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COPYRfGHT DEPOSm

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

The
Fireless
A
Manual
AppHances
for

Cook Book
and Use of Cooking by Retained Heat

of the Construction

WITH

250
By

RECIPES

MARGARET
Author
of
of "Cereal

J.

MITCHELL
;

Foods and Their Preparation"; formerly Dietitian Manhattan State Hospital, New York Director of
Domestic Science
Public Schools, Bradford, Pa.; Instructor in Domestic Science, Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, Pa.
in

New York
Doubleday, Page
1909

&

Company

o.

<V
ALL EIGHTS BESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION
INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN

COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

PUBLISHED, MAY, I909

[LIBRARY

Of

CONGRESS

Two

Copies Received

Copyright Entry

Assistance

is

gratefully

acknowledged from Mr. Abra-

ham Henwood,
who
istry in the

Professor of Chemistry at Drexel Institute,

supplied valuable information and revised the chem-

Appendix.
also

Thanks are lunch room in

due

to

Mrs. Runyon, manager of the

the Buffalo

Chamber

of

Commerce, and

to

Miss Armstrong, director of the Drexel Institute Lunch

Room,
others

for information furnished

by them upon the subject


quantities
;

of fireless cookery with

large

and

to

many

who have

aided the author by advice, information,

and encouragement.

PREFACE
The
venient

aim of
fireless

this

book

is

to present in a con-

form such

directions

for

making and
insulating

using

cookers

and

similar

boxes, that those


in the ordinary

who

are not experienced, even

to

methods of cookery, may be able The follow them easily and with success.
that their

fact

management has been

so

little

understood has been the cause of failures among the adventurous women who, attracted by their
novelty, have tried to experiment with

them and

have come to the mistaken conclusion that they are not practical, have limited scope, and are
altogether a good deal of a disappointment.

Such

women have made


will not

the statement that they are

not adapted to cooking starchy foods; that they

do for most vegetables; that raised breads and puddings cannot be cooked in them, and that there is little economy in using them! It has
invariably

been found, however, that a better understanding of their management has resulted
in

complete

success,

followed

inevitably

by

enthusiasm.

The

first

few chapters of the book give directions

viii

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

making and using a cooker, methods of measuring, and some tables for quick reference, followed by a large number of frequently tested recipes, some of which are entirely original, but many of which are based on the well-tried recipes from such books as Miss Farmer's " Boston Cooking School Cook Book," Mrs. I/incoln's "Boston Cook Book," Miss Smedley's "Institution Recipes," and Miss Ronald's "Century Cook Book," somewhat modified and adapted
for
to

hay-box

cookery.

"The

Fireless

Cooker,"

by Lovewell, Whittemore, and Lvon, has furnished some excellent ideas, such as the refrigerating

box and home-made insulated oven and insulating pail, which have been elaborated in this book. Miss Huntington's bulletin, "The Fireless
Cooker," has also been suggestive of a number
of experiments which
are
to

be found in the

Appendix.

The
tions,

chapter on

"Institution

Cookery" was
small institu-

introduced in the hope that

many

boarding-house keepers, and those


recipes

who

are

managing lunch-rooms, would be induced, by


finding

arranged

in

suitable

quantities

for them, to introduce fireless cookers into their

kitchens, and benefit by the great saving in labour

and expense which

is

specially necessary to those


their kitchens for sup-

who

are dependent

upon

iPREFACE
port.

IX

When
it

a little experience

is

gained by using

them,
in

will be

found that

all

the other recipes

the

book can be enlarged without minute


be noticed that nearly every recipe
in

directions.
It will

the book states the idea being that, in spite of the variable quanit

how many

persons

will

serve,

tities

which

different

people use, this would act

as

a guide to

closely.

those who wish to plan rather Where two numbers are given the varidifference between

ation

is

in proportion to the

the amount eaten by men and by women. The Appendix describes or suggests a series of

experiments illustrating the

scientific as well

as

the practical side of fireless cookery.

Many

of

them would be easy for the average housekeeper to carry out, and would illuminate the subject to an extent which would repay her; but they
are specially planned for students of household

economics who have time and opportunity for such work, and who are supposed to know more
than mere methods of housework, and to require an explanation of the principles involved.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.

PAGE

11.

III.

The The The

Fireless

Cooker

Portable Insulating Pail


Refrigerating
for

32

Box

36
40
43

IV.

Cooking

Two

V.
VI.

Measuring

....
Ma.

Tables of Weights and Measures

45 47

VIL
VIII.

Table of Proportions
Seasoning and Flavouring
terials
. . .

49
52 57
81

IX.

Breakfast Cereals

X.

Soups
Fish

XL
XII.
XIII.

Beef

89
106

Lamb and Mutton


Veal

XIV. XV. XVI. XVII.


^VIII.

114
120
126 136

Pork
Poultry

Vegetables

Steamed
Fruits

Breads and Puddings

XIX.

.....
.

154
168

XX.

Miscellaneous Recipes

183

XXL

Recipes for the Sick

195

xii

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Recipes
for

XXII.
XXIII.

Cooking

in

Large
202
221

Quantities

XXIV.

The Insulated Oven Menus


Appendix
Classified

.... ....
.

250 257 277


297

Additional Recipes

Index of Recipes

Alphabetical Index of Recipes

37

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

The

Fireless
I

Cook Book

THE FIRELESS COOKER

DOES the
until
it is

idea appeal to you of putting your

dinner on to cook and then going visiting,


or to the theatre, or sitting

down
It

to read, write,

or sew, with no further thought for your food

time to serve

it ?

sounds

like a fairy-

you can bring food to the boiling box of hay, and leave it for a few hours, returning to find it cooked, and often better cooked than in any other way! Yet it is
tale to say that

point, put

it

into a

true.

for

Norwegian housewives have known this many years; and some other European nations

have used the hay-box to a considerable extent, although it is only recently that its wonders have

become rather widely known and talked about in America. The original box filled with hay has gone through a process of evolution, and become the fireless cooker of varied form and adaptability. Just what can we expect the fireless cooker to
do
.?

What

foods will

it
3

cook to advantage

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

Almost all such dishes as are usually prepared by boiling or steaming, as well as many that soups, boiled or braised meats, are baked

fish,

sauces,

fruits,

vegetables,

puddings, eggs,

in fact, almost everything that does not

need

to

be crisp can be cooked in a simple hay-box.


If

the

composition

of foods

and the general


understood, but

principles
little

of cookery are well

special instruction will

be needed to enable
success.;

one to prepare such dishes with


even a novice
the
individual

though
if

may

use a fireless cooker

the

general directions and explanations, as well as


recipes,

are

carefully

read

and

followed.

roast or broiled meats,

are

While such dishes as toast, pancakes, baked bread and biscuits, impossible to cook in the simpler form
the
insulated
fireless

of

hay-box,

oven,
cooker,

the

latest

development of the
possibilities that

opens

up

may lead
meats,

to a

much wider adapta-

tion of

home-made
Roast

insulators to domestic pur-

poses.

however,

may
in the in the

first

be

cooked in the oven and completed or cooker, or they may be cooked


till

hay-box

hay-box

nearly done and then roasted for a short time

to obtain the crispness

which can be given only


a great loss

by cooking with great heat.

During ordinary cooking there

is

of heat, due to radiation from the cooking utensil

THE FIRELESS COOKER


and escaping steam.
be
retained,
in the
If,

however,

this heat

could

the food
fire.

absence of

would continue to cook This is what occurs in the

hay-box.
will, if

Hay, being a poor conductor of heat, closely packed around a kettle of boiling

food, maintain, for a

number of hours,
of using

a sufficiently

high temperature to continue the cooking process.

The
the

familiar

practice

newspapers or

carpet in keeping ice

from melting depends upon

In both cases a material same principle. conductor of heat, when interposed which is a poor between the surrounding air and articles which
are either colder or hotter than the air, being

found

to

preserve

their

temperature.

Other

materials than hay or papers will act in the same way; such, for instance, as excelsior, sawdust,

wool, mineral wool, and others.

A vacuum

will

have

the

same

effect

as

insulating

materials.

and similar inventions, which are glass bottles surrounded by a vacuum and contained in metal cases, will keep foods

The "Thermos

Bottle"

hot or cold for


little

many

hours.

If heated with a
is

boiling water before boiling food

poured

in they will even cook some foods satisfactorily.

A vacuum

is

expensive, as

it is

difficult to obtain,

and therefore the ordinary


at

fireless
if

cooker

is

better

suited to every-day use; but


is

one of these bottles

hand

it

may

be utilized in cases of illness

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


available.

or on journeys or in other unusual circumstances,

when a x:ooker is not The general trend


that the

of recent scientific investi-

gation seems to indicate more and more clearly

prevalent idea that


at

all

food m.ust be
as that of
is

cooked

a high temperature, such

boihng water
mistaken
one.

(212

degrees

Fahrenheit),

Experiments

have

shown that
tem-

starches are

made thoroughly

digestible at

peratures varying from 149 degrees to 185 degrees

Fahrenheit. Cellulose, the


foods,

woody

fibre of vegetable
at a

becomes perfectly softened


which
all

temperature
vegetable

considerably below 212 degrees, while albuminous


materials, of

animal and

many

foods are largely composed, are not only well-

cooked

at

low temperature, but are decidedly


than when cooked at the

more

easily digestible

higher temperatures of boiling or baking.

SPECIAL ADVANTAGES OF THE FIRELESS COOKER


First, its econo?ny, not

only of fuel and of space

on

the stove, but of effort, of utensils,


It

and

also of

food materials and flavour.

has been stated

that 90 per cent, of the fuel used in ordinary cooking will be saved by the hay-box. This

percentage will vary with different housekeepers,


as

better than others, but there

some understand the economy of fuel much is no doubt that it

THE FIRELESS COOKER


is

very great

especially true

when the cooker when the fuel


use).

is is

used.
gas,

This

is

kerosene,

gasolene, or denatured alcohol (possibly the

comfire

ing fuel for

common

Where
fire

wood

or, particularly,

where a coal

must be main-

tained, the fuel saved by the cooker will, manifestly

be

less

than with such fuels as can be

readily extinguished

when
is

their use

is

over, but
fuel.

even

in

such cases there

some economy of
it is

One must
in

use the cooker to realize the saving


to

work that it means. Think what method of cooking involving no


in the kitchen to

have

necessity for

fire or watch As most hay-box cooking takes a considerable length of time, and many articles are not specially injured by overcooking, this means that foods can often be placed in the box and

remaining
!

keep up a

the food

left

for hours, while the housekeeper

is

enabled
care of

to

go out for a day's work, or to occupy her time

in other

ways, with a mind free from


is

all

the meal that

cooking.

The
in

user of a hayare not so

box

will

soon

find, too, that utensils

hard to wash after lying

hay

as

when food

has been dried or burned on, and as the scraping

and scouring given

to

ordinary utensils wears

them out very fast, there is here also a considerable economy of utensils. There is found to be a very
great

saving of food

materials

on account of

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


foods

"left-over"

and

others

that

might

be

utilized, if the

long cooking which they require


palatable

to

make them

did

not involve
offset the

such

expense in the w^ay of fuel as to

advan-

tage of using them, such as in the case of soup


stock, tougher cuts of meat, etc.

Special atten-

tion

is

paid in this book to the preparation of a


absence of heat and odours in the kitchen

variety of cheap foods and "left-overs."

The
is

another of the
the hottest

advantages of this

cookery.

On

summer days

a cooker W\\\ not

increase the heat of the room, while even in a

living-room, onions, turnips, cabbage,


ill-smelling foods could be

and such
sus-

cooked with no

picion of the fact on the part of the family or


visitors.

The

fact

that

cooker can also be

made attractive in appearance, and used in rooms not ordinarily used for cooking, is of interest to some people who are not able to com-

mand

even
life.

the

ordinary

amenities

of house-

keeping
gain

In the matter of flavour there


in
fireless

is

distinct

cookery.
or

Many
with

are

familiar,

by experience

hearsay,

the

specially

delicious flavour of food cooked in primitive ways,

such as burying the saucepan in a hole in the

ground, of clambakes, or of cooking food by

dropping heated stones into the mixture,

in

which

THE FIRELESS COOKER


cases the closely covered food
at a
is

slowly cooked

low temperature.

The

praises given to such

cookery are often ascribed to the ^'hunger-sauce"


that usually accompanies outdoor cookery,

but

not with entire justice, for there


in flavour.

is

a real difference

As
is

it

has been well proved that


easily

tasteless food

less

or

thoroughly digested than food


flavour, owing,

which has a good

probably, to

the fact that high-flavpured food stimulates the

flow of digestive juices, the


this

advantage

lies

in

respect also with hay-box food over

much

of the ordinary food served.

The

bearing of

fireless
fill

cookery upon the servanta chapter by


itself.

problem might well

Any
can

woman who

uses this

device for

year

become eloquent upon this subject. When cooking no longer ties one to the kitchen, is no longer
a labour that monopolizes one's time, dishevels

one's

person,

and exasperates the temper, the

cook
in

may

go.

We

shall save her

wages, her food,

her room, and her waste, and have more to spend

ways that bring

more

satisfactory return.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A HAY-BOX OR FIRELESS

COOKER
The box may be an unpainted one such
as can

be obtained for a few cents from any store where

10

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


and shape is used, or it may handsome hardwood chest, or even an old
size

one of suitable
be a
trunk.

In selecting

it,

choose one

made

of

suffi-

ciently heavy boards to admit of having hinges and If it is to be used in a dininga hasp put on it. where attractive appearance is to be room, or

desired,

it

may

be covered with chintz or denim,


if

or a coat of paint,

not

made

of finished hard

wood.
lid

An

old ice-box, one that has a hinged

at the top, has been utilized for this purpose

with success.
box,
especially

barrel

makes an

excellent hay-

for

very large kettles,

but the

cover cannot easily be hinged and must, therefore,

be weighted to hold

it

down

tight.

In

size the

box should be from two

to five inches
it

larger in every dimension than the kettle


tains.

con-

The

kettle

is,

therefore,

the

first

thing
it

to be secured,

and

full directions for

choosing

are given on page 13.


sider
is

The

next point to con-

the

packing material.

When

this

has

been chosen, the directions for packing the box,


given on page 15, will
tell

how much
If
it is

space must

be allowed for insulation and, consequently, of

what

size the

box must

be.

so large as to

absolutely admit of more insulation than required, there is no objection, only a possible If it is intended to pack the box with gain.
that

more than one

utensil this will also

have a bearing

THE FIRELESS COOKER


upon
its size.

ii

Allow nearly, or
sides,

quite, double the


is

insulation between the utensils that

provided
be
diffiis

on the other
culty in
still

otherwise there

may

removing one
a

utensil while the other

cooking.
hasp, or some device to hold

Hinges and

the cover of the box shut, will be necessary, as

the packing should be such that there

is

little

upward pressure on the

cover.

cushion

is is

desirable to cover each kettle used,

one which
after the

thick
is

enough
place.

to

fill

the hay-box

kettle

in

For making these

cushions use muslin, denim, or any thing of the

kind that
the

is at

hand,

filling

them, generally, with

same material as that used in packing the Shape them like a miniature mattress, joining two pieces which are the dimensions of the top of the box with a strip which is from two
box.

and one-half inches


the

to four or five inches wide,

width
the

depending
cushion
is

which

upon the material with stuffed, some materials

requiring thicker insulation than others.

The packing
Southern

material

may

be either hay, straw,

paper, wool, mineral wool, excelsior, ground cork,

moss,

sawdust,
is

or

any

other

nonthe
is

conducting material that


choose soft hay.

adapted to

filling

space between the kettle and the box.


used,

If

hay

Wool

is,

perhaps, the

12

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


and
it

best heat retainer of those mentioned,

is

easy and pleasant to handle.

Clean, soft wool

may
It

be purchased

at

woollen mills and elsewhere.

should cost about thirty-five cents a pound,

Hay-Box With Two Compartments.


Partly packed compartment of hay-box,

Finished compartment
of

showing
Cushion.
pail to
fit

pail

in

place

for

packing.

hay-box.
Pail.

Cushion.

" Space
in

adjuster."

Small

Large
cover.

Pan and

" space adjuster."

but as

it

is

very light

it

requires

much
at

less,

by

weight, than of some other cheaper materials.

Mineral wool can be purchased

large hard-

ware

stores.

It costs

about

five cents a

pound,

THE FIRELESS COOKER


but about
as
five

13

times as

many pounds

are required

an equivalent for wool.


at

Cheap cotton batting


is

can be obtained

dry-goods stores; ground cork

from large grocers.


dust,

This

used by them as
fruits.

packing for grapes or other fancy

Sav^-

obtainable at sawmills, and perhaps elseExcel-

where, must be well dried before using.


sior is

used by

many

kinds of merchants, and can

be bought for about two cents a pound.


is

Hay

plentiful

in

country places and can also be

purchased

at feed-stores in the cities.

Southern

moss, easily procurable in the Southern States,

can be found
as well.

at

many

upholsterers' in the
hair,

North
used

Newspapers and

such as

is

by

plasterers, are available in city

and country.
will

The
least

utensils.

Perhaps the best shape for the


is,

cooking utensil, that


the depth of

one which
is

have the
about

possible radiating surface,


its

a pail

own

diameter.

The
to

sides should

be

straight

and perpendicular
fit

the

bottom.
If a

The

cover should
is

securely into place.

smaller utensil

to be used inside the large one,


it

which

is

often a great convenience,

must not
for

be so high that the cover of the larger pail will


not go on.

"pudding pan" may be used

the inside utensil, resting on the rim of the pail;

but care must be taken, with this arrangement,


that a cover
is

secured that will

fit

the pan closely.

14

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


To
select the material best

adapted for cooker


its

utensils
its

one must consider

wearing quality,
salts, etc.,

heat-absorbing power, to some extent, and also

the action

upon

it

of the water, acids,


in

which are found


iron utensils,

the
as

foods.

For instance,

as well

most tinware that has

been used for any length of time, will rust with the long subjection to heat and moisture; acids
will
tin

make

a disagreeable taste with iron or old

utensils; while

acids

in

such

long

contact

with even
tin
salts

new

tin

might also form poisonous


quantity to be decidedly

in

sufficient

injurious.

Earthenware would seem ideal except


likely to

that
It
is

it

is

break when over the flame.

desirable that the covers be of the

same
rust-

material as the utensil, or of

some other

proof material.

