115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. 115Excellere Ezine Casa Juillet. Ezine Excellere # 115. 19 April 2012. In English.

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Content: 1.- Arthur C. Clarke obituary.......by Jurgen Reitze. 02-.- Philip Jose Farmer.....................by doctor Farthon Climbor. 03.- Anne McCaffrey, 1926-2011,,,,,,,,,,,,,,by Joe Stanton. 04.- Edward Charles Tubb " E.C. Tubb".,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,by Darth Vader 05.- E. E. Smith................by -Ed Cox.

06. - Eliana DOMITILA Frascara ------------BY ALFREDO FRANCISCO Juillet Frascara. 07. - ALMA TELESCOPE BY Dieter Gundlich 08. - HISTORY of Mesopotamia ...................BY Laura Smirnoff.

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1.- Arthur C. Clarke Obituary ....by Jurgen Reitze.

COLOMBO, Sri Lanka (AP) - Even in death Arthur C. Clarke would not compromise his vision. The famed science fiction writer, who once denigrated religion as "a necessary evil in the childhood of our particular species," left written instructions that his funeral be completely secular, according to his aides. "Absolutely no religious rites of any kind, relating to any religious faith, should be associated with my funeral," he wrote. Clarke died early Wednesday at age 90 and was to be buried in a private funeral this weekend in his adopted home of Sri Lanka. Clarke, who had battled debilitating post-polio syndrome for years, had suffered breathing problems in recent days, aide Rohan De Silva said. The visionary author won worldwide acclaim with more than 100 books on space, science and the future. The 1968 story "2001: A Space Odyssey" written simultaneously as a novel and screenplay with director Stanley Kubrick - was a frightening prophecy of artificial intelligence run amok. One year after it made Clarke a household name in fiction, the scientist entered the homes of millions of Americans alongside Walter Cronkite anchoring television coverage of the Apollo mission to the moon. Clarke also was credited with the concept of communications satellites in

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1945, decades before they became a reality. Geosynchronous orbits, which keep satellites in a fixed position relative to the ground, are called Clarke orbits. His nonfiction volumes on space travel and his explorations of the Great Barrier Reef and Indian Ocean earned him respect in the world of science, and in 1976 he became an honorary fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. But it was his writing that shot him to his greatest fame and that gave him the greatest fulfillment. "Sometimes I am asked how I would like to be remembered," Clarke said recently. "I have had a diverse career as a writer, underwater explorer and space promoter. Of all these, I would like to be remembered as a writer." From 1950, he began a prolific output of both fiction and nonfiction, sometimes publishing three books in a year. A statement from Clarke's office said he had recently reviewed the final manuscript of his latest novel. "The Last Theorem," co-written with Frederik Pohl, will be published later this year, it said. Some of his best-known books are "Childhood's End," 1953; "The City and The Stars," 1956; "The Nine Billion Names of God," 1967; "Rendezvous with Rama," 1973; "Imperial Earth," 1975; and "The Songs of Distant Earth," 1986. When Clarke and Kubrick got together to develop a movie about space, they looked for inspiration to several of Clarke's shorter pieces. As work progressed on the screenplay, Clarke also wrote a novel of the story. He followed it up with "2010," "2061," and "3001: The Final Odyssey." Planetary scientist Torrence Johnson said Clarke's work was a major influence on many in the field. Johnson, who has been exploring the solar system through the Voyager, Galileo and Cassini missions in his 35 years at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, recalled a meeting of planetary scientists and rocket engineers where talk turned to the author.

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"All of us around the table said we read Arthur C. Clarke," Johnson said. "That was the thing that got us there." In an interview with The Associated Press, Clarke said he did not regret having never traveled to space himself, though he arranged to have DNA from his hair sent into orbit. "One day, some super civilization may encounter this relic from the vanished species and I may exist in another time," he said. "Move over, Stephen King." Clarke, a British citizen, won a host of science fiction awards, and was named a Commander of the British Empire in 1989. Clarke was officially given a knighthood in 1998, but he delayed accepting it for two years after a London tabloid accused him of being a child molester. The allegation was never proved. Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa lauded Clarke for his passion for his adopted home and his efforts to aid its progress. "We were all proud to have this celebrated author, visionary and promoter of space exploration, prophet of satellite communications, great humanist and lover of animals in our midst," he said in a statement. Born in Minehead, western England, on Dec. 16, 1917, the son of a farmer, Arthur Charles Clark became addicted to science fiction after buying his first copies of the pulp magazine "Amazing Stories" at Woolworth's. He read English writers H.G. Wells and Olaf Stapledon and began writing for his school magazine in his teens. Clarke went to work as a clerk in Her Majesty's Exchequer and Audit Department in London, where he joined the British Interplanetary Society and wrote his first short stories and scientific articles on space travel. It was not until after World War II that Clarke received a bachelor of science degree in physics and mathematics from King's College in London.

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Serving in the wartime Royal Air Force, he wrote a 1945 memo about the possibility of using satellites to revolutionize communications. Clarke later sent it to a publication called Wireless World, which almost rejected it as too far-fetched. He moved to Sri Lanka in 1956. In recent years, Clarke was linked by his computer with friends and fans around the world, spending each morning answering e-mails and browsing the Internet. Clarke married in 1953, and was divorced in 1964. He had no children. He is survived by his brother, Fred, and sister, Mary. His body is to be brought to his home in Colombo so friends and fans can pay their respects before his burial.

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02-.- Philip Jose Farmer.....................by doctor Farthon Climbor. Most science-fiction writers begin young, and have much to outgrow. Some – like Robert A Heinlein or Philip José Farmer – come late to the field, and have much to impart. Farmer's first science-fiction story, and still perhaps his most famous, "The Lovers", was published in a minor magazine because the more prestigious genre magazines would not touch it. John W Campbell Jnr, whose Astounding had been the central journal of the field for more than a decade, found it "nauseating". Though his reaction was priggishly provincial, even today one can understand the shock he felt. The tale depicts in some detail a love affair between a human male and a female humanoid insect whose reproductive system was savagely nonmammalian, clearly violating several obvious taboos – sex, race, miscegenation – that writers in the genre had not yet seriously challenged.

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But "The Lovers" also shook to the roots the only slowly fading sci-fi (and western) presumption that First World mores were natural templates for behaviour in other cultures and other worlds. Perhaps surprisingly, the science-fiction community was less shocked than its ostensible spokesmen, and Farmer received his first Hugo Award in 1953 as "most promising new writer". Photographs at this time show that the young Farmer bore an unmistakeable resemblance to Jack Palance about to face off against Shane; only this time, Shane might be the loser. For those who knew him only recently, in his benign (though occasionally testy) old age, these shots can seem electrifying. Philip José Farmer was born in North Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1918, and raised in the small cities of the American Midwest. His first adult job was in a steel mill, and he was married young, in 1941, to Elizabeth (Bette) Andre. He was throughout a secret reader, and from childhood absorbed the works of a wide range of authors, from Lord Dunsany to Henry Miller. It may be that the relative isolation of his early years explains his impact, for he never seemed to understand just how upsetting his work could be, how alarming his incessant fertility might seem to some of his staider fellows. He came to sci-fi full-grown: but he came from some far-away silent place in deepest America. From the early 1950s on, he was always present, always publishing, but never quite a member of the club. His first novel, Owe for the Flesh, won a publisher's contest, but the firm was soon bankrupt, the money was never paid, and the manuscript was lost. His first published novel, The Green Odyssey (1957), was set on a vast low-gravity planet huge enough to allow endless adventurings; but its combination of fantasy and sci-fi material was dislocating. In the 1950s he worked for a time for General Electric in upstate New York, the same firm that Kurt Vonnegut parodied in Player Piano. In 1973, writing as Kilgore Trout – the name of the failed pulp writer Vonnegut had created in one of his novels – Farmer published Venus on the Half-Shell, a novel in which he clearly sought to pay homage to an author with whom he had shared work and professional experiences. But Vonnegut, a far more canny operator in the literary arena, failed to appreciate the association; Farmer was wounded, not understanding the worldly reasons for

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At the same time, Farmer was beginning to gain wider sales through the release of three lasting sequences of titles. In the "World of Tiers" novels he created – decades before Virtual Reality computer gaming turned the idea into a cliché – a set of Pocket Universes, worlds within larger worlds governed by god-like creatures who play with humans for sport. The first volume of Farmer's "Riverworld" sequence, To Your Scattered Bodies Go (1971), won Farmer another Hugo award. Set on an endless river, where the dead are re-embodied, and "live" forever, all Farmer's literary heroes, from Mark Twain to Sir Richard Burton, can be found along the banks of the river of the world. The third sequence, the Wold Newton books and stories, was based on the idea that in 1795 a radioactive meteor struck the English town of Wold Newton causing a series of genetic mutations that gave rise to an extended family of heroes and villains – including the Scarlet Pimpernel, Sherlock Holmes, Allan Quatermain, and Nero Wolfe. The most famous such figure is Tarzan, who features in several of Farmer's novels and is the subject of a "non-fiction" biography, Tarzan alive: a definitive biography of Lord Greystoke (1972). As a whole, Farmer's work – which encompassed 75 books in all, including genuinely radical experimental shorter fictions like Riders of the Purple Wage (1967) also a Hugo winner – emanates an immediately recognisable, luminous allure. It is all deadly serious, but at the same time gives off a deadpan hilarity. Farmer frequently invoked the Norse god Loki in his work, and himself seemed Loki-like: a trickster with a cardsharp's innocent smile. From 1970 he lived in Peoria, Illinois, producing voluminously until his 80s. Slowly, his enormous influence upon the field began to gain deserved attention, though academic critics never found him easy to pin down. At the end of his life, he was more famous than he had ever been.

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Philip José Farmer, writer: born North Terre Haute, Indiana 26 January 1918; married 1941 Elizabeth Andre (one son, one daughter); died Peoria, Illinois 25 February 2009.

03.- Anne McCaffrey, 1926-2011,,,,,,,,,,,,,,by Joe Stanton. Anne McCaffrey, legendary SF and fantasy author best known for her Dragonriders of Pern series, has passed away. Random House has confirmed on Tuesday that McCaffrey died of a stroke at her home in Ireland on Monday, November 21. McCaffrey was the first woman to win a Hugo Award for fiction, the first woman to win a Nebula Award, and the first author to hit the New York Times bestseller list with an SF title (The White Dragon). McCaffrey leaves behind a tremendous legacy. She was active in the

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science fiction and fantasy fields right up to her passing and will be greatly missed. Tributes to Anne McCaffrey are starting to appear in the online SFF community. Here are a few selections: •Neil Gaiman remembers chatting with McCaffrey (with photo) •Shawn Speakman relates his time meeting McCaffrey over at Suvudu •The Anne McCaffrey thread at Metafilter has been gathering a lot of touching personal stories (including a tear-inducing sleeping ASCII dragon) •John Scalzi’s reaction to the news was short and precisely apt McCaffrey’s family released a statement on Wednesday morning in response.

