that the (.,·) of a declinable noun
(.,·' ,.) is (_·_), (..) and (` ,-) while the (.,·) of the
(__.') is (_·_), (..) and (·,-). Jazm (·,-) does not appear
at the end of a noun while jarr (` ,-) does not appear at the
end of a verb. Yes, if for some temporary reason it appears,
it is another matter.

2. If the particle (` , ) is prefixed to the (__.'), jazm will be
read at the end of the verb. Therefore the particle (` , ) is
called a (·_- ,-).


11
However, the plural feminine word-forms of the second and third person
are not ( ,` ·` · . ). No changes occur in them.
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When the particle (` ¸ ) is prefixed to the (__.'), it renders
(..) to the verb. Therefore the particle (` ¸ ) is called a
( ,- .. ).

The seven (·,,,· .,) are deleted due to the (·_- ,-) or
(.. ,-). This is the change that occurs in the word
itself. As for the meaning, due to the particle (` , ), the
(__.') changes to the negative perfect (¸' ¸.').
Therefore ( ¸ · , ` , - He did not do) is the same as ( ¸ · · ·).

The particle (` ¸ ) creates the meaning of negative emphasis
in the (__.'). The (__.') also becomes specific with the
future tense, e.g. ( ¸ · , ` ¸ ) – He will never do.

Compare the following paradigms and understand well the
differences in words and meanings.
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·='· ;¸¸=· g_ '· g_·='· =,=· g,·¸'· g_·='·
¸ · , ` ,
He did not do
¸ · , ` ¸
He will never do
¸ · ,
He is doing or he
will do
· , ` , · , ` ¸ . · ,
` , · , ` , ` , · , ` ¸ .` , · ,
¸ · ` , ¸ · ` ¸ ¸ ·
· ` , · ` ¸ . ·
¸ · , ` , ¸ · , ` ¸ ¸ · ,
¸ · ` , ¸ · ` ¸ ¸ ·
· ` , · ` ¸ . ·
` , · ` , ` , · ` ¸ .` , ·
` ¸ · ` , · ` ¸ ` ¸ ¸` , ·
· ` , · ` ¸ . ·
¸ · ` , ¸ · ` ¸ ¸ ·
¸ · · ' ` , ¸ · · ' ` ¸ ¸ · · '
¸ · ` , ¸ · ` ¸ ¸ ·

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Note 2: When the (·. ,,-) are prefixed before ( , ´ ` , . ), the
paradigm will be as normal without much change.
However, when the ( _- ,,- ·· ) are prefixed, the
paradigm will be as follows:

Word-form
, _- _«·|· '· =¸¸-
singular masculine 3
rd
person
, ` , ´ ` ¸
dual masculine 3
rd
person
, ` , ´ ` ,
plural masculine 3
rd
person
, ` , ´ ` , ` ` ,
singular feminine 3
rd
person
` , ´ ` ¸
dual feminine 3
rd
person
. ` , ´ ` ,
plural feminine 3
rd
person
, ` , ´ ` ¸
singular masculine 2
nd
person
` , ´ ` ¸
dual masculine 2
nd
person
. ` , ´ ` ,
plural masculine 2
nd
person
` , ´ ` , ` ` ,
singular feminine 2
nd
person
. ` , ´ ` , ` ¸
dual feminine 2
nd
person
. ` , ´ ` ,
plural feminine 2
nd
person
` , ´ ` ¸
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singular first person
` , ¯' ` ¸
dual and plural first person
` , ´ ` ¸

The paradigm of ( ` , , ¸ ) with the particle (` , ) is the same as
the above one, that is ( , ` , ¸ ` , , ` , ` , ` , ` , , ) etc.

3. Besides the particle (` , ), there are four other ( ,,-
··_-):
• ( ` - not, not till now)
• ( . ¸ - if)
• ( ¸ - the particle of the imperative)
• ( . - the particle of prohibition)

When the particle ( ` ) is prefixed before the (__.'), it
creates a change in the word and the meaning like (` , ), e.g.
( ¸ · , ` - He did not do or he did not do till now).

The particle ( . ¸) is used for a condition (,). A response
(.,-) is necessary for the condition. When the condition
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and the response are both the (__.') tense, both verbs will
be (·,,-), e.g. (` . ,` . ' ` . ,` . . ¸) – If you hit, I will hit.

Note 3: Sometimes the letter (¸) is prefixed before the
particle ( . ¸) and written as ( ` ¸ · ). The meaning remains the
same. However, there is more stress created in the meaning.

The ¸ - the particle of the imperative and . - the particle of
prohibition, will be discussed in Lesson 21.

4. Besides the particle (` ¸ ), there are other (·. ,,-):
• ( . ' - that)
• (` ¸ ¯ or ` ¸ ´ - so that)
• ( . · ¸ - then)
• ( ¸ - so that)- it is called (` ¸ ¯ ` · .)
• ( · · = . . ' - so that not)
• (¸` - - so that, until)

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Examples:
( · ' . · , . ' ` ·` ` , ) – I commanded him to go.
( , , · ' ` ¸ ¯ , · ') – I am reading to understand.
( _ -` . · ¸) – then you will be successful.
( ' , , , ¯ ` ·` ` - ·) – I gave him a book so that he can read.
( ¸ ,` -, · · ) – so that he does not remain ignorant.
( _ , , ¸` -) – so that he becomes happy.

Note 4: The particles ( . ¸) and (¸` -) can be prefixed before
the (¸.'). However, they cause no change in the word.
Yes, the particle ( . ¸) changes the meaning of the (¸.') to
the future tense, e.g.
( .` , · . ' , · . ¸) – If you read, you will understand.

Note 5: The particles ( ¸) and (¸` -) are also (·` _- ,,-).
When they are prefixed before nouns, the nouns are read in
the genitive case (` ,- ·-), e.g.
( `, , ¸ ) – for Zaid,
( . ¸` -) – till the evening.
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Note 6: The particle (` , ) is most often used for negation after
the interrogative hamzah ( ') and ( . ¸), e.g.
( ' ` , ` , ` · ) – Did you not know?
( . ¸ ` , ` , ` · ) – If you did not know.

Vocabulary List No. 18

Word Meaning
. · ' , ¸ ,
to permit
, · ' , . ,
to command
_ , , , ¸ ,
to leave, depart
, , . ,
to spread
_ , , . ,
to reach
. , - , ¸ ,
to be sad
. , - , . ,
to sadden
, ´ - , . ,
to order, to decide
_ , · , ,
to slaughter
_ , ¸ ,
to be satiated
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· , ~ , . ,
to knock on the door
_ , · , ,
to knock on the door
¸ ¯ , ¸ ,
to be lazy
¸ · , ¸ ,
to lick
· , ¸ ,
to be ashamed
_ , ,
to benefit
` , ` ·
to fear
` _ -
hungry
` _` . ` _
predator
` ,` . patience, aloe- (` , .)
` _` ,` , ~ . ` ,` , ~
bird
` . ` · ' . ` . ·
grape
` · , ·
separation
` ` - ·
glory
` · , ·
aim
` ¸` ,` -` , . ` ¸` - ,
wild animal
` · · ,
unity, corresponding
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· ` · ,
moment, instant
Exercise No. 19
(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

, · , ,` ` . ¸ · ¸` - ` - _ ` ` ¸
, · , ¸` , ´` , ` , ` ¸ · = , ´` , ` , , .,- ,
, · , ¸ ` . ,` . , · : · ` , ` ¸ ¯
, . , ` , · ¸` -` , . ` · ` .` - · . ` _ , , ` ` , · . ¯
, ~ , ' . ,` -, · · ` · ` .` ·
, · , . - ` · , ·` ,, _ -` ` ¸ · ` ,` - ¸ ` ` , . ¸
, · , ` · ` ¸ ´ . ¸
, , ` ¸ · · - ` .` , · ' · _` ¸ · _ -` _ ' ¸` - .` , ¸ · _`,` -, . . '
, - , ¸` - . · ¯ ' · ¸` , · - ` ¯ ` ·
, · , ¸ · = ¸ - . - · ` , =` . , , - · `, - ¸ ¸ ` . · . ¸
_` ,` , =, _ ` , ¸` ,` -` ,
, ·· , . · ¸ ` · ` . · . _ -` ' ` ¸ ` ,` - · `. , ` ¸` ¸ ` .` ` ,`, ` ¸ ¸ ·
: · , · _ `
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, ·· , · , ` ¸ ´, ` , . ¸ ` · , · ` ·
, ·· , ` ¸ , , · , , . ´ · , ` , '
, ·. , ¸` ·` ·` ,` ' ` ¸ ¸ , ¸ · ` · , ¸` , ' ` ¸ · ` ¸ · , · _ ` , ' ` , . ¸ ` ¸ ` ` ,` -, .
·` , ¸ _ ` , ' ¸` -

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, · , . , · ` , , · ¸ , , · , ` · _`
, · , ` ¸ · ¸` _ . _ ,` , ' _` - . · ', ¸ ¸ , ' ` , ' , ´` -, ` · ¸ ,` · , ` ,` , -
¸ ¯ -
, · , _ ,` · ¸ · · ·` , . ¸ · ` , ¯` ,` · ', . ' ,` - , · , ,
, . , ·,` · ' · , . ' ' ., ¯ ¸ · ¸ · -
, ~ , = ` ` · ' . ' ` .` , · '
, · , ¸ · .= , ` ¸ ¸ ¸ ` · , · ' ¸ , ¸ , :` , ¸ : ` · '
, · , ` , ´ ,` , · ` ¸ · . `, , ¸` -` , ` ,
, , ` ,` ` · ` , · , · ·
, - , , = ` ¸` _ ' ` ¸ ´ ` , ' · ·
, · , ` ,`, · ¸ _` , ¸ ¯ ¸ · = . ' ` , ` · ` , '
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, ·· , . ¸ ,` ,` .` ` , ¯` ,` .` , =
(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) Did you not read the Qur’ān?
(2) I read the Qur’ān but I did not understand its
meaning.
(3) O Maryam, why don’t you drink milk so that it
can benefit you?
(4) I will never drink tea today.
(5) Who is knocking on the door?
(6) My sister was knocking on the door, therefore I
opened the door for her so that she is not
saddened.
(7) I ate the grapes until I was satiated.
(8) If you are successful, you will receive a prize.
(9) Allāh created man so that he can worship Him.
(10) We recite the Qur’ān so that we can understand it
and practise it.
(11) That girl was reading the Qur’ān until the sun set.
(12) If you help me, I will help you.
(13) Those two will not move from their place until
you permit them.
(14) Were you not present in the madrasah yesterday?
(15) Did you not listen to the news on the radio?
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Lesson 20 B
The Emphasized Imperfect Tense
( ` , ¯ '` .` ,` , ` , ¯ '` · . _ · __.')

1. Sometimes a (¸) is prefixed to the (__.') tense and
( .) which is called (· ` , .,) or ( .) which is called ( .,
· ` , -), is appended to it. This (¸) and (.) create emphasis
in the meaning. Therefore they are called ( .` ,` , ` , ¯ '` ` · .
` , ¯ '` ), e.g. from the verb (` .` ´,), the word (` ¸ ` ´ , ) or
(` ¸ ` ´ , - He will certainly write) is created.

2. Changes occur in the (__.') due to this (¸) and (.)
which you can observe in the following paradigm. In
order to note the differences, the ordinary (__.') tense
has also been inserted.
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Changes
_- g_·='·
=,·|·|· ;v
¸ -«,«-· .,·|·
_- g_·='·
=,·|·|· ;v
¸ -·,«·|· .,·|·
g_·='·
_ .·.|·
The ( ·. ·´ ) is (_,·). ` ¸ ` ´ , ` ¸ ` ´ , ` .` ´,
The (·,,,· .,) is deleted.
See Lesson 10. Note 2.

` ´ , . . ` ´,
The (_- ,,) and the ( .,
·,,,·) are deleted.
` ¸` ` ´ , ` ¸` ` ´ , .` ,` ` ´,
The ( ·. ·´ ) is (_,·). ` ¸ ` ´ ` ¸ ` ´ ` .` ´
The ( ., ·,,,· ) is deleted.

` ´ . . ` ´
One alif has been added.
. ` ` ´ , ¸` ` ´,
The ( ·. ·´ ) is (_,·). ` ¸ ` ´ ` ¸ ` ´ ` .` ´
The ( ., ·,,,· ) is deleted.

. ` ´ . ` ´
The ( ,, _- ) and the ( .,
·,,,·) are deleted.
` ` ´ ` ¸ ` ¸` ` ´ .` ,` ` ´
The (¸) and the (·,,,· .,)
are deleted.
` ´ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ´ ¸` , ` ´
The (·,,,· .,) is deleted.

. ` ´ . ` ´
One alif has been added.
. ` ` ´ ¸` ` ´
The ( ·. ·´ ) is (_,·). ` ¸ ` ¯ ' ` ¸ ` ¯ ' ` ¯ ' ` .
The ( ·. ·´ ) is (_,·). ` ¸ ` ´ ` ¸ ` ´ ` .` ´
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Note 1: In the paradigm of (· ` , .,), there are six word-
forms where an alif appears before the nūn. These six word-
forms do not appear with (· ` , - .,). See the above
paradigm.

Note 2: Sometimes the (· ` , - .,) is changed to tanwīn, e.g.
( · ` - · , .` , ` ¸ · ` ) – We will certainly drag them by the
hair of the forehead.

Note 3: The (__.') with ( ` , ¯ '` .` ,` , ` , ¯ '` ` · .) is most
often used after an oath, e.g. ( = , ¸ ` ¸ , ,` ' ) – By Allāh, I
will drink the milk.

Note 4: The (__.') can have the ( ` , ¯ '` ` · .) only prefixed
to it. No change occurs in the word. However, as far as the
meaning is concerned, the (__.') becomes specific with
the present tense, e.g. (` `, _ ` .` ´ , ) – Zaid is writing.

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Vocabulary List No. 19

Word Meaning
` ¸ ·¯
peaceful
·` , ·` ` ` ,
gun
` , -
loss
` , _
our Lord
¸ - , . ,
to imprison
. , .
to desire, want
` , · .
despised, small
` ` , .
to hunt
` · , - ` -`
the sanctified musjid (in
Makkah)
· · · ` ¸ ·
this year

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Exercise No. 20

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

, · , ` ¸ ` ¯ ' ` ¸ - ¸ ¸ ,` ,` ´ · ·` , ,
, · , ` ,` . ¸ ¸ · ` ¸ ·
, · , ¸ `, _ · · ` ,` ' . · ` , . ·` -` , . ·
, . , · =` - . ` · ` , , ` , · ·` ,, ¸ .` · ,` ` . ,` .` -
, ~ , .` ´, ` ¸ , ' , , ` ¸ ` , · : ` · ` - ' ` · ' . ` ´ , .¯ , ·
, · , = . . ¸ · · · ` ¸ · ¸ , - ' ` ¸ - -` ,

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, · , ` ·` ,` .` , ` ¸ · = . ,` .` ,
, · , ` -` ¸` , ·¯ = . . ¸ · , - -` ` ¸
, · , ` , _ ` , ` · ` , . ¸ , ` ' ` ~ ¸ · ` ¸ ` , ´ ` -` , ,
¸`, , -
, . , ` , ´ , , ` ¸ -` ` , ` ·` ,` ·¯ · ¸ · , ` , ` ¸ · , ` ¸ ` , ´ , , ¸`, , ·` . ¸ ·

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(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) My brother will certainly attend the madrasah
today.
(2) Those two will certainly seek a book from you.
(3) If you do not strive, you will certainly be
disgraced.
(4) If you command me, I will certainly go to hunt
and if any lion came towards us, by Allāh, I will
kill it with my gun.
(5) Those two girls will not come to you but we will
certainly attend.
(6) I shall, if Allāh wills, certainly succeed this year.
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Test No. 10

(1) How are the following constructed:
• .,, ¸.'
• ,· ¸.'
• ¸_,. ¸.'
• _ ¸.'
• ¸~, ¸.'
Provide an example for each one.
(2) What is the (__.·) of ( . ¯)?
(3) Among the verbs, which verb is (.,··)?
(4) List the (··_- ,,-).
(5) When (` , ) or (` ) are prefixed before the (__.'), what
change occurs in the word and meaning?
(6) List the (·. ,,-).
(7) When the (·. ,,-) are prefixed before the (__.'),
what changes occur in the meaning and (.,·)?
(8) In how many word-forms of the (__.') does the ( .,
·,,,·) appear?
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(9) In which state does the (·,,,· .,) of the ( .' __ ) fall off
in pronunciation?
(10) In the paradigm of the (__.'), how many word-forms
are there where the (··_- ,,-) and the (·. ,,-) do
not have any effect on the pronunciation?
(11) How many kinds of (,¯' .,) are there?
(12) Which word-forms of the paradigm of (· ` , - .,) are
not used?
(13) What verb is ( · ` ) and what word-form is it?
(14) What changes occur in the (__.') due to the insertion
of ( ` , ¯ '` .` ,` , ` , ¯ '` ` · .)?
(15) When does the (__.') become specific with the
present tense and the future tense, that is, which particle
makes it specific with the future tense and which particle
makes it specific with the present tense?
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Lesson 21
The Imperative and the Prohibition
(` ¸` ,` , ` ,` · ' )

1. The verb which indicates the command of doing an act is
called (` ,` · ' – the imperative) while the verb indicating a
prohibition is called (` ¸` ,` ).

2. The imperative is of two types:
• (` , . - ` ,` · ' ) – the second person imperative and this
is the actual imperative.
• (` . · ` ,` · ' ) – the third person imperative.

The first person imperative has only two word-forms and is
therefore included in the third person category.

3. The method of forming (` ` ,` ,` · ` , . - ` ,` · ' ) is that the
sign of the imperfect (__.' ····) is firstly deleted after
which a hamzatul wasl is prefixed. If the (·´ ¸·) of the
(__.') is (·,.·), the hamzatul wasl is also rendered a
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dammah otherwise a kasrah. The (·´ ·.) is rendered a
jazm.
Examples:
from (` ,` .` ) (` ,` .` ') – you help.
from (` . · ) (` . · · ¸) – you go.
from (` . ,` . ) (` . ,` . ¸ ) – you hit.

Note 1: If the letter succeeding the (__.' ····) is not
sākin, there is no need for a hamzatul wasl, e.g.
From the verb (` · ), the imperative is (` · - you promise).

The paradigm of (` ` ,` ,` · ` , . - ` ,` · ' )

Meaning Gender Number Verb
you (one male) hit masc. singular
` . ,` . ¸
you (2 males) hit masc. dual
, ,` . ¸
you (many males) hit masc. plural
` ,` , ,` . ¸
you (one female) hit fem. singular
` ¸ , ,` . ¸
you (2 females) hit fem. dual
, ,` . ¸
you (many females) hit fem. plural
¸` , ,` . ¸
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Note 2: The hamzatul wasl inserted before the imperative is
not pronounced when preceded by another word, e.g.
( ` · ` _` ,` ,) – O Nūh, descend.
(` ¸ ´` ` · ·¯ ,) – O Ādam, live.
The words are originally ( ` · ) and (` ¸ ´` ) respectively.

Note 3: There is no hamzatul wasl before the verb ( . ¯). The
paradigm of its imperative is as follows:
` ¸ ¯ ` ¸ ¯ ` , ¯ ` ¸ ` , ¯ ` ,` ` , ¯ ` , ¯

The paradigm of ( ¸` , , ¸ ·) is the same:

¸ · .` , · ` ¸ ` , · ` , ` , · .` , · ¸ ·

4. In order to construct the passive imperative, a ( ¸) is
prefixed to the (__.') passive and a jazm is appended to
it, e.g. from (` . ,` .` ) – (` . ,` .` ) – you should be hit.

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The paradigm of ( ¸` ,` ,` - ` , . - ` ,` · ' )

Meaning Gender Number Verb
you should be hit masc. singular
` . ,` .`
you should be hit masc. dual
, ,` .`
you should be hit masc. plural
` ,` , ,` .`
you should be hit fem. singular
` ¸ , ,` .`
you should be hit fem. dual
, ,` .`
you should be hit fem. plural
¸` , ,` .`

5. The method of constructing ( ` ,` · ' ` . · ) and ( ` ,` · ' ` , ´ ` ),
whether active or passive, is the same as ( ` , . - ` ,` · '
¸` ,` ,` - ), that is, they are formed by prefixing the ( ¸). The
third person imperative is formed from the third person
(__.'), the first person imperative is formed from the first
person ( .' __ ), the active imperative is formed from the
active (__.') and the passive imperative is formed from
the passive (__.'). You will understand this from the
following paradigm.
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Meaning
` . · ` ,` · '
` , ´ ` ,
¸` ,` ,` -
Meaning
` . · ` ,` · '
` , ´ ` ,
` ` ,` ,` ·
He should be
hit
` , ` . ,` .
He should hit
` . ,` . ,
They 2 should
be hit
, ,` .` ,
They 2 should
hit
, ,` . ,
They should
be hit
` ,` , ,` .` ,
They should
hit
` ,` , ,` . ,
She should be
hit
` . ,` .`
She should hit
` . ,` .
They 2 should
be hit
, ,` .`
They 2 should
hit
, ,` .
They should
be hit
¸` , ,` .` ,
They should
hit
¸` , ,` . ,
I should be
hit
` . ,` . '
I should hit
` . ,` . '
We should be
hit
` . ,` .`
We should hit
` . ,` .

Note 4: If (,) or () appear before the ( ` ·. ,` · ' ), the lām
becomes sākin, e.g. (` .` ´ , , – and he should write); (` _` ,` - · -
Then the woman should go out).

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Note 5: The (` ¸ ¯ ` · .)
12
which renders (..) to the (__.')
does not become sākin, e.g. ( .` ´ , , - and so that he writes).