It will

pay

to get the best,

when

buying these kettles, for they will last well, with reasonable care, and a poor utensil will soon
be of no use whatever.
except for
its

Well-enameled
or,

iron,

weight,

is

good; also the best quality

of agate ware, ordinary aluminum,


best of
all,

perhaps
hght

for very large utensils at least, cast

aluminum.
ties

Aluminum
it

is

expensive, but

its

weight, excellently fitting parts, and lasting quali-

commend
size

above other materials, and

it

will

be found to pay in the end.


of the pails will depend to some extent

The

THE FIRELESS COOKER


upon the number of people
there
is

15

to be served, although

minimum

size?

below which there

is

not a sufficient bulk of food to cook well.

Under

the heading "Practical Suggestions on the Use

of the Fireless Cooker," this matter of quantityis

more
it

fully discussed.

For

a family of five or
fit

six

persons a six-quart pail with a pan to

inside

of

has been found satisfactory.

It will

be con-

venient to have also a larger pail for large pieces

of meat, such as hams.

Method of packing the box. This will vary somewhat with the different insulating materials used. These may be classified as: Those into which the cooking utensil may be
set

without

any

intervening

covering,

among

which are hay,

excelsior,

and paper.

Those requiring them in place and


with the utensil,

covering material to keep

to protect

them from contact


are wool, mineral

among which
with the

wool, cork, sawdust, and cotton.

Boxes to be

filled

first

class of insulat-

ing materials are packed in the following manner:

Line the box and cover, smoothly, with one


thickness of heavy paper, or several thicknesses

of newspaper.
finding
pieces
its

This

will prevent cold

air

from

way through
sifting out. lining.

the cracks, and dust and

from
a

Asbestos sheeting also

makes

good

Pack

in

the

bottom of

i6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


than three or four inches
raise the
in

the box a firm layer of insulating material not


less

depth.

This

must
to

cooking pail to within from three


Set the
it

five

inches of the top of the box.

utensil in the middle of the space allowed for

on

this layer,

and pack around


will be

it,

very tightly,

until level with the top of the kettle.


is

When
left

this

removed

it

found
it

to
slip

have
into

a hole

just large
little

enough

for

to

again.

A
this

manipulation will
less

make

the

rim of

pocket

for boxes

be at

ragged than at first. The cushion packed with excelsior or hay should In packing with least four inches thick.
first

paper, lay

an even layer three or more inches


In
place

thick of folded papers, filling the space around

the kettle with soft, crumpled papers.

of the top cushion, make a bundle of papers This can only be folded to just the right size.

done when perfectly flat pail covers are used, unless a supplementary soft cushion be first laid
over the
pail.
is

The box

now ready
use,
is

for cooking, but

if,

after

considerable

the

material

shrinks
a

so

that

the whole space

not firmly

filled,

little

more
be
at

may
The

be

added.

There

should

always
is

least a slight pressure

when

the cover

closed.

paper lining described on page 20, while not


is

necessary to this class of boxes,

an improvement.

THE FIRELESS COOKER


Boxes
to

17
class

be

filled

with the second

of

material are packed in the following manner:

Line the box with a smooth covering of paper or asbestos, tacked into place. Pack a layer of
insulating material, three inches or
ness,
in

more

in thick-

the
this.

bottom,

laying

piece

of heavy

paper on

Sew two

or three thicknesses of

pliable cardboard into the


will
fit

form of
loosely.

a cylinder that
(Fig.

around the utensil

No.

i.)

Figure No.

i.
fit

Pasteboard cylinder to

the pail.

must be of the same height as the kettle. Set this cooker-pail, surrounded by the cylinder, on Holding the kettle in place the layer in the box. with one hand, pack tightly around it, to the
It

level of the top of the pail.

(See page 12.)

The
this

efficiency of the

box depends largely upon

packing.
nest, in

Cut a round hole, the size of the cooker a piece of heavy pasteboard, to fit the

top of the box.


that
it

Lay
it

this over the packing, so

will cover

completely.

The box

is

now

i8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


its

ready for

cloth lining.

To make

this, cut

three
larger

pieces of cloth; one to be one-inch or

more

than the top of the box, with a round hole cut in


its

centre,

one inch smaller than the diameter

of the cooker-pail (Fig. No. 2:1); another to be a

Figure No.

2.

Showing how

to cut the cloth pieces for lining a

home-made

cooker.

round piece one-inch larger than the diameter of the pail (Fig. No. 2:2); and the third to be a
strip

one-inch wider than the height of the

pail,

and long enough to go around it with an inch to Sew the ends of this strip spare (Fig. No. 2:3).

THE FIRELESS COOKER


together to
this

19

make

a cylinder.

Into one end of


piece.

cyHnder sew the round


is

The
this

other

end

to be

sewed into the large

piece, taking in
is

each case a half-inch seam.


into the

When

put

box it will line the nest and cover the pasteboard which
(Fig.

for the kettle,


rests

on

top.

No.

3.)

Remove

the pail and tack this

Figure No.

3.

Showing the cloth lining

just

about to be placed

in the box.

cloth lining in place, turning in the edges


it

where
be

is

tacked to the box.


for

paper lining

may

substituted

cloth

in

the following manner:


at least

Take
the box.

a sheet of very heavy paper,

one
the

inch larger in every dimension than the top of

Draw

a circle in the centre of

it

size of the pail.

In the centre of this circle cut

20

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


enough
to insert the blade of
this

a small hole large


a pair of scissors.

From
(Fig.

hole,

cut to the

circle, so as to strike it at intervals

of about one
Fit the

and one-half inches.


this circle will

No.

4.)

paper

over the top of the packing in the box

so that

come

just over the nest for the pail.


it

Put the cooker-pail into the nest and


crease the points

will

down

at exactly the right place.

Figure No.

4.

Showing the manner

of cutting the

paper covering

for a fireless cooker.

paper lining
to cloth.

Figure No. 5 shows the cooker completed. A is in some respects to be preferred


It is

easy and quick to


if it

make and can

becomes soiled. With either class of cooker more than one nest may be made. It is well, in that case, to have a wooden partition put into the box before packing
be readily replaced

THE FIRELESS COOKER


it,

21

although this

is

not strictly necessary.

Each

portion of the box can then be packed indepen-

dently and for utensils of different sizes


If possible,

if

desired.

when packing

box with mineral

wool, do the

work out of

doors, wearing a pair of

Figure No.

5.

Showing the paper

lining of a fireless cooker in place.

gloves, as particles

from
to

it fly

into the air

and are
skin.

extremely

irritating

the

throat

and
will

Twenty-five pounds of mineral wool


a

pack
fifteen

nine-quart

pail

in

box

fifteen

by

inches and eleven inches high.

Five pounds of

wool
pail.

will

pack the same box


smaller pail
is

for using a nine-quart

If a

used,

more wool or

mineral wool will be required.

22

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Sawdust
is

one of the easiest materials to handle.


a cloth

It

packs easily and does not require

covering,
perfectly.

heavy paper

answering the

purpose

Proceed with the packing as for wool


In place of this and the

or mineral wool and such other materials, omitting the pasteboard top.

cloth covering use a paper lining.

The
which

''space
slips

adjuster'^

into

padded cylinder a cooker pocket and makes a


is

" Space adjuster" before


to
fill

it is

covered; and small pad

the space below the pail.

receiver for a smaller cooker-pail than that for

which the cooker was packed.


equal length, one of which will

It

can be made
rather loosely

by putting together two pasteboard cylinders of


fit

outside of the small pail, and the other of which


will slip easily into the

cooker pocket and

line

it

from top

to bottom.

When

the small cylinder

is

stood inside of the larger one the space between


the two should be firmly packed, preferably with

THE FIRELESS COOKER


a soft material such as cotton or wool.

23

To

keep

the filling in place while packing

it

the cylinder

may

be

wound with
fitted

twine, as
It

shown

in the

accom-

panying
with a

illustration.

muslin cover.

may then Sew two

be covered
tabs on this

cover, with

which

to

lift

the space adjuster out.

When

slipped into the cooker pocket, and the

small pail placed in the

new pocket

thus formed,

there will be found to be a space below the pail,

which may be

filled

by a round cushion made

for the purpose.

Section view of " space adjuster " showing the pail

and cushion

in place.

Ready-made hay-boxes and fireless cookers are to be found on the market, some of which have advantages over the home-made article along with some disadvantages. First of the
disadvantages
is,

perhaps, the cost, the expense

being considerably greater than for the home-

made

box.

Also the choice in the matter of shapes


for the utensils cannot be as great

and material

24
as in

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


home-made
boxes, and

some of the cookers

are unpractical in

minor

details.

On

the other

hand, the commercial cookers are ready for use,

some of them being excellently adapted to their purpose, and to many people this would offset Those that are made of metal, on the the cost.
plan of refrigerators, perhaps not boxes at
all,

would appeal to certain housekeepers as to be more cleanly than upholstered boxes.


as food
is

likely

But,

always in tightly-covered vessels, and

as experience has

shown that ordinary

care will

prevent anything from being spilled, a hay-box

having been kept sweet and clean without


for over a year, the

refilling
is

danger of uncleanliness
at
first

not

so

great

as

would

appear.

Doubtless

where servants are entrusted with the use of the cooker there would usually be a greater necessity
for guarding against untidiness.

In selecting a ready-made cooker certain points should be


considered.

See

that

the

parts

fit

closely together,

are simple and strong in con-

struction; that there are

no seams or pockets
difficult, if

in

the kettles which

would be

not impos-

sible, to get clean; that


size,

the kettles are a suitable

namely,

not too large, if they are to

cook

food for a small family, and not too small to ensure


sufficient heat for
is

proper cooking; and that there

no

air

space over the cover that will not be

THE FIRELESS COOKER


filled

25

when
is

the cooker

is

closed.

In the case of

the metal cookers a round cover with a single

hinge

a point of weakness, for the cover

is

not

sufficiently

supported to endure the strain of con-

stant use.

Many
be

of the cookers also use tin very


is

considerably, which
there
will

objectionable.

Doubtless
in

constant
is

improvements

these

inventions, as there

growing demand for them

and an increasing

intelligence as to their use.

MATEPIALS NEEDED FOR A HOME-MADE FIRELESS

COOKER A
box or barrel (see page
pair of strong hinges.
9).

One

hasp.

Material for stuffing (see page 11).

One One

or
or

more

large pails (see page 13).


pails or

more small
i^-

pans (see page

13).

Muslin,

yards or more, depending upon the size of the box.

cooking thermometer.

Heavy pasteboard.
Pliable pasteboard.

Brown

paper.
screws.

Tacks and

PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR USING A FIRELESS

COOKER
While success
sure
if

in

using a cooker

is

reasonably

directions are clear


it

and
is

detailed,

and can

be followed exactly, yet

well to understand,

26
in

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


a general way, the

conditions of success in
if

order that a deviation from directions,

such

should ever be found necessary,


failure.

v^ill

not

mean

As the cooking depends upon the retention of heat, it stands to reason that there must be heat
to retain.

pint of food does not contain as

much
the

heat as a quart, even though both be of

same temperature to begin v^ith. This can be demonstrated by setting a pint and a quart The pint v^ill lose of boiling v^ater side by side. its small amount of heat and grow cold much
sooner than the quart, with
its

larger amount.

After an equal time eight quarts of food in the

cooker have been found to register


other conditions being the same.
the failures of

15

degrees

Fahrenheit higher than one and one-half quarts,

This explains
are

some beginners which

due to

the fact that such a small quantity of food

was

taken that there was not sufficient heat to begin


with.

Obviously

this

danger

is

less

with foods

requiring only a slight cooking, since, even with

small

quantities,

some time elapses before the


all.
is,

food grows too cold to cook at

The

total

quantity of food
in

therefore, seen to

be an important factor
the amount of
will

success.

The

larger

food, the higher the temperature

be at the end of a given length of time.

Where

THE FIRELESS COOKER


the

27

amount

is

very large, as in the case of hotel


cookery,
this

and

institution

gain

is

so

great

that the time required

for cooking

is

materially

reduced.

The proportion between


the size of the utensil in

the

amount
it

of food

and
is

which

is

cooked

equally

important.

Experiments
to

have

shown
15

that one and one-half quarts of water, in a pail


just

large

enough

hold

it,

will

register

degrees Fahrenheit more than the same measure of water in a nine-quart pail at the end of an

hour; while at the end of twelve hours there is It is thus seen that a 28 degrees of difference.
well-filled kettle
is

more

likely to

cook successit is

fully

than one partially


to cook

filled.

When

impos-

and thus avoid sible vacant space in the kettle, the difficulty may, to some extent, be offset by using a pan for the food
in a smaller pail,

with

sloping

sides

and broad rim, such

as

"pudding pan,"
suspended
in
it.

which

may

be
its

set

into

the

cooker-pail and, by resting upon

rim, will be

This arrangement admits of


part

fining the lower

of the

pail

with

boiling

water or with boiling food, in case a second kind of food is to be cooked for the same length
of time.

Space between the pail and packing material


is

also hkely to be disastrous, so that

it

is

not

28

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


for a large

advisable to try to use a small pail in a "nest"

made

one without the "space adjuster"

described on page 22.

Even the space which


newly packed box

results after a short use of a


will

be sufficient for the escape of some heat


filled in.

and should always be


Place
the

cooker

near

the

stove,

since

it

is

important to transfer the food very quickly from

one to the other.


the cushion

The cooker

should be open,

before the food


it

removed and everything in readiness is taken from the fire; then, before
it

has time to stop boiling,

should be in place
juncture owing

in the box. to

Loss of time
beginners.

at this
is

uncertain movements

a fruitful source of

failure

among
is

Keep
the food
if

the box tightly closed

from the moment


entirely done, as

put into

it

until

it is

for

any reason the box

is

opened before the

appointed time, the contents must be reheated


to

boiling point before being replaced.

The
short.
roasts,

time for cooking foods on the stove, previous

to putting

them into the cooker, is usually very Food in large, solid masses, as ham, pot moulds of bread, etc., must be boiled until
boiling

thoroughly heated to the centre, obviously requiring

longer

the
is

larger

and

denser the
less

pieces are.

Food

that

broken and

com-

pact will be readily penetrated by heat and will

THE FIRELESS COOKER


surrounding water.
the
cles,

29

be boiling hot nearly or quite as soon as the

Such foods need only a moment's brisk boiling before being put into
cooker.
easily

Cereals, although
settle

in

fine

parti-

into

dense,

impenetrable

mass

during

the

long

period
until

of

undisturbed
are
slightly

cooking,

unless

boiled

they

thickened.

The

length of time for cooking in the cooker


(i) the

depends upon several factors:


cooker, whether well or
ill

kind of

packed, and whether


is

good or poor insulating material


the
skill

used; (2) of the cook in getting the kettle into the


(3) the

box quickly;
and
soft
size

amount, toughness, density,


(4)

of the
is

pieces:
If

whether
is

hard

or

water

used.

hard water

used foods

require

with soft water.

more cooking to become tender than Hard water may be softened,


by
the

however,
soda.
to

addition

of

little
is

baking
adapted

The time home-made

given in this book

cooker, well packed with any

of the materials suggested in the section giving


directions for packing the cookers.

With some

commercial
sufficient.
It is

cookers

shorter

time

may be

frequently stated that few foods are injured


this
is

by overcooking, but while

true of a great

many

foods,

it

has not proved to be the case with

30
all.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Potatoes,
as
rice,

custards,
suet

raised

mixtures,

such

dumplings,

pudding,

and brown

bread, as well as

many

other foods, are decidedly

injured by overcooking.
state

the

The recipes generally minimum and maximum time which


This information
leaving
in

each food should have.


also be

will

found easily accessible

in the classified

index.

There

is

danger in
cooled

meats

or

soup stock or even cereals


after
likely

the
as

cooker long
they will be

they have
to
spoil.

down,

Needless to
directions

say,

careful

reading of

all

the

given,

particular, will

and following them in every be necessary until one becomes

well acquainted with this novel

method of cookery.
in

Mistakes
time,

in

temperature

tests,

measuring, in

and

in other conditions,

may

result in failures,

which must not be imputed


the cook.
It

to the cooker, but to

will

probably not be long, after the


up; in which case
is

first

experiment with a cooker, before several com-

partments are
cult to

fitted

it

is diffi-

remember what food


it

in

each and at
it is

what time
so

is

to be

removed, since

left for

many

hours.

To meet
It

this difficulty a slate,

hung

in the kitchen

near the box, will be found a

great convenience.

may

be permanently ruled
a table, to be filled

and arranged

in the

form of

THE FIRELESS COOKER


out with pencil. given below.

31
is

good form

to use

the one

The compartments may

be

num-

bered or described.
Compartment
Food

Time put

in

Time

for

removal

II

THE PORTABLE INSULATING PAIL

A
and
from
it

CHEAP,

portable retainer, for keeping food

hot or cold on picnics, automobile trips, and

other outings, will be found a great convenience


will
fill

a long-felt want.

Tight-fitting covers,

fastened in place, will be necessary to keep food


spilling;

and very cheap, easily obtained


should

insulating

material

be

used

for

these

pails, so that in case the

packing becomes soiled


loss.

can be discarded without

Newspapers,

hay, or excelsior are best for the purpose.


object in using such pails
is

The

not to cook the food,


if

though

this

might be done

the inner pail were

small enough or the outer pail large enough to

allow of sufficient insulation, but to keep food


already cooked, or nearly cooked, at a temperature

which
a

will

make
of
as

it

appetizing.

For

this

purpose
such

couple

inches those

of

insulation,

with

materials
well.

suggested, will
fibre or

answer very

If
is

an ordinary

wooden household

pail

used, this will carry two or three quarts

of food.

Take

for the
32

inner utensil one just

PORTABLE INSULATING PAIL


large
pail

33

enough to hold the food, and pack the outer to accommodate it, like any hay-box or
If designed for frequent use
it

cooker.
to
it

will

pay

make

a fitted cushion, but for a single occasion

will not be

worth while to take

this

trouble.

Any

small cushion or pillow can be used, merely


if
it

turning the corners under,


order to protect
it

is

square.

In

becoming soiled, lay a number of thicknesses of newspaper over the inner pail before putting on the cushion. Be careful to pack it so that the cushion will fill
of
the upper space completely.

from danger

A
if

cover must be
a

found for the outer


is

pail,

and

wooden cover

not at hand, a round tray or large kettle cover


fit

that will

it

may

be utilized.

A
its

butter pail,

tin pail or

candy

pail will

have

own

cover.

To
in the

fasten the covers on, tie a loose slip-knot

middle of a piece of very strong twine (Fig.


it

No.

6:1); before pulling

up

tight, slip the

noose

over the cover of the pail and draw the remainder


of the knot out
the pail.
If
it

till it is

loose

enough

to go

around

is

placed under the rim near the

top of the utensil, or under the fastenings of the

handle,

it

will be held

by them from slipping


tie

off.