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04.- Edward Charles Tubb " E.C. Tubb".,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,by Darth Vader

The author EC Tubb (Edward Charles Tubb) passed away in his sleep on Friday 10th September 2010. A member of the pre-war British Science Fiction

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Association, which also included Arthur C Clarke and John Beynon Harris (John Wyndham), Tubb’s first novel, Saturn Patrol, appeared in 1951. In total he was responsible for some 130 published novels and more than 230 short stories, and saw his work adapted both for the radio and TV. He will perhaps be best remembered for the epic Dumarest saga, which eventually ran to 33 volumes. A new work, a major dystopian novel titled To Dream Again, was accepted for publication on the day he died and is due to appear in 2011. Born on October 19th 1919, he married Iris Kathleen Smith in 1944 and is survived by their two daughters, Jennifer and Linda, as well as two granddaughters and several great grandchildren. Our condolences go to all his family. oooooooooooooooo

05.- E. E. Smith................by -Ed Cox.

E. E. Smith Born Edward Elmer Smith

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. May 2, 1890(1890-05-02) Sheboygan, Wisconsin Died August 31, 1965(1965-08-31) (aged 75) Seaside, Oregon Pen name E. E. "Doc" Smith Occupation Food Engineer and Writer Nationality American Period Science Fiction 1928–1965 Genres Space Opera Influenced Space Travel Fiction, Scientific Developments

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Edward Elmer Smith, Ph.D., also, E. E. Smith, E. E. "Doc" Smith, Doc Smith, "Skylark" Smith, and (to family) Ted (May 2, 1890 – August 31, 1965) was a food engineer (specializing in doughnut and pastry mixes) and early science fiction author who wrote the Lensman series and the Skylark series, among others. He is soE. E. Smith From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search For other people named Edward Smith, see Edward Smith . Edward Elmer Smith, Ph.D., also, E. E. Smith, E. E. "Doc" Smith, Doc Smith, "Skylark" Smith, and (to family) Ted (May 2, 1890 – August 31, 1965) was a food engineer (specializing in doughnut and pastry mixes) and early science fiction author who wrote the Lensman series and the Skylark series, among others. He is sometimes referred to as the father of space opera. Family and educationEdward Elmer Smith was born in Sheboygan, Wisconsin on May 2, 1890 to Fred Jay Smith and Caroline Mills Smith, both staunch Presbyterians of British ancestry. His mother was a teacher born in Michigan in February 1855; his father was a sailor, born in Maine in January 1855 to an English father. They moved to Spokane, Washington the winter after Edward Elmer was born, where Mr. Smith was working as a

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contractor in 1900. In 1902 the family moved to Seneaquoteen, near the Pend Oreille River, in Kootenai County, Idaho. He had four siblings, Rachel M. born September 1882, Daniel M. born January 1884, Mary Elizabeth born February 1886 (all of whom were born in Michigan), and Walter E. born July 1891 in Washington. In 1910, Fred and Caroline Smith and their son Walter were living in the Markham Precinct of Bonner County, Idaho; Fred is listed in census records as a farmer. Smith worked primarily as a manual laborer until he injured his wrist, at the age of 19, while escaping from a fire. He attended the University of Idaho. He was installed in the 1984 Class of the University of Idaho Alumni Hall of Fame. He entered its prep school in 1907, and graduated with two degrees in Chemical Engineering in 1914. He was president of the Chemistry Club, the Chess Club, and the Mandolin and Guitar Club, and captain of the Drill and Rifle Team; he also sang the bass lead in Gilbert and Sullivan operettas.[8] His undergraduate thesis was Some Clays of Idaho, cowritten with classmate Chester Fowler Smith, who died in California of tuberculosis the following year, after taking a teaching fellowship at Berkeley. It is not known whether the two were related. On October 5, 1915, in Boise, Idaho he married Jeanne Craig MacDougall, the sister of his college roommate, Allen Scott (Scotty) MacDougall.[11] (Her sister was named Clarissa MacLean MacDougall; the heroine of the Lensman novels would later be named Clarissa MacDougall.) Jeanne MacDougall was born in Glasgow, Scotland; her parents were Donald Scott MacDougall, a violinist, and Jessica Craig MacLean. Her father had moved to Boise, Idaho when the children were young, and later sent for his family; he died while they were en route in 1905. Jeanne's mother, who remarried businessman and retired politician John F. Kessler in 1914[12] worked at, and later owned, a boarding house on Ridenbaugh Street. The Smiths had three children: Roderick N., born June 3, 1918 in the District of Columbia (employed as a design engineer at Lockheed Aircraft).

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Verna Jean (later Verna Smith Trestrail), born August 25, 1920 in Michigan, his literary executor until her death in 1994. (Her son Kim Trestrail is now the executor. Robert A. Heinlein in part dedicated his 1982 novel Friday to Verna. Clarissa M. (later Clarissa Wilcox), born December 13, 1921 in Michigan. Early chemical career and the beginning of SkylarkAfter college, Smith was a junior chemist for the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., developing standards for butter and for oysters.[16] Smith may have served as a lieutenant in the U.S. Army during World War I, but in what capacity is not known Smith apparently requested exemption from the draft, partly because his wife was solely dependent on him, and partly perhaps because of his service as a civilian chemist in the war effort. First publication of Skylark Three, Amazing Stories, August 1930On one evening in 1915, the Smiths were with visiting his former classmate from the University of Idaho, Dr. Carl Garby, who had also moved to Washington, D.C. They lived near the Smiths in the Seaton Place Apartments in Washington with his wife, Lee Hawkins Garby. A long discussion about journeys into outer space ensued. Then, it was suggested to Smith that he should write down his ideas and speculations as a story about interstellar travel. Although he was interested, Smith thought that some amount of romantic elements would be required as well—a task that he found himself uncomfortable with. Mrs. Garby then made an offer to take care of the love interest and the romantic dialogue, and Smith decided to give it a try. The sources of inspirations for the main characters in the novel were themselves. The "Seatons" were based on the Smiths while the "Cranes" were drawn from the Garbys. About one-third of The Skylark of Space was completed by the end of 1916, when Smith and Garby gradually abandoned work on it. Smith earned his master's degree in chemistry from the George Washington University in 1917, studying under Dr. Charles E. Munroe. Smith completed his Ph.D. in chemical engineering, in 1918, emphasizing food engineering

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with a thesis entitled The effect of bleaching with oxides of nitrogen upon the baking quality and commercial value of wheat flour, which was published in 1919. Warner and Fleischer instead give the thesis title as The Effect of the Oxides of Nitrogen upon the Carotin Molecule — C40H56, which is difficult to explain. Sam Moskowitz instead gives the date of the degree as 1919, which may reflect the differences between the thesis submission date, its defense date, and the degree certification date. Writing SkylarkIn 1919 Dr. Smith was hired as chief chemist for F. W. Stock & Sons of Hillsdale, Michigan, at one time the largest family-owned mill east of the Mississippi, working on doughnut mixes. Late in 1919, after moving to Michigan, one evening Smith was babysitting (presumably for Roderick) while his wife attended a movie; he resumed work on The Skylark of Space, finishing it in the spring of 1920. He submitted it to many book publishers and magazines, spending more in postage than he would eventually receive for its publication. He received an encouraging rejection letter from Bob Davis, editor of Argosy, in 1922, saying that he liked the novel personally, but that it was too far out for his readers. (According to Warner, but no other source, Dr. Smith began work on the sequel, Skylark III, before the first book was accepted.) Finally, upon seeing the April 1927 issue of Amazing Stories, he submitted it to the magazine; it was accepted, initially for $75, later raised to $125. It was published in the August–October 1928 issues. It was such a success that managing editor T. O'Conor Sloane requested a sequel before the second installment had been published.[29] Mrs. Garby was not interested in collaborating further, so Dr. Smith began work on Skylark Three on his own.[30] It was published in the August through October 1930 issues of Amazing. (In 1930 the Smiths were living in Michigan, at 33 Rippon Avenue in Hillsdale.[31]) This was as far as he had planned to take the Skylark series; it was praised in Amazing's letter column,[32] and he was paid 3/4¢ per word, surpassing Amazing's previous record of half a cent. The early 1930s: between Skylark and LensmanDr. Smith then began work

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on what he intended as a new series, starting with Spacehounds of IPC,[34] which he finished in the autumn of 1930.[35] In this novel he took pains to avoid the scientific impossibilities which had bothered some readers of the Skylark novels.[36] Even in 1938, after he had written Galactic Patrol, Dr. Smith considered it his finest work;[35] he later said of it, "This was really scientific fiction; not, like the Skylarks, pseudo-science";[37] and even at the end of his career he considered it his only work of true science fiction.[38] It was published in the July through September 1931 issues of Amazing, but with unauthorized changes by Sloane.[39] Fan letters in the magazine complained about the novel's containment within the solar system, and Sloane sided with the readers. So when Harry Bates, editor of Astounding Stories, offered Smith 2¢/word—payable on publication—for his next story, he agreed; this meant that it could not be a sequel to Spacehounds.[33] This book would be Triplanetary, "in which scientific detail would not be bothered about, and in which his imagination would run riot."[35] Indeed, characters within the story point out its psychological[40] and scientific[41] implausibilities, and sometimes even seem to suggest self-parody.[42] At other times they are conspicuously silent about obvious implausibilities. [43][44] The January 1933 issue of Astounding announced that Triplanetary would appear in the March issue, and that issue's cover illustrated a scene from the story, but Astounding's financial difficulties prevented the story from appearing.[45] Dr. Smith then submitted the manuscript to Wonder Stories, whose editor, Charles D. Hornig, rejected it, later boasting about the rejection in a fanzine.[46] He finally submitted it to Amazing, which published it beginning in January 1934, but for only half a cent a word. Shortly after it was accepted, F. Orlin Tremaine, the new editor of the revived Astounding, offered one cent a word for Triplanetary; when he learned that he was too late, he suggested a third Skylark novel instead.[47] In the winter of 1933-4 Dr. Smith worked on The Skylark of Valeron, but he felt that the story was getting out of control; he sent his first draft to Tremaine, with a distraught note asking for suggestions. Tremaine accepted the rough draft for $850, and announced it in the June 1934 issue, with a full-page editorial and a three-quarter page advertisement. The novel was published in the August 1934 through February 1935 issues. Astounding's circulation rose by 10,000 for the first issue, and its two main

