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Honors Biology,

Period 5
Chapter 5 Notes

Section 5.10

A.) selective permeability – allows some substances to cross more easily than others

Section 5.11

A.) Phospholipids are the main components of membranes

saturated
Fatty acids
head polar
nonpolar (can be sat+sat,
- will dissolve in unsat+sat, or
water unsat+unsat
unsaturated
- hydrophilic

- phosphate
group
O
hydrophobic

O P O

B.) amphipathic – a term that describes a molecule that is both polar and nonpolar

Section 5.12

A.) phospholipid bilayer – as a result of their amphipathic nature, phospholipids form


a bilayer (a two-layer sheet)

Hydrophilic
heads Hydrophobic tails

water
*figure 5.12  label for test

B.) Why are membranes selectively permeable?


1. They are hydrophobic
2. Hydrophilic molecules can’t move across (like dissolves)

C.) Fluid Mosaic Model


1. mosaic – the membrane has such a diverse collection of proteins
embedded in the bilayer (figure 5.12)
2. fluid – the individual molecules can drift laterally

D.) What influences fluidity?


1. manipulating the types of fatty acids in their phospholipids (plants)
2. add or remove cholesterol (animals)

E.) The Surface of the Plasma Membrane


Key molecules:
1. glycoprotein
2. glycolipids

a. The oligosaccharide chains are specific to the individual


- purpose: self recognition
- cells can decide which cells are their own vs. intruder
 Examples:
1. organ transplant
2. blood types

Type A Type B Type AB Type O

Type A protein Type B protein

ERYTHROCYTES – Red blood cells

F.) Are you positive or negative? Erythroblastosis (fetal) is when the


1. The Rit factor mother’s immune system kills her
own baby because they have
different blood types.
85% 15%

RH¯
RH+
G.) Antigens and Immune Response
1. antigen – only substances that trigger an immune response
2. antibodies – protein produced by the body in response to an antigen

YOUR BLOOD TYPE ACCEPT REJECT


Type A A, O B, AB
Type B B, O A, AB
Type AB A, B, AB, O N/A
Type O O A, B, AB
RH+ RH+, RH- N/A
RH- RH- RH+

Section 5.13

Functions of Membrane Proteins:


1. attachment
2. identification
3. enzyme (is a catalyst)
4. receptors - of protein that has a shape that fits the shape of a specific
messenger, such as a hormone.
*signal transduction - the message-transfer process of the chain reactions between
proteins.

Case study: Epinephrine (hormone)  is a neurotransmitter


Epinephrine can cause a liver to hydrolyze its stored glycogen and release sugar
without even entering the [liver] cell. (Causes chemical changes)

Activity 5F
Receptor proteins have specific shapes that fit specific chemical messengers

A.) hypotonic – less solute to dissolve


B.) hypertonic – more solute to dissolve
C.) isotonic – has equal amount of solute and solvent

GRAPE EXPERIMENT

Grapes in:

H2O 1. HYPOTONIC

50 g sugar 0 g sugar

100 mL H2O 100 mL H2O


Corn Syrup 2. HYPERTONIC

50 g sugar 100 g sugar

100 mL H2O 100 mL H2O

Grape Juice 3. ISOTONIC

50 g sugar 50 g sugar

100 mL H2O 100 mL H2O

Transport

Section 5.14: Passive Transport

A.) Passive Transport – transport that does not require energy (ATP) from the cell
Types of Passive Transport:
1. diffusion (5.14)
2. osmosis (5.16) [u-tube]
3. facilitated diffusion (5.15)* - requires the aid of transport proteins for the
diffusion of polar molecules and ions across the cell membrane
* can have more than one substance equal out at one time

Hypotonic Hypertonic
solution solution
H2O

Solute
molecule
Selectively
permeable
membrane
Osmosis – the diffusion of water

1. U-Tube
2. Fig 5.17
Key terms:
1. hypotonic
2. hypertonic
3. isotonic
4. lysis
5. crenation
6. flaccid
7. turgid
8. plasmolyisis

(figure 5.16)

Animal Cell Terms


A.) lysis – too much H2O causes the cell to burst and die (hypotonic solution)
B.) crenation – looses too much H2O. The cell shrivels and dies (hypertonic)
Plant Cell Terms
A.) flaccid – exchange of H2O (isotonic); wilting plants
B.) turgid – bursting with H2O (hypotonic); healthy plants
C.) Plasmolysis – the cell membrane shrivels, pulls away from the cell wall, and
the cell dies (hypertonic)

Section 5.18: Active Transport

A.) active transport – transport that requires energy (ATP) from the cell. Movement of
molecules against their concentration gradient
1. requires a transport protein (enzyme)
2. requires ATP
3. see figure 5.18
B.) phosphorylation – the addition of a phosphate group to a protein

Section 5.19: [Active] Transport of Large Molecules

A.) Exocytosis – the transport of large molecules out of the cell


- vesicles produced by the Golgi travel to the cell membrane. Once there, the
vesicles fuse with the membrane and the contents are released from the cell
a. insulin
b. tears
B.) endocytosis – the transport of large molecules into the cell
1. phagocytosis
2. pinocytosis
3. receptor-medicated Endocytosis

C.) phagocytosis (5.19 c)


“cellular eating”
- engulfing of food resulting in the formation of a food vacuole
A. macrophages
B. amoeba (pseudopod formation  false/fake foot formation)
D.) pinocytosis
“cellular drinking”
1. absorbing droplets of liquid from the surroundings
2. not specific
E.) Receptor-medicated Endocytosis
1. very specific
2. receptor proteins on the plasma membrane join with specific
molecules in the blood stream.
• Case study: cholesterol (fig 5.20)
LDL – low density lipids (bad cholesterol)
HDL – high density lipids (good cholesterol)