Then draw

the knot up tight, and

the two

ends of twine over the top. (Fig.

No

6:2.)
it

For
will

greater safety, especially on the outer pail,

be well to use two such strings, placing the loops

34

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


one another.
this

at right angles to

Soft copper wire

might be used for

purpose instead of twine.

When

the food
it

is

in the inner pail, tie


fire until it is

on the

cover, put

again on the

boiling hot,

Figure No.
I.

6.

Method

of tying slip-knot.

2.

Method

of tying the cover

on

a pail.

and place
if

it

quickly in the insulating pail.

More
keep

than one kettle of food


there
is

may

be placed in the pail


will

room.

Food thus insulated

hot for hours, even in cold weather.

Obviously, this arrangement will work equally


well in keeping cold foods cool in

summer, such

as

PORTABLE INSULATING PAIL


ice

35

water, or cool
ices, if

drinks.
in

Even frozen creams


a mould, covered tin

and

packed well and

pail or can, sealed

quantity of ice
insulated,
will

and surrounded with a small salt, and the whole thus keep for many hours. To seal

the mould, dip a


fat

and lay

it

narrow strip of muslin in melted quickly over the crack between the

cover and mould.

Ill

THE REFRIGERATING BOX


/\S

WE

have seen
the

in the case of the insulating

IjL

pail,

principle

involved

in

cooking

by retained heat may be reversed, and the heat

may, by similar means, be excluded from foods


which are
to be kept cold.

Ice-boxes and refrig-

erators are

made with

this

end

in view.

They
if

are constructed with

heavy walls, usually,

not

always, with an interlining of some non-conducting


material, to exclude the heat of the atmosphere.

Where such an
erators

article

is

needed permanently,
to the

or for large quantities of food, the various refrig-

on the market are better adapted

purpose than a home-made box.

But, in cases

of temporary necessity or to supplement a refrigerator,

the

home-made
a
use.

refrigerating

box

will

doubtless

find

Ingenuity

will

suggest
principle

variations in the

manner of applying the

of insulation to keeping foods cold, but by of

way

suggestion two forms of refrigerating boxes

are described below.

Take

three

or

more stoneware crocks with


36

THE REFRIGERATING BOX


well-fitting
size

37

covers

of the

same

material.

The
in

of the crocks must be determined by the

quantity of food to be kept.


the

Good

results

way

of temperatures have been obtained with

those holding a half gallon, but the

amount of

food accommodated in them

is,

of course, small.

Refrigerating box packed with three crocks.

Proceed exactly as for packing a cooker, except


that the crocks

must be

set in place so that all


is

of

them touch
with
ice.

the central one, which

to

be

filled

Although any insulating material suitable for cookers will answer for a refrigerating box, sawdust will be found the easiest to handle, for the

38

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


its

reason that
fill

fine

particles

will

more

readily

the acute angles between the crocks, which


carefully
It will

must be

packed or the insulation


be best to

is

not

complete.

make one narrow


to

cushion that

may remain
when

in place over the central


is

crock, except

the ice

be renewed, and

two others, each of which can be removed singly

when
with

the crock under

it

is

to be opened.

Put
the

the food into dishes or pails that can be


it

removed

and
for

washed.

This

will

obviate

necessity

taking out the

crocks

frequently

and

will

mean

a considerable saving of ice.

In

lieu of one solid piece of ice, broken pieces will

be found to
crock as
it

answer

excellently.

Fill

the
it

ice-

full

as possible, and do not open

until

needs

refilling.

A little observation

of your

own
just
will
full

individual box will be necessary to

tell

you
It

how
days

long your crock of ice will


safe, in
filling
it

last.
it
it.

probably be
after

any

case, to leave

two
If

before

opening

no

foods that have not been reasonably cooled are

put into the refrigerating box


the ice

it

is

possible that

may

last three or

four days.

Aside from the efficiency of the insulation, the

consumption of

ice will

depend largely upon the

amount and temperature of the food in the other crocks and the frequency with which they are
opened to the

warm

outside air;

therefore chose

THE REFRIGERATING BOX


as cool a place as possible for the

39

box

to stand, to think

and open
of
all

it

only

when

necessary.
it

Try
in

the articles you

want from
results

before taking
the

off the

cushion.

Better

way

of

temperature can be obtained with these boxes than with many commercial refrigerators, although
the
skill

and care

in using either will

be a large
necessary

factor in the
to

economy

of

ice.

When
that
it

it is

open the box,

let it

be for as brief a time as


is

possible, as every

moment

open means

an increase of temperature and, consequently, a


loss of ice.

Another variety of refrigerating box may be

made by thoroughly
filled

insulating a tin pail partly

with

ice,

or a bread box, containing a crock

for ice.

as

that

Allow the same amount of insulation called for with the various packing
used
for

materials

hay-boxes or cookers,
care

and

pack them similarly. sary to remove the inner box


handling the dishes of food;
scalded, take
it

It will not often be necesif


is

taken in
to be
it

but when

it is

out,

wash

it

well, boil or scald

with soda and water, and


replacing
it

cool

it

again before

in the packing.

IV

COOKING FOR TWO

WHILE
size,

the

fireless

cooker

is,

perhaps,

especially adapted to families of average

or

larger,

there

is

no reason why small

quantities of food cannot be equally well cooked,

provided the cooker


in view.

is

properly

made with

that

large utensil will involve a great waste of


it

gas and time, for in every case

will be necessary

to heat a considerable quantity of water


is

which

only required to

fill

the utensil.
it

Select, instead,

a two-quart pail,

pack

very tightly in a mod-

erately small box, allowing, however, the requisite

thickness of insulation (see page i6).

This

will

be suitable for

much

of the cooking to be done,


etc.,

such as vegetables, steamed breads,

that are

cooked

in

much

water; but for such articles as

oatmeal, stews, puddings, and some vegetables,


use a small pudding pan, just fitting into the pail

and resting on
closely
filled
fit

its

rim, with

cover that will

must always be with boihng water or food to touch the upper


the pan.
pail
40

The

COOKING FOR TWO


pan, and
if

41

these conditions are fulfilled and the

food

is

put quickly, and while boiling hard, into

a cooker

which stands

close to the range,

it

will

be found to cook as perfectly as larger amounts.

Two
but,
it

kinds of food can thus be cooked at once,

when only water


in

is

used

in the

lower

pail,

can be kept
will be hot

the cooker during the meal,

and

when

the time comes for washing

the dishes.

The
book
to
in

fact

that

almost

all

the recipes in this

serve will

number of persons which they will make the quantity to be cooked easy ascertain. Where articles are to be cooked
tell

the

moulds, as steamed breads, puddings, meat


be used.
It will

loaves, etc., one-half

may

pound baking powder cans be safer to test them to see


leak.

whether or not they


in the

The

only

change
will

method of cooking such dishes that


is

then be necessary

shortening the time of boiling

previous to putting them into the cooker.


cuts of
boiling.

Small

meat will also require shorter preliminary One-half the time given will be found

sufficient.

The

great

majority

of dishes

may
small

be cooked as directed in the full-sized recipes,

without
quantity.

any change on
as

account of the

For such purposes


(see

preserving and baking

page 228), a large

pail will be needed,

even

42

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

by a family of two, and it is suggested that the cooker be packed first to accommodate such a

and the box then be made to receive also the two-quart pail by means of the space-adjuster described on page 22.
pail,

MEASURING

ALL

measurements given
in

in

this

book

are

IjL made

standard half-pint cups, tableetc.

spoons, teaspoons, quarts, pecks,

The

dry

materials are leveled even with the top of the cup,

spoon, or other measure by

filling it

heaping
lies

full,

then pushing off with a knife that which


the top.

above

When

held level with the eyes, nothing

should be seen above the cup or spoon, and yet


the receptacle should be completely
filled.

Where
and

standard

cups,

with

divisions

in
it

thirds

quarters, are not to be obtained,


to use a straight-sided glass if

will be better

one can be found


It will a

which holds an exact


to get

half-pint.

be easier

an accurate half or third of


in

cupful in such
at

measure than
is all

one which grows smaller

the bottom, as most cups do.


ful of liquid

cupful or spoon-

that they can be

made

to hold.

Such materials as flour, powdered sugar, mustard, meal, and others, that pack as they stand, should first be sifted or stirred up, and must
have

any lumps

pressed
43

out.

Do

not

shake

44

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


settle

such materials to level them, or they will

and the measure


fat,
etc.,

will

be incorrect.

Half cupdry mate-

fuls or other fractions of a cupful of


rial,

may be

leveled with the back of

a tablespoon.

To measure

fractions of a spoonful, whether


fill

a teaspoon or a tablespoon,

the spoon, level

it,

then with a knife divide


the

halves

lengthwise of
of
the
halves;
thirds

spoon;

quarters
dividing

crosswise these
in

eighths

by

halves;

crosswise;
first

and

sixths

by dividing the

spoon

in halves, then in thirds

across the halves.

VI

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES


2
I

Cupfuls of granulated sugar

equals

pound
ounce

Tablespoonful granulated sugar

2 Cupfuls of powdered sugar

....

equals

equals equals
equals

i
i i

pound pound pound


ounces

2 Cupfuls of brown sugar

3^ Cupfuls of bread flour not shaken down


I

Cupful of bread flour

equals 5

3^ Tablespoonfuls flour
1

equals
equals equals
equals equals

ounce

Pint of milk or water

i i
i

pound pound
ounce

2 2 2

Cupfuls of solidly packed butter


Tablespoonfuls butter

Cupfuls of solidly packed lard Cupfuls of chopped meat


rice

....

pound pound pound


ounces

equals equals

I i

if Cupfuls of
I I

Cupful of

rice

equals 8^ ounces equals 7


equals
I
i

Cupful of

raisins
raisins

2^ Cupfuls of
3^^
1

pound pound
ounces

Cupfuls of currants

equals

Cupful of currants
Cupfuls of hominy Cupfuls of samp
grits

equals 5 equals
equals
i i

2
2
I I I
I

pound pound
ounces

Cupful of

split

peas

equals 8

Cupful of dried beans

equals 7^ ounces

Quart of bread crumbs


Cupful peanuts, chopped Cupful prunes
45

....

equals 7

ounces

equals 5^ ounces equals 6^ ounces

46
I I I I

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cupful dried apricots or peaches Cupful macaroni
Cupful oatmeal Cupful cornmeal
.

equals 6
equals |

ounces

pound
ounces

equals 4
equals 6
in shells
.

ounces

8
I

Medium-sized eggs Medium-sized egg

equals

pound
ounces

in shell

....
.

equals 2

10 Medium-sized eggs (broken)


I
I

equals

pound
ounces

Cup almonds, blanched and chopped


Square Baker's chocolate

....

equals 5 equals equals


i i i i i

ounce ounce ounce

2J Tablespoons salt 4 Tablespoons pepper

equals

2 Tablespoons ground ginger 2 J Tablespoons ground cinnamon.

....
.

equals

ounce ounce

equals

VII

TABLE OF PROPORTIONS
Batters;
i

cupful liquid to
i

cupful flour.

Muffin or cake dough;

cupful liquid to 2 cupfuls flour.

Dough Dough

to

knead;

cupful liquid to 3 cupfuls flour.


i

to roll out;

cupful liquid to 4 cupfuls flour.


i

6 teaspoonfuls baking-powder to
are used; or
I

quart flour,

if

no eggs

J teaspoonfuls baking-powder to

cupful flour.
is

J teaspoonful soda and i teaspoonful cream of tartar equivalent to 2 teaspoonfuls baking-powder.

about

compressed I cup liquid yeast equals ^ dry yeast cake, and ^


yeast cake.
I

cupful liquid yeast,

dry yeast cake, or ^ compressed yeast


if

cake to

pint liquid

bread

is

raised during the day.

compressed yeast I cupful liquid yeast, ^ dry yeast cake, or | cake to i pint liquid if bread is raised over night.
I^ teaspoonfuls soda to i^ teaspoonfuls soda to
I i
i

pint thick, sour milk,


pint molasses.

teaspoonful soda to i^ cupfuls thick, sour cream.


i

^ cupful corn-starch to
1

quart milk for blanc-mange.


etc.

teaspoonful salt to

quart soup stock, sauces,


salt.

^ teaspoonful pepper to each teaspoonful


2 to 4 egg yolks to
i i

pint milk for soft custards.


pint milk for cup custards.
i

2 or 3 whole eggs to
I

teaspoonful

salt

to

quart water for boihng vegetables,

meats,

etc.

47

48

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


i

2 tablespoonfuls flour to
gravies.

cup liquid for white sauces and

3 tablespoonfuls flour to

cup liquid for brown sauces.

Whites of 8 eggs make


3 teaspoons equal
i

cupful.

tablespoon.
i

l6 tablespoons equal

cup.

2 cups equal

pint.

VIII

SEASONING AND FLAVOURING MATERIALS

HAVING
and
called
for
to

always

to

substitute

familiar
is

time-worn

flavouring,

which

in

the house, for the newer and particular flavour

and required
a dish,
is

to

give the distinctive

"tang"

what gives some people's


is

cooking a monotony that


expensive
to
is

no easier or
a variety,
it

less

produce
as well

than

if

only
be.

the kitchen

supplied as

might

Many

different

recipes
as

can be made, using the


basis,

same ingredients
rice

by changing the

flavouring, as in stews, cakes, etc.

Macaroni and

admit of a wide range of variation.

For the housekeeper who does not want all her cooking to taste alike, it will be found conhave always on hand a variety of flavouring and seasoning materials. A list is
venient to

given below of the ones frequently called upon


in in this

book; those which are commonly used


dishes
in

sweet

being

grouped

together,

and

those

used

savoury dishes,
49

such

as

soups,

50
stews,

THE
etc.,

FIRELESS
although
in

COOK BOOK
some cases these
are

used interchangeably:

Flavourings
Almond
extract

for

Sweet Dishes
Cloves

Vanilla bean or extract

Nutmeg
Allspice

Orange rind and juice Lemon rind and juice

Ginger

Cinnamon

Wine

Seasonings for Savoury Dishes Thyme Pepper


Cayenne
Curry powder
Sage

Bay leaves
Worcestershire sauce
Parsley

Summer savoury
Sv^eet

Celery seed

marjoram

Celery leaves

Dried peppers

Many

of these

can

be

prepared

at

almost

no cost, and put away in tin cans or boxes, either whole or powdered with a mortar and pestle. The leaves of celery and parsley, the herbs and
peppers

may

be

washed well and hung near


if

the kitchen stove or in the sun,

they can be

kept free from dust and

flies

out of doors, or

put into a warming oven.


rind

make good
if

cakes,

correctly

Orange and lemon flavourings for puddings and prepared, to vary the mono-

tony of perpetual vanilla.


with
a

The

yellow part only

of the rind should be grated, for cakes, or shaved


off*

knife

for

custards

and

puddings,

SEASONING AND FLAVOURING


which can be strained to take out the Caramel is easy to make, and is useful tards and creams.

51

pieces.
in cus-

To make
pan.
colour,
at
if

caramel.

Melt one cupful of sugar


in

with one tablespoonful of water,


Stir
it

frying-

constantly until

it is

a golden

brown

add one-half cupful of water, a time. The sugar becomes very


is
it

one-half
hot, and,
it

only a small amount of water

added,

does

not cool
to

enough and will be so quickly turned steam as to have almost the effect of exploding.
sugar
is

If the
it

allowed to become dark brown

will taste bitter.

Such caramel
but
is

is

sometimes
sufficiently

used

to

color
in

gravies,

not

delicate

taste for flavouring purposes.

Avoid
dish.
It

using
is

the

same
to

seasonings

in

every

better

put only a few flavours

together for each dish than to mingle a great

many and
It
is

be obliged always to use the same.

flavours

good general principle, where several are combined, to keep all somewhat
is

equally balanced so that no one


present.

conspicuously
to

Public

opinion
is

seems

agree

that

the

skilful

cook

the one

who makes sometell

thing good, "but you can't

what's

in

it."

This

is done chiefly by the careful selection and equalizing of flavouring ingredients.

IX

BREAKFAST CEREALS

THAT
pare

so

cheap
as

and easy a food


should
so

to pre-

cereals

often

be

unappetizing, and even indigestible, because of

poor
the

cooking,
great

is

partly

due

to

ignorance

of

cooking gives them,


culties

improvement in flavour which long and partly to the diffisuch long cooking.

attending
to
rise

No
on
less,

one
the

v^ants

two
in

hours
is

before

breakfast to

cook
those

cereal
to

which
ten

advertised

package

cook
do

minutes or
coal
fires

and
to

who

not

have

burning
a
loss

through the night are somewhat

at

know how to keep cereals cooking over night. The fireless cooker seems to fill a long-felt want
in

this

direction.

At the
it

cost of a fraction of

cent

for

fuel

accomplishes
of

an

all-night

cooking
idea

without

danger

scorching, boiling

dry, or needing to

be stirred.

The
is

fallacious

that

boiling

temperature

necessary for

cooking starches

and

starchy

foods

has

been

proved

false.

As

a matter of fact, a
52

temperature

BREAKFAST CEREALS
of

53
for the

167 degrees Fahrenheit

is

sufficient

starch grains of

some
at

cereals, while

long-conpoint

tinued
will
fibre

cooking
to

much below
and

boiling

serve

soften

rupture

the

woody

which surrounds and entangles the starch

and other nutrients.


forming
easily

The
is

nitrogenous or tissue-

substance

probably
boiling,

rendered
is

less

digestible
at

by

and
these

perfectly

cooked
starches.
for

temperature which will cook the


temperatures
time
not

Merely reaching
is

short

sufficient,

however, to

produce well-cooked
affecting the flavour,
is

cereals.

further change
digestibility,

and perhaps the


required

accomplished by long cooking.

The
the

length

of time

depends upon

amount and character of


are
left

the

woody

fibre,

whether the grains

whole or ground

fine, and the degree of cooking they may have had in the course of manufacture. Rolled oats and wheat are steamed to some extent, and do not, therefore, require as much cooking as whole or cracked wheat and oats. Preparations of corn, having more woody fibre than any of the

other cereals, will, unless cooked during


facture, require

manufinely

more cooking than equally ground preparations from other cereals.


requires the least cooking of
the least
all,

Rice

as

it

contains

woody

fibre.