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competitors, Amazing and Wonder Stories fell into financial difficulties, both skipping issues within a year. [48] The Lensman seriesIn January 1936, a time period where he was already an established science fiction writer, he took a job for salary plus profitsharing, as a food technologist (a cereal chemist) at the Dawn Doughnut Company of Jackson, Michigan.[49] This initially entailed almost a year's worth of eighteen-hour days and seven-day workweeks. Individuals who knew Dr. Smith confirmed that he had a role in developing mixes for doughnuts and other pastries, but the contention that he developed the first process for making powdered sugar adhere to doughnuts cannot be substantiated. [50] Dr. Smith was reportedly dislocated from his job at Dawn Doughnuts due to pre-war rationing in early 1940.[51] Dr. Smith had been contemplating writing a "space-police novel" since early 1927;[52] once he had "the Lensmen's universe fairly well set up", he reviewed his science fiction collection for "cops-and-robbers" stories. He cites Clinton Constantinescue's "War of the Universe" as a negative example, and Starzl and Williamson as positive ones.[53] Tremaine responded extremely positively to a brief description of the idea.[54] Once Dawn Doughnuts became profitable in late 1936, Dr. Smith wrote an eighty-five page outline for what became the four core Lensman novels; in early 1937 Tremaine committed to buying them.[55] Segmenting the story into four novels required considerable effort to avoid dangling loose ends; Dr. Smith cites Edgar Rice Burroughs as a negative example.[54] After the outline was complete, he wrote a more detailed outline of Galactic Patrol, plus a detailed graph of its structure, with "peaks of emotional intensity and the valleys of characterization and background material." He notes, however, that he was never able to follow any of his outlines at all closely, as the "characters get away from me and do exactly as they damn please."[56] After completing the rough draft of Galactic Patrol, he wrote the concluding chapter of the last book in the series, Children of the Lens.[57] Galactic Patrol was published in the September 1937 through February 1938 issues of Astounding; unlike the revised book edition, it was not set in the same universe as Triplanetary.[58] Gray Lensman, the second book in the series, appeared in Astounding's October 1939 through January 1940 issues. (Note that the frequent British

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spelling "grey" is simply a recurrent mistake, starting with the cover of the first installment; Moskowitz's usage, "The Grey Lensman", is even harder to justify.[59]) Gray Lensman (and its cover illustration) was extremely well received. Campbell's editorial in the December issue suggested that the October issue was the best issue of Astounding ever, and Gray Lensman was first place in the Analytical Laboratory statistics "by a lightyear", with three runners-up in a distant tie for third place.[60] The cover was also praised by readers in Brass Tacks, and Campbell noted, "We got a letter from E. E. Smith saying he and Hubert Rogers agreed on how Kinnison looked."[61] Dr. Smith was the guest of honor at Chicon I, the second World Science Fiction Convention, held in Chicago over Labor Day weekend 1940,[62] giving a speech on the importance of science fiction fandom entitled "What Does This Convention Mean?"[63] He attended the convention's masquerade as C.L. Moore's Northwest Smith, and met fans living near him in Michigan, who would later form the Galactic Roamers, which previewed and advised him on his future work.[64] Dr. Smith worked for the US Army between 1941 and 1945. An extended segment in the novel version of Triplanetary, set during World War II, suggests intimate familiarity with explosives and munitions manufacturing. Some biographers cite as fact that, just as Smith's protagonist in this segment lost his job over failure to approve sub-standard munitions, Smith did as well. Smith began work for the J. W. Allen Company (a manufacturer of doughnut and frosting mixes) in 1946 and worked for them until his professional retirement in 1957.[51] Retirement and late writingAfter Dr. Smith retired, he and his wife lived in Clearwater, Florida,[20] in the fall and winter, driving the smaller of their two trailers to Seaside, Oregon, each April, often stopping at science fiction conventions on the way. (Dr. Smith did not like to fly.)[65] In 1963, he was presented the inaugural First Fandom Hall of Fame award at the 21st World Science Fiction Convention in Washington, D.C.[20] Some of his biography is captured in an essay by Robert A. Heinlein, which was

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reprinted in the collection Expanded Universe in 1980. There is a more detailed, although allegedly[66] error-ridden, biography in Sam Moskowitz's Seekers of Tomorrow. Robert A. Heinlein and Dr. Smith were friends. (Heinlein dedicated his 1958 novel Methuselah's Children "To Edward E. Smith, Ph.D."[67]) Heinlein reported that E. E. Smith perhaps took his "unrealistic" heroes from life, citing as an example the extreme competence of the hero of Spacehounds of IPC. He reported that E. E. Smith was a large, blond, athletic, very intelligent, very gallant man, married to a remarkably beautiful, intelligent red-haired woman named MacDougal (thus perhaps the prototypes of 'Kimball Kinnison' and 'Clarissa MacDougal'). In Heinlein's essay, he reports that he began to suspect Smith might be a sort of "superman" when he asked Dr. Smith for help in purchasing a car. Smith tested the car by driving it on a back road at illegally high speeds with their heads pressed tightly against the roof columns to listen for chassis squeaks by bone conduction—a process apparently improvised on the spot. In his non-series novels written after his professional retirement, Galaxy Primes, Subspace Explorers, and Subspace Encounter, E. E. Smith explores themes of telepathy and other mental abilities collectively called "psionics", and of the conflict between libertarian and socialistic/communistic influences in the colonization of other planets. Lord TedricDr. Smith wrote a novelette entitled "Lord Tedric", published in Other Worlds in 1952, and which was almost completely forgotten. Much later, 13 years after Dr. Smith's death, Gordon Eklund published another novel of the same name about the same fictional character, introducing it as "a new series conceived by E. E. 'Doc' Smith". Eklund later went on to publish the other novels in the series, one or two under the pseudonym "E. E. 'Doc' Smith" or "E. E. Smith". The protagonist possesses similar heroic qualities common to the heroes in Dr. Smith's original novels and can communicate with an extra-dimensional race of beings known as The Scientists, whose archenemy is Fra Villion, a mysterious character

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described as a dark knight, skilled in whip-sword combat, and evil genius behind the creation of a planetoid-sized "iron sphere" armed with a weapon capable of destroying planets. As a result, Dr. Smith is believed by many to be the unacknowledged progenitor of themes that would appear in Star Wars. Critical opinionSmith's novels are generally considered to be the classic space operas,[68] and he is sometimes called the "first nova" of twentieth century science fiction. Dr. Smith expressed a preference for inventing fictional technologies that were not strictly impossible (so far as the science of the day was aware) but highly unlikely: "the more highly improbable a concept is—short of being contrary to mathematics whose fundamental operations involve no neglect of infinitesimals—the better I like it" was his phrase. Extending the Lensman universeVortex Blasters (also known as Masters of the Vortex) is set in the same universe as the Lensman novels. It is an extension to the main storyline which takes place between Second Stage Lensmen and Children of the Lens, and introduces a different type of psionics from that used by the Lensmen. Spacehounds of IPC is not a part of the series, despite occasional erroneous statements to the contrary. (It is listed as a novel in the series in some paperback editions of the 1970s.) Robert A. Heinlein reported that Smith had planned a seventh Lensman novel, set after the events described in Children of the Lens, which was unpublishable at that time (the early 1960s). Smith told Heinlein that the new novel proceeded inexorably from unresolved matters in Children, a statement easily supported by a careful reading of Children. Careful searches by people who knew Smith well (including Frederik Pohl, Smith's editor, and Verna Smith Trestrail, Smith's daughter) have failed to locate any material related to such a story.[citation needed] Smith apparently never wrote any of it down. On 14 July 1965, barely a month before his death, Smith gave written permission to William B. Ellern to continue the Lensman series, which led to the publishing of "Moon Prospector" in 1965 and New Lensman in 1976. Smith's long-time friend, Dave Kyle, wrote three authorized added novels

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in the Lensman series that provided background about the major non-human Lensmen. Influence on science and the militarySmith was widely read by scientists and engineers from the 1930s into the 1970s. Literary precursors of ideas which arguably entered the military-scientific complex include SDI (Triplanetary), stealth (Gray Lensman), the OODA Loop, C3-based warfare, and the AWACS (Gray Lensman). An influence that is inarguable was described in an 11 June 1947 letter[72] to Doc from John W. Campbell (the editor of Astounding magazine, where much of the Lensman series was originally published). In it, Campbell relayed Captain Cal Laning's[73] acknowledgment that he had used Smith's ideas for displaying the battlespace situation (called the "tank" in the stories) in the design of the United States Navy's ships' Combat Information Centers. "The entire set-up was taken specifically, directly, and consciously from the Directrix. In your story, you reached the situation the Navy was in—more communication channels than integration techniques to handle it. You proposed such an integrating technique and proved how advantageous it could be. You, sir, were 100% right. As the Japanese Navy—not the hypothetical Boskonian fleet—learned at an appalling cost." One underlying theme of the later Lensman novels was the difficulty in maintaining military secrecy—as advanced capabilities are revealed, the opposing side can often duplicate them. This point was also discussed extensively by John Campbell in his letter to Doc.[74] Also in the later Lensman novels, and particular after the "Battle of Klovia" broke the Boskonian's power base at the end of Second Stage Lensmen, the Boskonian forces and particularly Kandron of Onlo reverted to terroristic tactics to attempt to demoralize Civilization, thus providing an early literary glimpse into this modern problem of both law enforcement and military response. The use of "Vee-two" gas by the pirates attacking the Hyperion in Triplanetary (in both magazine and book appearances) also suggests anticipation of the terrorist uses of poison gases.