6. There are also two categories of prohibition:
• (` , . - ` ¸` ,` ) – prohibition of the second person
• (` . · ` ¸` ,` )– prohibition of the third person.
The method of forming them is the same, that is, prefixing
( .) and rendering jazm to the last letter. The second person
prohibition is formed from the second person (__.')
while the third person prohibition is formed from the third
person (__.'). Observe this in the following paradigms.


12
See 20.3.
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Meaning
` , . - ` ¸` ,`
¸` ,` ,` -
Meaning
` ¸` ,` ` , . -
` ` ,` ,` ·
He should
not be hit
` . ,` .` .
He should
not hit
. ` . ,` .
They 2
should not
be hit
, ,` .` .
They 2
should not
hit
. , ,` .
They (m)
should not
be hit
` ,` , ,` .` .
They (m)
should not
hit
. ` ,` , ,` .
She should
not be hit
` ¸ , ,` .` .
She should
not hit
, ,` . . ` ¸
They 2
should not
be hit
, ,` .` .
They 2
should not
hit
, ,` . .
They (f)
should not
be hit
¸` , ,` .` .
They (f)
should not
hit
. ¸` , ,` .

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Meaning
_ ,·| · . ·· - |·
,· ´ · « |· ¸
, , , ¬ « |·
Meaning
·| · _ , . ·· - |·
,· ´ · « |· ¸
= ¸ ¸ - « |·
He should
not be hit
. ` . ,` .`,
He should
not hit
. ` . ,` .,
They 2
should not
be hit
. , ,` .`,
They 2
should not
hit
. , ,` .,
They
should not
be hit
. ` ,` , ,` .`,
They
should not
hit
. ` ,` , ,` .,
She should
not be hit
. ` . ,` .`
She should
not hit
. ` . ,` .
They 2
should not
be hit
. , ,` .`
They 2
should not
hit
. , ,` .
They
should not
be hit
. ¸` , ,` .`,
They
should not
hit
. ¸` , ,` .,
I should
not be hit
. ` . ,` . '
I should not
hit
. ` . ,` . '
We should
not be hit
. ` . ,` .`
We should
not hit
. ` . ,` .

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Note 6: The (· ` , .,) and (· ` , - .,) can also be appended
to the imperative and the prohibition, e.g.
(` ¸ , ,` . ) – You certainly hit.
(` ¸ , ,` . .) – You certainly do not hit.
(` ¸` , ,` . ) – You all certainly hit.

Note 7: The particle ( .) is of two types:
• ( . ¸ ` ) which does not create any change in word in
the (¸.') and (__.') tenses.
• ( . ¸` ,` ) which renders jazm to the end of the (__.')
while creating the meaning of prohibition as you
have seen in the paradigms of prohibition.

Note 8: You have learnt in Volume One that when the final
letter of any word is sākin, it is rendered a kasrah to join it
to a succeeding word.
Examples:
from (` . ,` . ) – ( . ´ . ,` . ) – Hit the dog.
from ( ¸ ¯` ,`, .) – ( · = ¸ ¯` ,`, . ¸ _` ,` - ,` , · , ` · ) – Food should not
be eaten without hunger.

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Vocabulary List No. 20

Word Meaning
.` ` - '
You have excelled
= · _ ,
May Allāh bless you
¸ ·
come
_ ¯ _ , ,
to kneel, to go into rukū
- , . ,
to prostrate
: - . , ,
to laugh
. · , . ,
to worship
:` ,`
··

here I am, at your service
` ,` · '
order, matter
·` · '
group, nation
. ,` - ' . ¯ ¸ -
alive, tribe
¸ - -
ashamed
·
always
¸ ,` , · ` , ·
relative

13
This word will be explained in Lesson 61 in Volume Four.
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` _ ¯ _
one kneeling down
_
pleasant
' · _` ,
chalkboard
` _` , ´
very grateful
` , ¯
thankful
` ·` ,
kind
` ,` , ~
chalk
¸` , · , ¸ '` , ¸ ·
very gladly, just as you
wish
` ¸ - , · . · - ·
immoderate, shameless
` ·
justice
` ·` , ·
custodian, guardian
¸ ·
perhaps, hopefully
` ` ,` ,` · ·
virtue
· ` , ·` ·
specific
` . ,` · ' . ` .` , ·
dead
` ¸ - ,' ` ¸ -
dirty, impure
·
yes beware, listen
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Exercise No. 21

(A) Translate the following sentences and note the usage of
the words in bold.

Answer Question
` ` ¸ ` , , :` , , · , ` ` - ' , ¸ · ¸ · -· ¸ ¸ ·
` ¸ ` , ´
·` , · ¸ ' , . ¸ · ` .` , , .¯ ¸ ´
.` ,
, · , = ¸ = · ` ¸ ´, ` , . ¸`
` _ , - :
. -` · . ' ` .` · ` ¸ ` , , ` , ·
· = ` · , · ,` , ,` . , ` _ ` , ·
, · , = ¸ =· · : . ¯ . · ,` ,
,` , · · · _
` ¸ ` , , .` ` - ' ¸ · · ' ´ · , . , ` ¸ ´ = ¸ = · v ¸ · . ¸
¸ · ` , ·` · ¸ . ·` , '
' ' , · ' ' · ¸` , · , ¸ '` , ¸ · ·` ,` ·
· _` ,` , -¯ · ,
, ~ , ` ` - ' , | ¸ | · ¸ · ·` ,
: . , · _ ` ' .¯` ,
, : · ·` - ' · , ¯ ` ¸ · ,` · `
` ¸ ` ,
, · , ` ` - ' , :` , · = · _ , ¸` , ·¯
. ·¯ _ :` ` , . = ,
¸ · · , ,` · :` . , · , .` ,
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· ` , , ` .` ´ ¸ _` , ` ¸ ' , , · , · , |· - · ` · .` , ' , · , , · ·· ¸ ·
· _` ,' `
· .` , ' ` · ` .` ´, ` ¸ · , , ` ,` , = ,` · · · , , · ·· · ,
` · - ' · , ` .` ¯ ' · ·
. · ` ¸ ` ,
, - , . · ´ , | - .` , ' ` ·
¸ = · | ·` _` , - . · ¸ · ` ¸ ` , , , · , . · · | ' = ¸ = , v ` ¸
: ` ¸ · '
_` · ¸ · ¸ - - ' ` ¸ ` , , ` , ·
` ¸ = -
, ·· , ` , , ¸ ¸` , - , ¸` , : = -
· ·` , ` · ` ' , ·` , ´` ¸
· · ·` : - .
, ·· , ` · .` , ' , · , , · ·· ·
- ¸` ` - . · ¸ ¸` , - - ,
. ´ _` · ` _ ·` ,,

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into
English.

, · , , ,', ' ` ¸` ,` ` ` · ` , ´` , _ ¸ ` , ´ -
, · , · ¸ , ¸ · ` ,, · ,` , ¸ ` . _ ¸ ·` - . · , ·¯ ` · ` · ' ` ·` _` _ , ¸ · . , ·
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, · , , ` ,,` , · ¸ ` · :` , , ¸ · ¯` _ , ¸ ` -` , _ · ¸ · ¯` ,
, . , ¸ ` · , · · - .
, ~ , · ` ¸ , ´ , ` . · ·
, · , , ,` `, ' ` ¸ ` ·` · =` _ ¸ ¸ · -` _ :` , _
, · , , ` ¸ , . , ` -` ¸ · ¸ . , ¸ - , , ` -` · , ` ¸ · ¸ · ·` , ' · ¸ . ,` , '
, , · · = . ¸ . ,` - .
, - , ` ,` , ` , · :` ` ,` -, .
, · , . , ` ¸ ` - · · · · ` · = ¸ ` ·, .,`
, ·· , . , ` ¸ ` - ¸, , · ¸, ¸ · · ,` · ' ¸ , . ,` - ' · ` , ,` , _
., · _` ,`,
, ·· , ,` , ¯ ¸ ·` , · ` ,
, ·· , ¸ ´ , ` , ´` · ·` · ' .,` ·` , _ ¸ ,` , - .,` ,` · ', , ,` ,` · ,
, ·. , . , ,` , , , ¸ -
, ·~ , . ` , -` , ` ·, · ¸` · _ · ¸ ·` , · . ' ,` , ´, ,` , - ` ,` ,` ` ·
, ·· , ` ¸ ` ¸ - ., ¯ ,` ` · · ,` , , , -` · , - ` · , ` , , · ·
. ·
, ·· , · ¸ , ` ,` · , ` · · ` , , . ¯ · _ ,` , ·
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, · , . , , ¯ ' ` · ` , ` ,` , ¯ `, · ·` , ·

(C) Insert the correct (.,·) and translate the following
paragraph.

:,¯ _ - , ,=' . ·_, _, :,· _ ,= ., :_· ',·, .
··' ¸·· ,, , ., . ., :,, _ .··· ¸_ ¸· .·,· ',
= ¸ ·.,. _· .· ¸,, . .,·' ··. ·, :,_· -, . .¯,
¸·· ¸· ¸´ ., ·_' .-, . .·´, ¸·· .' ,·, .
.-·¸ ·,, .--, .

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) Be thankful in all conditions.
(2) Do not grieve.
(3) No person should go out of the musjid until he is
permitted.
(4) O my sons, enter the house and sit there.
(5) O girl, sit on this chair and look at that garden.
(6) O people, worship Allāh and do not worship anyone
besides Him.
(7) O girls, go to the madrasah and read the Qur’ān.
(8) My paternal uncle said to me, “Do not go to your
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house today.” So I did not go.
(9) If the clothing is dirty, it should be washed.
(10) Fish should not be eaten with milk.
(11) If there is no harm, drink coffee with us.

Test No. 11

(1) Define ( ¸·· . ,· ) and ( ¸·· ¸, ).
(2) How many types of ( ·' , ) are there?
(3) How is (,.- ,·') made from the verbs of (·,- ¸·)?
(4) What kind of hamzah is prefixed before the ( ,·'
,.-)?
(5) How is the (¸,,- ,.- ,·') constructed?
(6) How is the (.· ,·') constructed?
(7) Make the paradigm of ( · ,.- ,·' ,,· ) from ( .,
,.).
(8) Make the paradigm of (,.- ,·') and ( ,·' .· ) from
(_· .,).
(9) Make the paradigm of ( ¸, ,.- ) from (_- .,).
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(10) What verbs are ( ¸` , ,` . .) and (` ¸ , ,` . .) and what
word-forms are they?
(11) Make the paradigm of ( ,.- ,·' ,,·· ) from the
verb ( . ¯).
(12) What verb is (` ¸ ` , ·) and what word-form is it?
(13) Append the (·, .,) and (·,- .,) to the verb
(` .` ¯ ') and conjugate it.
(14) If ( ,) or ( ) appears before (` , . , , ) and (` ,` ` ´ , ),
how will you read them?
(15) Read and translate the following sentences:
• , , - .,. .
• . , , - .,., .
• _=, ·_, ¸· ·.,' , ,¯'
• ,, ¸ _ ¸,= ., . _ ., , ¸,=' '
_· _· ,¯ ',, ., ·· ,¯ ·,-'
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Lesson 22
The Derived Nouns
( · ` ` . ` ' )

1. There are seven types
14
of derived nouns ( · ` ` . ` ' ):
, · , ¸ · ` ,`
, · , ¸` ,` · ` ,`
, · , ` , = ` ,`
, . , · ¯ ` ,`
, ~ , · ` . ` ,`
, · , ¸` , . ` ` ,`
, · , · · ` ` ,`

The Active Participle Noun ( ¸ · ` ,` )

2. In triliteral verbs (·,- ¸·), the active participle noun

14
The first six types will be discussed in this volume while the seventh one
will be discussed in Volume Four.
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( ¸ · ` ,` ) is used on the scale of ( ¸ · ·).
Examples:
from the verb ( . , .) – (` . _ . - hitter),
from the verb ( , . ) – (` , . - helper),
from the verb ( _ ) – (` _ · - listener),
from the verb ( _ ·) – (` _ · - opener),
from the verb ( . -) – (` . - –one who regards)

However, the active participle noun of verbs from the ( .,
·` , ¯), are used on the scale of ( ¸` , · ·) which is actually ( ` ,`
· ` .), e.g. from ( ·` , ¯) – ( ¯ ` ,`, , - generous, noble);
from ( ` · ,) – (` ` , · , - far).

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The paradigm of the ( ¸ · ` ,` ) is as follows:

Meaning
--,=|· ¸-·«|· ,=·
one male hitter
,¯· -, . _ ` .
two male hitters
,¯· ·,· . _ , .
many male hitters
,¯· _~ ` , _ . .` ,
one female hitter
.,· -, · , _ .
two female hitters
.,· ·,· . , _ .
many female hitters
.,· _~ ` . , _ .

The Passive Participle Noun ( ` ,` ¸` ,` · )

3. In triliteral verbs (·,- ¸·), the passive participle noun
( ` ,` ¸` ,` · ) is used on the scale of ( ¸` ,` · ·).
Examples:
from the verb ( . , .) – (` .` ,` ,` . · – one who is hit),
from the verb ( , . ) – (` _` ,` .` · – one who is helped).
The verbs of ( ·` , ¯ .,) are intransitive. Therefore the passive
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participle nouns are not used in this category.

Note 1: The method of usage of the active and passive
participles is mentioned in detail in Volume Four.

The paradigm of the ( ` ,` ¸` ,` · ) is as follows:

Meaning
--,=|· ,=·
'· ,,-«
one male who is helped
, ,¯· - ` _` ,` .` ·
two males who are helped
,¯· ·,· . _` ,` .` ·
many males who are helped
,¯· _~ .` ,` _` ,` .` ·
one female who is helped
.,· -, · _` ,` .` ·
two females who are helped
.,· ·,· . _` ,` .` ·
many females who are helped
~ .,· _ ` . _` ,` .` ·
The Adverb (,= ,)

The ( ` , = ` ,` ) is a noun that indicates the place or time of
the action. It is used on the scale of ( ¸ · ·). However, in ( .,
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. , .), the scale is ( ¸ · ·). The plural of each one is ( ¸ · ·) .
Examples:
from the verb ( , . ) – (` , .` · – place or time of help),
from the verb ( . , .) – (` . ,` . · - place or time of hitting),
from the verb ( _ ~) – (` _ = · - place or time of rising).

Note 2: Sometimes the adverb is used on the scale of ( · ¸ · )
although it is from ( , . .,), e.g.
(` -` · - place of prostration),
(` _ = · - place of rising),
(` . ,` · · - place of setting).

The paradigm of the ( ` ,` ,= ) is as follows:


_< -,··· =-·¸
Gender
. ´ · ` . ´ · =- ¸·
` . ´ ·
. ´ · · ´ · .·¡-

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The Noun of the Instrument ( ,=· -|v· )

The (·. ,) is a noun that indicates the meaning of an
instrument. It is used on the scale of ( ¸ · ·), ( · · ·) and
( ¸ · ·).
Examples:
from the verb ( , = ) – ( ` · ` , = – ruler),
from the verb ( _ ·) – (` _ · - key),
from the verb ( ¸ ¯) – ( · ´ · - broom).

_< -,··· =-·¸
Gender
. , ,` . · ` . ,` . · ¸·=-
` . _ . ·
. , ,` . · · , ,` . · .·¡-
` .`, _ . · . , ,` . · ,` . · ` .
only masc.

Note 3: The scales of ( ¸ · ·), ( · · ¸ ), ( · · ·) and ( · · ·) are also
used for the verbal noun (_.·) which is called ( ` _ ` .
' ¸ ` , ).
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Examples:
(` , =` ·) - scene,
(` _ -` , ·) - returning,
( · · , ´ ·) - nobility,
( · ·` , ·) - promise,
( · = ·` , ·) - advice.

Vocabulary List No. 21

Word Meaning
· , -¯
the hereafter
.¯ ` . .` , -
the munitions of war
¸ ` · ¸
moderation
` · ·
leader
` ¸ ` '
Spain
: · · -
His Highness, the king
` `, -
iron
` - ` ·
blacksmith
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` ,` -
wine
¸` ,` -` ·
to enter
` ¸` , ¯ ´ . ` ¸` , ´
knife
¸`, ,` · ·
the year 20
_ . , · ,
to be proper, to be in
order
· , ~ , . ,
to knock, to pound
` . ~ . · ~
darkness
· `, ·
several
_ = · , ,
to cut
· ¸ · ' . ¸
lock
` . , ¯ ' . ` .` , ¯
glass
¸ ¯ ' ·
to eat
· · _` , ·
farm
` . ,` ·
to drink
` _ ` . ·
factory, mill
· · , = ·
hammer
¸ ` · ·
factory
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` · ·
seat, bench
¸ , ´ ·
instrument to measure
` _ ` ·
saw
¸ -` ·
sickle, scythe
` _ ` ·
place of benefit
` _` ,` .` , ·
placed
· ,` - ·
emigration

Exercise No. 22

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

, · , ' · ,¯ _ ` , - ¸ · ` . · ·
, · , ` ¸ ` · · ¸ . · · ` ·
, · , ¸ _` · ¸ .` ,` · · ` ,` ·
, . , . .` , · _` , · . ¸ ` . · · ` .
, ~ , ¸` · ' ` ¸ ` , ¸ · · . ¯ ` ¸ - '
, · , ¸` , - - ` ¯ ` ¸` -
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, · , ` -` · : · , · ´ · : , · _` · · ·
, , · -` ,` · · _`
, - , · ` · ¸ · .` , · ` _ · ·
, · , · ` ¸ ` · ` , · ` ·` -
, ·· , · . ` _ . , . · ¸
, ·· , ` _` ,` ` · .` , · ` ¸ · ¸` ,` -' ` ¸ ´ ` _`,` · ` .
, ·· , ¸`, ,` · · ` ¸ · , - · ` ¸ ¸ · ` ¸` , ,` ,` · ,` · ,` . · ` _ ·
· ,` - , ¸ ·
, ·. , , `, - ` ·` , =, ` ·` - ¸ · ' , _` , ` ·` · ` _ ` ., , · · , =
¸` , ¯ ´` , ¸ - ,
, ·~ , ` ¸ , ´ ` ·` · _ ` . , _ ` ¸ · . - ` _ = , ` _` -`
` , = , · , .
, ·· , ` : · · - · ·` , ´` - . ' ` · · = . ·` · · ` · . - ´ ¸
` . - · ` _ ` .` , ` . , · , .` · , ` ¸ · ` _ ` ` · `, · _ . · , ¸ · · ·
.` , - ` . .¯ , .` · , ` ¸ ·
, ·· , ¸ ` · , :` , · ` · , , ` ¸ ` , - , ¯ . ,` , ¸ ¯ ' ¸ · . ` ¸
`, , · .` , ´ .
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, · , . ¯ ` · = · , · , , · , .¯` , ' , · ` · ,` - . _ ¸` -` , : ·
` · - _ .
, ·- , · , -¯ · · _` , · ,` '

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into
English.

, · , ` ` - · , ~ · . , ` ' , ¸` _ ¸ · - · ´ ` ` _
, · , ¸` ¸ : · - ¸` · · ¸
, · , ` · _` , · · _` , ` ,, `, ' ,` · = · ·
, . , ,, · ` ¸` , · ·, _ - . ,, · ` _` ,` · ·, ·` ,` · . ` . , ¯ ' , · ·,` .` ,` ·
, ~ , . , ,` . ¸ , ´ . ,, ,
, · , ` ,` , , ,, · ` _ · · ` . _ · , · ' .,` , ´` ,
, · , . ¸ ` ,` · ·` , · ¸` , ' ` _` ' . ` _` ' . ¸ ., , ,

(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) I am going to Bombay tomorrow.
(2) He had gone to Lahore yesterday.
(3) My sister is going to Hyderabad.
(4) The door of the madrasah is open.
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(5) The door of the library was open.
(6) Tāriq was the conqueror of Spain.
(7) Bombay has many mills. Expensive clothing is woven
in some of them.
(8) The blacksmith pounded the iron with the hammer
and made a knife with it.
(9) Do you have a saw?
(10) The munitions of war are manufactured in this
factory.
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Lesson 23
The Adjectival Nouns
( · ` . . ` ')

1. The most frequently used scales of the ( · ` . . ` ') are:
• ( ¸` , · ·) – e.g. (` ` , · - fortunate), ( ¸` , · - little), ( · ¯ ` ,` , -
plenty).

Note 1: This scale is sometimes used for an intensive
meaning (· · ` ·), e.g. (` ,` , · – all-knowing), (` _` , – all-
hearing).

• ( ¸` ,` · ·) - This scale is also used for an intensive
meaning, e.g. (` ·` , ~ – very oppressive), ( ` ,` , - ¸ –
very ignorant), ( ¸` ,` ¯ – very lazy), (` ·` ,` . – very
truthful).
• ( . ·` · ·) – e.g. ( . ` · - tired), ( . ` . · - angry), ( . -` , · -
happy). This scale is most often a diptote ( _·
,.·). See 10.7
• ( ¸ · ·). This scale is actually for the (¸· , - the
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active participle noun). However, many adjectival
nouns are used on this scale, e.g. (` · · . - truthful),
( ¸ · · - just), ( ¸ · - - ignorant), (` , · - learned).