54

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Rolled Oats
2 J cups water
I I

teaspoon

salt

cup rolled oats

Look over
pieces.
pail that
five

the oats and remove any husks or


v^ater,
salt,

Put
fits

and oats

in boil

a pan, or

into

a cooker-pail,
until
slightly

them

for
stir-

minutes,

or

thickened,

ring

them

frequently, then put the

pan over a
it

cooker-pail of boiling w^ater and put

into

cooker for from two to twelve hours.


soft

Although
is

and

digestible after
in

two hours,
by
longer

it

greatly
If

improved

flavour
it

cooking.

cooked over night

will

need to be heated,

somewhat, before serving.


by putting
it

This can be
still

done

over the

fire

while

in the cooker-

pail of water.

When

the water in the pail boils,

the oatmeal

may

be served.

Serves four persons.

Cornmeal Mush
4 cups boiling water
I
i

cup cornmeal

teaspoon

salt

^ cup cold water


it

Mix
stirring

the meal with the cold water, add


let it boil five
it

to

the boihng salted water;


it

minutes,

frequently, then set


it

in a cooker-pail

of boiling water and put

into

cooker for
is

from
used

five

to ten hours.
frying,

If the

mush

to

be

for

use two cupfuls of milk

and

BREAKFAST CEREALS

55

two cupfuls of water, reserving one-half cupful of the milk cold to mix with the cornmeal.

When
and
sieve

cooked, pour
it

it

into

wet bread pan,


If

slice

when
is

perfectly
sift
it,

cold.

coarsely

ground meal
before
particles

used,

it

through a coarse

cooking
bran.

to

of

Granulated

remove the largest meal will not

require sifting.

Serves six or eight persons.

Hominy
5 cups water
I

Grits
l^ teaspoons
salt

cup hominy

grits

Add
boil
it

the

hominy

to the boiling

salted water,
into a cooker

for ten minutes,

and put

it

for ten hours or more.

Serves six or eight persons.

Cracked
i cup wheat I cup cold water

Wheat
^teaspoon
salt

2 cups boiling water

Soak the cracked wheat


salt,

in the cold

water for
an

nine hours or more; add the boiling water and

and

let

all

boil

hard for ten minutes


into

in

uncovered pan.
pail of boiling

Place the utensil in a cooker-

water and put

it

a cooker

for ten

hours.
it

Reheat
five

it

to

the boiling point

and cook

again for ten hours.


persons.

Serves four or

56

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Steel Cut
^ cup oatmeal I cup cold water

Oatmeal
^ teaspoon
salt

2 cups boiling water

Cook

it

in the

same manner
five persons.

as cracked wheat.

Serves four or

Pettijohn's Breakfast

Food
salt

i teaspoon 2^ cups water I cup Pettijohn's Breakfast Food

Add
it

the
it

salt

and cereal
it it

to

the

cold

water,

stir until

boils, boil

for five minutes, or until

has thickened, and put


to

into
It
is

a cooker for

from two

twelve hours.

improved by

the longer cooking.

Serves four or

five

persons
of ^A^heat
salt

Cream

i teaspoon 3^ cups boiling water ^ cup cream of wheat

Put

all

together, stir until boiling, and put

it

into a cooker for

from one

to twelve hours.

Serves four or five persons.

Cook
Cook

it

in

Wheatlet the same way as cream of wheat.


Farina

it

in the

same way

as

cream of wheat.

X
SOUPS

THERE
in

are

two

classes of soup,

(i)

those

made with meat

stock,

which

is

the water

which meat has been cooked, sometimes in combination with other materials for seasoning purposes, and (2) those made without meat
stock.

Bouillon,
clear; or

Soups made with meat stock include: made from lean beef, always served

from clams.
stock,

Brown
ferably
fat,

made

usually

from

beef,

pre-

one-half lean

and one-half bone


of vegetables, herbs,

and and

with seasonings

spices.

made from chicken or veal. Consomme, made from several kinds of meat,
White
stock,

seasoned highly with vegetables, herbs, and spices,

and always served


Broths
or beef

clear.
tea,

made

usually from

lean

mutton, lamb, or beef, and not clarified. Soups made without meat stock include:

Cream

soups,

made

from vegetable or
57

fish

58

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


somewhat thickened
or fish put through

stock with milk or cream and

with flour or corn-starch.


Purees,

made from vegetables

a strainer, often with the addition of milk or cream. They also are thickened with flour or

corn-starch and are usually thicker than cream


soups.
purees.

White stock
are

also

is

sometimes used
purees, except

in

Bisques

made

like

that

pieces of vegetables,
in

fish,

meat, or

game

are served

them

in addition.

SOUP MAKING

To make
let

stock.

Wash and
it

cut the

meat

into

small pieces or gash

frequently; crack the bone;


in the cold

meat and bone soak

water while

preparing the seasonings; then add the seasonings, boil the stock ten minutes and put it into
a cooker for

cooked, pour

it

from nine to twelve hours. When through a wire strainer and set it

away

to cool.

When

cold,

it

should be kept in a

refrigerator or other cold place.

Be

careful that

the pail

is

well

filled,

or the soup will cool with

the long cooking and

may
fill

sour.

If too small a

quantity

is

cooked to

the pail or

pan

it

should

be

set

over hot water.

The cake
is is

of fat which

forms on top

when

the stock

cold should not be

removed

until the

soup

to be

made,

as

it

seals

SOUPS
When

59

the stock and keeps out air and germs, thus help-

ing to preserve
fat is

it.

taken

off,

made, the the stock heated, and any desired


is

soup

to be

seasonings or additions are put

in.

To
stock,

clear

soup
if it

stock.

Remove

the

fat, taste
it

the

and

needs more seasoning add

before

the clearing.

Put into each quart of the cold

stock the slightly beaten v^hite of one egg and one

crushed egg-shell.
it.

Wash

the egg before breaking


it.

Stir
it

the

stock

constantly while heating


set
it

Let

boil tv^o

minutes and

in

a cooker

for one-half

hour or more.
through

Remove

the

scum

and

strain

it

tv^o thicknesses of cheese-

cloth laid in a colander.

To remove
off all that

fat

from hot soup or

broth.

can be taken

off with a spoon.

Skim With

brown paper you were using blotting paper on the surface of the soup. When no spotted appearance is seen on the papers, the fat
a succession of small pieces of soft
if

take off the rest as

is

all

removed.
soups.

To bind

This name

is

given to the

process of thickening cream soups and purees,


the liquid and solid part of which
unless

would separate

bound
it

together.

Melt the butter, and


well blended.

when

is

liquid

add usually an equal quantity

of flour and rub

them together
added
to

till

They

are then

the soup

and

stirred

6o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


till

constantly

perfectly mixed.

If the proportion
it

of flour

is

greater than that of the butter


little

will

be better to add a

of the soup to the flour

and butter
to

in a separate

saucepan as for making

white sauce, and

when enough has been added


it

make

smooth sauce,

may

be poured into

the soup.

Brown Stock No.


3 3
lbs.

shin of beef

sprig sweet

marjoram

qts. cold

water

2 sprigs parsley

^ teaspoon peppercorns
6 cloves

h cup carrot ^ cup turnip ^ cup celery

^ bay leaf
3 sprigs

thyme
I

cup onion
salt

tablespoon

Prepare the meat brown one-third of


fat.

as directed for
it

in a frying

making stock, pan with the


all

Wash

the vegetables, scrape or pare them,


in small pieces.

and cut them

Put

the ingre-

dients together

and bring them

to a boil.

When
Unless
not safe
lest
it

they have boiled for ten


a cooker for

minutes put them into


of soup

from nine

to twelve hours.
it

there
to

is

a large quantity
it

is

leave
cold

more than
be
left

twelve

hours,

grow

and sour; but nine or more quarts


for
is

may
Pour

safely

fifteen

hours or more,

provided
it

the

kettle

at

least two-thirds full.


it

through a wire strainer and cool

as

rapidly as possible.

SOUPS
Brown
l^
lbs.

6i
2

Stock No.

meat and bone, raw


water

3 sprigs parsley

or cooked
1

| cup carrot

qts.

6 peppercorns 3 cloves

J cup turnip ^ cup onion


J cup celery i teaspoon salt

^ teaspoon shaved lemon

rind

Do

not use salt or smoked meats for soup

stock, or

any parts of meat which have become

charred or blackened in the cooking.

Very

little

of these would be enough to destroy the good


flavour of soup.

Cut from the bones


to

all

the meat that


steak
or

is

easy

get

off.

Tough ends from

roasts

should be cut off before they are cooked, and

saved for soup or stews.

Cut meat

for

making

soup
joints

in small pieces.

Separate the bones at the


if

and crack them

they are large. Soak the

meat in the water while preparing the seasoning. Put all the ingredients together and bring them to a Boil them for ten minutes and put them boil. into a cooker for from nine to twelve hours, standing the pan or pail in a large pail of boiling water, unless this recipe
Strain
cool
it

fills

the cooker pail.

the stock through

wire strainer,

and

as rapidly as possible.

White Stock No.


I

chicken or fowl

Water
i

to cover the
qt.

chicken

Salt (1 teaspoon to

water)

62

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cook chicken
or fowl according to the directions

given on page 131 for stewed chicken.

The water in

which the chicken was cooked makes white stock.

White Stock No.


2 lbs. knuckle of veal 2 qts. cold water
1

12 peppercorns

^ cup celery or
onion

tea-

tablespoon

salt
I

spoon celery seed

Prepare
stock.
in

meat as directed for making Pare and slice the onion; cut the celery
the
If celery

pieces.

cannot easily be obtained,


leaves,

substitute

dried

celery

using

three

or

four sprays, or use celery seed.

Put

all

the ingredients together,

let

them

boil

for ten minutes,

and put them

into a cooker for

from nine to twelve hours.


in

Set the pail or

pan

a larger cooker -pail of boiling water unless


fills

the soup nearly

the cooker-pail.

Bouillon
3 lbs. lean beef from round or
i

tablespoon

salt

shoulder
2 lbs.

| cup carrot ^ cup onion

marrow bone
water

3 qts. cold
I

cup turnip
| cup celery

teaspoon peppercorns

Prepare

the

brown
the

stock.

meat as directed Use the marrow fat


all

for for

making
browning
minutes

meat.

Boil

together

for

ten

and put them into a cooker for from nine to

SOUPS
twelve hours.
strainer
fat

63

Strain the stock through a wire


cool
it.

and

When

cold,

remove the
59.

and

clear the

soup as directed on page

Serve in bouillon cups with crisp crackers.


Serves fifteen to twenty persons.

Beef Broth
I

lb.

lean beef from round or

pt. cold

water
salt

shoulder

J teaspoon

Wash and chop the meat fine, removing any Add the salt and let the meat pieces of fat.
soak for one hour in a cold place.
cooker-pail or

In a

small

pan
165

set

over

larger cooker-

pail of hot, but not boiling water, heat the broth


till it

registers

degrees

Fahrenheit.

Slip

the pails into a cooker for one-half hour.

Strain

the broth through a coarse wire strainer, remove

by the directions on page 59, and serve be it immediately in a heated cup; or it may frozen to the consistency of mush. chilled, or
all

fat

Mutton Broth
3 lbs.

mutton (from neck)


water

Few

grains pepper

2 qts. cold

3 tablespoons rice or 3 tablespoons barley


all

2 teaspoons salt

Wipe
fat,

the meat, remove carefully


a

skin

and
put

as these impart

rank flavour to

mutton

broth.
it

Cut the meat


a

into small pieces, or

through

food

chopper.

Cover the
salt,

and bones with the water, add the

meat and

64

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


boiling put

when
it

them
it

into a cooker for


If barley
is

from
soak

nine to twelve hours. over night and cook

used,
pail or

in a small

pan
put

set into or

ove the broth n the

ame

cooker-pail.
boiling,

When

broth and barley are bo h

the pails together and slip

them nto the cooker.


if

Rice would

be over cooked

treated

in

this

way, and should be cooked


the broth

in the strained

broth,

or separately, for one hour in the cooker.


is

When
every

done, strain

it

and remove
59.

particle of fat as directed

on page

Consomme
3 lbs. lower part of round or 2 tablespoons butter
l I i

shoulder of beef
I

tablespoon

salt

lb.

marrow bone
knuckle of veal
chicken stock

teaspoon peppercorns
teaspoon shaved

3
I

lbs.

lemon rind

qt.

3 sprigs thyme
i

J cup carrot

sprig

marjoram

J cup turnip
J cup celery

2 sprigs parsley

J bay

leaf

^ cup onion

3 qts. cold water

directed for making marrow fat to brown half brown stock, using the Soak the raw meat and bone in the of the meat.

Prepare

the

meat

as

cold water while browning the remaining

meat

and preparing the vegetables and


Prepare the vegetables as
together,

seasonings.

directed for

making
Bring
chicken

soup stock, and brown them in the butter.


all

to

boil

reserving

the

SOUPS
stock.

65
it

Boil for ten minutes, and put


to

into the

cooker for from nine


this stock

twelve hours.

Strain

stock,

through a wire strainer, add the chicken and, if it is not seasoned sufficiently,
it
it

add what seasoning it needs. Cool as possible, and when cold, clear to the directions on page 59.
It
is

as rapidly

according

served,

usually,

with

custard

cut

into

fancy

shapes;

or

with

noodles,

macaroni,

or

other Italian pastes, which are


directed
tables,

first

cooked as
vege-

on page

143;

or

with

delicate

such as peas or string beans, or other vegetables cut into fancy shapes; or with cooked
chicken, cut in dice, and green peas.

poached

egg

is

sometimes served in each plate of soup.

Serves sixteen or twenty persons.

Mock
1

Turtle Soup No.


i^ teaspoons
2 cups

i
salt

calf's

head

6 cloves
8 peppercorns

brown stock

i cup butter

6 allspice berries
2 sprigs

thyme

i cup flour cup stewed tomatoes, strained


Juice | lemon

J cup sliced onion I cup carrot cut in dice

Madeira wine

Clean

and wash

the

calf's

head,

reserving

the tongue and brains to use for some other dish. Soak it for one hour in enough cold water to Boil it in a covered pail for twenty cover it.

66

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

the

minutes with three quarts of salted water and vegetables and seasoning, and put it into
the

cooker

for

from
cut

nine

to

twelve
face
it

hours.

Remove
reserve

the head;
it;

off the

meat and
reduced to

boil the

stock until

is

one

remove the fat from it as directed on page 59; or cool it, and remove Melt the butter, add the flour the hard fat. and stir it until it is well browned; then add
quart.

Strain

and

the

brown

stock, one-half at a time,

stirring

it

constantly,

and

allowing

the

mixture

to

boil

before adding the second cupful of liquid.


this

To

add the head

stock, tomato,

one cupful of

the face meat cut in dice, and the lemon juice.

Simmer
if

for five minutes.


to taste,

Just before serving

it

add Madeira wine


desirable,

more

salt

and pepper,
prepared,

custard cut in dice, and egg balls


balls.

or
as

forcemeat
it

If

the

soup
it is

is

may

be,

some time before


hours
it

to

be served,

slip

the pail into the cooker until time for serving.

If kept

many

will

need to be reheated.

Mock
I

Turtle Soup
4 cloves
i

calf's or

lamb's liver

I I

calf's heart

teaspoon peppercorns

knuckle of veal
to cover (about 2 qts.)

2 teaspoons salt
i

Water

bay leaf

^ cup union J cup turnip ^ cup celery

4 yolks of hard-cooked eggs

J lemon Madeira wine

SOUPS
Wash
the the meat, cover
it

67

with cold water in a

cooker-paiL

Let

it

stand in a cold place while

vegetables

are

being prepared.
in

Wash

the

vegetables

and cut them and


to
boil

small pieces.

Put Put
Strain

them and the seasonings with the meat, bring


all
it
?t,

to a boil,

it

for ten minutes.

into a cooker for nine hours or more.

and add

it

one cupful of the heart and

meat cut into small dice. Pour it into which the lemon and the egg yolks, Add Madeira cut in quarters, have been placed. v/ine to taste. The remaining heart and liver
liver

a tureen in

mav be

used for stew or hash.

Serves ten or eleven persons.

Vegetable Soup with Stock


2 qts.

brown stock

^ cup cabbage
j cup onion

^ cup turnip ^ cup carrot


^ cup celery

^ teaspoon

salt

2 tablespoons rice or barley

Wash and
the celery
dients
in

pare the vegetables.

Put
the

all

but

the celery through a coarse food chopper.


fine

Cut
ingre-

pieces.

Boil

all

together
into

hard

for

one

minute.

Put
cold

them
If

a
is

cooker for three hours or more.


used, soak
it it

barley

over night in
or

water and boil


cooker with
six hours.

till

soft;

cook

it

in
live

the
or

boiling

salted

water

for

68

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cream
2 cups white stock 3 cups celery, cut small
I

of Celery

Soup

3 tablespoons flour 2 cups hot milk


i

cup water
small onion, sliced

cup hot cream


teaspoon
salt

2 tablespoons butter

J teaspoon pepper

Cook

the

first

four ingredients together in a

cooker for three hours or more.

Rub them through

a sieve; bind the soup with the butter and flour,


as directed

on page 59, and add the milk, cream,

and seasonings.
Serves six or eight persons.

Asparagus Soup
3 cups white stock, or

J cup butter
2 cups hot milk

3 cups water in which aspara- j cup flour

gus has cooked


I

can asparagus, or
pt.

^ teaspoon
slice

salt

cooked asparagus
I

| teaspoon pepper

onion

If

canned asparagus
off the tips

is

used, drain and rinse

it.

Cut

about an inch long, and reserve


stalks

them.

Put the
boiling,

of asparagus,

stock

or

asparagus water

and onion into a cooker-pail.

When
sieve,

put them into a cooker for two

and one-half hours or more. Rub through a bind it with the butter and flour, as directed

on page 59, and add the remaining ingredients and the tips.
Serves six or seven persons.

SOUPS
Tomato Soup with Stock
I

69

qt.

brown stock
i

4 tablespoons butter
J cup flour

I
I

can or
onion

qt.

tomatoes

i^ teaspoons
first

salt

Cook or more
bind
it

the

three ingredients for one hour

in the cooker.

Rub through
flour, as
salt.

a strainer,

with the butter and

directed on

page 59, and add the


before
it

Or

bind the soup

putting

it

into

the

cooker,

and

strain

just before serving.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Creole Soup
I 1

qt.

brown stock
tomatoes

J cup flour

pt.

f teaspoon

salt

3 tablespoons chopped green

Few

grains of cayenne

sweet peppers
2 tablespoons

2 tablespoons grated horse-

chopped onion
i

radish

^ cup butter

teaspoon vinegar

^ cup macaroni rings

Cook the pepper and onion


five

in the butter for

minutes, add the flour, then the stock and


gradually, and cook
all

tomatoes
for

in the

cooker
sieve,

one hour or more.