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The beginning of the story the Skylark of Space describes in relative detail the protagonists research into separation of platinum group residues, subsequent experiments involving electrolysis and the discovery of a process evocative of cold fusion (over 50 years before Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann). He describes a nuclear process yielding large amounts of energy and producing only negligible radioactive waste—which then goes on to form the basis of the adventures in the Skylark books. Smith's general description of the process of discovery is highly evocative of Röntgen's descriptions of his discovery of the X-ray. Another theme of the Skylark novels involves precursors of modern information technology. The humanoid aliens encountered in the first novel have developed a primitive technology called the "mechanical educator", which allows direct conversion of brain waves into intelligible thought for transmission to others or for electrical storage. By the third novel in the series, Skylark of Valeron, this technology has grown into an "Electronic Brain" which is capable of computation on all "bands" of energy—electromagnetism, gravity, and "tachyonic" energy and radiation bands included. This is itself derived from a discussion of reductionist atomic theory in the second novel, Skylark Three, which brings to mind modern quark and sub-quark theories of elementary particle physics. Literary influences on Smith's writingIn his 1947 essay "The Epic of Space", Smith listed (by last name only) authors he enjoyed reading: John W. Campbell, L. Sprague de Camp, Robert A. Heinlein, Murray Leinster, H. P. Lovecraft, A. Merritt (specifically The Ship of Ishtar, The Moon Pool, The Snake Mother, and Dwellers in the Mirage, as well as the character John Kenton), C.L. Moore (specifically Jirel of Joiry), Roman Frederick Starzl, John Taine, A.E. van Vogt, Stanley G. Weinbaum (specifically Tweerl [75]), and Jack Williamson. In a passage on his preparation for writing the Lensman novels, he notes that Clinton Constantinescu's "War of the Universe" was not a masterpiece,[76] but says that Starzl and Williamson were masters; this suggests that Starzl's Interplanetary Flying Patrol may have been an influence on Smith's Triplanetary Patrol, later the Galactic Patrol. The feeding of the Overlords of Delgon upon the life-force of their

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victims at the end of chapter five of Galactic Patrol seems a clear allusion to chapter twenty-nine of The Moon Pool; Merritt's account of the Taithu and the power of love in chapters twenty-nine and thirty-four also bear some resemblance to the end of Children of the Lens.[citation needed] Smith also mentions Edgar Rice Burroughs, complaining about loose ends at the end of one of his novels. Smith acknowledges the help of the Galactic Roamers writers' workshop, plus E. Everett Evans, Ed Counts, an unnamed aeronautical engineer, Dr. James Enright, and Dr. Richard W. Dodson. Smith's daughter, Verna, lists the following authors as visitors to the Smith household in her youth: Lloyd Arthur Eshbach, Heinlein, Dave Kyle, Bob Tucker, Williamson, Frederik Pohl, Merritt, and the Galactic Roamers.[citation needed] Smith cites Bigelow's Theoretical Chemistry–Fundamentals as a justification for the possibility of the inertialess drive.[citation needed] There is also an extended reference to Rudyard Kipling's "Ballad of Boh Da Thon" in Gray Lensman (chapter 22, "Regeneration," in a conversation between Kinnison and MacDougall). Sam Moskowitz's biographical essay on Smith in Seekers of Tomorrow states that he regularly read Argosy magazine, and everything by H.G. Wells, Jules Verne, H. Rider Haggard, Edgar Allan Poe, and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Moskowitz also notes that Smith's "reading enthusiasms included poetry, philosophy, ancient and medieval history, and all of English literature."[77] (Smith's grandson notes that he spoke, and sang, German.[78]) The influence of these is not readily apparent, except in the Roman section of Triplanetary, and in the impeccable but convoluted grammar of Smith's narration. Some influence of nineteenth century philosophy of language may be detectable in the account in Galactic Patrol of the Lens of Arisia as a universal translator, which is reminiscent of Frege's strong realism about Sinn, that is, thought or sense. Both Moskowitz and Smith's daughter Verna Smith Trestrail report that Smith had a troubled relationship with John Campbell, the editor of Astounding.[citation needed] It is noteworthy that Smith's most successful works were published under Campbell, but the degree of influence is

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uncertain. The original outline for the Lensman series had been accepted by F. Orlin Tremaine,[57] and Smith angered Campbell by showing loyalty to Tremaine at his new magazine, Comet, when he sold him "The Vortex Blaster" in 1941.[79] Campbell's announcement of Children of the Lens, in 1947, was less than enthusiastic.[80] Campbell later said that he published it only reluctantly,[81] though he praised it privately,[82] and bought little from Smith thereafter.He is Sometimes referred to as the father of space opera.

06. - Eliana DOMITILA Frascara (1920-2012). ------------By Alfredo Francisco Juillet Frascara.

Obituary. She died at the 11th. hours on Friday 13 April 2012. Domitila Frascara Eliana Silva. He was born on August 20, 1920. Mother of Alfredo Juillet.

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Rest in the General Cemetery of Santiago, Chile, street = The Sisters. BIOGRAPHY OF ELIANA DOMITILA. Domitila Frascara Eliana Silva was born in 1920, on August 20. His parents were Ramon Frascara and his mother was Carmen Silva Rebolledo. He was of fair complexion and blue eyes, blonde. He had a peaceful childhood in Santiago de Chile in the twenties, and after four years, his father, a chemist and owner of a company of condiments, gets seriously ill of pneumonia and dies, leaving his family in precarious economic situation, as the partner, who was a German, paid what he wants to Carmen. This made Carmen to rent a small house where he carried her daughters Lucia and the little Eliana , but after some time he went to her mother´s house to live with her. Her mother was Miss Domitilla Rebolledo Gaete, with a big house located in Santos Dumont Street number 730, opposite a hill in Santiago. Eliana Domitila remembered from childhood an orange tree in the first courtyard, and Aunt Trinidad, who remained single all his life, regulating the lives of others with their desire for cleanliness and order. Also witnessed the aunt punishing her sister Lucia, for anything (broken pot, etc..), And that leaves her saddened to see how the lack of a father left them undefended from others. To this and on top of that the new husband of her mother was a lecherous dark man unworthy to be with them. Eliana started working in Davis Laboratories with her cousin Fedora producing cosmetics. However, it does not last long there and married Mr. Alfredo Juillet Vasquez, at her 23 years of age. In the year 1943, with her husband in Avila street and unfortunately his mother in law Miss Clotilde Vasquez Elizondo, who loves to show that she knew better in the field of sweeping and cooking, and various other signs of rejection that makes her beg her husband to go somewhere else but without her mother in law.

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On 30 May 1944 her first child was born, Alfredo Francisco, and unfortunately comes with malformation on both feet operated on, was not quite right, and he became a withdrawn child , being molested at school by their peers. She pampers him and makes his life as best as possible, despite their often infirmities to the tonsils, which make him miss classes at school and so getting bad qualifications. Her husband rented a house Alfredo Eugenio Lezaeta street # 540, in 1950, where the couple could live alone. That life on the street seemed to be better, but suddenly appears a cousin of Eliana, called Aura Frascara Jovet, who was homeless after being raised by nuns (her mother died before she was 14 years old), and so it begins an affair with her husband Alfredo Juillet, with numerous scenes of jealousy rather than separate, she was preferring to wait until that premium will deign to leave, and then Aura makes reluctantly her exit and always dennying the treason that was taking place. Meanwhile she had another son, Paul Sergio, in the year of 1948, who was lively and dull in complexion, thin and very quiet. Also of a darker skin. Her husband was for ever working on his bicycle repair shop during all his life, and at a Sunday´s work in the Equestrian Club of Santiago, and soon Alfredo Eugenio gets a fixed lover and starts to arrive late to his home several days a week. This makes the married life of Eliana Domitilla a hell, and numerous discussions not only by the infidelities of Alfredo Eugenio, but also for money, which comes in small quantities at home, whether that business were scarce or Alfredo Eugenio spend money on extra marital affair ... In 1957 Alfredo Eugenio goes to the movies with his family in a 1947 Mercury car recently purchased second hand and going back home he clashes with another vehicle, whose driver was driving while intoxicated. Proceeds from this shock, Eliana Domitila suffered a broken facial bone and left with a broken leg. She recovers slowly, while her husband was

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The following year Eliana del Carmen was born,a daughter that sweetens the life of Eliana Domitilla, who still fights with her husband for the existence of that lover (who was having a daughter from him: Jeannette.) Domitila Eliana became embittered by the bad behavior of her husband, who despite the pleas of their children,was not abandoned. This perhaps stems from the education given to her by his mother Carmen,in which Chilean women accept all kinds of humiliations coming from their husbands, but remained with them until the end as if it were to suffer an ordeal sent by Above... In March 1964 his son Alfred gets a job. Then, in June 1965, he has the last fight with his angry father who was fighting for everything he did or not did. Eliana Domitila let him carry away an old battered bed and a small table to use at the rented room he had purchased. He was seventeen years old. She keeps on Sweeting her life with her daughter, helping her with her school homeworks. Thus, her daughter Eliana Del Carmen is happy with his mother, which smoothes everything - even her husband angry faces, frobidding him any nagging against Eliana del Carmen. Soon his second son Paul Sergio (born 1947) also leaves home, but he borrows a house from Alfredo Eugenio Juillet Vasquez, in which he could live with his new wife Susana Caroca, and two sons (Paul and Jean Michel Antoine) that follows. Paul Sergio helps his father in the bicycle repair shop, and Alfredo Juillet Frascara still was working in a textile factory. Then Eliana Del Carmen gets married in the year of 1978, and keeps on living at her parent´s house with her husband for some months at the same house, but then they go living with her husband Raul Reyes Andrade, a

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professional accountant, in a rented apartment in Avenida Marathon. In the following years, Eliana Domitila keeps on living at her home in Recoleta 935, and her husband keeps on going to the workshop, where his son Alfredo Francisco come to work in 1982, having went bankrupt the factory where he worked from the then old Monday day of the 14 March 1964. His son lives was living with his wife in Renca city, but leaves that house and come to live with them for some months in the years of 1979 and 1980, then go somewhere else because his wife loose a baby-to-be when Alfredo Eugenio ordered her to clean and sweep the whole house, thing she did and ends up loosing her unborn child. In 1977 his son Paul Sergio leaves her wife and two children , and begins a journey of no return to Argentina, and then to Greece where he died in 1981 in an explosion. Domitila Eliana receives the news of that death by his daughter in Cartagena, where she was in his summer home - she did cry bitterly for his dead son. She packed up and returned to Santiago, where he continues to regret this tragic death without the possibility of to recover her son, due to the fact that her husband prefers the money instead of his son (the money was for to use on the voyage from Greece or in cash to his widow Susana). In an illness she had in 1987, when her husband ignores her and went to work and leaving the house for days, Eliana Domitila prefers to be convalescing at her son Alfredo Francisco´s rented home, where she was taking care by her daughter in law. Soon she was recovered and stay as happy as she could with her life until she went back to her home at Recoleta 935, due to the pleas of Alfredo Eugenio, who said he repented of his bad behavior during her illness. Another motive of her going back to Recoleta 935 was the threat her husband told her: if she didn´t come back, he was going to sell that house for good...

