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Nous of the Nontraditional Fragile Quondam Mathematics Major or Determining the Formula for the Sum of Complex Numbers Stephen Schoupp Western Governors University Notional Vagaries 2 A complex number can be written in the Cartesian form a + bi, where a and b are both real number, although the symbol i (defined as the square root of -1) designates b as in the imaginary realm. It must be remembered that a + bi is not an equation, but a real number with two components, one real and one imaginary. Being real numbers, complex numbers observe the associative, commutative, and distributive laws of algebra. This paper will present three ways to educe a formula for the sum of the two given complex numbers x and y where: x = a + bi y = c + di by the definition of ordered pairs; through the associative, commutative, and distributive laws of algebra; and by vector addition. The first way to deduce a formula for finding the sum of two complex numbers is to define them as ordered pairs. An ordered pair has two distinct coordinates known as the abscissa (the x coordinate) and the ordinate (the y coordinate) that can be diagrammed on an orthogonal graph and is written in the form (a,b) with a as the abscissa and b the ordinate. With this definition, the complex number x can be written as the ordered pair (a,bi) and the complex number y as the ordered pair (c,di). The basic mathematical rule of the addition of ordered pairs, (x,y) + (xÂ°,yÂ°) = (x + xÂ°, y + yÂ°), can then be applied: x + y = (a,bi) + (c,di) Using the commutative property of addition the equation becomes: Notional Vagaries 3 = (a + c,bi + di) Writing the equation in polar form generates: = (a + b) + (bi + di)

and utilizing the distributive property of multiplication yields: = (a + b) + (b + d)i which is the formula for the sum of two complex numbers x = a + bi and y = c + di. A second manner to extrapolate a formula for finding the sum of two complex numbers is by using the associative, commutative, and distributive properties of mathematics on the given complex numbers: x = a + bi y = c + di By the associative law of addition, adding the given complex numbers x and y delivers the equation : x + y = (a + bi) + (c + di) Applying the commutative law of addition the equality becomes: x + y = (a + c) + (bi + di) Then, employing the distributive law of multiplication over addition delivers the equations: x + y = (a + c) + (b + d)i which is the formula for the sum of two complex numbers. A third, more involved and complicated, means of deriving a formula for finding Notional Vagaries 4 the sum of two complex numbers is by vector addition. Given the complex numbers: x = a + bi y = c + di a vector x can be drawn from the origin of an orthogonal graph to the ordered pair (a,bi). A right triangle can then be completed by drawing a line from point (a,bi) to the x-intercept and, using the De Moivre theorem, z = r(cos u + i sin u), + i sin nu) the vector x has a modulus of r. A second vector, y, using the ordered pair (c,di) from the complex number y is then drawn from the endpoint of vector x to the coordinate (c,di). A second right triangle is completed from this new endpoint and again, using the De Moivre theorem, has a given modulus of t. Utilizing Eulerâ€™s theorem, eix = cos x + i sin x, gives the equation: r = a + bi for vector x t= c + di for vector y

Then by use of identities compliant in trigonometry, vector addition is simply vector x + vector y and is executable under associative, commutative, and distributive laws of mathematics. Hence, by the associative property of addition: r + t = (a + bi) + (c + di) Applying the commutative law of addition the equality becomes: r + t = (a + c) + (bi + di) Employing the distributive law of multiplication over addition delivers the Notional Vagaries 5 equations: r + t = (a + c) + (b + d)i which is the formula for the sum of two complex numbers. Finding the sum of complex numbers is not complicated if one remembers that the complex number form, a + bi, is a real number with two component parts and not an equation. By the use of associative, commutative, and distributive laws, the addition of complex numbers can be easily deduced by using the formula for the sum of complex numbers x + y = (a + c) + (b + d)i, given x = a + bi and y = c + di, even for a nontraditional fragile quondam mathematics major.

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