2. The scales of the ( · ` . . ` ') which indicate colours,
characteristics or physical defects are as follows:

Plural
(M/F)
Singular
Feminine
Meaning Singular
Masculine
¸` · · . ·` · · ¸ · · '
` ,` ` - . ,` -
red
` , ` - '
` ·` ,` . ·` ,
black
` · ,` '
` ¸` , , . .` , ,
white
` ¸ ,` , '
` ·` _` _ . ·` _ _
blue
` · _` _ '
` ,` .` - . ,` . -
green
` , .` - '
` , ` . . , .
yellow
` , ` . '
¯ ,` . .` .
deaf
' , . '
` ¸` ` · . ,` ·
blind
` · ' _
` ¸` , ~ . ` , ~
deaf
` ¸ , ~ '
` ¸` ,` - . ` , -
dumb
` ¸ ,` - '
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` , ´` , . ´ ,
dumb
` , ´` , '
` _` ,` · . -` , ·
crippled
` _ ,` · '
` .` ` - . ,` -
hunchbacked
` . ` - '
` _` ,` - . _` , -
black-eyed
` _ ,` - '
` _` ,` · . _` , ·
one-eyed
` _ ,` · '
` ¸` , · . ` , ·
big-eyed
` ¸ ,` · '

Note 2: The plural of (` _ ,` - ') is (` _` ,` -) and the plural of (` ¸ ,` · ') is
(` ¸` , ·). These words are most often used to describe the
damsels of jannah, that is, they have large black eyes.

Note 3: The singular masculine and singular feminine forms
are diptotes (,.· _·). See 10.7.

Note 4: The hamzah in the feminine dual form changes to a
(,), e.g. from ( . ·` , ) – ( . , ·` , - two black women).

Note 5: If there are two letters of the same type at the end of
( ¸ · · '), the first one is rendered sākin and assimilated into
the other. Instead of writing two letters, one letter is written
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with a tashdīd, e.g. (' , . '). Originally it was (` , ` . ').

If there is a (·· ,-), that is a (,) or (¸) at the end of ( ¸ · · '),
it is pronounced as an alif. The word (_ ` · ') is actually
(` ¸ ` · ').

3. Sometimes the ( · ` . . ` ') are related (.·) to another
word. Together with the (·, .·), they either form an
adjective (·.) or predicate (_-) of a preceding noun.
Examples:

·` - , ` ¸ - ` ,
.· ·, .·

·. ,.,·
a handsome faced boy


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` ,` , · ¯ ¸ ¸` - _
·, .· .·

·. ,.,·
a wealthy man

·` - , · - ` .` ,
·, .· .·

·. ,.,·
a pretty-faced girl

· ,` , · ¯ ¸ · ' ,` · ¸
·, .· .·

·. ,.,·
a wealthy woman

4. It was mentioned in Lesson 7 that when an indefinite
noun is related to a definite noun, the former also becomes
definite. See 7.9. The definite article is not prefixed to the
(.·). See 7.4.
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Remember that the (·. ,) is an exception from both the
above rules. It neither becomes definite due to being related
nor is the prefixing of the definite article prohibited.
Accordingly, when an (·. ,) together with its
subsequent noun (·, .·) forms the adjective of a
definite noun, the definite article should be prefixed to it.
Examples:


·` - , ` ¸ - ` ,
·, .· .·

·. ,.,·
the handsome-faced boy


` ,` , · ´ ¸ ` -
·, .· .·
·. ,.,·
Khālid, the wealthy man

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. ·` ,` ,` ·` ` . `, _
·, .· .·

·. ,.,·
Zaynab, the one with black hair

· ,` , · ´ ¸ · '` ,
·, .· .·

·. ,.,·
the wealthy woman

5. If the ( ¸ ) is removed from the ( ·. , ) in the above
examples, they will become nominal sentences (·,- ·~)
because the first part (` , ) is definite while the second part
( ·` - , ` ¸ -) is indefinite. Therefore the sentence ( ` ¸ - ` ,
·` - , ) will mean, “The boy has a handsome face.” The word
(` , ) will be the subject (·) while ( ·` - , ` ¸ -) will form
the predicate (_-). Understand the other examples in the
same manner.
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6. Here are a few more examples:

·` - , ` ¸ - ` , . -
The (,.,·) is (_,·,·) – in the nominative case. Therefore
the (·.) is also (_,·,·).

·` - , · - ` , ` .`, ' _
The (,.,·) is (.,.·) – in the accusative case. Therefore
the (·.) is also (.,.·).


·` - , ¸ - ¸ , ` . ¯ ·
The (,.,·) is ( ,- _, ) – in the genitive case. Therefore the
(·.) is also (_,,-).

7. There is another way in which the (·. ,) is used very
often.
(` ·` ,` - , ` ¸ - ` ,) – a boy whose face is handsome.
(` ·` ` , · · - ` ,) - a boy whose eye is good.
( - ` .` , ,` ,` - , ` ¸ ) - a girl whose face is pretty.
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( ,` ` , · · - ` .` ,) - a girl whose eye is good.

These are all examples of adjectival phrases (¸,., .¯,·).
If the definite article has to be prefixed to the words (` ,)
and (` .` ,), these phrases will become nominal sentences
(·,- ·~).

8. The distinguishing difference between the previous
examples and these examples is that in the former
examples, the gender of the (·. ,) corresponds to the
preceding noun (,.,·). In the latter examples, the gender
of the (·. ,) corresponds to the succeeding noun
because it becomes the (¸··) of the (·. ,). Its analysis
will be as follows:

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· - - ¸ ` ¸ . - ` = | ¸
·, .· .·

·. , ¸·· ·. ,

·. ,.,·
.¯,· ¸,.,

Note 5: The (·. ,) will be discussed in detail in Lesson
60, Volume 4.

Vocabulary List No. 22

Word Meaning
` ¸`
straw, dry grass
· - _
fragrance, smell
` ,` · _
flower
¸` ,
easy, soft
` _ ·` ' . ` ,` ·
hair
` ·` ,
east
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` ¸ ~
smiling
` . ` · ' . ` .` ` ·
green grass
` .` , ·
west
` .` , =
kind, refined
. , ' . .` ,
colour
` , ` ,
pearl
· ` - ,
cheek
·` , ·
cat

Exercise No. 23

(A) Translate the following phrases and sentences into
English.

, · , . ,` . - · , -
, · , . .` , , ·` . , ` , ` . ' ` . ·
, · , ` .` ` · ` , ` . ' ` ¸` ` , ` , .` - '
, . , · - ` , ` .` , ~ , .` , ` , ` - ' ` ·` _ ,
, ~ , . , · .` , · ` ¸ · ` , ` - ' ` ,` -
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, · , ¸` ,` ¯ ` , · · , · ` , · ` .` · ·
, · , . ` . · ` ·` ` , , . ` · ` ` ·
, , ,` ·` ` · ,` ' , ¸` , · ` · _` _ ' ¸` , - ·` - , ` ¸ ,` , ' ,
, - , ·` - , . .` , , , ,` ·` . ·` , , ¸` , · . ·` _ _ · ·
, · , - ` , ` .`, ' _ · · ` , = , · _` ,' . · . ,
, ·· , · ~ · ¸` , - ,` , , · ` , = , ,` ,` - ,
, ·· , · , · · ,` ,` - , ` ¸ ,` , ' , ,` ` , · . ·` ,
, ·· , . , · ` _` , · , ·` - , ` ¸ - ` `, _
, ·. , ` ·` ,` - , ` ¸ - ,` ,` · ` ·` , , · -` , · ,
, ·~ , , ` ¸` ,` - . ` : . ,` · · ·
, ·· , ` ` ¸ · ` ·` ,` , ` ¸` , , ` _` ,` , ~ , ` , ` . , ` ,` ` - ` _ ·` _' .
, ·· , , =` ` , = . , ,` - .` ` - ,
, · , ,` , ¯ ` , _ , · ` , ,` _ . ¸ ¸ ` - - , . - .
, ·- , ` ¸ ~ ¸` , ¸` - _ ¸` , - ` ¸ `, .
, · , ` , ¯ ,` . ` ,` · ` _ ´ .` , ` ·, . ` ,` , · ` ¸` ` · ` , ´
, ·· , .` ,` , - ·` , ~ . ¯ ` ·` ¸
, ·· , .` ,` ´ , ` , ¸ ·` · ' ¯ ` ¸` , · ` _` ,` -
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(B) Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

, · , , ¸ .` , ` , ` - ' .` ,
, · , ¸ · , ` ¸ ' .` ,
, · , .` , ¸ · , .` , ` ¸ '
, . , ` ·` _ ·` _ ' , .` ·' , ` · _` , '
, ~ , · , - ` ¸ ` , , · · '
, · , ,` ¯ , ` ¸ ` - ' ·` , ·
, · , ¸` , ` , · ` .`, _ ¸` , ¯ ,
, , ¸` , · , ·` - , ` , ·
, - , · -` , · , ` ¸ - ` , ·
, · , , ¸ ,` , ' ` , ` .`, _ ,` ` , ·
, ·· , · ` , · , . , ,` - ` - ,
, ·· , .` , , ·` , ·` _ ·` - , · ,` · .` ,
, ·· , . ·` , , . .` , , ¸ ·
, ·. , . , ·` _ _ ` , ·
, ·~ , · , , , . .` , , ` ¸ ` ·

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(C) Translate the following phrases and sentences into
Arabic.

(1) the red flower
(2) the white silver
(3) My brother is wealthy.
(4) This flower is yellow.
(5) There are plenty of red flowers in our garden.
(6) This boy is big-eyed and small-headed.
(7) That man is stupid and ugly.
(8) Those people are deaf, dumb and blind.
(9) The dog is black and the cat is white.
(10) The exhausted slave and the angry master.
(11) the black-eyed girl.
(12) the crippled goat.
(13) There are two black cats in the house.
(14) A fortunate boy and a fortunate girl are both in the
house.
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Lesson 24
The Elative
( ¸` , . ` ` ,` )

1. The elative ( ¸` , . ` ` ,` ) is a noun that expresses the
excess of a quality in a thing in comparison to another
thing, e.g. (` ¸ ` - ' - prettier), (` , ¯ ' - bigger).

2. Except for nouns denoting colours and defects, all other
nouns denote the elative on the scale of ( ¸ · · ').
Examples:
(` .` · . - difficult) (` . ·` . ' - more difficult),
(` ,` , ¯ - big) (` , ¯ ' - bigger),
( ¸` , · - little) ( ¸ · ' - lesser),
(` `, - harsh) (' ' - harsher),
(` , ¯ - - ruler) (` , ´` - ' - greater ruler),
(¸ ¸ · - high) (_ ` · ' - higher).

The paradigm of the elative is as follows:

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_< -,··· =-·¸
Gender
` , , ¯ ' . .` ,` , ¯ ' . , ¯ ' ` , ¯ ' ¸·=-
` , ¯ . ` ., ,` ¯ ., ,` ¯ ¸ ,` ¯ .·¡-

3. It was mentioned in the previous lesson that adjectives
having the meaning of colours and defects follow the scale
of ( ¸ · · ').

The method of constructing their elative is that the word
(' ') or (` , · ¯ ') is prefixed to their verbal nouns (_.·).
Examples:
from (` · ,` ' - black) ( , ' ' · - blacker),
from (` , ` -' - red) ( · ,` ` - ' ' - redder).

4. The elative is sometimes used to express the comparative
degree in relation to some parts and sometimes in relation
to the total.

When it is used for showing a comparison to some parts,
the particle (` ¸ ·) is suffixed to it, e.g.
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(¸ ,` , ` · ` ¸ · ` , ` · ' ` `, _ - Zaid is more learned than Úmair).

When it is used for showing a comparison to the total,
either the definite article is prefixed to it or it is rendered
(.·), e.g.
( ` `, _
.
` , ` · ' - Zaid, the most learned) or
( ¸` ` , ` · ' ` `, _ - Zaid is the most learned among the people).

5. When the elative is used with the particle (` ¸ ·), it will
always be singular masculine, whether the noun being
described is plural or feminine.
Examples:

(¸ , ´ , ` ¸ · ` , ` · ' ` `, _) – Zaid is more learned than Bakr.
( . `, _ ` ¸ · ` , ` · ' · ·) – Àishah is more learned than Zaynab.
( ¸ -` , ¸ · ` . ·` . ' . ` ) – The women are weaker than the
men.

If the elative is prefixed with the definite article, it has to
correspond with the preceding noun.
Examples:

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( ¸ . · ' ¸` -` , ) – the most virtuous man.
( . . · ' . ` -` , ) – the two most virtuous men.
( .` , . · ' ¸ -` , ) – the most virtuous men.
( ¸ ` . · .` , ) – the most virtuous woman.
( . , ` . . .` , ) – the two most virtuous women.
(` . , ` . . ` ) – the most virtuous women.

In the case of it being (.·), both forms are permissible,
that is, conformity and non-conformity.
Examples:
( . , ` ' ¸` ¸ . · ' ) or ( ¸` ¸ . · ' . , ` ' ) – The messengers are
the most virtuous men.
( . ` ¸ . · ' ` ,,` , ·) or ( . ` ¸ ` . · ` ,,` , ·) – Maryam is the most
virtuous woman.

Note 1: Sometimes the words succeeding the elative are --
deleted, e.g. ( ` , ¯ ' =) – Allāh is the greatest. This sentence
was originally ( = ¸ _` , ¸ ¯ ` , ¯ ' ) or ( = ¸ _` , ¸ ¯ ` ¸ · ` , ¯ ' ) -
Allāh is greater than everything.

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6. The words (` ,` , - - better) and (¯ , - worse) are also used for
the elative.
Examples:
(` ·` · ` ,` , - ') – I am better than him.
( ¸` ` ,` , - ·) – This is the best of the people.
( ·`, , ' , , ` ,` · : · ) – They are the worst of the creation.

Note 2: The plural of (` ,` , - - better) is (` _ , -) or (` _ ,` - ') and the
plural of (¯ , - worse) is (` _ , ) or (` _ ,` '), e.g. ( ` , ¯` _ , - ` , ¯` _ , -
` ¸ ` · ' ` , ¯` ,` , - ' , · ` · ' ) – The best among you is the one that is
the best to his family and I am best of you to my family.

The elative will be discussed in more detail in Lesson 60 of
Volume Four.

Vocabulary List No. 23

Word Meaning
' ¸ - '
more entitled
¸ ` '
more pious
` _ ,` '
faster
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` · ' _
the highest
· · '
slave girl
` , ¸
sin
¸` · '
yesterday
· - _ ,' _ _
yesterday
` ¸ ·` , '
weakest
` , ·` _ ' ` _ · -
a musjid of Egypt
·` , · -
the age of ignorance
· ´ -
wisdom
` . -
counter, reckoner
.` , -
wherever
·` - ' . ` ¸ ` - ` ·
character, conduct
` _ -`
brave
· .
missing item
` , ` , ·
gambling
` , ` . ' ` ¸ -`
brass
` ·` ,
sleep
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` _
benefit
. , ` ,` ,
the Euphrates River

Exercise No. 24

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

, · , . -` ` _ ` · ' ¸` , _
, · , ·` ,` ¸ · ` ,` , - · ·` .
, · , ¸` ,` ´ ¸` ,` , - ¸` -` , ¸` ` _ · '
, . , , · , · ·` . ¸ ` · ' ¸ . · '
, ~ , ` - ` ,` ,` ` - ' ¸` , ·` ,` ¸ . · ' , .,- ,
, · , ¸` ` _ ` , ` ¸ · ¸` ` ,` , - , .,- ,
, · , ¸,` ´ · _` , ·` _ ' _ · - ¸ ·
, , :` , - ' ¸ ¸ ` ·` · ' ' :` , ¸ ` ¸ ·` ,
, - , · - _ ,` · ' ' ·` , , ` _`,` ,
, · , ` ·` · ¸ · ¸ · ' ` ·` ,` - ' , ¸ · ¸` , · ` , -
, ·· , ` - ' ` ` -` · , ` ¸ - ` ¸`, . ` ¸ - ` ¸ · ` . ' ` ¸ ` - ' ,` · ` ·` · ` ¸
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, ·· , ,` , · · - , .` , - · ¸ ·` ,` · . · ´ - ' , , ' ¸ - , .,- ,
, ·· , · ·` , ¸ · ` , ¯` _ , - ·` , · - ¸ · ` , ¯`_ , - , .,- ,

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, · , . ¸ , ¯ ' ` , ´ · · · ` , ¯ ` '
, · , · ` , ` , ¯ ' ¸ · ¸`
, · , ¸ · ` ,` ' ' ` , ` · ' · ' ` ·
, . , ` ` · , ` ¸ ·` ,' · ` ,` , - ¸` · ¸ · ,` ' ·
, ~ , , · · ' · ·` ,' · ¸` · ` ,` , - ¸ · ¯ ,` ' ·
, · , ' ¸ ' · ¸` , , , ' ¸ - ' ¸` · . ,
, · , . ' ` · ´` - ` , ,` · , ` _ ,` ' ¸ -
, , : , '` , ¸ · ,` - , ` , , ¸ · ,, · ` , ¸ ` _ ¯ ` _ · · , ¸`
` , ¯ ' ¯ ` ,` ¸ , ¸ · , · `
, - , . ¸ , ¸ ·` , ' .,` ,` ` .` , .,` ´ ·
, · , ` ,` · ¸ · ·` ,, , ´ ` . , · ' · ` ,` ,` . · ¸
, ·· , ¸` , ' ` · , ´` - ' , ¸ ¯ - , ,` · ¸ , ` , ´` - ' ¸ ¯ - ` ¸` - ,
¸`, ·` ¸ · : · ¸ · ,
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(C) Answer the following questions using full sentences.
The first one has been done for you.

, · , ¸ · ` · ` · , ¯ ' = · = ` · ` · , ¯ ' ,` · ¸ ` ' .
, · , · ¸ . · ' ¸ ¸ ·` ,` · ' ¸ '
, · , · ¸ . · ' ¸ ` · ' ' ¸ '
, . , · ¸` ¸ . · ' ` ,` · ` ¸ ·
, ~ , · ¸` ' , ¸ . · ' ,` · ` ¸ ·
, · , · ¸ ,` ´ · _` ¸`, '
, · , · ·` ,` - ' ` · ' ` , ¯ ' .` ' '
, , ` ,` ` ,` , · . , ` ,` , ` · ' ` , ¯ ' ¸
, - , ` _ ` ' ` ¸ ' · ` ,` - ·
, · , · . , , - ` _ -` ' ,` · ·
, ·· , · ,` - ¸ · . , , - ` , ¯ ' ,` · ·
, ·· , · , ` . , , - ` _ ` ' ,` · ·
, ·· , ` · _ ` · ' ` ·` _ , · ,` ` - ' ' ¸ _` , ' ¸ ' · .` ·' , ` ,
, ·. , · ·` , , ` _`,` , .` , ¯
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, ·~ , · : ` ¸ · ¸ , ~ ' · , -` · · ¸ ·
, ·· , · , ` . ' ¸ -' ¸ · · , ` . ' ' ` . · ¸ ·

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) This boy is bigger than that girl.
(2) The air is more refined than water.
(3) The Euphrates River is smaller than the Nile.
(4) The best book is the Qur’ān.
(5) The most truthful speech is Allāh’s speech.
(6) The red horses are more beautiful than all the horses.
(7) The air is purer today than it was yesterday.
(8) This road is more difficult than that road.
(9) That tree is taller than this tree.
(10) This book is very beneficial and easy.



Hereunder follows the brief paradigms of the verbs of
(·,- ¸·).
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·,- ¸·· .,,' ¸· _·. ,.

_r =·, ¸=· =·, =¸= =·,
TENSES
_ , . . , .
=¸¸-'· _=·'·
` , ` _ ` ,` .` , ` . ,` .,
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
_ ` , .` . ,` .
,,,=· _=·'·
` _ ` `, ` , .` `, ` . ,` .`,
,,,=· g_·='·
` _ ` ¸ ` ,` .` ' ` . ,` . ¸ ¸-v·
` _ ` . ` ,` .` . ` . ,` . . _,·|·
` _ · ` , . ` . _ . ¸-·«|· ,=·
` _` ,` ` · ` _` ,` .` · ` .` ,` ,` . · ,,-«'· ,=·
` _ ` · ` , .` · ` . ,` . · =¸=|·
` _ ` ·
, ` _ ` ·
` , .` ·
, ` _ .` ·
` . ,` . ·
, ` . ,` . ·
-|v·
` _ ` ' ` , .` ' ` . ,` . ' ¸,=«·|· ,=·

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=·, ..- =·, ;¸· _·· =·,
TENSES
- . ·` , ¯ _ ·
=¸¸-'· _=·'·
` . ` -, ` ·` , ´, ` _ ,
=¸¸-'· g_·='·
. ` -
*
_ ·
,,,=· _=·'·
` . ` -`,
*
` _ `,
,,,=· g_·='·
` . ` - ¸ ` ·` , ¯ ' ` _ · ¸ ¸-v·
` . ` - . ` ·` , ´ . ` _ . _,·|·
` . - ` ,`, , ¯ ` _ · ¸-·«|· ,=·
` .` ,` ` - ·
*
` _` ,` · ,,-«'· ,=·
` . ` - · ` · , ´ · ` _ · ,=· =¸=|·
` . ` - ·
` . ` - · ,
` · , ´ ·
` · , ´ · ,
` _ ·
` _ · ,
,=· -|v·
` . ` - ' ` · , ¯ ' ` _ · ' ¸,=«·|· ,=·

* The category ( ·` , ¯) is intransitive and therefore does not
have the passive tense and the passive participle noun.