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Lorraine was born in 1988, the first daughter from Eliana Del Carmen, and Eliana Domitila takes the duty of to be with them constantly visiting. On the 14th of May 1991 Alfredo Eugenio Juillet vasques, her husband dies of an heart attack. She keeps on living at the house of Recoleta and then, due to the length of time taken in the distribution of the estate of her husband, signed a document to bring everything to a judgment of tition, as her children weren´t agreeing in to sell. His departure from Recoleta 935 occurs because his son Alfredo Francisco was mad to see she signed that document's to sell everything. Eliana Domitila moves to the home of her daughter, who was now living at Las Condes county. She did that saying that his son was angry with her. Soon her daughter and husband moves to a better site, so she went with them as well. That was possibly her best time of her life, comfortably, albeit with rheumatic pains and other. She was taking care, and using the modern appliances that big mansion was to give. By reason of the distribution of the inheritance, his son in law Raul Reyes chides his son Alfredo Francisco by phone, and that was the main reason why Alfredo Francisco stop the visits, not to go where he has been insulted. She keeps on living with her daughter Eliana del Carmen until the Friday 13 April 2012, at the age of 91 years, when he died , amid the pain and sorrow of her daughter Eliana del Carmen, who left her at the next day at the mausoleum of the Silva family, in a street located in The Sisters, where the remains of her aunt Trinidad Silva and her sister Lucia Frascara , and a relative named Anne, were lying previously. Her daughter Eliana del Carmen says that although she never forgot names, she never forget the name of his eldest son.

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Then we could read Alfredo Juillet Frascara´s memories of his mother: MY MOTHER. My mother was pulling out of sight from the guy who took her mother =a second husband, marrying a man who constantly cheats her for good during all her life; she raised canaries, cook meals, and we grew up as father could afford, in old houses and with very little money for everything. SHe received many humiliations from her husband, and when he died in the lapse of a week she gives away or throw away everything he had used in addition to the bed and his memories. She lives at her home for aslong as three years, and then went to live with her daughter Eliana Juillet Frascara to a house at Tatio street in Las Condes, and then to the Anvil Street La Dehesa, places with much better environment in Santiago. They received the inheritance of her husband, sold the house in Recoleta 935, where she had lived since 1956, and other properties. Our second home was at Lezaeta street # 540, which had a side corridor, wider at the center forming a "backyard" of tiles, and 4 rooms on the right hand, a bathroom, a corridor which led to a battered loft and a small dark kitchen. Before that, my parents lives at Avila Street, with my grfandmother, who was a very difficult person to live with, not because she was angry looking, but because she works from daybreak to sundown hours, making noises and brushing the day away. When we were at Lezaeta street, a cousin of my mother, Aura Frascara Jove. appears to live for a while, but the most she did was play havoc with the marriage, as she was bedding my father and denying the affair with a straight poker face. Lezaeta street was one block long, and it was full of people with bad manners, fighting and quarreling almost every day. When young, I was raised in an environ full of quarreling young people too. The peace arrives in 1956: from there we moved to Recoleta 935, huge mansion, with many pieces large and very high ceilings, a central corridor of colored tiles, and seven rooms, two bathrooms and a large kitchen, plus four large pieces in the second courtyard, in which they had bougainvillea, orange, loquat, grapes, pomegranate tree, flowering plants, a cinnamon, a large clump of camellias,

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which cut stem in water and placed around the house. We were amazed to see the enormous house, comparing with the fetid and small house at Manzano Street... It was like to have moved to the field! When father died, I was sure there was going to be peace with my sister, but she change her ideas, and instead of to use the houses she decides to sell everything. For one part was good, because in that way my mother was going to have money, but also no house. I tried to finish the legal papers in order to sell, but the years were passing and the papers werent available because my lawyer was for ever delaying the delivery of them- due to the fact she was willing to be paid first. My sister ends the delay by hiring another lawyer, that did find the papers and did sold the houses, not without taking a good chunk of it all. Recoleta 935 was sold in 1999, following a judicial auction , along with all that father had bought in his life, except the summer house, which had problems arising from the sale of half of the property before his death . How was my mother: She was quiet, not talkative, and when she was talking, she did pauses in the conversation. Soon afterwards she was not talking any more, and if arguing with father she was soon crying bitterly . When widowed, she sought a way to live with her daughter Eliana (Nany ") and there was well received and had money and a good passing through - in a neighborhood of wealthy people. I'm glad this last had happened in her final 19 years, because she was almost her entire life suffering from one person to the other. First a childhood without a father, a youth with an immoral stepfather, and a long and troubled marriage with a husband who humiliated her when he wanted , although they had lapses of good living, but living with a man who had a mistress in the open. So, when she lived those past 19 years with her daughter Eliana del Carmen, having the peace that she had deserved in his life-was for me a joy to know about. She was an example of devotion to her husband and her children throughout all of her life...

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07. - ALMA TELESCOPE...................... BY Dieter Gundlich . With the telescope ALMA Chile has discovered that there are planets orbiting Fomalhaut, and are quite far from the star, which makes them a very low temperature. It has also discovered that there are many more stars and constellations, galaxies and black holes that were never imagined scientists, this marks a reality, is that the universe we see is, for all intents and purposes, eternal in length and time. To this we must add the string theory, which tells us that there are more universes, as many as one hundred thousand different universes, ie, parallel dimensions that would from the almost same laws as different to others that could not imagine to see and study. In a creation so great, so wonderful in their math, physics and chemistry, if not biological and material can not be that everything is left to chance, to say how one is created, since all the talk is extracted awareness that something or someone who has controlled and controls the creation. That is a man or a superior being, and is seen to be more than difficult, because of the complexity of the matter, besides that would have to be eternal for all purposes imaginable. I would have to be a super race with a super technology and a generous work towards life, and to think the doubt is installed immediately. Who created the universes and dimensions? That is the question that would solve the riddle of our intelligence, if the intelligence material occurs as a byproduct of talking, and see that nothing created could be the creator. Whether Nietzsche meant the philosophical basis for Hitler or his sister Elizabeth took care of it, but to what extent, scope and interpretation of things are valid. Mainly contempt for the weak and the need to overcome with pity for them as crucial to overcoming the race. German nationalism also believed to gather in the nation, a special breed, "the Aryan race" that would lead to a successful conclusion destinations in the world at any cost subjugating and dominating, suppressing and

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exterminating the opposition. But violence abuse of the legions of Hitler not only met his political opponents, also showed no mercy to the souls that Nietzsche described as the worst kind: the weak, the poor and those who pitied them became weak and amparaban. The National Socialist German politics monopolized and carried the promise of "Thus Spake Zarathustra", the end of "irrationalism" that characterizes it and results in the Second World War and a sense of debt to the man himself. When The Origin of Species appeared in 1859, Friedrich Nietzsche saw the phenomenon of evolution as a fact necessary but a transcendental meaning which Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution. The concept of natural selection applied not only to biology but to the economy, psychology and politics. Something that does not cost much to recognize certain political sectors. Unlike those who argue that Darwinism is the scientific basis of philosophical materialism of Marx spoke to us, Darwinism, as interpreted by Nietzsche, has a metaphysical character, which determines the true 'Genealogy of Morals'. So his work titled 1887. In "Genealogy of Morals', the German philosopher criticizes the British genealogists psychologists of the time trying to find the source of morality, but fail to locate the historical origin of the concepts' good 'and' bad 'according to their usefulness : The 'good', at first, was appointed to all unselfish and on behalf of someone. The "bad" was all the actions produced in their name but to no avail oneself. inglésespañolfrancésAlpha For Nietzsche, there was something more than the quest for survival, describing Darwin, who drives a man to grow, win and keep winning: It is man's desire to be better than others. Is that precisely one of its most momentous concepts which he called 'The Will to Power'. History has shown that the term 'good' had its origin in the aristocracy,

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powerful groups in the conquerors, in the social elite. Today, that form the aristocracy aristocracy intellectual and economic. The 'bad', on the other hand, what are the common people, the people, the conquered and the lower classes. Criticism begins at the moment when Europe was Christianized judaizó for later. The slave morality, as Nietzsche calls it, has carried out the revaluation of values, where after concepts like love, kindness, compassion, altruism, is hidden resentment and revenge of the defeated and weak, under a false image of justice and kindness. The intent of the transvaluation of values ??is assume an identity of superiority over the nobles. Thus, Nietzsche does not support the moral, but exposes Christian morality, which has emerged as the only true morality, and gives a new approach, an approach that favors life, against Christian morality which denies

08. - HISTORY of Mesopotamia ...................BY Laura Smirnoff.

SYRIA Sumerian city of MARI ROYAL PALACE Mari was an ancient city located west of the Euphrates in modern Tell Hariri (Syria). It was inhabited since the fifth millennium BC and its greatest splendor was between 2900 to. C. and 1798 a. C., when it was sacked by Hammurabi. In the Bible, Abraham passed through Mari on his journey from Ur to Haran. Mari was discovered in 1933 east of the Syrian side, near the border of Iraq. A Bedouin tribe was digging a lot to build a tomb to bury a deceased person who died recently when they found the head of a statue. After this news reached the French authorities at that time had control of Syria, the report was studied starting the excavations at the site shortly afterwards, on December 14, 1933 by archaeologists from the Louvre in Paris. The discoveries came fast and the temple of Ishtar was found in only one month. Archaeologists Mari classified as "the most west of the Mesopotamian culture." Since the beginning of the excavations, some 25,000 cuneiform

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tablets were found. Mari has been excavated every year since 1933 (except between 1939 to 1951). Less than half of 1000 by 600 meter area of ??Mari had been unearthed in 2005. Although archaeologists have tried to determine how many levels deep possesses, this has not been possible. According to French archaeologist Andre Parrot, "each time it starts a vertical excavation for the history of the site under the virgin soil, is a major discovery that makes horizontal drilling to resume." History Mari has been inhabited since the fifth millennium BC, but most important was the third and second millennium BC. The Mari population was Semitic, probably formed by the same migration as that of eblaitas and Akkadian. [Edit] First Golden Age From 2900 to. C. The city flourished since it became a strategically important point between Sumerian cities of lower Mesopotamia and the cities of northern Syria. Sumer required building materials like wood and stone from northern Syria, and these materials had to go through Mari to get to Sumer. [Edit] First Destruction After this important period, Mari was destroyed around 2350 a. C. This destruction came in a period of relative decline in importance in the region in which the city had been reduced to little more than a small town. Historians have different opinions about who destroyed the city, some say it was Sargon of Akkad (who mentioned that passed through Mari on his famous campaign in the west), while others say it was the eblaitas traditionally Mari commercial rival. [Edit] Second Golden Age The city revived again under an Amorite dynasty. This second Golden Age began around 1900 a. C. as documented by two important archaeological discoveries. The first was the palace of ZimriLim, a king of Mari, which had about 300 rooms. The palace was possibly the greatest of his time, and had a great reputation in the cities and neighboring kingdoms. Supposedly, King Yahmad of Aleppo and the king of Ugarit expressed their desire to visit the palace and see his glory with his own eyes. One of the tablets of Zimri-Lim. King of Mari, dating from 1780 to. C. The other important finding was the state archives where they found