Rub

it

through a

and add the remaining ingredients.


roni rings are

The maca-

made by

cutting cooked macaroni

into very short lengths.


for

Do

not

soak macaroni

making

rings.

Serves six or eight persons.

70

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Ox
Tail

Soup
^ cup Madeira wine
i

small ox
qts.

tail

l^

brown stock
salt

teaspoon Worcestershire
sauce

i teaspoon

Few

grains of cayenne

teaspoon lemon juice

2 tablespoons butter

Flour

Cut the ox tail into small pieces, wash it, drain it, and sprinkle it with the salt, pepper,
and
cut
flour.

Brown
or

it

in the butter.

Add

it

to

the stock with the vegetables, which have been

small
it

with

French

vegetable

cutters.

Put

into the cooker for

two hours or more.

Add

the seasonings and lemon juice.

Serves six or eight persons.

Julienne Soup
I

qt.

brown

stock

2 tablespoons peas
2 tablespoons string beans

i cup carrot

J cup turnip

Clarify the stock and add the cooked beans and peas and the carrot and turnip, which have been cut into thin strips one and one-half inches

long and cooked for two hours in the cooker.

When

boiling hot, serve

it.

Serves four or five persons.

Macaroni Soup
I

qt.

brown stock

J cup macaroni rings in boiling salted

Cook the macaroni


two hours

water for

in the cooker.

Drain

it

in a colander.

SOUPS
Cut
it

71

into

very short lengths to


in the stock.

make

rings.

Heat them

SOUPS MADE WITHOUT STOCK


Vegetable Soup
J cup carrot J cup turnip
i

pt.

tomatoes

5 tablespoons butter

J cup celery ^ cup onion


ij cups potato
I

i tablespoon parsley
2 teaspoons salt

I teaspoon pepper
qt.

water

Wash
the
leaves

the vegetables, scrape the carrot, pare

turnip, potatoes,

and
pieces,

onions,
celery,

remove the
and cut the
all

and

strings
in

from the

vegetables

small

or

put

except

the potatoes and celery through a coarse food

chopper.

Measure

the

vegetables
all,

after

they

are prepared.

Put them

except the potatoes

pan with the butter, and and cook them for ten minutes; add the potatoes and cook them for two minutes more, then
parsley, into a frying

put

all

the
in

ingredients,
a

except

the

parsley,

together

cooker-pail,

and when they are

boiling put or more.

them

into a cooker for three hours

Add

the parsley just before serving.

"Left-over" vegetables, in pieces,


in place of
five given.

may

be added,
first

an equal measure of any of the

Serves six or eight persons.

72

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Bean Soup
pt.

beans

2 tablespoons Chili sauce

2 qts. water or stock


I

2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour

onion
lb. lean,

raw

beef, if stock

is

2^ teaspoons

salt

not used

j teaspoon pepper
2 stalks celery

Wash and soak the beans over night, cut the meat small, and pan-broil the pieces in a dry, Put all the ingrehot frying pan till brown. dients except the butter and flour into a cookerpail, and when they are boiling put them into
a

cooker for from nine to twelve hours.


it.

Rub

the soup through a strainer, and bind

Serves eight or ten people.

Black Bean Soup


1

pt.

black beans

2 qts. water
1

J teaspoon pepper J teaspoon mustard

small onion

Cayenne
3 tablespoons butter
salt

2 stalks celery, or

J teaspoon celery 2 teaspoons salt

i^ tablespoons flour
2 hard-cooked eggs
I

lemon

Soak the beans over night, drain them and add Cook the onion in onethe two quarts of water. onion and celery to the half of the butter; add beans, and, when boiling, put them into a cooker
for

from eight

to twelve hours.

Rub

the soup
it.

through a strainer, add the seasonings, bind

SOUPS
and when
it

^7^

has boiled for

five

minutes pour

it

over the sliced eggs and lemon in a soup tureen.


Serves eight or ten persons.

Tomato Soup
I

can tomatoes, or
qt. pt.

slice

onion

I I

raw tomatoes
water

2 teaspoons salt

\ teaspoon soda
2 teaspoons sugar 2 tablespoons butter 3 tablespoons flour
first

12 peppercorns
I

small bay leaf

4 cloves

Cook the
salt

six

ingredients

together in

cooker for one hour or more.

Strain,

add the

and soda, and bind


it

it.

If

it is

not to be served

at

once

may

stand in the cooker, to keep hot,

for

an indefinite period.

Serves six or seven persons.

Puree of Lima Beans


1

cup dried lima beans

cup cream or milk

3 pts. water 2 slices onion


2 slices turnip

4 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour
2 teaspoons salt

\ teaspoon pepper

Wash

the beans

and soak them over


boiling,

night.

Drain them, and, when

cook them with the


in

prepared onion and turnip and the water


cooker for four hours or more.
a strainer, add the seasoning

Rub

this

through

and cream or milk,

and bind

it.

Serves seven or nine persons.

74

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Baked Bean Soup
2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour
i
i

3 cups cold baked beans


3 pints water 2 slices onion

tablespoon Chili sauce

2 stalks celery
I

teaspoon

salt

J cups tomato

J teaspoon pepper
five ingredients in a

Cook

the

first

cooker for

three hours or more, rub them through a strainer,

bind this with the butter and

flour, as directed

on

page 59, and add the seasonings.


Serves eight or ten persons.

Green Pea Soup


I
1

can marrowfat peas, or


pt. shelled peas

slice

onion

2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour

2 teaspoons sugar
I I

pt. pt.

water
milk

i^ teaspoon

salt

J teaspoon pepper

which are too If canned old to be good to serve as a vegetable. rinse them, add the sugar, peas are used, drain and water, and onion, and, when boiling, put them Rub them into a cooker for two hours or more.
If fresh peas are used take those

through a strainer, add the hot milk and seasoning and bind the soup with the butter and flour, as
directed on page 59.

Bean and pea soups

are very nourishing

and

should not be followed by a rich, hearty meal.


Serves five or six persons.

SOUPS
Potato Soup
3 potatoes
I
1

75

2 tablespoons flour

pt.
pt.

milk

i^ teaspoons

salt
salt

water

^ teaspoon celery

2 slices onion

J teaspoon pepper

4 tablespoons butter
I

Cayenne

teaspoon chopped parsley

Scrub and pare the potatoes and cut them into


small pieces.

Cook them

in

a cooker with the

water and onion for one and one-half hours or


more, standing the pail or pan in a larger cookerpail of boiling water.
sieve,

Rub

the soup through a

bind

it,

and add the seasoning.

Serves five or six persons.

Fish Chowder
4
lbs.

cod, haddock, or other

i^ inch cube
i

fat salt
salt

pork

firm white fish

tablespoon

4 cups potatoes
I

(in

finch dice) | teaspoon pepper


3 tablespoons butter

onion, sliced

4 cups scalded milk

cup oyster crackers

Skin the

fish

(see

page

82), cut the


tail,

flesh

into

two-inch pieces, put the head,


a small cooker-pail or pan,

and bones

into

add two cups of cold


Set this into a

water and bring


larger

it

to a boil.

cooker-pail

of
salt

boiling

water

to

which
lower

one teaspoonful of
quart of water.
pail

has been added for each


in
in

Put the potatoes


boiling,

this

and,

when

cook

all

the cooker

for

one hour.

76

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cut the pork
into small pieces, try out the fat

in a frying-pan
fish

and

fry the onion in

it.

When

the

and potatoes are cooked, drain add


all

off the fish-

liquor,

the ingredients except the milk


it,

and crackers
it

to

bring

it

to

a boil

and place

in the

cooker for one-half hour.

Add

the

milk and pour the chowder over the


in a tureen.

crackers

Serves tv^elve or sixteen persons.

Connecticut Chowder

Make

this in the

same manner

as

fish

chowder,

substituting two

and one-half cups of stewed or

canned tomatoes for the milk.

may

be added to the other ingredients


If desired,

The tomatoes when they

are put together.

crumble the crackers

and add them

just before serving.

Serves ten or twelve persons.

Clam Chowder
^ pk. clams in the shell
or
I
I

tablespoon

salt

qt.

clams
cut in J inch

^ teaspoon pepper
4 tablespoons butter
I

qt. potatoes,

dice
I
I

qt.

scalding hot milk, or

cup water

6 or 8
fat salt

soda crackers, broken

^ inch cube

pork

or crumbled

2^ cups stewed tomatoes

Wash

the clams in a strainer, pick

them

over,

to see that there are

no

bits

of shell with them, and


the hard parts or

cut off the soft parts.

Chop

SOUPS
cut

77

them
all

into small pieces.

Cut the pork


fry the

into
it.

pieces, try out the fat,

and

onion in

Put

the ingredients together, except the crackers


if

and the milk,


for

that be used, into a cooker-pail.

Bring them to a boil and put them into the cooker

from one

to

two hours.

Reheat the soup and

add the milk and crackers.


Serves ten to sixteen persons.
Split-pea
I I

Soup
2 qts. cold water
salt

pt. split

peas
(2 lbs.)

soup bone

2f teaspoons J teaspoon pepper

Soak the peas over night and drain them.

Wash
all

the bone, boil


it,

it

for ten minutes in the

water

and skim

to a boil

add the peas and seasoning, bring and put it into the cooker for four

hours or more.

Take out
it.

the bone

and serve

the soup without straining

cooked
beaten.

until they fall to pieces easily

If

desired,

the

The peas must be when well meat may be taken

from the bone, cut


in the soup.

into

small pieces and served

Oyster or Clam Stew


I

qt. oysters or qt.

clams

j cup butter

milk

i^ tablespoons

salt

^ teaspoon pepper

Heat the milk

till

it

boils.

Heat the oysters

or clams in their liquor which has been strained

78

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Add
the pepper and the

through cheese-cloth.
for one-half for

hot milk and put the stew at once into a cooker

hour or more.

Oysters will keep

boil after the milk

some hours without curdling if they do not is added and if the salt is put
It will

in just before serving.

be safer to keep

the clams and milk separate while in the cooker

will

and combine them just before serving. Less be needed for clams than for oysters.

salt

SOUP GARNISHES
Noodles
I

egg
Flour to

i teaspoon salt

make
it

a
is

stiff

dough

Beat the egg until


little flour,

evenly mixed, add a


salt

through which the

has been mixed.

Gradually add more


minutes, then
roll it

flour until a

dough

is
it

made
a few

that can be rolled out very thin.

Knead

as thin as possible.

Let

it

stand for fifteen or twenty minutes covered with


a towel, then roll
it

like jelly-roll

and

cut,

from

the end of the

roll,

very narrow

slices.

Unroll

these strips and lay

them on

a board, covered

lightly with a towel or clean cloth, to dry.

When
may
be

perfectly dry they are ready

to use,

or

put away in covered cans or boxes and kept in


a cool place.

If noodles are used as a vegetable they should

SOUPS

79

be prepared as macaroni, except that they must


not be soaked before cooking.

Egg
4 eggs, cooked
I

Balls
^ teaspoon
i

salt

egg,

raw

teaspoon butter

^ teaspoon pepper

than cover them

Put the eggs into enough cold water to more (at least one quart for every
it

four eggs), bring this to a boil and put

into a

cooker for twenty minutes.

Drop

the eggs into

cold water, take off the shells and


cold
carefully

when they

are

remove the whites, leaving the These may be dropped into soup yolks whole. as they are, or they may be mashed, mixed with
the butter and salt and enough egg yolk, or egg

white or whole egg, beaten, to moisten them, so


that they
size of a

may

be moulded into balls about the


Roll these in flour

hard-cooked yolk.
in butter.

and saute them


J cup fine, J cup milk
I

Forcemeat Balls
soft

crumbs

egg
fish or

I cup raw
salt
I i

meat

teaspoon

tablespoon flour

tablespoon butter

Cook the bread and milk to a paste, cool it, add the beaten egg and fish or meat, forced through a fine meat-chopper or chopped and then ground fine with a mortar and pestle. Mould it into balls, lay them in a pan with the flour

^o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

and shake
saute
carefully

until

the balls
butter,
to time,

are

floured; then

them with the


from time
all

shaking the
till

pan
be
the

the balls are


balls

browned on
dropped into

sides.

Or
soup

the

may
into

boiling

and

put

cooker for one-half hour.

Croutons

Cut
thinly

slices

of bread one-half inch thick, spread


butter.

Cut the slices into strips one-half inch wide, and these into dice one-half Put them into a baking-pan, and inch thick. brown them in a hot oven, stirring them about frequently that they may be brown evenly.
with

Add them
pass

to

the soup just before serving, or

them

after serving.

Soup Sticks
Prepare the
bread
exactly
as for

croutons,

except that the strips of bread are not cut into


dice.

If

desired

the

strips

may be
are

sprinkled
cut.

with

grated
side

cheese

after

they

Lay
Serve

them them them

by side with enough space between


sides.

to allow as

them to brown on the an accompaniment to soup.


Crisp Crackers

Split

plain, thick

crackers; spread the rough


butter,

sides

slightly

with

and

brown

them

delicately in a hot oven.

XI FISH
cy^O
^
is

tell

fresh fish.

The
rise

flesh

of fresh
if

fish

firm,

and
fish

will

quickly

pressed
gills

with the finger; the eyes are bright, and the


red.

Frozen

may

be kept for a long time,

but must be used at once


spoils

when thawed,
fresh
fish.

as

it

more
fish.

quickly

than

Thaw
and

frozen fish in cold water.

Care of

Clean

it

and wipe

it,

inside

out, with a cloth dipped in strongly salted water.

Do

not put steaks or cutlets of


it

fish into
ice,

the water.

Lay

on a plate on cracked
It

or in a cool

must not be kept in an ice-box unless wrapped in two thicknesses of brown paper, or it will impart an odour to milk, butter, and
place.

other foods.

To

clean

fish.

Before opening

it

the scales by scraping slowly from the the head, holding the knife nearly
fish.

tail

flat

remove toward on the


slit

Rinse the knife frequently


the
fish

in cold water.

Open

on the under
half-way

side,

cutting a

from the

gills

down
8i

the body.

Remove

82

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


if

the entrails clear to the backbone, scraping the


inside

necessary.
fish.

To
tail,

skin a

Cut a

slit

down

the back to the

on both

sides of the dorsal fins,


out.

deep enough
knife

to

take them

Insert a sharp-pointed

under the skin as near the gills as possible. Holding the head by the bony part near the gills,

work the knife down toward the


Cooking of fish.
If boiled too long,

tail.

Fish

is

sufficiently

cooked when

the flesh will easily flake


it

away from the bones.


soft

An

acid

flavour

is

for this reason slices

and watery. and fish, palatable with of lemon or an acid sauce

becomes

are often served with

it.

Left-over boiled fish

may be
fish,

served in a variety
fish,

of ways,

as

creamed

scalloped

fish

souffle, croquettes, casserole of fish, etc.

TABLE OF THE SEASONS,


NAME OF FISH
WEIGHT

ETC.,

OF FRESH-WATER

FISH
IN SEASON

Salmon
Shad
White
Bass
fish

5 or 6 lbs., or 3
lbs.,

more

May

to Sept.

or

more

Jan. to June

lbs.

Winter

3 to 8 lbs

Always

Perch
Pickerel

Average
I

8 to a lb.

Summer
Always
Apr. to Aug. Apr. to Aug.

to 4 lbs.

Brook Trout

Lake Trout
Pike

4 to 9

lbs.

Summer

FISH
TABLE OF SEASONS,
NAME OF FISH

83

ETC.,

OF SALT-WATER FISH
IN SEASON

WEIGHT
3 to 20 lbs.
5 to 8 lbs. 3 lbs.

Cod Haddock
Black Bass

Always Always
Aug.
to

Mar.

Cusk
Halibut
Flounders

5 to 8 lbs.

Winter

Always
^
4
to 5 lbs.
lbs.,

Always
Late winter

Red snapper
Bluefish

or

more

4 to 8

lbs.

June

to Oct.

Tautog
Sturgeon
Swordfish

July to Sept.

Summer
July to Sept.
3 to 5 lbs.

Weakfish

Winter

Mackerel

J to 2

lbs.

May

to Sept.

Turbot
Herring
Smelts
Lobsters
6 or 8 to a lb.

Jan. to Mar.

Mar. and Apr.


Sept. to

Average
I

8 to a lb.

Mar.

to 2 lbs.

Always
Sept. to

Oysters

May

Clams
Crabs

Always

Summer
Boiled Fish

Put a three-pound
small
fish,

fish,

or three

pounds of

into four quarts of boiling water to


salt

which four teaspoonfuls of


Set
it

have been added.


in

at

once

into

the

cooker for one hour.


the

Larger

fish

may
fish

be
is

cooked
used.

same
or six

way

if

more water

For instance, a
five

four-pound

should be put into

84

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Or, with large
fish,

quarts of water.

put them

into boiUng water to cover them, let


to

them come
for

a boil,

and put them into the cooker


an

three-quarters of
to the
will
size

hour

or

more, according

of the

fish.

Fish

when overcooked
break
if

be watery, but will


very

not

to

pieces,
in

unless

much

overdone,

cooked

hay-box or cooker.

Creamed
I

Salt Codfish

No.

lb. fish

3 or 4 qts. water

Wash
put put
it
it

the

fish

and,

without
it

shredding
to a boil,

it,

into the cold water, bring into a cooker for one

and

and one-half hours.

Drain, pick into pieces, and bring to a boil in

one cup of white sauce, omitting the salt. It improved by adding a beaten egg before is
serving.

Serves six or seven persons.

Creamed
I

Salt Codfish

No.

lb.

codfish

4 eggs

3 or 4 qts. water

^ cup milk
| teaspoon pepper

cup butter

Cook
No.
I.

the

fish

as

for

creamed

salt
it

codfish
into
this

When
boiler

picked to pieces, put


with the butter.
fish

a
is

double

When

absorbed by the

add

the remaining ingredistirring

ents beaten together.

Cook,

constantly.

FISH
until
it
it

85

thickens like custard.

Serve at once or

will curdle.

Serves six or eight persons.

Codfish Balls
I

cup

raw

salt

codfish,

in

3 qts. cold water


i

small pieces
I

egg

heaping

pint

potatoes

in

i tablespoon butter ^ teaspoon pepper

i-inch pieces

Bring the
water.

fish

and potatoes

to

boil in the

Put them into a hay-box for one and one-half hours. Drain and shake them, uncovered, over
potatoes,
till

the

fire

to

dry them
mealy.

as

boiled

white

and

Mash them

thoroughly, add the other ingredients, and

them together a little more


tablespoonfuls

thoroughly.
salt.

mix If necessary, add Take the mixture up by


moulding
Fry
until

and,

without
fat.

them,
they

drop them into hot, deep


are

rich

brown, and drain them on brown


temperature of
stale
fat for fish
fat.

paper.