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Test No. 12

(1) List the names of all the derived nouns.
(2) On what scale does the active participle noun ( ,
¸·) appear?
(3) What is the (¸· ,) of (·,¯ .,)?
(4) What is the scale of the (¸,·' ,)?
(5) How many word-forms are there of the (¸· ,)
and the (¸,·' ,)?
(6) What is (,= ,)? On what scale is it used?
(7) What does the ( , ·. ) refer to? What are its scales?
(8) What is the (¸,· _.·) and what are its scales?
(9) What are the frequently used scales of the ( .-'
·.)?
(10) Explain the scales of those adjectival nouns that are
used for describing defects, characteristics and
colours.
(11) Construct the dual and the plural of ( . ·` , ).
(12) Explain the two ways in which the (·. .-') are
used as mentioned in Lesson 23 using examples.
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(13) What is the clear difference between the two ways?
(14) For what meanings is the scale of ( ¸ · · ') used?
(15) What is the (¸,. ,) and on what scale is it used?
(16) Conjugate the (¸,. ,).
(17) In how many ways is the (¸,. ,) used?
(18) In which instances is it necessary for the gender and
number of the (¸,. ,) to correspond to its
preceding noun and in which instances is it not
necessary?
(19) What was the sentence (_¯' =) originally?
(20) Form the brief paradigm of ( ¸ ·), ( , ·) and ( _ .).
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Lesson 25 A
The Categories Other than the Triliteral Verbs
(·,- ¸· _· .,,')

1. All the verbs and derived nouns mentioned till now
were of the category (·,- ¸·). The (·,· ,,· ¸·), ( ¸·,_
·,-) and ( ¸·,_ ·,· ,,· ) need to be explained. The category
of (·,· ,,· ¸·) which are often used are ten. The are:

, · , ¸ · · ' ., · · , ¯ ' , to honour ,
This category is mostly transitive.

¸.' __.' ,·. ¸·· , ¸,·· , _.·
· , ¯ ' ` · , ´`, ` · , ¯ ' ´` · ` · , ` · , ´` · ` · , ¯ ¸

, · , ¸` · · ., · , · , to teach ,
This category is mostly transitive.

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¸.' __.' ,·. ¸·· , ¸,·· , _.·
, · ` , ·`, ` , · ` , ·` · ` , ·` · ` ,` , ` ·

, · , ., ¸ · · · ¸ · , to fight ,
This category is mostly transitive.

¸.' __.' ,·. ¸·· , ¸,·· , _.·
¸ · `, ¸ ¸ · ¸ ` · ¸ ` · ,' · ` ·
¸ ·

, . , ¸` · ., · ¸` , to accept ,
This category is mostly intransitive.

¸.' __.' ,·. ¸·· , ¸,·· , .· _
¸` , ¸` ¸` ` · ¸` ` · ¸` ¸'

, ~ , ¸ · ., · ¸ , , to confront, to meet ,
This category is also mostly intransitive.
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¸.' __.' ,·. ¸·· , ¸,·· , _.·
¸ , ¸ , , ¸ , ¸ , ` · ` · ¸ , ` , ¸

, · , ¸ · ` ., · , ´` , to break ,
This category is also mostly intransitive.

¸.' __.' ,·. ,
¸··
¸,·· , _.·
, ´` ` , ´` , ` , ´` ` , ´` ` · ` , ´` ` · ` _ ´`

, · , ¸ · · ., · . ` - , to abstain ,

¸.' __.' ,·. ,
¸··
¸,·· , _.·
. ` - ` . ` -, ` . ` - ` . ` -` · ` . ` -` · ` - ` .

, , ¸ · · ., · ` , ` - , to be red ,
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This category is also mostly intransitive.

¸.' __.' ,·. ,
¸··
¸,·· , _.·
` - ` , ' , ` -, ` , ` -
,
` _ , ` -
¯ , ` -` · ¯ , ` -` · ` _ , ` -

, - , ¸ · · ., · ` · ·` · , to be black ,
This category is also mostly intransitive.

¸.' __.' ,·. ,
¸··
¸,·· , _.·
` · ·` · ' · ·` , ` · ·` ·
,
` , · ·` ·
` ` · ¯ · · ¯ · ·` ` · ` · ` , ·` ·

, · , ¸ · ` ., · , .` ` , to seek help ,
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¸.' __.' ,·. ,
¸·
,
' ¸,·
_.·
, .` ` ` , .` ` , ` , .` ` ` , .` ` ` · ` , .` ` ` · ` _ .` `

Note 1: There are a few other categories of (·,· ,,· ¸·)
which are used less often. These will be discussed in
Volume Three.

Note 2: The imperative (,·') of ( ¸ · · .,) and ( ¸ · · .,) has
three possibilities:


The ( , ¸· ) and ( , ' ¸,· ) of these categories are the
same in pronunciation but their original words are
different. That is, the ( , ¸· ) of (` , ` - ) is (` _ , ` -` ·) while
the ( , ' ¸,· ) is (` _ , ` -` ·).
The ( , ¸· ) of (` · ·` · ) is (` , · ·` ` ·) while the ( , ' ¸,· ) is
(` , · ·` ` ·).

2. There is only one category of verbs of (·,- ¸·,_), namely:
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, · , ¸ ` · · ., · _ ,` - · , to roll ,

¸.' __.' ,·. ,
¸·
,
' ¸,·
_.·
_ ,` - · ` _ ,` - `, ` _ ,` - · ` · ` _ ,` - ` · ` _ ,` - · - ,` - ·

3. There are three categories of verbs in ( · ¸·,_ ·,· ,, )
namely:

, · , ¸ ` · ., · _ ,` - , to roll ,

¸.' __.' ,·. ,
¸·
,
' ¸,·
_.·
_ ,` - ` _ ,` - , ` _ ,` - ` _ ,` - ` · ` _ ,` - ` · ` _` ,` -

, · , ¸ ` · · ., · , -` ,` - , to gather ,


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¸.' __.' ·. , ,
¸·
,
' ¸,·
_.·
, -` ,` - ` , -` ,` -, ` , -` ,` - ` , -` ,` -` · ` , -` ,` -` · ` · -` ,` -

, · , ¸ · · ., · ` , · · , to tremble ,

¸.'
__.' ,·. ,
¸·
,
' ¸,·
_.·
` , · · ' , · ,
· ¸ , ` , · · ` _ ,` ·
¯ , · ` · ¯ , · ` ·
` _ ,` · ·

4. The method of constructing the passive tense (¸,,-) of all
the above-mentioned verbs is as follows:
To form the perfect passive tense (¸,,- ¸.'), render a
dammah to the first radical of the perfect active tense ( ¸.'
,,·') and a kasrah to the penultimate letter. Between the
two, whichever letter is mutaharrik, render a dammah to it.
If there is any alif (·) in between, change it to (,).
Examples:
( · , ¯ ') from ( · , ¯ '),
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( , ` ·) from ( , ·),
( ¸ ` , ·) from ( ¸ ·),
( ¸` ` ) from ( ¸` ),
( ¸ ,` , ` ) from ( ¸ , ),
( , ´` ') from ( , ´` ),
( . ` ` - ') from ( . ` - ),
(` ,` ` - ') from (` , ` - ),
(` ·` ,` ·` · ') from (` · ·` · ),
( ` ' , .` ` ) from ( , .` ` )
( _ ,` -` ·) from ( _ ,` - ·),
( _ ,` -` ` ) from ( _ ,` - ),
( -` ` ,` - , ) from ( , -` ,` - ),
(` , ·` · ) from (` , · · ),

In order to construct the imperfect passive tense ( __.'
¸,,-), render a dammah to the (__.' ····) and a fathah
to the penultimate letter.
Examples:
(` · , ´`,) from (` · , ´`,),
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(` , ·`,) from (` , ·`,),
( ¸ `,) from ( ¸ `,),
( ¸` `,) from ( , ` ¸ ),
( ¸ , `,) from ( ¸ , ,),
(` , ´` `,) from ( ` , ` , ´ ),
(` . ` -`,) from (` . ` -,),
(' , ` -`,) from ( , ` - ' , ),
(' · ·` `,) from (' · ·` ,),
(` , .` ` `,) from (` , .` ` ,)
(` _ ,` - `,) from (` _ ,` - `,),
(` _ ,` - `,) from ( , ` _ ,` - ),
( -` ,` -`, ` , ) from ( -` ,` -, ` , ),
(' , · `,) from (' , · ,),

5. The ( , ¸· ) of the above-mentioned categories is
made from the imperfect active tense (,,·' __.') while
the ( , ' ¸,· ) is made from the imperfect passive tense
(¸,,- __.'). A (` ·) replaces the (__.' ····) and tanwīn
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is inserted at the end, e.g. from (` · , ´`,), the ( , ¸· ) is
(` · , ´` ·) while the ( , ' ¸,· ) from (` · , ´`,) is (` · , ´` ·).

6. Besides the categories of (·,- ¸·), in the remaining
categories, the ( , ' ¸,· ) is used to provide the meaning of
the ( , ,= ).

Note 3: The passive tense (¸,,-) of an intransitive verb
(·_.) and the ( , ' ¸,· ) will only be used when they are
succeeded by a particle (` ,- ,-). In this case, the verb
becomes transitive, e.g. ( .` , · , ` ,` ` - ')- The clothing was
made red. See 6.17.

Vocabulary List No. 24
Note 4: The numbers written after the verbs of (·,· ,,· ¸·)
indicate the category to which they belong.

Word Meaning
· ,` , ' , · ,
to confirm
` ¸ ,` , ¸ , ,
to be white
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` . - ' , · ,
to love
, ` - , · ,
to strive
. ` - ' , · ,
to go against
· _` · ' , · ,
to achieve, to reach
` · ,` , · ,
to be black
, ` ' , · ,
to obey, to embrace Islam
, - ' ` , · ,
to hire, to employ
¸ ` - ` , · ,
to regard as good
, ` · ` , · ,
to seek forgiveness
¸ · ` , · ,
to be preoccupied
` , ` . , ,
to be yellow
_ ` . ' , · ,
to correct
. ' ~ , · ,,· ¸·,_ ,
to be peaceful, at ease
. ` ' , · ,
to grow, plant
¸ ,` ' , · , ¸` , , · ,
to make something
descend
_ , , · ,
to waste
_ , , · ,
to convey
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.` - , . ,
to converse
, . - , ~ ,
to dispute
¸` , · , . ,
to interfere
, · , . ,
to learn
.` - · , . ,
to be surprised
, ´ , . ,
to think
·` , . ,
to advance
,` , · ,
to complete
·` · , , . ,
to love
,` , - , · ,
to prepare
· - , · ,
to protect
- , · ,
to mix
_ · · , · ,
to defend
, ¯ · , · ,
to advise, to remind
_ ,` - _ , ¸·,_ ·,- ,
to move
_` , · ,
to glorify, to remember
Allāh
· , · ,
to observe
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, , ~ , ,
to appear
, · , · ,
to live mutually
¸` · , · ,
to search
_ ·` , · , ¸·,_ ·,- ,
to burst, explode
. ¯ , · ,
to correspond
, ¯ , · ,
to speak
. ~ . , · ,
to be gentle, to be
compassionate
` · _ ,
cold
` ,` ,
Bedouin
. - ,' ` .` - . ·` -
garden
` .` ,` ` - . ¯ . -
seed, grain
` ` , . -
harvested crop
¸ - -
shame
¸ - -
ashamed
· · _
mildness, gentleness
¸ , ¯ ·
advice
` _` ,` _
falsehood
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` ` , ` . ` .
roof
· - ` ' . ` _ ·
weapon
· , ,` ' . ` . ,
drink, beverage
,' ¯ ¸ ` · _
thief
¸ ` ` ·
future
¸ ` ·` ·
bathroom
` · ·` , ·
appointed time, promise
¸ - ,
fear
¸ =` ` ,
middle

Exercise No. 25

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

, · , ` , ´ ` , . ` ,` · , ¯ '
, · , _ ·` ` , ´ - · ` ,` ,` , -
, · , ` ` . ·` , · , ´ ¸` - ,` · ' · ,
, . , · · ` ` .` . · ´`
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, ~ , ` ,` · , · , ,` - ¸` -` , ·
, · , ` ·` · ¸` , ` ¸ · .` ,` , ` -` · ` ¸` -
, · , ` , · ' . ¯ ~ ·`, , ` · - ' ` , ´`, ` , ` ·
, , ¸` · ` ,` · ` ¸` , · . · _`
, - , ` ¸ , , · , ` , ´ ¸ ·
, · , ` , · ·` , · ` , ´ ' '
, ·· , . , · : · _ · ` , ´ '
, ·· , ` · · · ` ´ ` , ·
, ·· , .` , - · · ,` · ' ¸ · . ` - , - ` ·` ,` - ' , ` ,` , · '
, ·. , ` , · , ` ¸ · ` ·` , ,` , · . ,` , ¯
, ·~ , ` ·` ,` ,` , , ~ .` . . - · ¸
, ·· , ¸ - - ¸ · ` , ` - , ¸ - , ¸ · ` ·` ,` - , `, ` . ¸
, ·· , · - ' ` . ` - ' , · , ' ` · , ` -
, · , · · · · .` ,` ` - ` ¸ ·
, ·- , ¸ ` ` ¸ · ¸ , ¸ · = . . ¸
, · , _ ·` , ¯ · ` ,` ,` , - ` · · ,` ' . ' ` ·
, ·· , · · ¸` , · ,` , ¯ ` , · ,`, ` , , ,` , · . ` , -` ,, ` , ` ¸ ` , .,- ,
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, ·· , ·` ,` ` . , -` ' . -`, = . ¸ , .,- ,
, ·· , ¸ · ` ¸ ' _ ` ·' · ,` . `, , ` · , ¸` _ · , .,- ,

- « , = |
. ¸ · ` _ ·` , `, ` ·` , · . ` · . - ` _ ` . ' .` , . - . ` , - ' ` ` · ¸ ·
` -` , · · ·` , ` · ¯ _` ` . ' ` - ' ` ¸` ¸ ¸ · ` _` `, ` ·` , · ` . -

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, · , _` ,' , ¸` , · ` ,` ` - ,
, · , , = · - _ · . , ` . · ·` ., _ =` ` ,
, · , ,` , ` · ` , · . ¸ · ` _, · ` ,, -` _
, . , , ,', ' ` ,` ` , ¸ _ , · ` ' ¸ , ` ¸ · :` , ¸ :` ,` _
, ~ , ` , ¯ · , . , · , ¯ ¸ ` _ ¸ ·` ,`
, · , . ¸ ,` ¯ ¸, _ ` . ,` - ¸ ¸ ~ ,`
, · , ` , , ¸ · . ` . · ¯ _ ' · ` ' · · , ` . - , ¸ .` - , . -
, , · ¸ ¸ · ` · ` ·' , _ ¸ · ` , ` ' ` .` ` ' ` . , ¸ ·
, - , , ·` , ,` ' ¸ ` ·,` -` , ` ·,` -` , ' · ,` , ... ` · ' , ¸, ` ,` ,` ·,` -` , ` .` . ,` ,
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¸ · · ` - _ ·
, · , · ·` , ` . ` -`, . = . ¸
, ·· , · ' ` , ` ·, · ¸ , ·` ·` , · ¸ · _,`
, ·· , . ' , ¯ , · ' ¸ · = ` .,
, ·· , ¸ · ¸ · _ ,` -` _ _` ¸ -` · ' , ·` - ` · _ ·
, ·. , ` . , , ` · _ , ¸ ` ·` · ·

(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) They honoured their guest.
(2) Strive to seek knowledge and do not be too
preoccupied in playing.
(3) Do not interfere with the strong enemy.
(4) We do not regard fighting as good.
(5) Respect your parents and love your brothers and
sisters.
(6) We seek forgiveness from Allāh for every sin.
(7) Did you prepare the weapons for defence?
(8) Learn when you are small, you will remain ahead
when you are big.
(9) We strove in searching for it.
(10) Are you learning Arabic?
(11) Yes, we are learning Arabic.
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(12) The two thieves disputed mutually, so the stolen
item was revealed.
(13) The face becomes yellow with fear and red with
shame.
(14) The day became white and the night became black.
(15) We completed the second part of the book,
‘Tashīlul Adab’ in three months.
(16) We refrain from falsehood.
(17) My brother and I sat down to talk regarding a
necessary matter until the light of dawn appeared.
(18) The Indians are preparing weapons for their
defence.
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Lesson 25 (B)
The Particles ِ ِ إ ن , نَ أ and ْنَ أ

Note 1: You have read about these particles in Volume One
and in this volume as well. They will be mentioned in
Volume Four as well but since there is a need to use them in
most sentences, a few facts about them will be mentioned
here.

1. The particle ( . ¸) is for emphasis. It appears mostly before
a nominal sentence (·,- ·~). Due to it, the subject is read
in the accusative case (.. ·-). See 9.6.
Example: ( ¸ · · `, _ . ¸) – Undoubtedly Zaid is intelligent.

Sometimes the particle ( ¸) is prefixed to the predicate
which creates more emphasis in the meaning, e.g.
(` _ · , · . ¸) – Surely knowledge is certainly beneficial.

The pronouns are also attached to ( . ¸) as they are attached
to the (·` _- ,,-). See 4.11.

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Third Person (. ·)
` ¸ ` ·
singular
` ¸ ` ,
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

` ¸ ` ,` ,
plural
` ¸ ,
singular
` ¸ ` ,
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ¸ ` ¸` ,
plural

Second Person (, . -)
` ¸ :
singular
` ¸ ´
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

` ¸ ´ ` ,
plural
` ¸ :
singular
` ¸ ´
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ¸ ` ¸ ´
plural


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First Person ( ´ ` · , )
` ¸ ` _
singular
` ¸
dual, plural

The particle (` ¸` ¸) can be read as (` ¸ ` ¸) while ( ` ¸ ) can be read
as ( ` ¸ ).

2. The particle ( . ') introduces an explanatory clause to the
sentence. It is also prefixed to a noun which changes to the
accusative case, e.g. (` , · `, _ . ' ` .` · ) – I heard that Zaid is
learned.

The pronouns are also attached to it. The paradigm is
similar to the one mentioned above, e.g.
( . - ` · , ¸ · .` - - :` ' ` ¸ · ,) – I have received the news that
you succeeded in the examination.

After the verb ( ¸ ·) or its derivatives, the particle ( . ¸) is used
and not ( . '), e.g.
( ·` , , ` _ `, . · _` . ¸ · ` ' ¸ ·) – The teacher said that the
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school will not be opened today.

Note 2: The words (` ¸ ´ - but), ( .` , - wish) and ( ¸ · -
perhaps) are also included in the group of ( . ¸) and ( ' . ), that
is, the succeeding noun changes to the accusative case.
However, the word (` ¸ ´ ) is not included among these
words. The succeeding noun is not rendered (..) and it
can also be prefixed to a verb, in contrast to the above-
mentioned particles.

Note 3: The (·` _- ,,-) are most often prefixed to the
particle ( . '). See Lesson 7.
Examples: ( . ' - because), ( . ' ¯ - as if), (` ·` ' - because he),
(` ·` ' ¯ - as if he).

3. The particle ( . ') renders the imperfect tense (__.') into
the accusative case (.. ·-). See 4.20. Like ( . '), it
appears in the middle of the sentence. However ( . ') does
not appear before a noun or pronoun. It only appears before
a verb, especially the imperfect tense (__.') and due to it,
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the imperfect tense (__.') is rendered into the accusative
case (.. ·-).
Example: ( - . ,` .` -, . ' ` ¸ · · - ` .` , · ') – I commanded my
servant to be present in the morning.

Note 4: The (·` _- ,,-) can also be prefixed to the particle
( . '), e.g. ( . ' - because, so that), ( . ' ¸ ¸ - until).

Note 5: If any noun is (.,.·) because of ( . ¸) or ( . '), and it
is succeeded by a noun (` , =` · ·) following a conjuction
(·~· ,,-) such as ( ,), ( ), (` , '), (` , ) etc. the succeeding
noun will also be (.,.·).
Examples: ( . - . ,` · , `, _ . ¸) – Verily Zaid and Àmr are
pious.
( . - . ,` · , `, _ . ' ` .` · ) – I heard that Zaid and Àmr are
pious.

Similarly, if due to the particle ( . '), a verb is (.,.·), and it
is succeeded by another verb, it will also be (.,.·), e.g.
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( ·` , · , · ,` ' . , = ` ` · ' . ' ` .` , ·') – I was commanded to
worship Allāh and not to ascribe anything to Him.

The (·~· ,,-) and (` , =` · ·) will be explained in detail
in Volume Four, Lesson 50.

Vocabulary List No. 25

Note: The numbers written after the verbs or verbal nouns
refer to the category of (·,· ,,· ¸·) which they belong to.

Word Meaning
-` , · ,
to unite
¸ ` , · ,
to conform
. ` ' , · ,
to destroy
_ ` - , · ,
to gather
` _ - ` - , · ,
to protest
, ` - ' , · ,
to inform
· ,` - ' , · ,
to burn
` _ ' , · ,
to guide
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¸ · ` , · ,
to be independent, to
find insignificant
` ¸ - ` , · ,
to be entitled
· , ` , · ,
to participate
. ,` . ' , · ,
to turn away, to strike
¸ · ' , · , ¸ · , · ,
to lock
` . , · ,
to gather, to be rolled up
_ ` · , · ,
to refrain
¸ ´` · ' , · ,
to be possible
` ' , · ,
to recite poetry
. .` '
to be just
`, ' , · ,
to help
,` , , · ,
to give glad tidings
, -` , , ·,- ¸·,_ ,
to translate
_` , . ,
to benefit
,` , · ,
to complete
·` , , . ,
to rebel
¸ , , . ,
to govern, to turn away
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. - , · ,
to separate
_ , - , ¸ ,
to be injured
¸ - , ¸ ,
to imprison
.` , - , · ,
to devastate
¸ - , · ,
to lower
` _` ,` , _ ·
to turn, to rotate
` ·` ,` , · ·
to remain forever
¸ _ , . ,
to throw
·` . , · ,
to deem credible
¸ · · , · ,
to equate
. ¯ , · ,
to entrust, to assign
, ¸ ,
to speak
` .` ,` , . ·
to die
` , ¯ - · . · ´` - ·
government building
· , · =` · , · ,
to protest
_ . , ,
to advise
, - · , . ,
to rush, to attack
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'` · , · ,
to congratulate
¸ · , , · ,
to give s.o. success
` , ,
to give birth
` , -¯
other
¸ , · ` ,` - '
knowledgeable
' ¸ '
elder
` ¸ =` · '
August
` · '
creation, the world
` ,` ,
O Allāh
` ,` , -`
English
¸` · '
capable, family
` , ·
telegraph
· , -
side
· ` ` -
totality, in general, on the
whole
¯ ¸ _ - -
resident of Hijāz
` - .
according
·`,` ,` -
freedom
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· _` ` ¸` , _
rector
¸ - _ ,' ¸` - _
mill
` ¸ . _
lead, bullet
·` _ . ` ,` , · _ .
leader
· ~` ,`
police
` :
wire, thread
. ` ' . ¯ ¸
tooth, age
· ·` , .
deed, action
` .` , .
sound, voice, slogan,
opinion
¸ , · . ·,` , ·
village, hamlet
` ·
leader
¸` ` · . ¸ · ·
worker, employee
` _` ,` , ·
deceit
` · · ·
youth
` ·` ,
reproach
` ,` , ·
despised
: · · ·
besides that
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¸ ` - ·
gathering
.` , ·
man
` _` ,` ·
decreed (against)
.` ,` , ·
adjacent, near
.` ,` ·
death
` _ ,` ·
way, method
` ` ·
since
` ¸ . · ` ,
excellent
. · ,
fulfil
` ·` ,` ` · . ¯ , ·
anxiety, concern

Exercise No. 26

Translate the following sentences concerning a strike.