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approximately 25,000 cuneiform tablets. According to Andre Parrot, "this has brought a complete revision of the history of the Ancient Near East, with over 500 new names, which involve redesigning the geographical map of the ancient world." [Edit] Final Destruction Mari was destroyed around 1798 to. C. by Hammurabi. This is known thanks to numerous state archives tablets that count as Hammurabi betrayed his former ally Zimri-Lim, and defeated him in battle. After this destruction, the city was inhabited by Assyrians and Babylonians, but their size was a village until the arrival of the Greeks when they disappeared from history forever. oooooooooooooooooooooooo JORDAN Jerash Jerash is the name of an ancient city of the Decapolis. Its ruins are one of the most important Roman cities and best preserved in the Middle East, and are located in the Gilead region, northwest of Jordan. Recent excavations show that Jerash was already inhabited during the Bronze Age and Iron Age (3200 a. C. - 1200 a. C.). After the Roman conquest in 63 a. C., Jerash and its surroundings were annexed to the Roman province of Syria, and later joined the Decapolis. At 90 d. C. joined the province of Arabia, which included the city of Philadelphia (now Amman). The Romans ensured peace and security in the area, allowing its people to devote their time and energies to economic development and construction. In the second half of the century, the city of Jerash achieved great prosperity. In 106 the emperor Trajan constructed roads that traversed the provinces, increasing the business of the city. Hadrian visited Jerash in the years 129-130. A Latin inscription records the dedication made religious members of the imperial guard who wintered there. The triumphal arch, or Arch of Hadrian, was erected to solemnize the visit. The city reached a size of 800,000 square meters indoor. In the year 614, the Persian invasion caused the rapid decline of Jerash. However, the city experienced a new period of splendor during the Umayyad period, as shown by recent excavations. In 746, a major earthquake destroyed much of Jerash and its surroundings. During the Crusades, some of the monuments were converted into strengths, including the Temple of Artemis. Small settlements

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continued to exist in the city during the periods of the Ayyubids, Mamluks and Ottomans, and in 1878 moved into its territory from Central Asia Circassians. Since the 1920s, excavations and restorations of the city have been almost continuous. The most notable monuments are: the Arch of Hadrian, the circus / hippodrome, two immense temples dedicated to Zeus and Artemis, the Forum, oval, and surrounded by a beautiful colonnade, a long colonnaded street, two theaters ( the great South Theatre and smaller North Theatre), two bathrooms, a few minor temples and city walls almost complete. Most of these monuments were built by donations from the wealthier inhabitants of the city. From 350 in the city was an important Christian community and between 400 and 600 were built more than thirteen churches, many with rich mosaic floors. The cathedral was built in the fourth century. The quality and degree of conservation of archaeological remains, has been called the Pompeii Asian Jerash. It is the second largest tourist attraction in Jordan after Petra. 00000000000000000 Syria Aleppo Fortress Aleppo (Halab or Arabic:?? To mean "fresh milk") is a city and province in northern Syria. The city has a population of 4,393,000 inhabitants (2007), which makes it the second largest city after Damascus. It is one of the oldest in the region, known in antiquity as Khalpe, Beroea to the ancient Greeks and Turks to Halep. It is in a strategic position halfway on the trade route linking the Mediterranean and the Euphrates Historically documented population in the city since at least 1800 a. C., according to Hittite sources. During the dynasty was Amorite capital of the kingdom (up to approx. The 1600 a. C.), to return then to be Hittite. He was later Assyrian and Persian. The Greeks took in 333 a. C., and Seleucus I Nicator gave the name of Beroea. When, at 64 a. C., Syria became part of the Roman Empire the city was also integrated into the dominion of Rome. He was part of the Byzantine Empire until its loss at the hands of the Arabs in 637. In the tenth century the Byzantines again (between 974 and 987). The Crusaders besieged it twice, in 1098 and 1124, but never conquered. Saladin became and remained in the hands of the Arabs until its

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capture by the Mongols in 1260. He was then a city of the Ottoman Empire (from 1517). In the fall of the Ottoman Empire, became the French colonial administration, but returned to Turkey, when it recovered Antioch in 19381939. The Ancient City of Aleppo was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. Within the statement, besides the historical center, surrounded by a wall with seven gates, old neighborhoods are included in the north, northeast and east and several monuments isolated further from the historic center. ooooooooooooooooooooooooo Hama Syria Hama (Arabic:???, Hama, pronounced [Hama] Hamath biblical "fortress") is a city on the Orontes river in central Syria north of Damascus. The city is the historic site of Hamat. The Amorite people colonized the area during the third millennium Aclos Amorites came from Mari on the Euphrates River about 250 kilometers east of Hama, colonizing many parts of what is now Syria and Iraq. Although the city is not mentioned in sources before the first millennium BC, the site seems to have enjoyed great prosperity around 1500 BC, during which it is assumed that belonged to the Amorites Mittanni Empire, an empire that extencio along the Euphrates in northeastern Syria . Mitani was later overthrown by the Hittites, who controlled all of northern Syria after the famous battle of Kadesh against the Egyptians under Ramses II near Homs in 1285 BC By the turn of the millennium, the ancient Hittite Empire had fallen and centralized Hama is proclaimed as the capital of a prosperous kingdom neoHittite Aramaean known in the Bible as Hamath (Aramaic Hittite: Amatuwana, in Hebrew:????) that it spread widely, particularly in what is now Israel. Hittite and Aramaic peoples lived in relative peace, coexisting with other states in the region, as Carchemish. The most significant of all was Damascus Aramean states, who became the leader of a federation of states Arameans of which Hamath was a member. Gradually, Aramaic

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. became the most widely used language in the Middle East.

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When the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III (858-824 AD) conquered northern Syria reached Hamath in 835 BC, marking the beginning of the Assyrian inscriptions concerning the kingdom. led a coalition of cities in Syria against the invasion of Assyrian armies according to Assyrian sources, they were confronted by 4,000 chariots, 2000 cavalry 62,000 infantry and 1,000 camel jockeys in the battle of Carcar. The Assyrian victory seems to have been more While a tie, In 743 BC, Tiglath-pileser III took a number of cities in the territory of Hamath territories distributed among his generals, and forcibly displaced 1,223 people to inhabit the upper valley of the Tigris, which they demands to the king of Hamath Hamat is one of the cities again conquered by Assyrian troops. More than 30,000 people were deported to Ullaba and replaced with captives of the Zagros. After the fall of the northern kingdom of Israel, the king of Hamath Ilu-Bi'di (Jau-Bi'di) led a failed revolt of the newly organized Assyrian provinces of Arpad, Simirra, Damascus, and Samara. It was this revolt that led to the deportation of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Sargon II wiped out the city, which recolonized with 6,300 Assyrians and their king condemned to be flayed alive in Assyria. Were also carried Nimrud ivory furniture adorning their kings The conquests of the New Assyrian Empire came to include most of the Near East to the coast Mediterráneoa. However, his empire fell, when in 612 BC an allied army of Babylonians and Medes captured Nineveh, the Assyrian capital. The Assyrians were replaced briefly by the Babylonians as the rulers of Syria, but in the 540a.c. Hama, like the rest of Syria, was part of the Persian Empire. The few biblical citations that report indicate that Hamath was the capital of a kingdom Canaanites (Genesis 10:18; 2 Kings 23:33; 24:21), whose king congratulated the King David for his victory over Hadad-ezer, king of Soba (2 Samuel 8: 11.09; Chronicles 13:9-11). Solomon apparently took possession of Hamath and of its territory. The prophet Amos called the city Hamath the Great. In fact, the name appears to stem from Phoenician

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khamat, in the second half of the fourth century BC Syria was under the influence of Greco-Roman instead of Arabic and Persian cultures. Alexander campaigned in, 334 to 323 BC Syria sometiendoa Hellenic influence. Since the country was on the trade routes from Asia to Greece, Hama, and many other cities of Syria, once again became rich through trade. After the death of Alexander the Great Middle East conquests were divided among his generals, Seleucus Nicator and became the ruler of Syria and the founder of the Seleucid dynasty. Under the Seleucids there was a resurgence in the fortunes of Hama. For the Syrians were allowed to return to the city, which was renamed Epiphania. The Seleucid rule began to decline, however, in the next two centuries, and Arab dynasties began to take control of cities in this part of Syria, including Hama. The Romans hizieron by the original settlements, as Hama and made their own. They met little resistance when they invaded Syria under Pompey in 64 BC, after which Hama became part of the Roman province of Syria, governed from Rome by a proconsul. Hama was an important city during the Greek and Roman period, but archaeological evidence is scarce. In 330, the capital of the Roman Empire moved to Byzantium, and the city continued to prosper. In the time was known as Byzantine Hama Hamath. Byzantium Roman rule meant that the Christian religion has been reinforced throughout the Near East, and churches were built in Hama and other cities. The Byzantine historian John of Epiphany was born in Hama in the sixth century. Muslim rule During the Muslim conquest of Syria in the seventh century, Hama was conquered by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah in 638 or 639 and the city regained its old name, which has since been preserved. After his capture, was under the administration of Jund Hims and remained so throughout the empire of the Umayyads until the ninth century. The Umayyads built the Great Mosque of Hama in the eighth century that served as a model for the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.