To

test the

balls,

drop a cube of
of the

bread into the

If
fat

it

grows a rich brown


right
is

in forty

seconds the
If
fat
is

is

temperature.

too

hot,

fried food
if

injured in flavour and digestibility;


If

not hot enough the food will be greasy.


balls fall apart in the frying,
it

fish

is

because

86

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

the fish and potatoes were not well dried before

adding the other ingredients.


Serves four or six persons.
Salt Fish Souffle
I I

cup

salt codfish
pt.

2^ tablespoons butter
f cup milk i teaspoon pepper
2 eggs

heaping

potatoes

3 qts.

water

Cook

the fish and potatoes as for codfish balls.

When
stiff.

drained and dried, add the butter, milk,

pepper, and yolks of eggs; then the whites, beaten

Turn
until

into

buttered

baking-dish,

and

bake

puffed

and brown

(about

one-half

hour) in
until the

an insulated oven, the stones heated

paper

test

shows a golden brown.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Salmon Loaf
I

can salmon

i cup butter (melted) I cup soft breadcrumbs

i teaspoon pepper i^ teaspoons salt


2 tablespoons chopped parsley
I

4 eggs

small bay leaf

If only hard, dry

crumbs can be obtained, add

one-fourth of a cup of water to the recipe, mixing


it

with the eggs, and soaking the crumbs

one-half hour in the mixture.

and butter together, add the other ingredients, and put all into a buttered one-quart bread-mould or water-tight empty

Rub

the

fish

FISH
coffee
in

87^

or

baking-powder
sides.

can.

Set the

mould

enough cold water


its

to reach two-thirds of the


this

way up
fifteen

Let

come

to a boil, boil

minutes and put into the cooker for one


It

hour. the

will

not be injured by remaining in

hay-box

two

hours.
boil

into boiling water,

mould one-half hour, and put


set

Or

the

into the cooker for an hour.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Casserole of Fish
I
I

cup cold flaked


teaspoon
salt

fish

cup mashed potatoes

2 hard-cooked eggs

^ teaspoon pepper

Butter a quart mould, put into


layers of fish, potatoes,
layer.

it

alternate

Stand

the

and egg; seasoning each mould in a cooker-pail of

boiling water to reach two-thirds of the


its

way up
into the

sides.

Boil ten minutes and put

it

cooker for from three-quarters of an hour to two


hours.

Serves six persons.

Cape Cod Turkey


I

lb. salt

codfish

4 qts. cold water


lb. fat salt

pork

Wash
water.
let
it

the fish and put

it

on the stove
it

in

the

When
this
is

boiling, put

into a cooker

and

cook from one and one-half to three hours.


cooking cut the pork into one-fourth

While

Si
inch

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


slices,

gash the sHces occasionally, nearly

to the rind.

Pour boiling water over


out in a frying-pan
the codfish
is
till

it,

drain

it,

and
crisp.

try

it

brown and
it

When
it

done, drain

and

garnish

with a border of the hot, crisp pork.

Serve drawn-butter sauce

and

boiled

potatoes

with

it.

Serves six or eight persons.

Creamed Oysters
T

qt. oysters

2 cups milk or

cream

J cup flour | teaspoon

salt

J cup butter

Few

grains of white pepper

Drain and wash the


through cheese-cloth.
liquor

oysters.

Strain the liquor


in

Heat the oysters

the the

by themselves and scald the milk.

Rub

butter and flour together, add

them
Put
it

to the hot

milk or cream, and

let

it

boil.

this

mixture

with the boiling oysters and


for

set

in

a cooker
serv-

one-half hour or

more.
Serve
it

Just

before

ing add the seasoning.

on toast or crisped

crackers, or in croustades.

XII

BEEF

^O
fat
all

select

good
that

beef,
is,

(i) Quality.

"Heavy"
fat,

beef,

taken
It

from

heavy

animals,

is

the best.

should be mottled with

of fat should be firm


colour.

through the lean, and the large masses and of a creamy white

The grain of tender meat is


meat,
tissue

fine.

Coarsecon-

grained
nective
(2)

and
or

meat

streaked
is is

with

gristle,

sure to be tough.
a

Freshness.

Fresh beef
it

good red colour,


a

modified,
shade.
stale,

when
its

is

very cold, to

purplish

If black or greenish in tint the

meat
is

is

and
it

odour

will

be bad.

Meat

flabby
is

after

is

killed,

but soon grows firm.

It

in

suitable condition for cooking before this

change

takes place, or

some days

after

it.

Uses of the

different cuts:

Beef

is

cut variously

and the same cuts are not always similarly named. Merely to call the cuts by name would, therefore, make
this

diff'erent

parts of the country,

chapter unintelligible to some readers; but


89

90

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

by consulting the accompanying chart the pieces can be selected without reference to their names,
according to the
to

part
use.

of the

animal

adapted

each

particular

Those muscles which

are
will

much

used and which have hard work to do


the

have the most juice and the best flavour,


at

though,
toughest.

same
and

time,
all

they

will

be

the

For instance,
shin,

cuts,

such as round,

shoulder,

rump, w^hich

come from

Figure No.

7.

Diagram

of

the cuts of beef.

The double

line

shows the division

between forequarter and hindquarter.

the legs or parts by which the legs are connected

with the body, will be tough and high-flavoured.

The neck

also, and upper part of the shoulder, by reason of the support they give to the weight

of the head, are tough, although rich in flavour.

Any
they

cuts

from these
called,

parts,

by whatever name
for

are

are

not

suitable

cooking

with dry heat, such as that of baking, or broiling,

but will

require

long,

slow cooking with

water to

make them

tender.

Such pieces are

BEEF
the

91
in

ones

to

buy

for

cooking

hay-box.

They do
cuts

not

command

the price of the tender

from the back of the animal, and it is, therefore, a distinct economy to buy these cheap pieces

and by skilful cooking make them and palatable. The parts numbered
II

digestible
i,

2,

7,

8,

9, in Fig. 7 are suitable for stews; those

marked

and

12, as well as all

bones, are suitable for

soups.

Numbers

2,

5,

6,

and 10 may be used


adapted also to pot

for stews or broth, but are


roasts,
etc.,

rolled steaks,

cannelon,

Hamburg

steak,

while only numbers 3

and 4 are adapted

to roasting or broiling.

Other parts of beef used as food, suitable for cooking in the hay-box or cooker, are:
Brains, stewed or scalloped, or for croquettes.

Heart, stuffed and braised.


Liver, braised.

Tongue, boiled;
Kidneys, stewed.
Tail, soup.

fresh, corned, or pickled.

TABLE SHOWING SOME OF THE NAMES GIVEN TO CUTS OF BEEF IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.
The numbers
taken, as
1.

indicate the part from which


(Fig.

the

cuts are

shown on the chart

No.

7).

Neck, part of the Rattleran, and Sticking

piece.

2.

Chuck, part of Rattleran.

92
3.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Chuck and Rib
Sirloin
roasts.

4.

steak,

Porter-house steak,

Pinbone
7.

roast.

The

latter includes also a part of


5. 6.
7.

Number

Rump,
Round.
Flank,

Aitchbone.

Top

of Sirloin.

8. 9.

Flank, Plate.
Brisket, Navel.

10.
11. 13.

Shoulder, Shoulder clod, Rattleran, Bolar, Cross

ribs.

and

12.

Fore and hind shin. Soup bones.

Vein, Veiny piece.

All meat should at once be Care of meat. removed from the wrapping paper when it comes from the store, otherwise the paper absorbs the
juices

and

sticks

to

the
it

meat.

Never

put

meat

into water, except


heart,
etc.,
is

be such parts as kidsoak

ney, liver,

or the water will

out the juice which


tains
cloth,

the part of meat that conit

the flavour.

Wipe

with a clean, wet


If
it
it

and keep

it

in a cool place.
is

must be

kept longer than

safe for

raw meat,

may

be

partially cooked, cooled


till

quickly, and kept cold

time to complete the cooking. If meat is put into cold water Cooking meat.
to the boiling point, a large

and gradually heated

proportion of the juice will be extracted.

The
Long

meat

will

thus

be

rendered

tasteless

and the
of the

water will contain the flavouring matter.


cooking in water dissolves
the gelatine

BEEF
bones and connective
tissue.

$3

These

effects

are

desirable for soups and

broths, but undesirable


also to be used.

when
If
boil

the meat itself

is

meat is put into boiling water, allowed to a few minutes, and then cooked a long time at a lower temperature, the albumen of the juice is hardened on the surface of the meat and
the remaining juice
extent.
is

thus kept to a considerable

The

long cooking

may

then soften the

tough tissue while the meat retains


flavour, the water
is

much

of

its

desirable
etc.,

for
in

poultry,

becoming also flavoured. This meat pies, pot roasts, which cases meat and liquor
stews,

are both to be served.

Braised Beef

Wipe

the beef with a wet cloth, cut off any


if
it

tough ends and bone

will

not

mar

the

become palatable
for the

appearance of the meat, as these parts will not in the length of time required

remainder of the roast. They will be found useful for soups, stews, cannelon of beef, Hamburg steak, and such dishes. Roast the

meat

in a hot

oven for half an hour, transfer


cooker utensil, add enough
it,

it

quickly to

boil-

ing water to nearly cover

let

the whole
it

become
comsize of

very hot in the oven, and place


cooker.

quickly in the
for

The time

that

is

required

pleting the cooking will

depend upon the

94
the

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


piece

and the degree of cooking desired.

five-pound roast
if

may

be cooked four hours,


it

and

not found done to taste,


point

can be reheated

to -boihng

and cooked longer.

larger
If

roast will require

more time
first

in

the cooker.

preferred, the
in the

meat may

be partially cooked

ward.

in the oven aftermust then be boiled for half an hour, cooked three or more hours in the cooker, and Lay a piece of raw fat on top then roasted.
It

hay-box and browned

of the roast, or baste


in the

it

with drippings to assist

browning.

Pot Roast
3 lbs. beef

rump

2 small carrots 2 sprigs parsley

3 cups boiling water


I
I

bay leaf
small onion

J teaspoon celery seed, or

j cup celery, cut in pieces

Salt

and pepper

Flour

^ teaspoon Worcestershire sauce

Have
dredge

the
it

butcher bone

and

roll

the

meat,

well with salt, pepper, and flour, and

brown

it

on

all

sides in a frying-pan with a little

of the fat from the meat, or one or two tablespoons of beef drippings or pork
dients
fat.

Put

all

the ingrepail, let


it

together

in

small
it

cooker-

simmer
hours
strain

thirty minutes, set

into a larger pail

of boiling water and put into a cooker for nine


or

more.

Reheat

it

to

boiling

point;

and thicken the liquor for gravy.

Round

BEEF
of beef

95
it
it.

may

be used for pot roast, but


fat

is

drier

than the rump, which has some


or five pounds of

on

Four

when boned.
market

rump will make three pounds Have the bone sent from the
soup stock.

to use for

Serves ten or twelve persons.

Beef a
3
1

la
i

Mode
onion

lbs.

beef from the round

oz. fat, salt

pork

| teaspoon allspice

2 teaspoons salt

^ teaspoon nutmeg
6 cloves
2 tablespoons rendered beef fat

J teaspoon pepper
Flour

Water

to nearly cover

it

Wash
strips,

the meat, lard


it

it

with the pork cut into


pepper, and

or gash

deeply and insert the pork in


it

the gashes.
flour,

Dredge
fry
it

with the

salt,
till

and
a

in the beef fat

well

browned

on

all sides.

into

Put the meat and other ingredients two or three quart cooker-pail or pan,

Let
put

and nearly cover the meat with boiling water. it simmer for half an hour, then stand the
water and
into a cooker for

pail in a larger cooker-pail of boiling


it

from nine
this

to twelve hours.
is

Unless

several

times

recipe

cooked

at

once, do not allow the meat to cook

twelve
before

hours,
serving.

or

it

may

ferment.

more than Reheat it

Strain

and thicken the gravy.

Serves ten or twelve persons.

96

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Corned Beef

Order eight or ten pounds of rump of beef Put it into a large cookerpail and fill the pail with cold water. When allow it to simmer for thirty or forty it boils,
corned for four days.
minutes, then put
it

into a
it

hay-box for ten or


serving
it.

twelve hours.

Reheat

before
it

If

ordinary corned beef is used


if,

will be

more

delicate

when

it is

allowed to come to a

boil, the

water
It

is

changed and fresh boiling water added.

may

then be cooked as directed above for that

specially corned.

Serves twenty or twenty-five persons.

Boiled Dinner
2
lbs. lean, salt

pork

head cabbage

3 turnips

I2 potatoes

4 beets
2 carrots

^ teaspoon pepper

Water to cover

Wash

the

pork and gash

it

in

slices;

wash

and pare the vegetables.. If preferred, the beets may be cooked separately, without paring them.
Put
all,

except

the potatoes,

into

the

cooker-

pail and cover them with boiling water.

When
stove,
six
it

boiling let

them cook ten minutes on the


the
pail

then

put
or

into

the

cooker

for

hours
to
for

more.
point,

Add
If

the

potatoes,
it

reheat

boiling

and replace

in

the cooker

two

hours.

more

salt

or

pepper

is

BEEF
required

97
potatoes are put
in.

add
to

it

when

the

In

order

save

time the

potatoes

may
to

be
the

cooked separately, drained


dinner before bringing
it

and
a

added
boil

to

for serving.

Corned beef may be used


preferred.

in place

of pork,

if

Serves eight or ten persons.

Beef Stew a
i^
lbs. beef brisket

la

Mode

6 cloves
2 teaspoons salt
fat

Flour

4 tablespoons rendered
I
1^

2 slices

lemon
ground
allspice

onion

^ teaspoon

teaspoon pepper

f teaspoon nutmeg Water to cover (about i pt.)

Buy

tv^o

and

brisket to get

pounds of one and one-half pounds of clear,


one-half or
three
into

lean meat.
roll

Cut the meat


in
flour,

one inch

pieces,
till

them

and

fry

them

in the fat

brov^n.

The

onion
is

may

be sliced

and added

when
pail,

the meat

nearly brown.

Put the meat

with the other ingredients into a small cookercover


it

with hot water, boil for ten minutes,


in a

and cook
If left for

it

hay-box for

live

hours or more.
trifle

many

hours the meat becomes a


is

dry,

but otherwise the stew

not injured
thickened,

by
if

overcooking.
desired,
in

The gravy may be


flour

with

and water mixed together


put
in

equal

parts.

The bones may be

98

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


may be
used to

with the stew during the cooking and removed


before serving, or they

make

soup stock.
Serves five or six persons.
Stuffed Rolled Steak
I I I

flank steak

cup

soft

breadcrumbs
salt

J teaspoon pepper 2 tablespoons butter

teaspoon

^ teaspoon thyme or summer


savoury
I

tablespoon chopped parsley

Wash
market.

the
it,

steak

and remove the membrane

that covers

unless that has been done at the


a stuffing of the crumbs, melt-

Make

ing the butter and adding the crumbs


ingredients to
it.

and other
Spread

If the steak

is

large enough,

use

more

stuffing

than

one

cupful.

the stuffing over the meat to within two inches


of the edge.
Roll and skewer or
all

tie

it

into shape.

Brown
fat.

it

well on
it it

sides in

a dry frying-pan,
it

or dredge

with flour and fry

in

rendered beef

Lay

in a small cooker-pail or pan.

Make

two cupfuls of Brown Sauce, or enough to cover Boil the roll for two minutes and the roll.
set

the pail in a larger pail of boiling water.


it

Put

for
it

five

or

six

hours

into

cooker.
or

When

is

to be

served,

remove the

string

skewers, lay the roll on a platter, and pour the

gravy over

it.

BEEF

99

Round steak, cut about one-half inch thick, may be used. Remove the bone before rolHng it.
Beef Stew with Dumplings
2 cups cooked or rav/ beef 2 cups
i

teaspoon

salt

raw or cooked potatoes

| teaspoon pepper
J cup flour
i

cup tomato
1

onion, cut in slices


fat or

tablespoon chopped parsley

4 tablespoons rendered
butter

i^ cups water, or more

If

cooked meat and potatoes are used, cut


in three-quarter-inch

them

dice,

make

brown

fat, flour, seasoning, and water, add the vegetables and meat and enough water to

sauce of the

just

cover the
it

stew.

Place the

top, boil

for five minutes,

dumplings on and cook in a hayIf


it

box for one and one-quarter hours. meat is tough it will be better to treat raw beef. If raw beef is used, cut it in
bring
it

the
like

pieces,
it

to a boil with the water,

and put

into

the cooker for three or four hours before adding

the other ingredients.

Dumplings
2 cups flour 2 tablespoons lard or butter

for

Stew
salt

4 teaspoons baking powder

^ teaspoon
cup water

f
Sift

to

the flour,

salt,

work the
it

fat into

and baking powder together, them with the fingers, or cut

in

with a knife.

Add enough water

to

make

100
stiff

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


dough.

Drop

it

by tablespoonfuls on

the

top of the stew.

The dumplings
in the gravy.

should rest on

the meat and vegetables, as they will not be so


light if

submerged

Serves six or seven persons.


Irish
3 cups meat

Stew
J cup
celery

2 cups potatoes

2 teaspoons salt

^ cup turnip
J cup carrot J cup onion

J teaspoon pepper J cup flour 4 tablespoons rendered fat


3 cups water

Wash and
pieces.

cut about

two pounds of
the
fat,

beef,

from
if

the leg, brisket or other cheap cuts, into one-inch

desired.

Remove most of Wash and pare


them them

or

all

of

it,

the turnip and carrot

and cut
and cut

into small pieces.

Pare the potatoes


Slice the

into one-inch cubes.

onion

and cut the celery into small pieces.

Roll the
in the

meat
fat.

in the flour

and

fry

it till

it is

brown

Put

all

the ingredients, except the remaining

flour, into a cooker-pail

and,

them
Stir

into a cooker for five hours.

when boiling, put Mix the remainit

ing flour with an equal quantity of cold water.


it

into the stew,

and when

has boiled

it

is

ready to serve.

It will

not be harmed by being

kept hot in the cooker for another hour or more.