, · , ` , _ , ` , · ' ' ` ¸` ·, ·· _` ¸ · ` , · · · ` ` ¸ , , ·
´` , , _`, _ '` , ·` , · ,` ·` - , . - , ` ¸ ,`,
, · , . · ¸ · ¸ · ` , , · ¸` , .` - ` ¸· ` , ` - . :` ' ` .` · .
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` , ¯ , ` - ' ` ¸ · · , ` -` ` ,` ·` . .` , ¯ , . ` ¸ ` , ,
, · , ` ¸ ` , - , ¸ .` · · · ¸` , ·` ,, ` ` · ·` , =` ' ` ¸` ´ ` · ·` . ' . '
· _` . ` ¸ =` · ' _ ` ` · ` . · · ' . ` ¸` ¸ ` , · . · = . '
¸ · ` ,` , ,` . ' ¸` , _ · ,` -` - ¸ · ` ,` - · ¸ , , ·` · _`
· _` ¸ · ' · · ,` -` - . ` ' ¸`· , ` ,` ,` , - , .
, . , ` ¸ ` · ` , ` · ¸ · ` . . · · ·` , ´` - . ' · ` . · = . ,` . ' , ,
, Mr. Gandhi , ´ ¸ , ' .` , · , ·` , ·` - . ·` _ ` ¸ · ¸ ,` , · ¯ , · ·
·` , ~ , , ¸`, , ·` ´ , = . ,` . ' · ` ,` ,` - , - - ` - ` . ·
. ¸ · · ·` , ´` - · ·` , .
, ~ , ` . ' , · , ` ¸ ,`, , ·, . · . _ . ¸` ` · . ' , - ¸ ·
¸ · · , · , · =` ` ,` · ` - , ¸ · ¸ · ` ,`, ,` . ' .`, '
_ - ` - , , ´ · ~` ,' ` ,` ,` · · · ~` ,' ` ,` , _ , ` ,` · ` , ` , ` ¸
` ,` - , - ` ,` ,` .` · , , ¸ - ¸ · ` ,` · ` ,` ,` .` · · . . .` , , .
· · , ´ · , , , ` ` · ` ¸ · , .` , · , ` , ¸` , ~ ` ¸ · `. · · , .
,, · ` ¸ · , , ¸ · . - _ .` ,` , · =` ¸ · _ . , ¸` · , ` ¸ ·
` ' ` , ` ' , , ¯ - ` , · ,` - , · ~` ,' ` ¸ ´ ·` , ·, · ` · ·
. ' ` · · · ` ¸ · ` , ¯ , ` , ` , ¸` , ` ` ·` , · . ¸ . , · =` .
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, · , · ¸`, , ·` ´ . ·` _ ¸ · · ·` , ´` - .. · , ` , ` · ¸ · ` ,` ,` '
` ,` , . ' ,` , -` , ` , · , ¸ · ` , , ·`,` ,` - .` ,` =, ` ¸ · ` , ` , ¯
¸` ,`, ` , ` ¸ `, ' .
, · , · . , · =` · · ` ¸ · .` ,` ` ` · , ` , ` , · · · . '
¸` , ` ` ·` , ·` - · , ` , ¸ · ` ,` , · · _ - ' , · ` -` · .
, , . · ` ,` , · · · , , .` ,` ` ` ' . -`, ·`,` ,` - ` ,` ·` ·
· ¸ · ` , , . ' _ · · . .` , ¯ , ¸ · ` , .` ,' -`, ` ,` · ¸ ,
· , ` - , ¸ · ` , , ·`,` ,` - ¸ ·` ,` ` , ` ¸ ´ , ` , ,` , · · .`, , ·
` , ` , .¯ ` ` . =` · ` ¸ · :` , ` , ` ` · _ · ` , ¸` ,
` , , ·` , ` - , .
, - , ¸ ~ , ¸ · ` , ·`,` ,` - . ' ` ¸ · ` : . ` ¸ ,`, , ·, ¸ _` , ' , · ' ` · .
` -, . ` , ¸ · ` ` ¸ ´ ` ¸ . , ` ¸` , ` ` , · ·` . ` ¸ · ¸` .
´ · ¸ ~ , . ` , ' ¸` , , ` · -` , ·~` , ¸` , ' ¸ , . , · =` · ·
¸` ,`, ` , .`, ' ` ,` , -` , ¸` , , ' ` , ´ ¸` .` -, ¸`, -` ` · ` ,` ` , ¯
¸ · ` , ' . · ` _` , - . · = , ` ¸ ¸ . , -` . .'
¸ ` . ¸` , .` - ¸ ¸`, , ~ ¸ ,` ' ` ·` , · ¸ ¯ ¸ · ` . - , · ¸ · ` ,
¸` , ` ` , ·` ,` ` , ¸ · ·`,` ,` - ` . -` · . ' ` ,` - ¸ ¯ , ` -,
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_` , - ` .` , . .` , ´, ¸` - · -` , - , ` , . · , · '
' ¸ · ` , ¸ · ` , '
, · , _ · ` , ` , ` ¸ ,` , -` , , ·` ,` ` , ` ¸ ´ ` ¸ , , .` ` - '
. `, , .` ·` . , · ` , ` ,` ,` ` , · ` . `· . ¸`, ¸` , ` ` .` ,` ,
` · ' ¸ . . ` , · ` - ' ' . -`,
.
· -` , · ¸ ` · ' . ·' . _ ·
` ¸` ,` .` , · . ,` ` , ` ,` ,` ' ¯ ` ,` -` , ¸ ` · ' , · ·` - ' ` ,` ` - '
- , ¸ ¯ ' . -` , ·
.
` ,` , · · · -` ¸ .
, ·· , ` , ` ` ¸ · ¸ · ` · , , · ` , , ` · , ¸ .` , ' ` ,` · _ `, . ' ¸
, ,` , =` ` , ¸` , ` ` · ·` - ' ¸` , ` - ¸ ' ¸ · ` ,` , ` , , · -` ,
. ` - , , ¸` · , ¸ , ` , ` ,` ¸ · .` , ·` , . `, , , · ·` ,
` - , , ¸ · . . ¸ . ' = .` , - ` ¸ · ` ,` ` , ´ , . ,` . · , ¸`
.` ,` - ` ` ,` · = .` , - . . = · · ·` , ` . ` -`, . = ,
` ¸` · , . ¸ · ` , ,` ` ` · -` · ¸ _` , ¯ ¸ ' , ` , ,
` ¯ _` ,` , ¸ · ¸` , ` -` · ` , , ` ¸ · ` ¸ · · ` , = · ·` , · ` ,` ¯
·` , · ` . -`, ¸ .` ,` , · · · · ¸` , ·` ,` ¸ · . ' ` ,` -` _ ' ` ¸` , · ¸` , · ·` .
.` ,` ` ` ·` , · ` -` , ·` ,, _ · · -` , ` ·` ,, .` , ´, ,` - ¸ _` , -
¸ ~ , . ` , ' ` ¸ · .
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, ·· , ·` , , : · ` .`, _ ` ¸ ` , , · -` , ·` ,, . ' ` ¸ · ` : · · ` , ·` ,` ·
· ` · ` , ¸ · · -` , ·`,` ,` - ` ·` ,, . . = · ` - _ ` ¸ · ` , = .
. ' ¸ · `, , · ` ·` , , : · .` , ´, .
, ·· , - ` _` ,` ,` · ' ·` , ` · ¸ · · · · ` ¸ ´ . ` ¸ ´ : ,` - , : ` , , '
, ¸`,` · ·` - ·` · ' .` , ´ ¸` - .` ,` , ¸ ~ , . ·` , ´` ' ,
` · ` · · , ` -` ` ¸ ` , ` , · ` ¸ ` ` , · , ` , ` · ' ` ¸ ¯ ' ` , · ` ¸
` ` - · · ` , , · ' ` ¸ ¯ ' .

(B) Translate the following narrative into English.

- ,· ´ -
` ·` , ·` , ·` , · ¸ - · · · · - ¸ , ` ,`, , · ` · ¸` , , ` · . ' ¸ ´` - ¸` , ·` ,`
¸ · , - ¸ ¯ ` ¸ · . - · , ` ¸ · ·` · ` ·' _ ` ` , ` ,` , · . ` · · · · · ´ ¸` ,`, _ -
· · ,` · ¸ ` - ¸ . ` · ·` · ¸ · ' ¸ ' ,` · ` ¸ · ` ·` , , ` _ -` _ ` , ` · ¸ · `, '
,` , · ' = = · . ` · = _ · · , · · , · · ·`, , ·` . ' , .` , ¸` , ·` ,`
` ¸ - ` · = · - · , · · ´ ¸` , ·` ,` ,` , · ' , ` ¸` , ¸` . . ¯ ` , ,
· ·` · ' ¸ · . ´ ,` · ` ¸ ' ¸ - ' · : ` - , . · · · ¯ ` ¸ · ` , ` · .` - · ·
` ' , ·
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· ` ` ,`, .` , ¸` , · ` , · ¸ · - ,` · ` ¸ ¯ ¸ , · ` ,` - ' ¸` , ,
` · ` · , · . ·` , ,` , ¯ . ¸ , ·` , · ` . · ¸ ` ,` , · . ¸ · -

(C) Translate the following poem into English.

` _ ·` '
` · ´ · ,`, , ´ .` · , ¯ ' .` ' · ¸ ·` ,` ,` , · .` · , ¯ ' .` ' . ¸ ,
· .`, , · ,`, , ´ ¸ · . · , . ¸ ·` - , ¸ , .` ,` , · ` ·` , ,
, .` ` · ` , ·`, ` ¸ ,`, , ´ ¸ , .` , ` . -` · ,` , · ¸ , ,

` _` ,` , · · , - · : ·` ,` ` · ` ¸ - ` _` ,` · ' ¸ · .` ,` ¸ - _ ,
_ · ` ¸ · .` , , ` . ´` · . ` ,` · . , ,` , · ` _ · · . ` _

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(D) Translate the following letter into English.

·` , , ' ¸ ¸ , ¸ · ` .` ,` ´ ·

· , ` -` - , · ,` . - ¸ ¸
` ·` ¯ , , , = · ` - _ , ` , ´` , · ` · ·`
¸ ¸ ,` ,` ' · · ¸` · ` .` ¯ ` .` ¯ ` ¸` ¸ ` .` ` ` ¸` ' ` .` , ` - ' , ,`, , · ¸ - ' ¸
.` ,` - ` .` · ` ¸` ' , ` , ¯` ,` , ' ·` , , , . · ' ¸` , ,` . ¯ ` ¸ · ¸` , ' .` ,` -
.`, ' ` ¸ · ` , ´` ` · , ` ` - · · .
, ¯ ' ` ·` , ´` ` ¸ , ' ' . ¸` · ` ·` , · ' ` .` ¯ · ` ¸ · , · ¯ ' ` ¸ , ,· . ` , , · '
· . ` ' · ` .` · ` ¸ ` ¸ · .` ,` - ¸ ·` , · · ¸ · · ' ¸ · . ,` , ' _` , -
· `, , , · ·` , -` ·` , · ,' ,, .
· · · , · ` ` - ` .` · , ·` , , , · ' ¸ · ,` , · ¯ ` . = - : · , · ` ¸ ·
, ,` -` , ` ,` . ·` , ` · , ·` , ` , ¸ ` - .` , ¯ , ` ¸ · .
. ' ` _ · ' ` ¸` ¸ = ` - , , ` - ¸ · ,` , · ¯ , -` , ' . · ¸ · ` ¸ ` , ¸ ¸ ` ¸ , , ·
, ` ¸ , , · ¸ ¸ ` ¸ ` , ¸ · .
· ~ ` , · , . · ¸ ,` ,` ' ·` ` ¸ · ` .` · ¸ · = ¸` . , ` ¸` ' · . ·` - ,
_ ,` ¸ · · - ` , ·` , , , · ¸ _ ¸` , ` ¸ · ,`, . : .` ,` .` -
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` , ' ` ,` ´`, ` , ' ` ¸ , , · ¸ ¸ ` ¸ ` , ¸ · ` ,` -` , `, . ' =` · .` ,` _ , . · =
,` , · . ,` ,` ´ · ` ,` ` ´, .
· ' ` , · ' , . · .` ,` - ' , · ' ` , · ` ,` , · ¸ · · ' · · _` · ` ¸ ¸` .` -,
· -` ,` , , ´` ¸ · · `, , · ¸ ¸ ,` ,` ´ · ¸ _` ,` ` ' ¸ ¯ ` ¸ · ¸ ` _ ' . ·¸ ,
¸ · = . . ¸ ` , ´ ,` . - .
- ' , · · , ` -` ` ¸` · ' ¸ · ` · ·` , ¸` , ` ,` ` ·` · , ¸` , ·` , ´` ` ¸ ,` - ¸ , ` ¸ , .
` · · - ` , ¯` ,
. ` -` , ` ` ·
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Supplement
Some Beneficial Information

(1) The definitions of (=¸=|· ,·-) and (,¬·|· ,·-)

The rules that have been developed for learning to speak
correctly are of two types: (1) ,. ,·, (2) ,- ,·.

Arabic Morphology (,. ,·) is that subject in which the
rules of recognizing words and their changes are
mentioned.

Arabic Grammar (,- ,·) is the subject in which the rules
of the mutual relationship of words and the condition of
their declension are indicated.

Note 1: You have learnt some of the rules of Arabic
Morphology and Grammar in this book. The remaining
rules will be explained, if Allāh wills, in the remaining
volumes.

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(2) Analysis ( ¸ , · ¬·| ·)

Analysis (¸,-) is to evaluate each word separately in
speech. This is of two types: (1) ¸` , ` -` ' ¸ ·` ,` . and (2) ¸` , ` -`
' ¸ ,` -` .

Morphologic analyis is evaluation in accordance to the rules
of Arabic Morphology while grammatical analysis is
evaluation in accordance to the rules of Arabic Grammar.

Grammatical analysis is also called (` .` , ¯` , – to join) because
the words are generally joined after an individual analysis.

As far as Morphologic analyis is concerned, you can now
evaluate the following matters:
• Firstly, recognize the types of words used in the
sentence and which one is a noun, which one a verb
and which one a particle. Then with regards to a
noun, observe the following factors:
(1) Is the noun definite or indefinite? If it is indefinite, is
it a noun or an adjective? If it is definite, to which
category does it belong, that is, is it a proper noun,
pronoun, etc?
(2) Is it derived or non-derived? If it is derived, what
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type of derived noun is it? Is it ( ¸ · ` ,` ), ( ` ,`
¸` ,` · ), ( ` , = ` ,` ), ( · ¯ ` ,` ), ( · ` . ` ,` ), ( ¸` , . ` ` ,` )
or ( · · ` ` ,` )?
(3) Determine the amount of root letters. Is it triliteral,
quadrilteral or having five radicals? Is it ( ,- · ) or ( ,,·
·,·)?
(4) Is it singular, dual or plural? If it is plural, is it a
sound plural or a broken plural? If it is a broken
plural, on what scale is it?
(5) Is it a masculine word or a feminine word? What is
the sign of its being feminine?
(6) Is it fully declinable (.,··) or indeclinable (_.·)?

If it is a verb, consider the following factors:
(1) What is the tense? Is it the (¸.') or (__.') tense?
(2) What word-form is it? Is is the third person, second
person or first person? Is it masculine or feminine? Is
it singular, dual or plural?
(3) Look at the number of root letters. Is it triliteral or
quadriliteral? Is it (·,-) or (·,· ,,·)?
(4) Is it active or passive? Is it transitive or intransitive?
(5) Is it fully declinable (.,··) or indeclinable (_.·)?
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If the word is a particle, see what kind of particle it is. Is it
from among the (·` _- ,,-), (·,¸ ,,-), ( ,,- ¸ ),
(,¯' ,,-), (. ,,-), (__. ·. ,,-) or
(··_- ,,-)?

In a grammatical analysis, you can evaluate the following:
(1) Is it a complete compound or incomplete?
(2) If it is an incomplete compound, what type is it? Is it
(¸,., .¯,·) or (¸.¸ .¯,·)?
(3) If it is (¸,., .¯,·), which word is the (,.,·) and
which word the (·.)?
(4) If it is (¸.¸ .¯,·), which word is the (.·) and
which word the (·,¸ .·)?
(5) If it is a complete compound, what type is it? Is it
(·,- ·~) or (·,·· ·~)?
(6) If it is (·,- ·~), which word is the (·) and which
word the (_-)?
(7) If it is (·,·· ·~), which word is the (¸··). Which word
is the (¸··) or (¸· .)? Which word is the
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(¸,··)?
(8) Look at the (.,·¸) of each word. That is, if it is a
verb, is it in (_·, ·-), (.. ·-) or (·,- ·-)? If it
is a noun, is it in (_·, ·-), (.. ·-) or (` ,- ·-)?
(9) If a noun is (_,·,·), why is it so? Is it because of being
the (¸··) or (¸· .) or is it because it is the
subject or predicate?
(10) If a noun is (.,.·), why is it so? Is it a (¸,··) or a
noun succeeding the particle ( . ¸) or a predicate of the
verb ( . ¯)? Or does it indicate the condition of the
(¸··) or (¸,··)?
(11) If a noun is (_,,-), why is it so? Does it appear after
a (` ,- ,-) or is it (·,¸ .·)?
(12) Observe the (.,·¸) of each word and see what type
it is. Does it have (·¯,-, .,·¸) or (,,-, .,·¸)?

The analysis of several sentences has been mentioned
before this. Hereunder a few more sentences are analyzed
so that you can in future, analyze simple sentences yourself.
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

Page 179

Analysis No.1
The sentence is : ( . ` ¸ · .` ,` ·` , · ¸ -` , )
The morphologic analyis will be as follows:

, . ,¯· . ,´' _- . ··, ` ,·· ,
.,·· . ·,- ¸· . ·-
¸ -` ,
. ··· , . ¸· . , ,¯' _- . ,
.,·· . ·,- ¸·
.` ,` ·` , ·
_· . ` ,- ,- ¸ ·
. ·',· ·-, . ,´· _~ . ··, ` ,·· ,
. .,· .,·· . ·,- ¸· . ·-
. `

The grammatical analyis will be as follows:

· ' ···_ . _,·,· .
. ·.,
¸ -` , The ( · ' ) and the
(_-) together form
a (·,- ·~). ···_ . _,·,· . _-
. , ¸ .` , , .
.` ,` ·` , ·
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

Page 180
` ,- ,- · ¸
_- ¸··
·,´, ·` ,- . _,,- . `
Analysis No.2
The sentence is : ( ·` , - ' ¸ ¸ ·`, , ~ , ¯ ` ·` ,` ` - · . ¯)
The morphologic analyis will be as follows:

¸· . .· ,¯· -, ··,. . ¸.' ¸·
. ·,- ' _' . ¸·
. ¯
. ,· , · , . ¸· . ,¯· . -, ` ¸ · ¸,·
- .,·· . ·,- ¸· .
` ·` ,` ` - ·
. ·,- ¸· . ¸· . ,¯· . -, . ·,´ ,
.,··
, ¯
. ·. , . ¸· . ,¯· . -, . ·,´ ,
.,·· . ·,- ¸·
·`, , ~
_· .` ,- ,- ¸ ¸
` _ ' - ¯· . -, . ·,´ , ¸· . ·- . ,
' .,·· . ` ,` - ' ·.
· - ¸.' _,,- _.
·` , - '
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

Page 181
The grammatical analyis will be as follows:

_' ¸.' ¸·
_ ¸·
. ¯
. ¸·· ···_ . _,·,·
·.,
` ·` ,` ` - ·
. .,.· . ¸,··
. ·-, ·.
,.,·
, ¯
. .,.· . ·.
·-, ·.
·`, , ~
` ,- ,- ¸ ¸




The (¸··), the (¸··), the
(¸,··) and the ( ¸··
¸·) together form a
(·,·· ·~).