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Although the history of the city is dark at this time, we know that Hama was a walled city with a ring of outlying towns. He remained under the control of the Hamdanid. rulers of Aleppo in the tenth century and remained so until the twelfth century these have been considered the dark years of Hama. The Byzantines under Emperor Nicephorus Phocas stormed the city in 968 and burned the Great Mosque. In the eleventh century, the Fatimids gained sovereignty over northern Syria during this period, the Mirdasids ruled Hama. Tancred, Prince of Galilee, took in 1108, but in 1114 the Crusaders lost to Saladin definitely. In 1157 an earthquake destroyed the city. In 1175, Hama was taken by Saladin, the city granted his nephew, Omar alMuzaffar, and placed under the control of the Ayyubid family. This marked the beginning of an era of stability and prosperity in the Ayyubid Hama ruling almost continuously until 1342. The geographer Yaqut Al Hamawi, born in Hama in 1225 described him as a great city surrounded by a great wall. Hama was sacked by the Mongols in 1260, like other cities in Syria, but the Mongols were defeated that year and again in 1303 by the Mamluks to the Ayyubid sucedióron as rulers of the region. Hama briefly became the Mamluk control in 1299 after the death of the governor of al-Mansur, Mahmud II. However, unlike other cities earlier Ayyubid, Mamluk Ayyubid returned to the family of Hama by Abu al-Fida, historian and geographer, governor of the city reigning from 1310 to 1332. He described his city as a very old ... mentioned in the book of the Israelites. It is one of the nicest places in Syria. After his death, was succeeded by his son Muhammad al-Afdal eventually lost favor with the Mamluks and was deposed. Therefore, Hama came under the direct control of the Mamluks. Gradually extended to the banks of the Orontes River, in the neighborhood of the right bank is connected to the city proper by a bridge of new construction. The city on the left is divided into upper and lower portions, each of them was surrounded by a wall. . The city was full of palaces, markets, mosques, madrasas, a hospital, and over thirty different wells. It was during the reign of the Mamluks that many of the wells, which began during the rule of the Ayyubid dynasty, were refurbished and expanded, and their numbers increased. Water and other pipeline systems were built to

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bring water from the river and use it to irrigate nearby fields. Moreover, a special aqueduct brought drinking water to the neighboring city of Hama in Salamiyah. Battuta visited Hama in 1335 and noted that the Orontes River, to the pleasant city to live, with its many gardens full of trees and fruits, also speaks of a large suburb called al-Mansuriyyah (the name of an Ayyubid emir) containing; a very nice market, a mosque and baths, in 1400, conquered Timurlane Hama, along with nearby Homs and Baalbek. Ottoman Empire The period of prosperity of the dynasty of the Mamelukes ended in 1516, when the Ottoman Turks Mamluk Syria conquered after defeating them in Battle of Marj Dabiq near Aleppo. Hama, and the remaining Syria came under the Ottoman rule of Constantinople . Under the Ottomans, Hama gradually became more important in the administrative structure of the region. Hama, once again became an important route business ranging from Mediterranean to Asia. A number of caravaneses were built in the city, as Khan Rustum Pasha dating from 1556. Syria was then divided into Hama three governorates and was ruled by the government based in Aleppo. Then in the eighteenth century, became part of

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Governor of Damascus. The governors of Damascus in this time were Azems, which also ruled in other parts of Syria, by the Ottomans. Erected sumptuous Hama residences, including Asad Khan Azem Palace and Pasha, which were built by Asad Pasha al-Azem, which Hama ruled for several years until 1742. Then, caravansaries were 14 in the city, mostly used for storage and distribution seeds, cotton, wool and other raw materials. After approval of the Law vilayet in 1864, Hama became in the capital of the Sanjak of Hama (winning the city asministrativos powers, Modern Age Ottoman rule ended in 1917 after its defeat in World War at the hands of the allied forces. Hama became part of the French Mandate of Syria. To then, Hama had become what has been maintained: a provincial town of medium size, with a important market for an agricultural area rich in cereals, cotton and sugar beets. He became famous as

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. center landlords of large estates worked by the peasants. From the early 1940, conflict broke out important class of agricultural workers seeking reforms in Hama. Syria agreed to complete independence from France in 1946. Akram al-Hawrani, member of a poor family in remarkable Hama, began to agitate for land reform and Hama sociales.Hizo better base Arab Socialist Party which later merged with other socialist party, the Baath. The party ascended the power in 1963 and marked the end of the power elite landowner. . In the spring of 1964, Hama became at the center of a revolt by the forces conservative encouraged by the speeches of the Mosque preachers denouncing the policies of Ba'ath. The Syrian government sent tanks and troops to the quarters of the ancient city of Hama to crush the insurrection. In 1964, the unrest caused dozens of deaths, and in the 1970's, Hama became an important

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source of opposition to the regime during the uprising Sunni

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Islam began in 1976. In the spring of 1982, Government forces led by the president's brother, Rifaat al-Assad, quelled the rebellion with means very hard. Tanks and artillery bombed neighborhoods hands of the insurgents indiscriminately, and Government forces are accused of having executed thousands of prisoners and civilians after subjecting residents the revolt. In the cleaning after the end of the fighting, large city districts, including most of the old city, were leveled by bulldozers and then rebuilt, changing the face of the city. Deaths in the slaughter of Hama have been estimated to range between 5,000 and 20,000, although no reliable figures are available. (Opponents regime, particularly the Muslim Brotherhood, the encrypted between 30,000 and 40,000.) The story is removed from the books officers and is considered highly sensitive in Syria. nnnnnnnnnnnn Apamea Syria Pharmake formerly, was fortified and enlarged by Seleucus I Nicator in 300 BC, the name

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. comes from his wife, Apama - The fortress was placed on a hill, To the banks of the river Orontes, between lake and wetlands, which gave him a form of peninsula, hence its other name Cherronêsos. Seleucus had his commissariat there, 500 elephants, 30,000 mares and 300

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stallions. The pretender, Diodotus Tryphon, made Apamea the base of operations. Located at a crossroads strategic trade of the East, the city flourished so that its population swelled to half a million persons. It was one of the four cities tetrapolis Syria. Josephus relates, that Pompey marching south from their winter quarters, probably in or near Antioch, razed the fortress of Apamea in 64 a. C. and the city was annexed to the Roman Republic. In the revolt of Syria, declared himself against Julius Caesar for three years until the arrival of Cassius, in 46 years before Christ. Destroyed by Chosroes I in the seventh century was partly rebuilt and known in Arabic as Famia or Fâmieh, and destroyed by an earthquake in 1152. At the time of the Crusades was still an important and flourishing,

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. and was occupied by Tancred. The Acropolis hill is now occupied by the ruins Call the Kalat-Mudik (the Kulat-Mudik). The ruins of a strong ornamental character, and a huge extension, still standing, the remains probably the temples of which Sozomen speaks, part of the city is enclosed in an old castle on a hill and rest is in the plain. Apamea remains a titular see of the Catholic Church Roman Apamenus in Syria, the seat has been vacant since death of the last bishop in 1974. Apamea grew into an important center

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culture and philosophy of the Christian era. Highlights of Apamea, at first glance, the Cardo Maximus, the main road that crossed the city from north to south and I was flanked by countless fluted columns, many of which still stand. This street came to reach two kilometers. Most of the residues that remain belong to the Roman and Byzantine. The Roman theater was, in turn, spectacular, with a colonnade of almost 150 meters, but earthquakes have barely recognize today. Another sights of the environment is the Citadel of Apamea

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. Mudiq of huge towers and defending the square from the

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Orontes River. It houses an archaeological museum where we can enjoy the beautiful mosaics recovered from the city. Apamea, despite the importance of the excavation carried out since 1930, is still a large reserve archeology for the future, which has not suffered, as other ancient sites from looting ñññññññññññññ Jordan Petra tomb of the floorsPetra (Arabic???? Al-Batra ') is an important location archeology in Jordan, and the capital of ancient kingdom Nabataean. Petra's name comes from Greek p? T? To means stone, and his name is entirely appropriate, not it is a city built of stone, but literally, carved and sculpted in stone. The settlement of Petra is located in a narrow valley, the east of the Arava valley that extends from the sea Dead to the Gulf of Aqaba. The most famous remains Petra is undoubtedly its buildings carved into the same Rock Valley (hemispeos), in particular buildings known as the Khazneh (the Treasury) and the Deir (the Monastery).

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. Founded in antiquity to the late seventh century. C. by the Edomites, was occupied in the sixth century. C. by Nabataeans who made it prosper due to its location in the caravan routes carrying incense, spices and other luxury goods between Egypt, Syria, Arabia and the southern Mediterranean.

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By the eighth century, changing trade routes and earthquakes suffered, led to the abandonment of the city by its inhabitants. Was forgotten in the modern era, and the site was rediscovered for the western world by a Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812. Many buildings whose facades are directly carved into the rock, forming a single monumental that as of December 6, 1985, enrolled in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The area surrounding the place is also, since 1993, National Park archeology. From the July 7, 2007, Petra is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Period Edomite

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. According to Leon de Laborde, the first traces of the sedentary Edomites facilities at the site of Petra

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back to the end of the eighth and seventh century. C. These people then dominated the region. The Edomites chose installed in the hills near Petra, Umm al-Beira, and there are several sites on the tops) The same place later occupied by the Nabataeans. Poor builders, but very renowned for ceramics. The region suffered many raids by the Israelite tribes, but remained under the control of the Edomites at least until the annexation of territory to the Edomite Persian Empire. According to the Bible opposed the passage of Moses in Exodus, the descendants of Esau, the brothers enemies of the Hebrews. In an effort to locate the stages of the Exodus, Laborde and the various browsers are Biblical names of several places: Wadi Moussa Moses Creek, Al-Khazne Firaun, treasure of Pharaoh. Petra, as Bosra not be known until the twentieth century, as the city ??mentioned in the Bible (II Kings, xiv, 7, Isaiah, XVI, 1) with the name of Sela I sela, "rocher" in Hebrew), the capital of Edom, before the

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Archaeological investigations demonstrate that it was two different cities, Sela are further north. Nabataean Period The overland trade routes of the Nabateans made Petra important trade center for época.La arrival of the Nabateans, Arab nomadic people, dates probably to the sixth century BC, when they enter the country of Edom and took control of Petra. The Edomites moved to the Hebron region, leaving the settlement. The Nabataean period is better documented than other times antiquity, but most documents (written papyrus and other media that break easily) were destroyed, sources dating from this period are scarce, we are more accurate data than were recorded in the sandstone walls of the city and stages of the construction of monuments, to help rebuild this time in its history. In the year 312 BC, General Antigonus Borgne fails to capture the city. In the fourth century. BC, the city covers more than ten

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. square kilometers. The Nabataeans are known for their technique of high quality ceramic. Towards the end of the fourth century BC and early second, the Nabataeans seem totally independent despite