Serves eight or ten persons.

beeF
Cannelon of Beef
I

lOI

lb.

lean beef, chopped

^ tablespoons

butter
fat

or

Grated rind \ lemon I tablespoon chopped parsley


I

rendered

beef

J teaspoon nutmeg

cup

soft

breadcrumbs

\ tablespoon
2 eggs

salt

teaspoon scraped onion

\ teaspoon pepper

Mix in the order given, add the eggs, which have been sHghtly beaten, put it into a wellgreased one-quart brown bread mould or waterStand the mould in a large pail of water, arranged on a rack, if necessary to raise the
tight can.

top of the
Fill

mould

to the level of the top of the pail.

the pail with boiling water, to within oneBoil


it

third of the top of the mould.

for one-half
If

hour and put


several

it

into a cooker for four hours.

larger moulds,
It is

is used, and put into should be boiled a longer time. good served hot, with brown sauce, or cold.
it

times

this

recipe

Serves six or eight persons.

Meat Pie
2 cups cooked or raw meat 2 cups potatoes
1

2 onions
i

teaspoon

salt

cup tomatoes

\ teaspoon pepper \ cup flour


i

2 sprigs parsley, chopped

J teaspoon celery

salt

bay
i

leaf,

broken

fine

Water (about
If

pt.)

cooked meat

is

used, cut

it

into three-quarterpieces.

inch cubes.

Cut the potatoes into similar

102
slice

THE FIRELFSS COOK BOOK


the onions, put
all

the ingredients, but the

flour, together in

a cooker-pail or pan,

add the
flour

boiling water, and,

when

boiling,

add the

mixed
hours hours
in

to a paste with an equal quantity of water.

Boil five minutes

and put

it

into a cooker for


will

two
five

or

more.

Raw

meat

require
is
it

or

more.

If the stewed mixture

not
to

pan

suitable for

baking, transfer

baking-pan or dish, cover with a crust and bake


for one-half hour.

Crust for Meat Pie


i^ cups flour
3 teaspoons baking

powder

J teaspoon salt i^ tablespoons butter

Y cup water, or more

Mix and
fat,
stiff"

sift

the dry ingredients,

and put

in

enough
centre

to roll

enough water to on a board.


it.

work in the make a dough


Roll
it

out

to the

dish and bake

An

inverted cup in
crust,
will

the

of

the

pie,

under the

prevent the gravy from


baking.

boiling over during the

Serves six or eight persons.

Braised Beef's Liver


I

liver
lb. fat salt

2 teaspoons sage leaves

I
I

pork

2 teaspoons
i

thyme
salt

onion

teaspoon

Flour

i teaspoon pepper

Fat

Water to cover

BEEF

103

Lard the liver with the pork. Dredge it with flour and brown it in a frying-pan, with rendered
beef or pork fat or butter.
pail or
it

Put

it

into a cookerit.

pan
pail

just large

enough
it

to hold

Cover
minutes,

with boiling water, boil


in

for

five

set the

a
it

larger
into a
it

cooker-pail

of boiling

water, and put


or more.
cutting
it

cooker for ten


it

hours
platter,
slices.

Reheat

and serve

on a

through, but not separating the


it

Pour over
paste.

the gravy, which has been strained


flour

and thickened with

and water mixed


that
will

to a

The number
pound

of persons
size

it

serve

depends upon the

of the

liver.

Allow one

for three or four persons.

Beef KidneyWash and soak two kidneys in


the water at least once.

a large

amount
rinse

of water, for several hours or over night, changing

Cut them open,


in

them and put them on


pail.

to boil in boiling

salted

water to barely cover them,

a small cooker-

Let them boil

five

minutes, set the pail in

a larger pail of boiling water,

and cook them ten


tender,

hours or more in a cooker.


the tubes and

When

remove

Thicken

as

membranes and slice the kidneys. much of the gravy as you wish to use,

with one-fourth of a cupful of flour mixed with


one-fourth of a cupful of water to each pint of

104
gravy.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Add
the sliced kidneys and serve

them

when they

are boihng hot.

Stuffed Heart
I

heart

J teaspoon pepper
I

^ cup crumbs
I

small onion, chopped

tablespoon butter
salt

^ teaspoon powdered thyme


I

^ teaspoon

thick sHce bacon

Flour

Wash
may
to
be.

the heart, remove the arteries and veins


clots

and squeeze out any


Stuff
it

of blood that there


soft

with the

bread crumbs

which the seasonings and melted butter have

been added.
flour

Try out the


it

fat

from the
salt,

slice

of

bacon, dredge the heart with

pepper and

and brown

on

all

sides in the

bacon

fat.

Put the heart and the crisp bacon into as small a


cooker-pail as will hold
it,

cover

it

with boiling

water, boil

it

for five

minutes and put the pail into

a larger cooker-pail with as


as
it
it

much

boiling water
is

will

hold

when
and
it

the small pail

in place.

Put
Boil

into a cooker for ten hours, or over night.


it

again

cook

it

for

three
it,

or four

hours.

Reheat

when ready

to serve

thicken-

ing each pint of the gravy with one-fourth cup

of flour and an equal quantity of water mixed


to a

smooth
if

paste.
sliced

The
and

heart will

look

more
gravy

attractive

covered

with

before serving.

BEEF
Beef or
stuffing

105

calf's heart may be cooked without a and served with caper sauce.

Corned Tongue

Wash

the tongue, put

it

into a cooker-pail of
Fill

from four
boil

to six quarts capacity.

the pail

with cold water, bring the tongue to a boil and


it

for

depending upon

from twenty minutes to half an hour, its size. Put it into a cooker for
If not perfectly tender, bring
it

ten or twelve hours.


it

again to a boil and cook

from two to four

hours longer.

Plunge
it

it

into cold water,

remove

the skin, and serve

cold, cut in thin slices.

Fresh Tongue
I I I

tongue
onion

teaspoon peppercorns

8 cloves
Salt
it

bay leaf

Wash
and
fill

the tongue, put


it,

into as small a cooker-

pail as will easily hold

add the other ingredients

the pail with boiling water, using one


salt to each quart of water. Let it twenty minutes or half an hour, depending

teaspoonful of
boil for

upon the
it

size of the tongue.

Put

it

into a cooker for

ten hours or more.


to boiling point

If not perfectly tender, reheat

and cook

it

for

from two
Plunge
it

to

four hours longer in the hay-box.


cold water

into

and remove the

skin.

Serve

it

hot with

caper sauce, using the liquor in which the tongue

was boiled

in place of water, to

make

the

sauce.

XIII

LAMB AND MUTTON

SPRING
weeks
able in
ling
is

lamb

is

the meat of lambs from

six

to three

months

old.

It

is

obtain-

March and throughout the spring. Yearlamb one year old. The flesh of lamb is
than that of mutton and the bones
distinguished from mutton,
size of the cuts,
It

lighter in colour

are pinker.
also,

may be
in

by the smaller
dark meats,
lighter,
is

which are
Mutton,

otherwise the same


as
all

mutton and lamb.

may

be served rare; but lamb,

being

classed with white meats in this

respect,

and should be thoroughly cooked.


is

The
if

rank flavour of mutton

greatly reduced

the
is

pink membrane, which surrounds the animal,


pulled off before cooking.
a
strong,

The

fat of

mutton has
it

disagreeable flavour,
It will

and most of
fat are.

should be removed.

not be good for any

cooking purposes as veal, beef, and pork

Cuts of Mutton. The favourite cuts are the rib and loin chops and the leg, but as other parts
of the sheep are

much

cheaper,

it

is

well to

know

their possibilities.

Shoulder, boned and tied into


io6

LAMB AND MUTTON


shape, will,

107

when cooked

in the

hay-box or cooker,

make

a very good substitute for the leg, while

shoulder of lamb makes a good roast for small


families

who grow

tired of perpetual steak

and

chops.

Figure No.

8.

Diagram

of the cuts of

mutton and lamb.

TABLE SHOWING THE WAYS IN WHICH THE VARIOUS CUTS OF MUTTON AND LAMB MAY BE COOKED IN THE HAY-BOX OR COOKER
1.

Neck, stews and broth.

2.

Chuck, stews, broth, meat


hash.

pie, casserole of rice

and meat,

3.

Shoulder, braising, plain or boned


of rice and meat, hash.

and

stuffed, casserole

4 and
6.
7.

5.

Loin chops, cooked as veal

cutlets,

breaded or plain.

Flank, soups, stews.

Leg, braised or boiled.

OTHER PARTS OF THE ANIMAL, USED FOR FOOD, WHICH MAY BE COOKED IN THE HAY-BOX OR COOKER
Heart, braised, plain or stuffed.
Liver, braised, or breaded as veal cutlets.

Tongue,

boiled.

Kidneys, stewed,

io8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Oven
directions

In the chapter on the Insulated


are also given for roasting

some

cuts of

mutton and
list,

lamb.

They
is

are not included in this

since

the oven

not an accompaniment of every cooker.

Boiled Leg or Shoulder of Mutton

Wipe
to

the meat v^ith a

damp

cloth,

put

it

into

a cooker-pail with boiling salted

water enough

cover

it,

and

to permit of at least three or

four

quarts

of water

being used, the

amount

depending upon the size of the leg. Boil it for half an hour and cook it in the cooker for
six

hours or more.

The

broth should be saved

for soup stock

and gravy.

Serve

it

with brown

gravy or with caper sauce.


require
will take the

Shoulder will not


boiling,

more than twenty minutes


full

but

time in

the

cooker.

Lamb

may

be treated in the same manner.


in

Braised Leg or Shoulder of Mutton Wipe the meat with a damp cloth, roast
a

it

hot oven

till

brown, or dredge
it

it

with

salt,

pepper, and flour, and brown

in a frying-pan;

put

it,

while

still

hot,

into

cooker-pail with
it,

enough boiling water


Bring
put
it
it

to half cover
boil,

or more.

to

a hard

while tightly covered,


six

at
it

once into a cooker for

hours or more.
be treated

Serve

with brown gravy, saving the remain-

ing broth for soup stock.


in the

Lamb may

same manner.

LAMB AND MUTTON


Mutton Stew
2 cups

109

meat

teaspoon

salt

cup tomato
I
1

| teaspoon pepper

onion
tablespoon chopped parsley

i^ cups water, or more


J cup butter, lard or beef fat
J cup flour

2 cups potatoes

Wipe
with
all

the meat with a

damp
it

cloth, cut

it

into

three-quarter-inch cubes, put


the

into a cooker-pail

other

ingredients,

except

the

fat

and
cut
all

flour.

The

potatoes should be pared and

into

one and one-half-inch cubes.


it

Bring
it

to a boil, boil

for five minutes

and put

from four to six hours. Make brown sauce, using the fat, flour, and liquor from the stew. Heat the stew in this till boiling. Or the meat may be dredged with the flour and fried in the fat until meat and flour are brown,
into a cooker for

before

being put

into

the

cooker.

If

cooked

meat
will

is

used, one and one-half hours in the cooker


is

be enough, unless the meat


it

very tough,

in

which case

may

be cooked as long as raw

meat.

The
five

addition of one green pepper

makes

a good variation of this stew.

Serves

or six persons.

Chestnut Stew
2 cups raw mutton
2 onions
2 tablespoons fat
3 cups blanched nuts 2 teaspoons salt

^ teaspoon pepper

3 tablespoons flour

Water

no

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the meat with a

Wipe
onions.

damp

cloth, cut

it

into

three-quarter-inch

cubes; peel and slice the Dredge the meat with the flour, brown and the onions in a frying-pan with any fat it Put all the ingredients suitable for cooking. into a cooker-pail, barely cover them with boiling water,

and
it

let

the
a

stew boil

live

minutes

before putting
or more.

into

cooker for four hours

Serves six or eight persons.

Syrian Stew (Yakhni)


2 cups

raw mutton

2 onions
2 cups tomatoes

2 tablespoons fat
3 tablespoons flour

ij teaspoons

salt

2 cups string beans

^ teaspoon pepper

Water

Wipe
the
fat.

the meat with a


it

damp

cloth, cut

it

into
it

cubes, dredge

with the flour, and brown


of the flour and

in

Put

all

the ingredients together, scrapall

ing from the frying-pan

fat.

Add enough water


boil

to barely cover them, let

them

for

five

minutes,

and put them into the and tough they may

cooker for
the beans.
require

six

hours or more, depending upon


hours to cook.
always served with boiled

If they are old


six
is

more than
rice.

In Syria this stew


or steamed

Serves six or eight persons.

LAMB AND MUTTON


Okra Stew
2 cups raw mutton
2 tablespoons fat 2 cups tomatoes
2

iii

cups okra
salt

J cup

flour

i^ teaspoons

2 onions

^ teaspoon pepper

Water

Wipe
cubes.
it

the meat with a

damp

cloth, cut

it

into

Wash and
in

cut the okra in pieces, dredge


flour
all

and the meat with the


brown,
them,
the
fat.

and

fry them,

till

Put
for

the ingredients
to barely

into a cooker-pail,

add enough water

cover

boil

them

five

minutes,

and

put them into a cooker for four hours, or more.


Serves six or eight persons.

Syrian Stuffed Cabbage


1

cup raw chopped meat

2 teaspoons salt

2 tablespoons fat

5 cup raw

rice

J teaspoon pepper i head cabbage


I lemon

Strip

off*

the leaves from a head of cabbage,

throw them into boiling water,


stand
till

and

let

them
meat
leaf

they are wilted.

Mix
Lay
a

the remaining

ingredients, except the lemon, using for the


either

mutton
plate,

or

beef.

cabbage

remove the thickest part of the midrib, so that it will roll. Spread on it a rounded teaspoonful of the mixture and roll it like a cigarette. Do the same with the other leaves,
on a
packing each one, as
it

is

finished,

into a

pan

112

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


will
fit

which

over a cooker-pail, unless a pail


filled

is

used which will be nearly

by the cabbage.

rolls must be carefully packed or they will and unroll when the water is added. Cover them with boiling water, bring all to a boil, and

The

float

boil

it

for five minutes, then put


if

it

directly into

a cooker,
if

the pail
it

is full,

or over boiling water


six hours.

not,

and leave
the
rolls

for

from four to

Take
the

out carefully with a cake turner

or skimmer, lay
juice

them
a

in a platter,

and squeeze

of

half

are usually served as the

lemon over them. They meat dish for luncheon.

Serves six or eight persons.

Casserole of Rice and Meat


4 cups cooked
2 cups cooked
I

rice (i

cup raw)

teaspoon grated onion


tablespoon chopped parsley

mutton

teaspoon

salt

i teaspoon pepper

J cup breadcrumbs i egg


Stock or water

Line a greased mould of one and one-half


quarts'

capacity
all
it

with

three

cups

of the
it

rice.

Remove
and mix

the fat from the meat, chop

fine,

with the other ingredients, adding

enough stock or water to barely keep it from Pack the meat into the mould and crumbling.
cover
it

with

the

remaining

cupful
on.

of

rice.

Grease the

cover

and put

it

Stand

the

mould

in a large cooker-pail of

water to two-thirds

LAMB AND MUTTON


of
so
boil
its

113

depth, or,

if it is

shallow, prop

it

on a rack,
its
it

that
it

the

water

will

reach

half

depth;
for

for fifteen minutes,


in the cooker.

and cook

one

hour or more
fully

Turn

it

out care-

on to a hot

platter,
it.

and pour tomato sauce

around, but not over

Serves six or eight persons.

Ragout of Cold Mutton


2 cups cold mutton
I 1

^ can peas
i

onion, sliced

teaspoon

salt

cup mutton stock

J teaspoon pepper
i

2 tablespoons butter

head of lettuce

Farina balls

Cut the mutton


all

into

one-inch

cubes.

Put

the ingredients except the lettuce and farina


it

balls into a cooker-pail together, cover

closely,

and when boiling put


hour.

it

into a cooker for


platter

one
with

Serve

it

on

garnished

lettuce leaves

and farina

balls.

Serves four to six persons.

XIV

VEAL

VEAL
calf

varies

greatly
it

with
is

the

age of the
It

from which

taken.

should

be pink, with firm, white

fat.

Pale, flabby veal


killed

comes from calves which have been


young, or bled before death, and
tasteless
is

too

likely to

be

veal grows, the


cuts

and stringy when cooked. The older more like beef it appears. The
larger

are

and the colour

is

darker

and

Figure No.

9.

Diagram

of the cuts of veal.

more

like the red of beef.

Veal can be purchased


it

the year round,


spring

but the best season for

is

and summer.

Almost

all

parts

of the

calf are tender, but the cheaper cuts correspond

with the cheaper cuts of beef, except the cutlets


114

VEAL
or steaks, which are taken from the

115

same part

of the animal as the round of beef, and


a

command
meats,

good

price.

Veal,

like

other
Its
it

white

should be thoroughly cooked.

delicacy comoften requires

mends
it

it

for

many

purposes, but

the addition of pork, or high seasoning, to give


flavour.

TABLE SHOWING THE WAYS IN WHICH THE VARIOUS CUTS OF VEAL MAY BE COOKED IN THE HAY-BOX OR COOKER.
1.

Head,

Jelly, soups,

and broths,
pie.

calf's

head a

la terrapin.

2.

Neck, Stews, soup, veal

3.

Chuck, Veal

loaf, stews,

soup, veal pie.

4.

Shoulder, Braised, stuffed and braised.

5.
6.
7.

Shanks, Soups.
Ribs, Braised or breaded as veal cutlets.
Breast, Soups, stews, veal loaf.

8.

Loin, Braised or breaded as veal cutlets.

9.

Flank, Soups or stews.

10.

Leg, Breaded cutlets or plain cutlets.

OTHER PARTS OF THE CALF, USED FOR FOOD, WHICH MAY BE COOKED IN THE HAY-BOX OR
COOKER.
Brains, Stewed and creamed.

Heart, Braised, plain or stuffed.


Liver, Braised, or stewed.

Tongues, Boiled.
Sweetbreads, Stewed or creamed.

Kidneys, Stewed or creamed.

ii6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Breaded Veal Cutlets
2 lbs. veal cutlets
Fine, dry breadcrumbs
Salt
i

pt.

water or stock

cup butter or drippings

Pepper
I

J cup flour i tablespoon chopped parsley teaspoon Worcestershire

egg

Sauce

Wipe

the cutlets with a clean, wet cloth.

Cut

them into pieces suitable for serving, and sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Dip them into sifted
crumbs, then into the egg, which has been beaten
slightly

water.

and
half

fry

and mixed with one tablespoonful of Dip the cutlets again into the crumbs them until they are a rich brown, in onebutter or
drippings.

the

Put them

into

a small cooker-pail or pan.

Make Brown

Sauce,

using the remaining ingredients.

Pour the sauce


Put

over the cutlets and,


in

when

boiling, stand the pail


it

a large cooker-pail of boiling water.

into a cooker for

from two to four hours, depending


veal.

upon the age and toughness of the them before serving.