¸· ¸··
. _,,-
. .,, ·` ,-

· - .·
·,
·` , - '

Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

Page 182




The End of Volume Two



- ··
¸ ,_ ,,· _, .' :¸ ·
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

Page 183








Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Vol Vol Vol Volume Two ume Two ume Two ume Two

Page 184








3




Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two
Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

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Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

<<<<<<<<

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<<<<<<<<

)

Sayyidunā Ibn Úmar narrates that Rasūlullāh said, “Whoever can speak Arabic correctly should not speak Persian because it creates hypocrisy.” (Mustadrak of Hākim)

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Box 39 Camperdown 3720 South Africa +27 031 785 1519 +27 031 785 1091 al_inaam@yahoo. April 2007 Madrasah In’āmiyyah P.O.H.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Title Arabic Tutor .com Tel Fax email Page 4 .Volume Two Author Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān ( ) Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad First Edition Published by R Awwal 1428 A.

.................. Transliteration....41 Test No...........................35 Changes in the Verb due to the Doer ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 ...............................................30 Lesson 18..................... 16 ........................................................................ 17 ...............................................................................................................................................9 Preface ............................18 Exercise 15 ....................................46 The Different Types of the Perfect Tense.........................................................................46 (1) The Recent Past Tense or Past Perfect Tense ( )...21 Lesson 17..46 Page 5 .................................................... 15 .................. 16 ............................................................Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Contents The first fifteen lessons were completed in Volume One.........................35 Vocabulary List No............................ 14 .....12 Lesson 16..............................25 Vocabulary List No................................................... Volume Two begins with Lesson 16..........................................................29 Exercise No..........44 Lesson 19........................................................................14 The Categories of Triliteral Verbs ..........................14 Vocabulary List No...........25 The Intransitive and Transitive Verbs and the Active and Passive Verbs.................................................................39 Exercise No...........................................................

.....................................96 Lesson 22...................81 Vocabulary List No......................................................90 Exercise No.................................46 (3) The Past Continuous Tense or Past Habitual Tense ) ....................................................................... 20 .........56 Lesson 20.............................................. 21 .........................81 The Imperative and the Prohibition ....................................76 Exercise No.. 17 ................54 Exercise No.....................................................................................................68 Exercise No. 18 ........................................................................................................98 Page 6 ......................................................................................70 Lesson 20 B .................. 18 ..................92 Test No......................73 Vocabulary List No.......73 The Emphasized Imperfect Tense.........................................61 The Different Forms of the Imperfect.............................................................................................. 19 .................47 ) ............ 19 .98 The Derived Nouns ................................................................................ 11 ............................51 (4) The Doubtful Past Tense ( Tense ( (5) The Perfect Desirous Tense or Conditional Perfect Vocabulary List No............... 10 .........77 Test No.....61 Vocabulary List No...............................................................................................................................79 Lesson 21............................................Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (2) The Far Past Tense or Pluperfect Tense ( ( )..............51 ).. 20 ...........................................................................................................................

...........................120 Lesson 24........................................................................... 12 ...........................138 Vocabulary List No................................. 24 .110 Vocabulary List No.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. and .174 Page 7 ............................................. 22 ............................101 )...............................................106 Lesson 23..........................136 Lesson 25 A.166 Supplement ............................104 Exercise No........................100 ) ........................................... 23 ......................................................................................................138 The Categories Other than the Triliteral Verbs.....128 Exercise No.......................................................................... 26 ...........................103 The Noun of the Instrument ( Vocabulary List No.. 23 .............................................................130 Test No............Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two The Active Participle Noun ( The Passive Participle Noun ( The Adverb ( )... 22 ..98 ).............................................................................................................. 21 ......124 The Elative ........................ 25 ..............................124 Vocabulary List No......110 The Adjectival Nouns ............... 24 ...................................................151 Lesson 25 (B).......156 Vocabulary List No.................................147 Exercise No................. 25 .........................119 Exercise No.....161 Exercise No.....156 The Particles .................................................................................................................................

.........Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Some Beneficial Information........................174 ).....................175 Page 8 ....174 (1) The definitions of ( (2) Analysis ( ) and ( )..............................................................

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Transliteration The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters has been used in this book: ā b t th j h kh d dh r z s sh s d Page 9 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two t z á í ú gh f q k l m n ū h ī. y Page 10 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows: (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon him .used for Nabî (Àlaihis salām) Salutations upon him – used for all prophets (Radiallāhu ‘anhu) May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the Sahâbah (Jalla Jalāluhū) The Sublime – used for Allâh (Àzza wa jall) Allāh is full of glory and sublimity (Rahimahullāh) May Allâh have mercy on him – used for deceased saints and scholars ( ) Page 11 .

in spite of my ill-health and unsuitable conditions that prevailed. There is no guarantee for life. yet I had the desire to do whatever I could to simplify Arabic. Due to the lack of means.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Preface It is only through the grace of the Almighty Allāh that. Now. the second volume has been prepared for the fifth class. Nevertheless. one should be grateful for whatever has been done. Although the previous edition was well accepted by the scholars and intellectuals of the country. The first volume forms part of the syllabus of the fourth class in the high schools. Bombay University and the Department of Education Sindh and several seminaries have included it in their syllabi. I have been able to present the second volume of Arabic Tutor to the students of Arabic with changes and new additions. I could not achieve what I wanted to. All praises are due to Him. Now the benefit of Page 12 .

there has been a considerable increase in the amount of examples. All praises are due to Allāh for that. dialogues and exercises. It is not only a claim but an accepted reality that this series is the only one which can be called an excellent syllabus and the most beneficial one for high schools. Very few additions of grammar rules have been made because the aim of this book is to learn the language and to understand the Qur’ān. Now it is the duty of those elders who have the control of the syllabi in their hands. Our duty is to merely convey. Arabic seminaries and the students of Eastern languages.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two this book has increased manifold. They can afford every Muslim student the opportunity of benefiting from it and thus be entitled to immense rewards. Servant of the best language (Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān Page 13 . whatever I could do. especially from the Qur’ān. to allow the students to benefit from this book. However. Nonetheless. They can appreciate this service by looking at what has been said and not who said it. I have done. so that this can serve as an Arabic Reader to an extent.

the ( ) .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 16 The Categories of Triliteral Verbs 1 ( ) ) and imperfect 1. You have read about the perfect ( ( ) verbs in lessons 14 and 15 of volume one. 2 See Lesson 3. the ( ) of both are 1 The word ( ) means denuded. That is. From there you may have understood that the second root letter ( verbs ( ) of the ( )2 of the roots of certain triliteral ) perfect and ( ) imperfect is sometimes similar and sometimes different. having a fathah. The verbs of the word ( ( ) is ( ) are ( ) and ( ) where the )3 in both cases. Page 14 . You have also learnt many verbs in the vocabulary lists. numbers 12 and 13. It refers to the first stem of the verb that contains only the root letters and is empty of any extra radicals.7. ). 3 that is.perfect tense is ( ) while In the word ( the ( ) is ( ).

4 5 having a dammah. while the ( where the ( ) has a fathah. having a kasrah.perfect tense is ( ). ) of both are ( Now observe the following verbs: • in the word ( ( ). the ( ) is ( ) where the ) is ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( )4 .imperfect is ( )5 . ) has a kasrah. ). while the ( ) has a kasrah. where ) has a fathah. the ( ) is ( ) where the ( ) is ( ). ). Page 15 . while the ( the ( • in the word ( ) has a dammah. the ( ) is ( where the ( • in the word ( ) where the ( ) is ( ). ) has a fathah. ). the ( ) . Therefore the ( ) In the word ( while the ( ) .

With regard to the ( the verbs of ( called ( ) of the ( ) and ( ). In the ). the plural being ( The six categories are as follows6: Since Arabic is read from right to left. The arrow sign will be used as a guide to indicate the direction of the text. terminology of Arabic Morphology.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two 2. these categories are ). this table must be read in that direction. 6 Page 16 . ) fall into six categories.

Verbs more often belong to one of the first three categories. If the verb is from ( Page 17 . the ( ( ) tenses have been written. 4. When any word belongs to a particular category. 5. ( ) and the imperative ( ) can be correctly pronounced. The verbs of the fourth category are slightly less. 14 and 15. the fifth category even lesser and very few verbs belong to the sixth category. a ( ) is reason that the ( in the dictionaries. For example.to wash) belongs to ( ) and the ( ) is ( ). it means that the harakah of the second radical will correspond to the ( ) and ( ) of that category. if it is . Look at the verbs and work out which category each verb belongs to. ) and ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two 3. It is for this ) of every verb is written next to a verb ). It is essential to know which category every verb of ( ) belongs to so that the ( ). it said that the word ( means the ( ) is ( Note: In the Vocabulary Lists No.

Others have their own methods of indicating the category of verbs. Page 18 . if it is from ( ( ). e. to sustain ( ) ( ) ( ) 7 This applies to some dictionaries only. a ( ) is inserted and if it is from ( is written. (_ ). if it is from ). if it is from ( inserted. ) to indicate the harakah of the Vocabulary List No.7 If the verb is from ( is written next to the verb. We will follow the same procedure in the future vocabulary lists.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two written next to the verb. a ( ).g. a ( ) is ) is written. In some modern dictionaries. 14 Word Meaning to obtain to return to give. ). a ( ) ). a line with a harakah is inserted after the ( ( (_ ). a ( ) ). (_ ).

portion Page 19 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to sleep to live. to speak the truth to be near to play to be ill to defeat as far as. as for radio just before newspaper Britain part. to reside to thank May it be so.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

(

)

the two worlds owner8 bliss, success

fortunate thought supper, dinner lunch breakfast nowadays, in these days lazy glorious destructive library, bookshop, desk towards half Japan

8

See Lesson 11 in volume 1.

Page 20

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two parents sports field astonishing

Exercise 15
(A) In the following sentences, the harakah of the perfect ( ) and imperfect tenses ( ) has not been written. Insert the correct harakah and read the sentences. Read Note no. 5 of Lesson 2 in Volume One once again. Answer Question

( ) ( )

( ) ( )
Page 21

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )
Page 22

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 23 .

these days we obtain the Zuhr and Àsr Salāhs with congregation. (3) O boys. (4) Is the madrasah far from your homes? Yes. Page 24 . (2) Did you not learn the madrasah lessons at night? No. (9) O Ahmad. when do you go to the madrasah? Nowadays. all praises are due to Allāh. every day I read the newspapers in the library. (6) Do you obtain the Zuhr Salāh with congregation? Yes. but we learnt them in the morning. (7) How is that? Because the madrasah is only opened nowadays in the morning. I go for a walk to the garden. what do you do after Àsr? Sir. the madrasah is approximately one mile from our houses. (5) When do you return from the madrasah? We return from the madrasah a little before Zuhr. how much do you read from the Qur’ān every day? We read one part of it daily but today we read half a part. (10) Do you read the newspaper every day? By Allāh.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (B) Translate the following sentences into Arabic (1) O boys. we go to the madrasah after breakfast. (8) Then what do you do after Zuhr? We sleep for one hour.

( ( ( . ( noble.Zaid ate bread. ) – Hāmid knew that Khālid is pious.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 17 The Intransitive and Transitive Verbs and the Active and Passive Verbs ( 1. e.g. Verbs are of two types: • Intransitive ( ): one which is complete with the . What did he think of Bakr? When it is said.Zaid thought that Bakr).) doer and the object to complete the statement. • Transitive ( ( ): one which requires both the . e.Zaid thought that Bakr was wealthy). 2. Page 25 . the sentence is .Zaid became ) doer of the action.g.g. the sentence becomes complete. incomplete.) The intransitive verb does not have an object. when it is said. Most transitive verbs require one verb only but there are some verbs that require two objects. e.

the doer of the verb ( • The passive verb ( ): a verb related to the object and the doer is not mentioned.in the nominative case) like the doer. the word. Therefore the verb ( passive verb.g. ( and should have been ( However. sentence.) In this ) is known. e. The noun towards which the passive verb is related is called ( ( .Hāmid hit Khālid. the doer is not mentioned at all.the representative of the doer). it has taken the place of Page 26 .g. ( ) is the object in reality . ( . 4.) In this example. e. the doer of the action and the doer is known. due to the passive verb. There are two types of transitive verbs: • the active verb ( ( ) – transitive to ): a verb that is related to .Khālid was hit.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Such verbs are called ( two objects. 3.in the accusative case). In the ). sentence. It is ) is a .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

the doer of the action and is therefore ( Note 1: The ( ) is also called (

). ).

5. Those verbs that have two objects will also have two representatives of the doer. But both will not be ( second object will be ( was thought to be pious.) Note 2: The method of constructing the ( ) passive and ), e.g. ( ). The - Khālid

imperfect passive tense was discussed in Lessons 14 and 15 of Volume One. 6. An intransitive verb is generally used in the active tense. However, by adding a particle to a subsequent noun, it can become transitive. In such a situation, the intransitive verb can be used in the passive tense, e.g. ( - Khālid took Zaid.) ) has become transitive. The passive - Zaid was taken.) - A book was Page 27

Here the verb ( form will be: (

Similarly, the passive form of the sentence ( Hāmid brought a book) will be (

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two brought). Note 3: Although the verb ( used like a transitive verb: ( me). ( - A messenger came to you.) ) is used after it, e.g. ( - to come) is intransitive, it is - A letter reached

Sometimes the particle (

- A letter came to you). The verb ( - to enter) is intransitive. An adverb succeeds

it, that is, a noun showing place or time. Generally there is no need to attach the particle ( ) to it, e.g. ( - Zaid entered the musjid in the morning). The words ( ( ) and ( ) are called ( ) which are

normally words denoting place or time and they are ). The details will follow in Volume Four.

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Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

Vocabulary List No. 15
Word Meaning rice side the royal garden

( ) –

to mount fish chest, heart table child carriage, vehicle coachman, cabman soldier, policeman Persian when Singapore Libya Page 29

.) will change to . .Two breads were eaten).Maryam ate two breads) will change to . task Exercise No.A dog was hit). If you want to change the passive into the active.Hāmid hit a dog. 16 (A) Change the active verbs into passive ones and vice versa in the following sentences.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two war people ( ) to rise assignment. delete the doer and replace it with the object which will now be ( Example: ( ( ( ( ). change the ( ) to the object and render it Page 30 . Note 4: When you want to change the active into the passive. insert a doer.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ).A man killed a thief) or ( thief) etc. .A thief was killed) will change to ( – I killed a Example: ( . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 31 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following sentences into English. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 32 .

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 33 . (2) I called Hāmid’s brother. (5) This girl’s brother was killed in the war of Japan. (4) Ahmad regarded Mahmūd as being pious.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (C) Translate into Arabic. (1) A man killed a big lion. (7) Is the Arabic language understood in Bombay? (8) A letter came to me from my brother. Ponder over each sentence. (6) My father sent me to Hyderabad. determine the active and passive verbs and then insert the correct ( ) accordingly. (9) I will write its answer tomorrow. (D) The following sentences are complete. (3) My sister ate the fish and the rice.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 34 .

dual or plural. the verb is generally singular feminine in both cases.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 18 Changes in the Verb due to the Doer 1. ) is the broken plural of ( ) while Page 35 Note 1: The word ( . if the ( intelligent being ( ) is a broken plural and a non). However. it will always be ) is singular. Examples: ( ( ) – The (male) camels came. whether masculine or feminine. ) in gender. it will correspond to the ( Examples: Plural Dual Singular However. ) – The (female) camels went. whether the ( ). When a verb precedes the ( singular.

Examples: Analysis The ( The ( ) is masculine. 9 10 See Terminology in Volume One.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) is the broken plural of ( ). if the ( ( )10. A word that does not have a living masculine opposite. whether masculine or feminine. ) is a collective noun ( )9 or it is Feminine Verb Masculine Verb Similarly. both forms are permissible. If the ( ) is a broken plural of an intelligent being. ) is feminine. the verb can either be used masculine or feminine. Page 36 .

succeeding the first verb and Page 37 . 2. The word ( the ( ) of both verbs. the sentence ( . Examples: Feminine Masculine Number Singular Dual Plural Similarly.The teachers ) is were present and went away).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Examples: Analysis The ( The ( ) is ( ) is ( ). has two verbs. the verb and the ) Feminine Verb Masculine Verb ) must correspond. The first one is singular and the second is plural. If the ( ( ) is mentioned before the verb.

When the ( called the ( ) precedes the verb in a sentence. the verb which is the predicate corresponds with the visible ( ) which is the subject.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two preceding the second. ) constitute a ( You learnt in Lesson 6 that the predicate must correspond with the subject in number and gender. the verb will be singular feminine. The ( ). the first verb is singular and the second is plural. ) will be as follows: ). Therefore. It will not be a ( ) and The analysis of the sentence ( The word ( ) is the subject ( ) which is the ( hidden pronoun ( ( ( ) become a ( ) and ( ). The ) and then forms the ( ). But when the subject is the plural of a non-intelligent being. The verb with its ). according to the normal rule of ( Page 38 . Accordingly. The verb ( ) has a ) while the verb becomes its predicate ( ( ) form a ( ). in such sentences. Note 2: This rule could be understood in another way. it is not ) in Arabic Grammar but is the subject ( ).

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

), e.g. (

) – The trees grew.

Hopefully you have understood the corresponding of the verb and the ( follow. ). Carefully read the exercise that is to

Vocabulary List No. 16
Word Meaning to spend to sow to ask, to question to thank to rise to come to narrate a story to intend, to proceed to grant, to award to find

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Page 39

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two parents thousand help prize immediately income sight, meeting winter testimony, evidence, certificate summer medical science medical profession limb, member superior, first-rate fruit to come, to arrive village

Page 40

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two house, dwelling delegation

Exercise No. 17
Note 3: The important words will be typed in bold. Make a careful note of these words. The future lessons will also be done in the same manner. Note 4: Note in the following exercise that when the verb precedes the ( ), it will always be singular and when it ) will correspond.

succeeds it, the verb and the (

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Page 41

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) . (B) Fill in the blanks: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 42 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (C) Translate into Arabic: (1) The boys ate breakfast and then went to the madrasah. (3) Did your sisters go to the madrasah? (4) No sir. they did not go till now. (2) The two boys were successful in the examination of medical science and they were awarded a certificate and a prize. Now they will eat lunch and then go to the madrasah. I gave Page 43 . (5) Three noble women came to me from a village and sought help from me for the girls’ madrasah.

how can an active verb be converted to a passive one and vice versa? Provide an explanation with examples. ( ) and ( ) do the following verbs ). They thanked me and went away to their village. what does ) of a ) of verbs are there in (2) When a verb belongs to a particular ( it mean? (3) What do you obtain by recognizing the ( verb? (4) To which categories ( belong: ( ( ). ( )? ). which verbs are intransitive and which ones are transitive? (7) Define ( ) and ( ). Test No. (5) What is a transitive verb and an intransitive verb? (6) From the above-mentioned verbs (in no. ( ). 4). ( ). 9 (1) How many categories ( ( )? ). (8) In a sentence. ( ). ( ). ( ). ( ). (9) Why is the passive tense not formed from an Page 44 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two them fifty rupees.

what effect does the gender and number of the doer have on the verb? (12) If the doer precedes the verb in a sentence.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two intransitive verb? (10) Can the passive tense ever be formed from an intransitive verb? (11) If the doer succeeds the verb in a sentence. what changes occur in the verb due to the differences in the doer? Page 45 .

Page 46 . ( ) – Zaid just went to the market or Zaid has gone to the market. e. ) ) – He had gone. (2) The Far Past Tense or Pluperfect Tense ( ) The far past tense is formed by inserting the word ( before the ( ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 19 The Different Types of the Perfect Tense (1) The Recent Past Tense or Past Perfect Tense ( ) By adding the particle ( ).g. e. the meaning of the recent past tense is most often created.g.

Note 1: The word ( from the verbal noun ( verbs: ) is a verb of the perfect tense ( ) .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (3) The Past Continuous Tense or Past Habitual Tense ( ) The past continuous or habitual tense is formed by inserting the word ( ) before the imperfect ( ). You will understand this well from the following paradigm.g. ( ) – Ahmad was writing his lessons or he used to write his lessons. Page 47 . e. Its paradigm is like other Note 2: Whichever word-form ( ) of the far past or past continuous you intend to construct.to be). use the same wordform from the above paradigm and add it to the same word-form of the ( ) or ( ) tense.

had written They f. singular dual plural fem. had written I had written We had written Person 3 person rd Gender masc. singular dual plural 2nd person masc. had written You 2 f.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Meaning He had written They 2 had written They had written She had written They 2 f. had written You had written You 2 had written You had written You f. singular dual plural 1st person m/f singular dual/ plural Page 48 . had written You f. Word-Form Verb singular dual plural fem.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Meaning He was writing They 2 were writing They were writing She was writing They 2 f. were writing I was writing We were writing Person 3rd person Gender masc. were writing You f. were writing They f. singular dual plural 1st person m/f singular dual/ plural Note 3: The ( as follows: ) of ( ) is ( ). The paradigm will be Page 49 . singular dual plural 2nd person masc. WordForm Verb singular dual plural fem. were writing You were writing You 2 were writing You were writing You f. singular dual plural fem. were writing You 2 f.

were You f. were I was We were 1st person m/f fem. were They f. were You were You 2 were You were You f. Person 3rd person Gender masc. 2nd person masc. WordForm Verb singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual plural singular dual/ plural Page 50 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two : Meaning He was They 2 were They were She was They 2 f. fem. were You 2 f.