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regional dominance of the Ptolemies and the end of the third century. C. the Nabataeans support Antiochus III, who expelled the Ptolemies to the south. Among the year 93 a. C and 90 a. C, the Nabataean king Obodas I defeated Alexander Jannaeus in the Golan Heights, Ending the expansion of the Hasmoneans in Petra and its kingdom. He conquered the countries of Moab and Gilead, east of Jordan will lose later, despite its new JANNEE victory over the year 82. In the year 85 Obodas Seleucid Antiochus I beat XII died in combat. At his death he was deified by Obodas Nabataeans who organized and built his cult in the Deir his honor. King Aretas III, son of Obodas I extend the kingdom of Nabataeans to Damascus. The city developed thanks to trade in incense route. This historic route land began in Yemen along the west coast of

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Arabia and Petra was divided into two branches: one to the carrying northwest Gaza, and another to the northeast in the direction to Damascus. Water and security Petra made an oasis for caravans in southern Arabia, especially charged luxury goods spices and silk from India, Ivory Africa, Red Sea pearl s and incense from southern Arabia, among other highly sought after). Resin Boswellia (the "incense tree") was sought in the ancient world as a religious offering, especially valuable and also as a medicine. The intermediary business and tariffs produced significant benefits for Nabataeans, who gave the caravan to pass water and housing night, in exchange for payment. Tombs Nabataean king Reales.El Obodas Malichos I and III Roman made many expeditions failed in Saudi Included in the years 25 and 24 a.de C., the prefect of Egypt Gaius Aelius Gallus. The Romans tried to find the origin of spices and perfumes with which the Nabataeans traded for not paying their intermediation. The city reached its peak in the year 50. 20000 had

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. inhabitants, but sources differ greatly from this issue: other estimates range from 30000 to 40000 inhabitants. During the reign of King III Obodas Nabataean kingdom experienced a significant cultural development. At that time built most of the tombs and temples.

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The Nabataeans worshiped the Arab gods and goddesses of the pre-Islamic era, and some of their kings deified. Dushara is the main male god with his female trinity: Uzza, Allat, and Manat. Many statues carved in the rock show these gods and goddesses. Diodorus and Strabo are the only writers known of this period who left written testimony of Petra. These texts realize the wealth of this Arab people from the caravan trade between Asia and Europe, but disagree on the way life were sedentary or nomadic, rural or urban. The Petra Semitic name is also mentioned in the Qumran manuscripts. Roman Period The Roman province of Arabia Pétrea.Una confederation Cities composed of ten states located not far from

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Petra called Decapolis appeared in the time of the Romans. Shall be submitted to Rome in 63. C. Between 64 and 63. BC, the Nabataeans territories were conquered by General Pompey annexed to Roman Empire, in its campaign to reconquer the cities taken by the Hebrews. However, after victory, the empire gave Petra and the Nabataeans a relative autonomy, with the primary obligation to pay taxes and to protect the borders of the tribes of desert. In 106, probably after the death of the last Nabataean king Rabbel II Soter, since apparently there was no no battle, the kingdom was annexed by order of Roman Emperor Trajan by Cornelius Palma governor Syria. This made Bosra, which will quickly become the second largest city in the Nabataean kingdom, the capital of the new Roman province of Arabia (Saudi Provence). The emperor Trajan renamed Bosra (then called Bostra) as Bostra Traiane Nea or New Bostra of Trajan, and Petra received the honorary title of Metropolis (Metropolis).

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. A little later in the year 114 Petra will become the base for attacks against the Empire of the Parthians in Iran. The opening of sea routes in Roman times was gave a fatal blow to Petra and the Nabataeans to divert trade flows in the city. Since the occupation Roman, some caravans are stopping at Petra, but become progressively less frequent over time despite the construction of a Roman road of 400 km, connecting Bosra, Petra and the Gulf of Aqaba. The Emperor Hadrian was the city ??in 131 and gave it its name: Petra Hadriana. The increase in construction reveals that the city met Yet a prosperous period during the "Pax Romana." With the reorganization of the empire, initiated by Emperor Diocletian became the capital of the Palaestina taertia or Palaestina salutaris. According to Arab tradition, Petra is where Moses Exodus of Israel from Egypt, made spew forth source rock, when struck with his cane. The village near Wadi Moussa and some other places, still remember Moses. Myriam, the sister of Moses, has a

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tomb there.

Byzantine Period Detail of a Byzantine mosaic of the church of Petra.El Petra entered Christianity in the fourth century, almost 500 years after the establishment of a center Petra commercial. In 325, Christianity became a religion state of the empire, which also influenced the province and in Petra. In 330, Emperor Constantine I Great created the Eastern Roman Empire with its capital in Constantinople. Petra and the province became part of the empire. Petra is now part of the Byzantine Empire and the rule encouraged, as throughout its territory, spreading the faith by building Christian churches. The city ??residents remain fundamentally true to their beliefs, but in 350 he was appointed in Petra a bishop, and a century later built on the

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large city churches. Athanasius of Alexandria refers to a bishop of Petra named Asterius. The Deir is even used as a church during this period and the cross painted on their walls, and three churches discovered during the excavations. The vast Tomb of the urns Nabataean era, corresponding to the tomb of II or IV Aretas Malichos Philopatris becomes a sort of cathedral in 446. North of Petra is several tombs engraved with a cross, indicating that Christians buried their dead there. A strong earthquake in Petra in 363 caused damage monuments, including the theater, and aqueducts. Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, for example, says that almost Half the city was destroyed when it happened earthquake, the third hour, and in particular to the ninth time of night, when describing the powerful earthquake and its reply. The city was already weakened from the start of Roman rule by the decrease of their activities trade, it was rebuilt and empties slowly

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. of its inhabitants. Middle Ages Fortress in the ruins of Al-Karak, halfway between

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Amman and Petra.La Islamic conquest of the region in the years 629 to 632 seems to have been interested in Petra. The last Petra is mentioned in a text written by Anthenogenes, bishop of the city, towards the end of the century V or early VI. Conquered by the Arabs, whose action on the city not known, Petra, had gradually emptying its inhabitants and had become a mere village in the year 700, is ultimately occupied by the Crusaders before being completely forgotten. During the First Crusade, the city was occupied by Baldwin of Boulogne the Kingdom of Jerusalem and is the second serfdom of the barony of Al-Karak in the Lordship of Outre Jourdain. During Frankish domination, were built several cross fortifications on the strengths of Al-Wu'ayrah and Al-Habis. The city remains in the hands of the Crusaders until 1187,

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when Saladin defeated at the Battle of Hattin and AlKarak taking possession of the region. A German pilgrim named Thetmar said he spent about Petra in 1217 and the Sultan Az-Zahir Rukn ad-Din Baybars Bunduqdari al-crossed the city in 1276. The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity for the Middle Ages, attracting some visitors left record of his visit, as the sultans of Egypt Bibares early thirteenth century. Modern Period Jean Louis Burckhardt.Petra was discovered to the world West in 1812 by Jean Louis Burckhardt, a traveler Swiss disguised as Arabic, calling Sheikh Ibrahim. Continued the route between Damascus and Egypt through Jordan. Heard to say that outside the village of Wadi Moussa, were in the midst of a natural fortress ruins extraordinary. In this region, which then belonged to Ottoman Empire, is wary of people who pry into the antiquities considered "works infidels "because at that time the political situation and

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115 Excellere EzineCasa Juillet. religious was tense. Burckhardt was presented as a pilgrim who wanted to sacrifice a goat to the Prophet Aaron

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whose tomb, built in the thirteenth century, was supposed to was beyond the ruins, on top of Jebel Haroun. Accompanied by his guide, he crossed the ancient city August 1812, unable to stand for a moment to take notes or drawings, but mindful of the importance of such and the fact remains that these ruins near Wadi Moussa were those of Petra. Excited, spread the word among Westerners installed in the East and in Egypt and setting out its conclusions in the libroTravels in Syria and the Holy Land, to be published in 1823, five years later his death. Were carried out other attempts to explorations of Petra despite the distrust of people. In May 1818, (six years after the expedition Burckhardt), a dozen people of Jerusalem, John William Bankes the drogman Finati Giovanni and officers Naval C. L. Irby and J. Mangles, manage to keep some while in town, unfortunately, no more than two days, because the rivalry between the chiefs of the tribes they

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forced to leave earlier than planned. From 1828 he started the first real mission archaeological. And since 1830, the settlement becomes a place to visit, supplemented by pilgrimages religious and a source of profit for many heads of tribes They are the ancient Mesopotamian Gods from Nibiru Planet.Ancient stories in Archaeological from another planet who discoveries.Humanoids I were the gods of Sumer.Icons of history from the early days of Humanity.Special Tribute to Zecharia Sitchin and historical writer Books famous around the Annunaki.Paintings Artist Painter ERNEST Descals in Art Paint artist dedicates collection.The This series of paintings to the historical concepts: ANNUNAKI-Annunaki-NIBIRU-PLANETS-SUMERSUMERIANZecharia Sitchin-ANCIENT GODS-Mesopotamia-MesopotamiaNEPHILIM-Nephilim-UNA-ENKI-ENLIL INANNA-EN-KI-EDENZIDURSAGilgameshFLYING SAUCERS-EDIN-Annuna-EA-Ningizzida-URUK-Ninlil-EKURNippur-nurta Ninhursag-NI-SIN-UTU-DUMUZZI-HISTORY-

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Archeology-ZODIAC-, etc,,,. Collection of Paintings of Artist Painter ERNEST DESCALS.Manresa, Barcelona, ??Catalunya, Catalonia 1956. Special Tribute to the historical investigadir Zecharia Sitchin and its very interesting conclusions on the first times of humanity on our planet Earth, which has published in their Libros.Los Annunaki, Annunaki beings from the planet Niburu, who came to Earth to technological purposes in their search for minerals help the survival of their own planet, were proclaimed gods of antiquity in civilization Sumerian, creative paintings Mesopotamia.Las em plastic Catalan working various aspects of this broad cosmogony in a collection of works of art related with the various characters, their circumstances and technical achievements, astronomical, artistic and spiritual those who contributed to the men and women of the times paramount, particularly the painting comes to issues of Genetics, Fertility and technological advances that Ceacion could promote the Human Being.

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Old UFO NEWS. 18-04-2012 15:34 Amaury Riviera, 1988, abducted with 40 others. A dark-skinned alien (but not African) would come a asteroid would cause a catastrophe, a remnant of the people would live on an artificial island on the sea polluted completely.

17:51 19-04-2012

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