) – Had you sown.if.perhaps) before the ( ) - perfect tense. (5) The Perfect Desirous Tense or Conditional Perfect Tense ( ) The meaning of the conditional perfect tense is created by adding the word ( . It is ) or by a pronoun succeeded by a noun which is ( ( ). e. ) – Perhaps Zaid went to the musjid. ( Note 4: The word ( . ) does not appear before a verb. ) can also create the doubtful perfect ) – Zaid may have went. you would have Page 51 .g. e. would that) to the ( ( ).g. the doubtful perfect tense is formed. e.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (4) The Doubtful Past Tense ( ) By inserting the word ( ( The word ( meaning.g.

or ‘Had you been learning your lessons.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two harvested. the desirous perfect . you would have certainly harvested. Examples: ( ) – If you had sown. Sometimes it is not inserted. The ( ( ) or any of ) or the ) tense can be used after it. you would have harvested’. you would have succeeded. or ‘Had you sown. sometimes ( its other word-forms is inserted after ( ). This ( ) is inserted in the response to the conditional sentence beginning with ( ). you would have succeeded’. Note 5: The ( ) in the word ( ) has the meaning of ‘certainly’ or ‘surely’. ( ) – If you had been learning your lessons. For the perfect conditional tense. There is a slight difference in meaning. By inserting the word ( Page 52 ) or ( ).

) or its derivatives ). The predicate ) – The boys were standing. most often appear before a nominal sentence. e. Also remember that the word ( will then be in the accusative case ( Examples: ( ( ) – Rashīd was sitting. Note 7: You have read the paradigms of ( Conjugate the verb ( ) in a similar manner because you will be able to form more sentences with the aid of this paradigm. ).g.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two tense is created. the word ( ) also appears before a noun ). Note 6: Like ( or a pronoun and renders it ( 6. ) – Would that Zaid was successful. Page 53 . ( ( ) – How I wish I succeeded. ) and ( ).

to take pains to be ignorant to overlook. remain to decrease to advise Al-Azhar University sand effort ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * ( ) ( ) Page 54 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Vocabulary List No. to permit to speak the truth to excuse to reproach to understand to be angry to succeed. to achieve to stay. 17 Word Meaning to strive.

hell companion guest outskirts knower very learned room. upper storey unseen just before protecting book no harm statement successful * The paradigm of ( ) is the same as ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two field seal. final fire. Page 55 .

18 (A) Translate the following sentences into English. The words in bold are particularly connected to this lesson.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Exercise No. ANSWER QUESTION ( ) ( ) ( ) ! ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 56 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: ( ) Page 57 .

They are extremely enjoyable and worthy to ponder over. Page 58 . his son thought that the father was uttering nonsense. When Àllāmah Khalīl was inventing the science of verse and he was engaged in forming the scales of poetry.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (C) Hereunder follow two verses of Khalīl. It was on this occasion that Khalīl uttered this response. He began making an uproar about his father’s mental derangement. the celebrated grammarian.

( ) or ( ) at the end of a verse to prolong the sound. the word ( It is permissible to append an ( ). ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note: The word ( originally ( ) at the end of the first verse was ) was ( ). (1) My brother just went to the garden for a walk. (2) Yesterday I had gone to a village. He was reading the newspaper last night. I was looking at you from the minaret ( (4) (5) (6) (7) ) of the musjid. You were mounted on a horse. Had you not learnt your lesson yesterday? I had learnt my lesson yesterday. (D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. Similarly. We saw your paternal uncle. Were you looking at me? (3) Yes. Perhaps he may return a little before Maghrib. Mahmūd used to learn his lesson everyday but today Page 59 .

Page 60 . we would have certainly succeeded in the final examination.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two he was busy in the service of the guests. (8) Had we taken pains. (9) Were you drinking tea in Hyderabad? (10) I used to drink tea in the morning in Bombay but I left the tea in Hyderabad.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 20 The Different Forms of the Imperfect 1. it is another matter. 11 Page 61 . 2. jazm will be read at the end of the verb. if for some temporary reason it appears.10. Therefore the particle ( ) is called a ( ). If the particle ( ) is prefixed to the ( ). ( ) and ( ) of a declinable noun ) while the ( ) of the ) and ( ). Only the imperfect ( ) is declinable ( ) among all the verbs. No changes occur in them. the plural feminine word-forms of the second and third person are not ( ).11 See 10. Jazm ( ) does not appear at the end of a noun while jarr ( ) does not appear at the end of a verb. Note 1: Remember that the ( ( ( ) is ( ) is ( ). ( ). The perfect tense ( ) and the imperative ( ) are indeclinable ( ). Yes. However.

it renders ) to the verb. future tense. ) are deleted due to the ( ) or The seven ( ( ).g. This is the change that occurs in the word itself. The ( ) also becomes specific with the ) – He will never do. e. As for the meaning.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two When the particle ( ) is prefixed to the ( ( ( ). Page 62 . ). Therefore ( The particle ( ) creates the meaning of negative emphasis in the ( ). due to the particle ( ). the ( ) changes to the negative perfect ( . Therefore the particle ( ) is called a ).He did not do) is the same as ( ). ( Compare the following paradigms and understand well the differences in words and meanings.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two He did not do He will never do He is doing or he will do Page 63 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 2: When the ( However. when the ( paradigm will be as follows: Word-form ) are prefixed before ( ). the paradigm will be as normal without much change. ) are prefixed. the singular masculine 3rd person dual masculine 3rd person plural masculine 3rd person singular feminine 3rd person dual feminine 3rd person plural feminine 3rd person singular masculine 2nd person dual masculine 2nd person plural masculine 2nd person singular feminine 2nd person dual feminine 2nd person plural feminine 2nd person Page 64 .

not.g. e. ( . When the condition Page 65 . Besides the particle ( ). that is ( ) with the particle ( ) is the same as ) etc. it creates a change in the word and the meaning like ( ). there are four other ( ): • ( • ( .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two singular first person dual and plural first person The paradigm of ( the above one.the particle of the imperative) • ( . A response The particle ( ) is used for a condition ( ( ) is necessary for the condition.the particle of prohibition) When the particle ( ) is prefixed before the ( ).if) • ( . 3. not till now) . ).He did not do or he did not do till now).

will be discussed in Lesson 21.the particle of prohibition. Note 3: Sometimes the letter ( ) is prefixed before the particle ( ) and written as ( ). ( ) tense.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two and the response are both the ( be ( ).so that not) . until) Page 66 . e. However. there is more stress created in the meaning. The meaning remains the same.so that. both verbs will ) – If you hit.then) ) .so that) ): • ( . Besides the particle ( ).that) or . there are other ( • ( • ( • ( .it is called ( • ( • ( = .the particle of the imperative and .g.so that). 4. I will hit. The .

) – I gave him a book so that he can read. However. ). you will understand.g. When they are prefixed before nouns.g. the particle ( ) changes the meaning of the ( the future tense. ) are also ( Note 5: The particles ( ) and ( the genitive case ( ( ( ) – for Zaid. the nouns are read in Page 67 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Examples: ( ( ( ( ( ( ) – I commanded him to go. ) to Yes. ) – then you will be successful. ) can be prefixed before Note 4: The particles ( ) and ( the ( ). ( ) – If you read. ) – so that he becomes happy. ). ) – till the evening. they cause no change in the word. ) – so that he does not remain ignorant. e. ) – I am reading to understand. e.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 6: The particle ( ) is most often used for negation after the interrogative hamzah ( ) and ( ). depart to spread to reach to be sad to sadden to order. to decide to slaughter to be satiated ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 68 . 18 Word Meaning to permit to command to leave.g. Vocabulary List No. e. ( ( ) – Did you not know? ) – If you did not know.

aloe.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to knock on the door to knock on the door to be lazy to lick to be ashamed to benefit to fear hungry predator patience.( bird grape separation glory aim wild animal unity. corresponding ) Page 69 .

19 (A) Translate the following sentences into English. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 70 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two moment. instant Exercise No.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 71 .

That girl was reading the Qur’ān until the sun set. I ate the grapes until I was satiated. Allāh created man so that he can worship Him. why don’t you drink milk so that it can benefit you? I will never drink tea today.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) (C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. If you help me. Who is knocking on the door? My sister was knocking on the door. Were you not present in the madrasah yesterday? Did you not listen to the news on the radio? (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) Page 72 . you will receive a prize. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Did you not read the Qur’ān? I read the Qur’ān but I did not understand its meaning. I will help you. O Maryam. therefore I opened the door for her so that she is not saddened. Those two will not move from their place until you permit them. We recite the Qur’ān so that we can understand it and practise it. If you are successful.

g. Therefore they are called ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 20 B The Emphasized Imperfect Tense ( 1. In order to note the differences.He will certainly write) is created. the ordinary ( has also been inserted. ) due to this ( ) and ( ) ) tense 2. Page 73 . e. Changes occur in the ( which you can observe in the following paradigm. the word ( ) or . This ( ) and ( ) create emphasis in the meaning. is appended to it. from the verb ( ( ). Sometimes a ( ) is prefixed to the ( ( ) which is called ( ) ) tense and ) or ( ) which is called ( ).

The ( ) is deleted. The ( ) and the ( are deleted. The ( The ( ) is ( ). ) is deleted. ) is deleted. Page 74 . ) and the ( ) are deleted. Note 2. The ( ) and the ( ) are deleted. ) One alif has been added. One alif has been added.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Changes The ( The ( ) is ( ). See Lesson 10. ) is deleted. The ( The ( The ( ) is ( ). The ( The ( ) is ( ) is ( ). ).

These six word- ) is changed to tanwīn. No change occurs in the word. See the above forms where an alif appears before the nūn.g. = ) – We will certainly drag them by the hair of the forehead.g. Note 3: The ( ) with ( ) is most ) – By Allāh. e.g. there are six word). Note 2: Sometimes the ( ( ). Note 4: The ( ) can have the ( ) only prefixed to it. the ( the present tense. e.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 1: In the paradigm of ( forms do not appear with ( paradigm. e. ( ) becomes specific with ) – Zaid is writing. ( will drink the milk. I often used after an oath. However. as far as the meaning is concerned. Page 75 .

19 Word Meaning peaceful gun loss our Lord ( ) to imprison to desire.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Vocabulary List No. want despised. small to hunt the sanctified musjid (in Makkah) this year Page 76 .

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. 20 (A) Translate the following sentences into English. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 77 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Exercise No.

(5) (6) Page 78 . If you do not strive. I shall. if Allāh wills. I will kill it with my gun. (1) (2) (3) (4) My brother will certainly attend the madrasah today. Those two girls will not come to you but we will certainly attend. by Allāh. you will certainly be disgraced. If you command me. Those two will certainly seek a book from you. I will certainly go to hunt and if any lion came towards us. certainly succeed this year.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Test No. ) are prefixed before the ( ). (2) What is the ( ) of ( )? )? (3) Among the verbs. which verb is ( (4) List the ( (5) When ( ) or ( (6) List the ( (7) When the ( ). 10 (1) How are the following constructed: • • • • • Provide an example for each one. what changes occur in the meaning and ( (8) In how many word-forms of the ( ) appear? ) does the ( Page 79 . ) are prefixed before the ( )? ). what change occurs in the word and meaning? ).

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (9) In which state does the in pronunciation? ( ) of the ( ) fall off (10) In the paradigm of the ( are there where the ( (11) How many kinds of ( ). that is. how many word-forms ) and the ( ) are there? ) are ) do not have any effect on the pronunciation? (12) Which word-forms of the paradigm of ( not used? (13) What verb is ( ) and what word-form is it? (14) What changes occur in the ( of ( )? ) due to the insertion (15) When does the ( ) become specific with the present tense and the future tense. which particle makes it specific with the future tense and which particle makes it specific with the present tense? Page 80 .

the hamzatul wasl is also rendered a Page 81 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 21 The Imperative and the Prohibition ( ) 1. The method of forming ( sign of the imperfect ( ) is that the ) is firstly deleted after ) of the which a hamzatul wasl is prefixed. is the actual imperative. 3. The imperative is of two types: • ( • ( ) – the second person imperative and this ) – the third person imperative. The verb which indicates the command of doing an act is called ( – the imperative) while the verb indicating a ). prohibition is called ( 2. If the ( ( ) is ( ). The first person imperative has only two word-forms and is therefore included in the third person category.

g. dual plural singular dual plural ) is not . fem. the imperative is ( ) Gender Number masc. From the verb ( The paradigm of ( Meaning you (one male) hit you (2 males) hit you (many males) hit you (one female) hit you (2 females) hit you (many females) hit Page 82 ). singular masc. fem. e. fem. ) is rendered a Note 1: If the letter succeeding the ( sākin.you promise).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two dammah otherwise a kasrah. The ( jazm. Examples: from ( from ( from ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) – you help. Verb . ) – you go. masc. ) – you hit. there is no need for a hamzatul wasl.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 2: The hamzatul wasl inserted before the imperative is not pronounced when preceded by another word. e. ). live. Page 83 .g. ( ( ) – O Nūh. a ( ) is prefixed to the ( it. The The words are originally ( Note 3: There is no hamzatul wasl before the verb ( paradigm of its imperative is as follows: The paradigm of ( ) is the same: 4. ) and ( ) respectively. e. from ( )–( ) passive and a jazm is appended to ) – you should be hit. ) – O Ādam. In order to construct the passive imperative. descend.g.

whether active or passive. singular masc. fem. dual plural singular dual plural Verb 5. fem. The method of constructing ( ) and ( ). is the same as ( ). the first person imperative is formed from the first ). that is. The third person imperative is formed from the third person ( ). they are formed by prefixing the ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two The paradigm of ( Meaning you should be hit you should be hit you should be hit you should be hit you should be hit you should be hit ) Gender Number masc. masc. You will understand this from the person ( active ( the passive ( following paradigm. Page 84 . fem. the active imperative is formed from the ) and the passive imperative is formed from ).

Page 85 . the lām - – and he should write). ( Then the woman should go out). e. ( ) appear before the ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Meaning Meaning He should be hit They 2 should be hit They should be hit She should be hit They 2 should be hit They should be hit I should be hit We should be hit He should hit They 2 should hit They should hit She should hit They 2 should hit They should hit I should hit We should hit Note 4: If ( ) or ( becomes sākin.g.

g. e. 6.and so that he writes). prefixing ( ) and rendering jazm to the last letter. There are also two categories of prohibition: • ( • ( ) – prohibition of the second person )– prohibition of the third person. that is.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 5: The ( )12 which renders ( ) to the ( ) does not become sākin.3. The method of forming them is the same. Observe this in the following paradigms. ( . Page 86 . ) while the third person prohibition is formed from the third 12 See 20. The second person prohibition is formed from the second person ( person ( ).

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Meaning Meaning He should not be hit They 2 should not be hit They (m) should not be hit She should not be hit They 2 should not be hit They (f) should not be hit He should not hit They 2 should not hit They (m) should not hit She should not hit They 2 should not hit They (f) should not hit Page 87 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Meaning Meaning He should not be hit They 2 should not be hit They should not be hit She should not be hit They 2 should not be hit They should not be hit I should not be hit We should not be hit He should not hit They 2 should not hit They should not hit She should not hit They 2 should not hit They should not hit I should not hit We should not hit Page 88 .

g. Note 7: The particle ( ) is of two types: • ( the ( • ( ) which does not create any change in word in ) and ( ) tenses.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 6: The ( ( ( ( ) and ( ) can also be appended to the imperative and the prohibition. Page 89 . ) – You all certainly hit. ) – Food should not be eaten without hunger. ) ) which renders jazm to the end of the ( while creating the meaning of prohibition as you have seen in the paradigms of prohibition. ) – You certainly hit. ) – You certainly do not hit. Examples: from ( from ( )–( )–( ) – Hit the dog. e. Note 8: You have learnt in Volume One that when the final letter of any word is sākin. it is rendered a kasrah to join it to a succeeding word.

20 Word Meaning You have excelled May Allāh bless you come ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to kneel. matter group. Page 90 . nation alive. to go into rukū to prostrate to laugh to worship here I am.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Vocabulary List No. tribe ashamed always relative 13 This word will be explained in Lesson 61 in Volume Four. at your service order.

impure yes beware. listen Page 91 . hopefully virtue specific dead dirty. just as you wish immoderate.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two one kneeling down pleasant chalkboard very grateful thankful kind chalk very gladly. guardian perhaps. shameless justice custodian.

Answer Question ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 92 . 21 (A) Translate the following sentences and note the usage of the words in bold.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Exercise No.

( ) ( ) Page 93 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) " " ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into English.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 94 .

(7) O girls. sit on this chair and look at that garden. go to the madrasah and read the Qur’ān. (D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (4) O my sons. . enter the house and sit there. (6) O people. (8) My paternal uncle said to me. “Do not go to your Page 95 . (1) Be thankful in all conditions. . . .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) (C) Insert the correct ( paragraph. (3) No person should go out of the musjid until he is permitted. worship Allāh and do not worship anyone besides Him. . ) and translate the following . (5) O girl. (2) Do not grieve. .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two house today. (10) Fish should not be eaten with milk. it should be washed. Test No.” So I did not go. (11) If there is no harm. drink coffee with us. 11 (1) Define ( ) and ( ). (8) Make the paradigm of ( ( ). ) are there? )? (2) How many types of ( (3) How is ( ) made from the verbs of ( (4) What kind of hamzah is prefixed before the ( )? (5) How is the ( (6) How is the ( ) constructed? ) constructed? ) from ( (7) Make the paradigm of ( ). (9) If the clothing is dirty. ) from ( ) and ( ) from (9) Make the paradigm of ( ). Page 96 .

) and ( ) and what ) from the (12) What verb is ( (13) Append the ( ( ) and what word-form is it? ) and ( ) to the verb ) and conjugate it. ) appears before ( ) and ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (10) What verbs are ( word-forms are they? (11) Make the paradigm of ( verb ( ). (14) If ( ) or ( how will you read them? (15) Read and translate the following sentences: • • • • Page 97 .

There are seven types14 of derived nouns ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) The Active Participle Noun ( 2. In triliteral verbs ( ) ). 14 Page 98 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 22 The Derived Nouns ( ) ): 1. the active participle noun The first six types will be discussed in this volume while the seventh one will be discussed in Volume Four.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) is used on the scale of ( )–( )–( )–( )–( )–( .listener). the active participle noun of verbs from the ( ). .opener). from ( from ( )–( )–( ) which is actually ( . . . Examples: from the verb ( from the verb ( from the verb ( from the verb ( from the verb ( –one who regards) However. . ).hitter).far). are used on the scale of ( ).helper).g. Page 99 . noble).generous. e.

) is used on the scale of ( – one who is hit). Therefore the passive Page 100 . – one who is helped). the passive participle noun ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two The paradigm of the ( Meaning one male hitter two male hitters many male hitters one female hitter two female hitters many female hitters ) is as follows: The Passive Participle Noun ( 3. ) are intransitive. In triliteral verbs ( ( Examples: from the verb ( from the verb ( The verbs of ( )–( )–( ) ).

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two participle nouns are not used in this category. The paradigm of the ( Meaning ) is as follows: one male who is helped two males who are helped many males who are helped one female who is helped two females who are helped many females who are helped The Adverb ( The ( ) ) is a noun that indicates the place or time of ). in ( the action. Note 1: The method of usage of the active and passive participles is mentioned in detail in Volume Four. It is used on the scale of ( Page 101 . However.

place of rising). the scale is ( Examples: from the verb ( from the verb ( from the verb ( )–( ). ) . )–( )–( Note 2: Sometimes the adverb is used on the scale of ( although it is from ( ( ( ( ).place or time of hitting). ) is as follows: The paradigm of the ( Gender Page 102 . The plural of each one is ( – place or time of help).place or time of rising). e.place of prostration). . . . ). .g.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ).place of setting).

. Note 3: The scales of ( ). Examples: from the verb ( from the verb ( from the verb ( Gender only masc.key).broom). . )–( )–( )–( – ruler). ( ) and instrument. ( ). ) which is called ( Page 103 . It is used on the scale of ( ( ). ( ) and ( ) are also used for the verbal noun ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two The Noun of the Instrument ( ) The ( ) is a noun that indicates the meaning of an ).

nobility. the king iron blacksmith Page 104 . ) . ) .advice.scene.promise. Vocabulary List No. ) .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Examples: ( ( ( ( ( ) . 21 Word Meaning the hereafter the munitions of war moderation leader Spain His Highness. ) .returning.

mill hammer factory Page 105 . to be in order to knock. to pound darkness several ( ) to cut lock glass to eat farm to drink factory.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two wine to enter knife the year 20 ( ) ( ) to be proper.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 106 . 22 (A) Translate the following sentences into English.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two seat. bench instrument to measure saw sickle. scythe place of benefit placed emigration Exercise No.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 107 .

(4) The door of the madrasah is open. (1) I am going to Bombay tomorrow. ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. Page 108 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) . (3) My sister is going to Hyderabad.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into English. (2) He had gone to Lahore yesterday.

(6) Tāriq was the conqueror of Spain. (9) Do you have a saw? (10) The munitions of war are manufactured in this factory. (8) The blacksmith pounded the iron with the hammer and made a knife with it. Page 109 . Expensive clothing is woven in some of them. (7) Bombay has many mills.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (5) The door of the library was open.

g. • ( ) – e. ( – all-knowing).g. ( .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 23 The Adjectival Nouns ( ) ) are: .This scale is also used for an intensive meaning.fortunate).7 • ( Page 110 ). ( .g. The most frequently used scales of the ( • ( ) – e.tired).angry). ( – very oppressive). e. ( – – very ).the . ( truthful). ( very ignorant). . This scale is most often a diptote ( ). ( – all- happy). This scale is actually for the ( . ( plenty). See 10. ( – very lazy). e.little). ( - 1. • ( ) . ( Note 1: This scale is sometimes used for an intensive meaning ( hearing).g.

( . ( .just). ( ( . The scales of the ( ) which indicate colours. . many adjectival nouns are used on this scale.g. e.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two active participle noun).ignorant). 2. However.learned).truthful). characteristics or physical defects are as follows: Plural (M/F) Singular Feminine Meaning Singular Masculine red black white blue green yellow deaf blind deaf dumb Page 111 .

g. the first one is rendered sākin and assimilated into the other. they have large black eyes. Note 4: The hamzah in the feminine dual form changes to a ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two dumb crippled hunchbacked black-eyed one-eyed big-eyed Note 2: The plural of ( ( ) is ( ) and the plural of ( ) is ). e. See 10.two black women). from ( )–( . Note 5: If there are two letters of the same type at the end of ( ). Instead of writing two letters.7. These words are most often used to describe the damsels of jannah. Note 3: The singular masculine and singular feminine forms are diptotes ( ). one letter is written Page 112 . that is.

The word ( ( ). e. ). ( If there is a ( ). that is a ( ) or ( ) at the end of ( it is pronounced as an alif. Sometimes the ( word. Together with the ( adjective ( Examples: ) or predicate ( ) to another ). they either form an ) of a preceding noun. ) are related ( ) is actually 3. Originally it was ( ). ). a handsome faced boy Page 113 .g.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two with a tashdīd.

9. See 7. It was mentioned in Lesson 7 that when an indefinite noun is related to a definite noun. Page 114 . the former also becomes definite.4. See 7.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two a wealthy man a pretty-faced girl a wealthy woman 4. The definite article is not prefixed to the ( ).

when an ( subsequent noun ( ) together with its ) forms the adjective of a definite noun. the definite article should be prefixed to it.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Remember that the ( ) is an exception from both the above rules. the wealthy man Page 115 . Examples: the handsome-faced boy Khālid. It neither becomes definite due to being related nor is the prefixing of the definite article prohibited. Accordingly.

If the ( ) is removed from the ( ) in the above ) examples. Page 116 ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Zaynab.” The word ( ) will be the subject ( ) while ( ) will form the predicate ( same manner. they will become nominal sentences ( because the first part ( ( ) is definite while the second part ) is indefinite. the one with black hair the wealthy woman 5. Understand the other examples in the . “The boy has a handsome face. Therefore the sentence ( ) will mean.

Therefore ). Here are a few more examples: The ( the ( ) is ( ) is also ( ) – in the nominative case.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two 6. Therefore the ) is also ( 7. The ( ( ) is ( ). ) . ) – in the genitive case. ) .a boy whose eye is good. Page 117 . ( ( ( ) is used very ) – a boy whose face is handsome. There is another way in which the ( often.a girl whose face is pretty. Therefore ). The ( the ( ) is ( ) is also ( ) – in the accusative case.

the gender ) corresponds to the succeeding noun ) of the ( ). the gender of the ( preceding noun ( of the ( ) corresponds to the ).a girl whose eye is good.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) . ). Its analysis because it becomes the ( will be as follows: Page 118 . In the latter examples. ) These are all examples of adjectival phrases ( If the definite article has to be prefixed to the words ( and ( ( ). The distinguishing difference between the previous examples and these examples is that in the former examples. 8. these phrases will become nominal sentences ).

) will be discussed in detail in Lesson Vocabulary List No. 22 Word Meaning straw. smell flower easy. dry grass fragrance. Volume 4.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 5: The ( 60. soft hair east Page 119 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two smiling green grass west kind. refined colour pearl cheek cat Exercise No. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 120 . 23 (A) Translate the following phrases and sentences into English.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 121 .

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 122 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (B) Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

(7) That man is stupid and ugly. (8) Those people are deaf. (13) There are two black cats in the house. (1) the red flower (2) the white silver (3) My brother is wealthy. (14) A fortunate boy and a fortunate girl are both in the house. (12) the crippled goat. (5) There are plenty of red flowers in our garden. (9) The dog is black and the cat is white. (6) This boy is big-eyed and small-headed. dumb and blind. (4) This flower is yellow.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (C) Translate the following phrases and sentences into Arabic. (10) The exhausted slave and the angry master. (11) the black-eyed girl. Page 123 .

bigger). ( ( .harsher).lesser).ruler) . . ). e.g. excess of a quality in a thing in comparison to another 2. . .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 24 The Elative ( 1. The elative ( thing. ( . all other nouns denote the elative on the scale of ( Examples: ( ( ( ( ( ( . Except for nouns denoting colours and defects.big) .harsh) . . ( ) ) is a noun that expresses the .prettier).higher).bigger).high) ( ( ( ( .greater ruler).little) .more difficult).difficult) . The paradigm of the elative is as follows: Page 124 .

Page 125 . Examples: from ( from ( 4. The elative is sometimes used to express the comparative degree in relation to some parts and sometimes in relation to the total. ). .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Gender 3. the particle ( ) is suffixed to it. It was mentioned in the previous lesson that adjectives having the meaning of colours and defects follow the scale of ( ).blacker). When it is used for showing a comparison to some parts.g.black) . e.redder).red) ( ( . The method of constructing their elative is that the word ( ) or ( ) is prefixed to their verbal nouns ( .

Zaid. When the elative is used with the particle ( always be singular masculine. Examples: ( ( ( men.g.Zaid is more learned than Úmair). the most learned) or . .Zaid is the most learned among the people). either the definite article is prefixed to it or it is rendered ( ( ( ). it will 5. If the elative is prefixed with the definite article. whether the noun being described is plural or feminine. ) – The women are weaker than the Page 126 . When it is used for showing a comparison to the total. ) – Àishah is more learned than Zaynab. ). it has to correspond with the preceding noun. e. Examples: ) – Zaid is more learned than Bakr.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( .

) – the two most virtuous women. ) – the most virtuous men. This sentence ) or ( Page 127 . ) – the most virtuous woman. ( was originally ( Allāh is greater than everything. conformity and non-conformity. ) – the two most virtuous men. In the case of it being ( that is. ). ) – the most virtuous women.g. virtuous woman. e. both forms are permissible. Note 1: Sometimes the words succeeding the elative are deleted. Examples: ( ( ) or ( ) or ( ) – The messengers are ) – Maryam is the most the most virtuous men. ++ ) - ) – Allāh is the greatest.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ( ( ( ( ( ) – the most virtuous man.

worse) is ( ) – The best among you is the one that is the best to his family and I am best of you to my family. 23 Word Meaning more entitled more pious faster Page 128 .better) and ( . Examples: ( ( ( . The elative will be discussed in more detail in Lesson 60 of Volume Four. . Vocabulary List No.g. e. ( ) and the Note 2: The plural of ( plural of ( . ) – This is the best of the people. ) – They are the worst of the creation.better) is ( ) or ( ) or ( ). The words ( the elative.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two 6.worse) are also used for ) – I am better than him.

conduct brave missing item gambling brass sleep Page 129 . reckoner wherever character.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two the highest slave girl sin yesterday yesterday weakest a musjid of Egypt the age of ignorance wisdom counter.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two benefit the Euphrates River Exercise No. 24 (A) Translate the following sentences into English. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 130 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( Page 131 ( ) .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (C) Answer the following questions using full sentences. The first one has been done for you. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 132 . .

(8) This road is more difficult than that road. (9) That tree is taller than this tree. (5) The most truthful speech is Allāh’s speech. (1) This boy is bigger than that girl. Hereunder follows the brief paradigms of the verbs of ( ). (4) The best book is the Qur’ān.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) (D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. Page 133 . (2) The air is more refined than water. (6) The red horses are more beautiful than all the horses. (10) This book is very beneficial and easy. (7) The air is purer today than it was yesterday. (3) The Euphrates River is smaller than the Nile.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two TENSES Page 134 .

Page 135 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two TENSES * * * * The category ( ) is intransitive and therefore does not have the passive tense and the passive participle noun.

) are .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Test No. characteristics and colours. Page 136 ). (2) On what scale does the active participle noun ( ) appear? (3) What is the ( ) of ( )? )? ) (4) What is the scale of the ( (5) How many word-forms are there of the ( and the ( (6) What is ( (7) What does the ( (8) What is the ( )? )? On what scale is it used? ) refer to? What are its scales? ) and what are its scales? (9) What are the frequently used scales of the ( )? (10) Explain the scales of those adjectival nouns that are used for describing defects. (11) Construct the dual and the plural of ( (12) Explain the two ways in which the ( used as mentioned in Lesson 23 using examples. 12 (1) List the names of all the derived nouns.

( ) and ( ). ) used? ) to correspond to its (17) In how many ways is the ( number of the ( (18) In which instances is it necessary for the gender and preceding noun and in which instances is it not necessary? (19) What was the sentence ( (20) Form the brief paradigm of ( ) originally? ). Page 137 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (13) What is the clear difference between the two ways? (14) For what meanings is the scale of ( (15) What is the ( (16) Conjugate the ( ) used? ) and on what scale is it used? ).

The are: (to honour) : ( ) This category is mostly transitive. Page 138 . (to teach) : ( ) This category is mostly transitive. The category ) which are often used are ten. All the verbs and derived nouns mentioned till now were of the category ( ) and ( of ( ). The ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 25 A The Categories Other than the Triliteral Verbs ( ) 1. ( ) need to be explained.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (to fight) : ( ) This category is mostly transitive. (to confront. to meet) : ( ) Page 139 This category is also mostly intransitive. (to accept) : ( ) This category is mostly intransitive. .

(to abstain) : ( ) (to be red) Page 140 : ( ) .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (to break) : ( ) This category is also mostly intransitive.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two This category is also mostly intransitive. (to seek help) : ( ) Page 141 . (to be black) : ( ) This category is also mostly intransitive.

). Note 2: The imperative ( three possibilities: ) of ( ) and ( ) has The ( ) and ( ) of these categories are the ) of ( ). There is only one category of verbs of ( Page 142 . namely: ) is ( ) of ( 2. These will be discussed in Volume Three. the ( the ( The ( ( ). That is.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Note 1: There are a few other categories of ( ) which are used less often. ) is ( ) while the ( ) is ) is ( ) while same in pronunciation but their original words are different.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (to roll) : ( ) 3. There are three categories of verbs in ( namely: ) (to roll) : ( ) (to gather) : ( ) Page 143 .

change it to ( ). The method of constructing the passive tense ( the above-mentioned verbs is as follows: To form the perfect passive tense ( ) of all ). Between the two. whichever letter is mutaharrik. If there is any alif ( ) in between. render a dammah to the first radical of the perfect active tense ( ) and a kasrah to the penultimate letter. Examples: ( ) from ( ). Page 144 . render a dammah to it.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (to tremble) : ( ) 4.

). In order to construct the imperfect passive tense ( ). ). ). Examples: ( ) from ( ). ). ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) from from from from from from from from from from from from from ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ). ) ). ). Page 145 ) and a fathah . ). render a dammah to the ( to the penultimate letter. ). ). ).

). ). ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ) from ( ). The ( made from the imperfect active tense ( the ( ( Page 146 ) is made from the imperfect passive tense ). ). ). ) of the above-mentioned categories is ) while 5. ). ) ). ). A ( ) replaces the ( ) and tanwīn . ). ). ).

Besides the categories of ( categories.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two is inserted at the end. in the remaining ) is used to provide the meaning of Note 3: The passive tense ( ( ) and the ( ) of an intransitive verb ) will only be used when they are ).17. See 6. the ( ) is ( ).g. Vocabulary List No. Word Meaning to confirm to be white Page 147 ) ( ) ( ) . e. the ( the ( ). ( made red. ) is 6. from ( ( ) while the ( ) from ( ). ). the verb ).g.The clothing was succeeded by a particle ( becomes transitive. 24 Note 4: The numbers written after the verbs of ( indicate the category to which they belong. In this case. e.

to employ to regard as good to seek forgiveness to be preoccupied to be yellow to correct ) ( ) to be peaceful. plant to make something descend to waste to convey . to reach to be black to obey.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 148 to love to strive to go against to achieve. to embrace Islam to hire. at ease to grow.

to remind to move to glorify. to remember Allāh to observe Page 149 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ) to converse to dispute to interfere to learn to be surprised to think to advance to complete to love to prepare to protect to mix to defend to advise.

grain harvested crop shame ashamed mildness. to be compassionate cold Bedouin garden seed. explode to correspond to speak to be gentle. gentleness advice falsehood Page 150 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) to appear to live mutually to search to burst.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 151 . promise fear middle Exercise No. beverage thief future bathroom appointed time.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two roof weapon drink. 25 (A) Translate the following sentences into English.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( Page 152 ) ( ) .

..Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . ( ) Page 153 .

(1) They honoured their guest. (6) We seek forgiveness from Allāh for every sin. (3) Do not interfere with the strong enemy. you will remain ahead when you are big. (7) Did you prepare the weapons for defence? (8) Learn when you are small. (2) Strive to seek knowledge and do not be too preoccupied in playing. (4) We do not regard fighting as good. Page 154 . (10) Are you learning Arabic? (11) Yes.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (9) We strove in searching for it. we are learning Arabic. (5) Respect your parents and love your brothers and sisters.

(13) The face becomes yellow with fear and red with shame.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (12) The two thieves disputed mutually. so the stolen item was revealed. (17) My brother and I sat down to talk regarding a necessary matter until the light of dawn appeared. Page 155 . (14) The day became white and the night became black. (15) We completed the second part of the book. ‘Tashīlul Adab’ in three months. (16) We refrain from falsehood. (18) The Indians are preparing weapons for their defence.

g. 1. It appears mostly before a nominal sentence ( in the accusative case ( Example: ( ).6.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Lesson 25 (B) The Particles ‫ َن . Sometimes the particle ( ) is prefixed to the predicate which creates more emphasis in the meaning. ) – Undoubtedly Zaid is intelligent. The particle ( ) is for emphasis. The pronouns are also attached to ( ) as they are attached to the ( ). Due to it. See 4. e. See 9. the subject is read ).إن‬and ْ‫أن‬ ِ ‫أ‬ َ Note 1: You have read about these particles in Volume One and in this volume as well. Page 156 . ( ) – Surely knowledge is certainly beneficial.11. a few facts about them will be mentioned here. They will be mentioned in Volume Four as well but since there is a need to use them in most sentences.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Third Person ( Masculine Feminine Second Person ( Masculine Feminine ) singular dual plural singular dual plural ) singular dual plural singular dual plural Page 157 .

e. The paradigm is similar to the one mentioned above.g. It is also prefixed to a noun which changes to the accusative case.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two First Person ( ) singular dual. After the verb ( and not ( ). ) can be read as ( ) while ( ) can be read 2. e.g. plural The particle ( as ( ). ( learned. e. the particle ( ) is used ) – I heard that Zaid is . The particle ( ) introduces an explanatory clause to the sentence.g. ( Page 158 ) – The teacher said that the ) or its derivatives. ( ) – I have received the news that you succeeded in the examination. The pronouns are also attached to it.

Like ( ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two school will not be opened today.20.as if). ( . See 4.because). The succeeding noun is not rendered ( can also be prefixed to a verb. However. Note 2: The words ( . especially the imperfect tense ( ) and due to it. It only appears before a verb. ( . Examples: ( ( . Page 159 .as if he). it appears in the middle of the sentence.because he). However ( ) does not appear before a noun or pronoun. that is. in contrast to the abovementioned particles. ( . ) are most often prefixed to the 3.wish) and ( - perhaps) are also included in the group of ( ) and ( ). the word ( ) is not included among these ) and it words. the succeeding noun changes to the accusative case.but). The particle ( ) renders the imperfect tense ( the accusative case ( ). See Lesson 7. Note 3: The ( particle ( ). ) into .

g. Page 160 . a verb is ( is succeeded by another verb. ) is rendered into the accusative ) – I commanded my servant to be present in the morning. ( Note 5: If any noun is ( is succeeded by a noun ( ( ) such as ( ). ( ) can also be prefixed to the particle .until). . ( pious. it will also be ( ). e. ) – Verily Zaid and Àmr are ) – I heard that Zaid and Àmr are Similarly. and it ) following a conjuction ). Note 4: The ( ( ). ( ).g. e. if due to the particle ( ).because. and it ).Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two the imperfect tense ( case ( Example: ( ). ( ). so that). ( ) etc. the succeeding noun will also be ( Examples: ( pious. ) because of ( ) or ( ).

Meaning to unite to conform to destroy to gather to protest to inform to burn to guide ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 161 . The ( ) and ( ) will be explained in detail in Volume Four. Lesson 50. Vocabulary List No.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) – I was commanded to worship Allāh and not to ascribe anything to Him. 25 Note: The numbers written after the verbs or verbal nouns refer to the category of ( Word ) which they belong to.

to be rolled up to refrain to be possible to recite poetry to be just to help to give glad tidings ) to translate to benefit to complete to rebel to govern.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 162 to be independent. to turn away . to strike ( ) to lock to gather. to find insignificant to be entitled to participate to turn away.

to attack Page 163 . to assign to speak to die government building ( ) ( ) ( ) to protest to advise to rush.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to separate to be injured to imprison to devastate to lower to turn. to rotate to remain forever ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) to throw to deem credible to equate to entrust.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) ( ) to congratulate to give s. the world O Allāh English capable. on the whole resident of Hijāz according freedom Page 164 . in general.o. family telegraph side totality. success to give birth other knowledgeable elder August creation.

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two rector mill lead. employee deceit youth reproach despised besides that Page 165 . hamlet leader worker. voice. thread tooth. opinion village. bullet leader police wire. age deed. action sound. slogan.

near death way. Page 166 ( ) . concern Exercise No. method since excellent fulfil anxiety.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two gathering man decreed (against) adjacent. 26 Translate the following sentences concerning a strike. ( ) .

. ( ) .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) . Gandhi) ( ) . Page 167 . . ( ) (Mr.

Page 168 . ( ) " ." .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) . ( ) . ( ) .

. Page 169 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two " " ( ) . . ( ) . ) ( .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two ( ) . (B) Translate the following narrative into English. : Page 170 . ( ) . . . . . .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (C) Translate the following poem into English. Page 171 .

. Page 172 . . .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (D) Translate the following letter into English. . . .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two . . Page 173 . .

Arabic Grammar ( ) is the subject in which the rules of the mutual relationship of words and the condition of their declension are indicated. Note 1: You have learnt some of the rules of Arabic Morphology and Grammar in this book. ) is that subject in which the rules of recognizing words and their changes are mentioned. The remaining rules will be explained. Page 174 . in the remaining volumes.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Supplement Some Beneficial Information (1) The definitions of ( ) and ( ) The rules that have been developed for learning to speak correctly are of two types: (1) Arabic Morphology ( . if Allāh wills. (2) .

As far as Morphologic analyis is concerned.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two (2) Analysis ( Analysis ( ) ) is to evaluate each word separately in and (2) speech. what Page 175 . Morphologic analyis is evaluation in accordance to the rules of Arabic Morphology while grammatical analysis is evaluation in accordance to the rules of Arabic Grammar. that is. Then with regards to a noun. etc? (2) Is it derived or non-derived? If it is derived. pronoun. observe the following factors: (1) Is the noun definite or indefinite? If it is indefinite. recognize the types of words used in the sentence and which one is a noun. is it a proper noun. Grammatical analysis is also called ( – to join) because the words are generally joined after an individual analysis. which one a verb and which one a particle. you can now evaluate the following matters: • Firstly. is it a noun or an adjective? If it is definite. to which category does it belong. This is of two types: (1) .

( ) (3) Determine the amount of root letters. ( or ( )? ). dual or plural? (3) Look at the number of root letters. dual or plural? If it is plural. Is it triliteral. quadrilteral or having five radicals? Is it ( )? (4) Is it singular. ( ). consider the following factors: (1) What is the tense? Is it the ( ) or ( ) tense? (2) What word-form is it? Is is the third person.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two type of derived noun is it? Is it ( ). ( ). ( ). on what scale is it? (5) Is it a masculine word or a feminine word? What is the sign of its being feminine? (6) Is it fully declinable ( ) or indeclinable ( )? ) or ( If it is a verb. Is it triliteral or quadriliteral? Is it ( (5) Is it fully declinable ( Page 176 ) or ( )? )? (4) Is it active or passive? Is it transitive or intransitive? ) or indeclinable ( . is it a sound plural or a broken plural? If it is a broken plural. second person or first person? Is it masculine or feminine? Is it singular.

which word is the ( ) or ( ). ( ). you can evaluate the following: (1) Is it a complete compound or incomplete? (2) If it is an incomplete compound. ( ). what type is it? Is it ( (3) If it is ( which word the ( (4) If it is ( which word the ( ( (6) If it is ( word the ( (7) If it is ( is the ( )? ). see what kind of particle it is. what type is it? Is it )? Which word is the Page 177 . ( ). which word is the ( )? ) and ) and (5) If it is a complete compound.Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two If the word is a particle. which word is the ( ) and which ) or ( )? ). Which word ) or ( )? ). ) or In a grammatical analysis. ( )? ). Is it from among the ( ( ( ). which word is the ( )? ).

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

(

)? ) of each word. That is, if it is a ), ( ), ( ) or ( ) or ( )? If it )?

(8) Look at the ( verb, is it in ( is a noun, is it in ( (9) If a noun is ( the ( ) or (

), why is it so? Is it because of being ) or is it because it is the ), why is it so? Is it a ( ) or a

subject or predicate? (10) If a noun is (

noun succeeding the particle ( ) or a predicate of the verb ( ( ) or ( )? Or does it indicate the condition of the )? ), why is it so? Does it appear after )? ) of each word and see what type ) or ( )?

(11) If a noun is ( a(

) or is it (

(12) Observe the ( it is. Does it have (

The analysis of several sentences has been mentioned before this. Hereunder a few more sentences are analyzed so that you can in future, analyze simple sentences yourself.

Page 178

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

Analysis No.1 The sentence is : ( ) The morphologic analyis will be as follows:

The grammatical analyis will be as follows: The ( ( ) and the

) together form a( ).

( _)
Page 179

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two

Analysis No.2 The sentence is : ( The morphologic analyis will be as follows: )

= =
Page 180

the ) together form a ( ). = Page 181 .Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two The grammatical analyis will be as follows: The ( ( ). the ( ) and the ( ).

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two The End of Volume Two Page 182 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two Page 183 .

Volume Arabic Tutor – Volume Two 3 Page 184 .

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