Serves six or eight persons.

Reheat

Plain Veal Cutlets

Wipe
able for

the cutlets with a wet cloth, trim off any


suit-

tough membranes, and cut them into pieces


serving.

Brown them
butter
or

in

very
fat,

hot

frying-pan

with

rendered

being

VEAL
careful

117
Sprinkle them

not to
salt

let

them

scorch.

and pepper and put them into a small well with Pour a little boiling water cooker-pail or pan. the frying-pan and, when all the brown juice into
which has hardened on the pan has been disAdd enough solved, pour this over the cutlets. boiling water to barely cover them and, when
boiling, stand the pail or
pail of boiling water.

pan
it

in a

large cooker-

Put

into the cooker for

from two to four hours, depending upon the age and toughness of the veal. Reheat them before
serving,
if

necessary.

Veal Loaf
2 cups minced veal 2 eggs
i^^

teaspoons

salt

2 tablespoons

chopped parsley chopped onion


pork

J cup melted butter I cup soft bread crumbs J teaspoon pepper

2 tablespoons

| inch

slice fat salt

^ teaspoon ground sage

Wipe meat from the cheaper cuts of veal, remove the fat and toughest membranes, and put it through a fine food-chopper. Mix the seasonings
with the crumbs, add the melted butter, mix these with the veal, add the pork and, lastly, the eggs.

Put the mixture

in a well-buttered

one-quart brown
it
it

but do not pack


large

Spread bread mould or water-tight can. Stand it in the mould.


cooker-pail with enough
at least two-thirds of the

level
in

a to

boiling water

come

way up

the mould.

ii8
Boil
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


for

twenty minutes and put


Serve
it

it

into the cooker

for four hours.

either hot or cold.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Sweetbreads

Wash and
one hour.
Boil

soak the sv^eetbreads in cold water for

Plunge them into boiling salted water

(one teaspoonful of salt for each quart of water).

them two minutes and put them into the Plunge them into cold water, remove the membrane which covers them, and they
cooker for two hours.
are then ready to be broken in pieces for creamed

sweetbreads or rolled in crumbs and egg and

fried.

Creamed Sweetbreads

Make
cream,

a white sauce, using part milk and part


if

desired.

To

each

cupful

of

sauce

add two cupfuls of prepared sweetbreads broken into small pieces, let them come to a boil and
serve

them

at once,

or put

them

into a cooker

to keep

warm

until they are needed.

Calf's

Heart
as

CalPs heart may be cooked


except that
it

beef's

heart,

will
is

not require so long to cook.

Ten minutes

sufficient to allow for

cooking over

the flame, and

ten hours in the hay-box.


Calf's

Liver
in the

Prepare and cook


beef's liver,

it

same manner
it

as to

allowing only four hours for

cook

in

the hay-box.

VEAL
Veal Kidney

119

These are almost

as

delicate as

sweetbreads.

They may be cooked for two hours in the same manner as beef kidney, or creamed or fried as
sweetbreads.

Calfs Head a
1

la

Terrapin
2 tablespoons flour

calf's

head

Salt

^ teaspoon pepper

Water
2 tablespoons butter

J cup cream 4 egg yolks

Madeira Wine

Carefully clean a calPs head and put


cooker-pail.

it

into a

Cover
for

it

with

boiling water,

add
a

one teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water and


let
it

boil

twenty minutes.
into small dice.

Put
Cool

it it

into

cooker for nine hours or more.


the
face

and cut
a cupful

meat

Make

of sauce using

the butter, flour,


salt

pepper, one-half

teaspoonful of

and one cupful of the water Add the cream in which the head was boiled. and, when boiling, the raw yolks of two eggs
slightly

which have been


stantly
for

beaten.

Stir

it

coneggs

about two

minutes

until

the

have cooked.

Then add two

tablespoonfuls of

Madeira wine and the yolks of two hard-cooked


eggs cut into quarters.
Serves
five or six

persons^

XV
PORK

WHATEVER
some
for

may

be true of the extent to

which pork and pork products are wholeparticular


its

individuals,

there

can

be
its

no doubt that
either

delicious flavour will insure

being eaten by a large number of people


agrees with

who

do not know or do not care whether it them or not. Experiments under-

taken under the management of the Department


of Agriculture* have resulted in the conclusion
that pork
is

as thoroughly

and

easily digested,

under normal conditions of health, as any meat,


although personal experience would indicate that pork does not agree with some people as well as
other kinds of meat.
It is

specially important,

however, that pork be very well cooked or well


cured, in order to insure against the danger from

by B. H. Ransom f that it is only by eating raw or insufficiently cooked or cured pork that there is thought to be any
trichinosis.

We

are told

* Office
+ U.
S.

of

Deot. of Agriculture, Bureau

Experiment Stations, Bulletin 193, 1907, of Animal Industry, Circular 108, 1907.

PORK
danger of
smoking,
this disease.

121
is

Curing

the process of

salting, or

combined

salting

and smoking
it.

of meat, which acts as a preservative for

We

thus see that, not only because


as

it is

a v^hite meat,

mentioned

in the

chapter on veal, pork and pork


v^ell

products should be cooked until very

done.

As pork
for

is

the fattest of
diet

all

meats,
v^ill

it is

suitable

cold-v^eather

and

probably be

found to agree better


ever reason
it

at that season.

For whatless

may

be, fresh

pork seems to be

Figure No. lo.

Diagram

of

the cuts of pork.

wholesome than when cured, bacon having the reputation of being one of the most easily digested
of
all fats.

Young
dressed

pigs (four weeks old) are frequently and roasted whole.

Pork

is

usually cut for market in the

manner

illustrated in figure

No.

lo.

The back is fat and is used for salt pork or lard. The ribs are used for spare-ribs, and the loin or

122
chine,

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


which
is

is

the backbone with

its

adhering
legs are

meat,

used for roasts or chops.


if

The
by

roasted,

fresh, or they are cured,

salting

and

smoking, for hams, sugar being used in the salting


process,

which

gives

the

hams"; the shoulders


the flesh
is is

are treated in the

and may be used very


greater.
feet are

name "sugar-cured same way much as hams, although


cured for bacon, the head

not so thick and the proportion of bone

The

belly

is

and

soused or pickled, and the trimmings

of fat

and lean are chopped, highly seasoned, and used for sausage, or combined with meal and made into scrapple.

To select fresh pork. The meat should be firm and of a pale red colour, the fat hard and white and the skin white and clear. Yellowish fat,
with kernels in
it,

and

soft,

flabby flesh are an

indication of inferior pork.

Boiled

Ham
A

or Shoulder

Put a

ham

or shoulder in a large enough cookerits

pail to allow of

being covered with eight or


special oblong or extra

ten quarts of water.

deep utensil

may

be required for cooking

hams
in the

and such very large cuts of meat.

Put

ham, add cold water


it

to

fill

the utensil, and bring

to a boil.

This

will serve to

draw out

good

deal of the salt from the meat and will not extract

much

of the meat flavour,

if

the

ham

be whole.

PORK
cut

123

ham may
to

be covered with boihng water which

will seal the pores

on the surface of the meat and


juices.

help

retain
for

its

Allow the
or, if

ham

to

simmer

twenty minutes,
it

very large, for

one-half hour, then put

into a cooker for seven

hours or more.

The
much

larger the

ham

the greater

the quantity of water must be, a

fifteen-pound
water.

ham

taking as

as fifteen quarts of

Success in cooking large cuts of meat will depend


to a great extent

upon using

sufficient water.

Fresh Pork with Sauerkraut Wash and gash a two-pound piece of


lean pork into
slices.

fresh,

Put
for

it

with one quart of


salted

sauerkraut into a cooker-pail of boiling


water. covered.
hours.

Let

it

boil
it

fifteen

minutes, tightly

Place

in

a cooker for eight or ten

Reheat

till

boiling,

drain

it,

and serve

the pork in a platter, with the sauerkraut arranged


as a border; or put the sauerkraut into a vegetable
dish.
It

grows cold quickly and must be served

promptly and on hot dishes.


Serves six or eight persons.

Head Cheese
Cut
a hog's

head into four

pieces.

Remove
Cut
off

the brain, ears, skin, snout, and eyes.


the fat to try out for lard.

Put the lean and


to

bony parts

to soak in cold water over night

extract the blood.

Clean the head thoroughly,

124
put
boil
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


into a cooker-pail, cover
for
fifteen
it

with cold water,


it

it

minutes and put


or

into

the

cooker
will not
it it

for

ten

hours

more.

If

the

meat

then

slip

readily

from the bones, bring


it

again to a boil and put


will

into the cooker until

(perhaps six hours more).

Remove
the

the

bones

and hard
it

gristle,

drain

off

liquor,

reserving
a

for future use.

Put the meat through


it

food-chopper,

return

to

the

cooker-pail
it,

with enough of the liquor to cover


pepper,
boil,

and

salt,
it

and
it

powdered

sage

to

taste.

Let

put

into a cooker for an


it

hour or more,
dish; cover

then pour
it

into a shallow

pan or
cold
it

with cheese-cloth and a board with a weight,


it

to hold

in place.

When
Souse

will

be

solid,

and

is

ready to serve, thinly

sliced.

Treat a hog's head


other seasonings.

in the

same manner
vinegar

as for

head cheese, adding a

little

with

the

Scrapple

Treat a hog's head

in the

same manner

as for

head cheese, up to the point where the liquor

chopped meat. The heart and liver also be cooked with the head, and any scraps or bloody parts of the meat may be soaked and cooked with it. When the meat is freed
is

added

to the

may

from bone,

gristle,

and

skin,

and chopped

finely,

PORK
and
with
all

U5
to
it,

the liquor

is

added
sage,
boil.

it

is

seasoned

thyme or marjoram, Enough corn-meal, or corn-meal and buckwheat flour in the proportion of one-third cupful of buckwheat to twosalt,

pepper,
to

and

brought

thirds of a cupful of corn-meal,

is

added, to

make
be

the mixture of the consistency of corn-meal mush.

About one cupful of the two combined


ture.
boil
it

will

required for each three pints of the pork mix-

Let
five

this

come to

a boil, stirring
it

it

constantly;

minutes, and put

into a cooker for

four hours or more.

Pour

it

into a
fry

mould or bread
it

pan and, when

cold, slice

and

like sausage.

Pickled Pigs' Feet

Wash

the pigs' feet, soak

them

in

warm

water

for one-half hour, then scrub

and scrape them


If neces-

well; soak

them again

for twelve hours in cold,

salted water,
sary,

and clean them again.


toes,

singe

them; remove the

and bring

more than cover them five minutes, and cook them for ten hours or more in a cooker. If not tender, reheat them till boiling, and cook them again. Remove them from the water, split them with
to a boil in salted water to

them

them.

Boil

a cleaver, unless this

is

done before cooking, pack


hot, spiced

them

in

a jar,

and cover them with

vinegar, preferably

made from white

wine.

They

are eaten cold, or dipped in batter

and

fried.

XVI

POULTRY
buying poultry IN clean, unbroken
possible.
select

that
is

which
as
fat

has
as

skin

and
to

Young
less fat

chickens have often a darker


old,

appearance than
there
is is

owing

the

fact

that

under the skin or that the skin


hairs,

thinner.

They have few

many

pin-

feathers,

the

tail,

and the end of the breast-bone, toward is limber and cartilaginous. In old
is stiff,

chickens (fowl) this bone


hairs,

there are

many

legs

few pin-feathers, and the scales on the are hard and horny. The wing joint is
is

firm in old chickens, but

sometimes broken by

poultry dealers in order to

make

the purchaser

think the poultry younger than

it is.

Chickens are frequently kept


for

in

cold storage

months, or even years,


changes
during

and they undergo


periods.
is still

decided

these

The
under
as

effect of eating

such storage poultry


there
is

debate;

but,

while

uncertainty

to

whether they

may

not be responsible for some

obscure intestinal disorders or other disturbances,


126

POULTRY
it

127

is

well to
birds.

know how
In

to tell

killed

an

article

them from freshentitled "Changes

in Cold Storage," in Taking Place in the Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture, for 1907, we read that the fresh chicken is a

Chickens

pale,

soft yellow,

without any tinge or sugges-

tion of green in the colour of the skin, while there


is

enough translucency
pink
of
the

to

show through
tint is

it

the
It

delicate

muscles

underneath.

can be plainly seen that the pink


itself.

not of

While the skin is perfectly flexible, the skin and is not adherent over any part of the body, it is well filled by the tissues below, so that areas distended by either fluids or gases are wanting.
tinct,

The
plainly

feather

papillae

are

perfectly

dis-

and, though of the same


visible

tint as the skin,

are

because
the

of their
papillae

elevation.

In those

regions

where

are

most
they

numerous,

or

support

heavier

feathers,

lend a much brighter yellow hue to the skin. The neck is smooth and well rounded, the comb

and gills red, and the eye full. With storage birds the skin becomes somewhat dried, and finally quite leathery and stretched in
appearance;
fresh,
is

less

translucent than that of the


papillae

and the feather

tend to flatten and

In time the colour of the skin alters in browns, reds, purples, or greenish tints. places to
disappear.

128

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Poultry should be drawn as
if
it

Care of poultry.
soon as purchased,
done;
if
it

has not been already

should be wiped out with a dry cloth,

not to be cooked immediately, and kept in


cold
place.

Old chickens can be made

as

tender as young chickens in a cooker, and will

have more flavour.

To draw

poultry.

Cut

off the head, turn

back

the skin of the neck and cut


to the body.
it

off the neck close


it,

If the crop has food in


it

remove

from the neck, otherwise

will

come out with

the other organs.

Cut

off the

windpipe.

Make

an opening above the vent with a small sharp


knife, cut

around the vent, being careful not to


Put the hand just inside

cut into the intestine.

the wall of the body and

work

it

carefully over

the whole inner surface of the body, detachWhen the hand ing the organs in one mass.

can pass freely


out together.
in the

all

around them, draw them

all

The

lungs and kidneys, imbedded

bones, will remain behind and must be


separately.

removed

Cut out the


tail.

little

oil

bag

on the back
liver,

of the

Singe

the

chicken,

and wash it well inside and outside. The heart, and gizzard are the giblets, and are boiled

and often used in the gravy. To cut up a chicken. After it is drawn, a chicken

may be

cut

for

stew

or

fricassee,

into

thir-

POULTRY
teen
pieces.

129

remove the neck, then the holds them legs, by cutting the skin, etc., that side down to the to the body; then cut on either
First

joint

which lies almost at the back. Bend the break the leg out from the body and this will Separate the two joints ligaments that hold it. Remove the wings chickens. of the leg in large
by cutting around the joints and bending them Next cut off the wishout as the leg was done. bone by placing the knife across the breast and

Figure No.
11.

Method

of cutting

chicken for stew or fricassee.

cutting close tc the end of the breast-bone toward If desired, remove the meat from the the neck.
breast in two
fillets,

beginning to cut at the top and

following the bone closely, separating the meat from the breast-bone and sides of the chicken.

Next cut from the back


ribs.

to the front, through the

Separate the "side bone" from one side,


in

and break the back

two where the

ribs end.

To

truss poultry.

Stuff the poultry two-thirds

130
full,

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


from the
tail

opening.

It

may

be skewered

into shape, but the quickest


to
tie
it.

and
left

easiest

way

is

The
fine

slight

mark

by the string
Fold
the

on the breast may be covered with a garnish of


parsley
or
celery
leaves.

neck

skin under the body, putting the loop end of a

doubled piece of string under


of string up and cross
as to hold the

it;

bring the ends


breast so

them over the

wings

in

place; carry the string

down over

the thighs to the under side of the

Figure No. 12.

Chicken, trussed for roasting or braising.

tail

to hold the thighs in place,


tail

and bring

it

up

around the

and the ends of the drumsticks,


This
If this
will hold the leg
is

and

tie

it

securely.
tail.

bones

down
or

to the

not sufficient to hold

in the stuffing, close the

opening with a skewer,


before
trussing

sew

it

with

heavy thread

and tough Old chickens, the bird. ducks or geese can be stuffed, trussed, and cooked for some hours in a cooker then be removed and
turkeys,

browned

in

an oven.

POULTRY
I
I I

131

cup

soft

breadcrumbs

Stuffing for Poultry i teaspoon powdered thyme


sage
i

or

tablespoon butter

teaspoon

salt

teaspoon grated onion

J teaspoon pepper

2 tablespoons water

Stewed Chicken

Draw and
giblets, in

cut

up a fowl.
boiling
to

Put
salted

it,

with the
(one

enough
salt
it

water

teaspoonful of
cover
it
it.

each quart of water) to


for ten

Let

boil

minutes and put


If not

into a cooker for ten hours or more.


it

quite tender, bring


it

again to a boil and cook

for

from

six to

eight hours,
off as

depending upon
as possible of

its

toughness.

Skim

much

the fat from the liquor, pour off

some of the liquor and save it to use as soup or stock, and thicken the remainder with two tablespoonfuls of flour for each cup of liquid, mixed to a paste
with

an

equal

quantity

of

water.

A
just

beaten
before
salt

egg or two, stirred into the gravy improves it. Add pepper serving,

and

to, taste, and serve the chicken on a hot platter with the gravy poured around it. The platter may be garnished with boiled rice piled about

the chicken.

Chicken Fricassee

Draw

a fowl

and cut

it

in pieces,

cook

it

as

directed for stewed

chicken, dredge the cooked

132

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


and pepper,
in
fat
roll

pieces with salt

them

in flour

and saute them


chicken.

taken from the stewed

When

richly

browned, place the pieces

on a hot platter and pour around them a brown sauce, made with the fat and the stock from the
stewed
chicken.

Chicken

fricassee

is

often

served on a platter of hot toast.

Chicken Pie
Prepare and cook the chicken as for stewed
chicken; cut the meat from the bones, put
a baking-dish, cover
it

it

into

with chicken

gravy, and
directed
for

put over the top a crust

made

as

meat pie on page 102. Bake utes in a moderate oven.

this for thirty

min-

Curried Chicken

Prepare and cook one fowl as for stewed chicken,

adding two onions, pared and cut into

slices.

Add one tablespoonful of curry powder to the flour when thickening the gravy. Or the chicken may
be rolled in flour and browned in butter, and the
curry powder added before putting
cooker.
It is
it

into

the
rice.

served with a border of boiled

Creamed Chicken
Prepare
stewed

and cook

fowl

as

directed

for

chicken.

Make White
onion

Sauce,

using

half chicken stock and half cream for the liquid.

little

grated

and

one-fourth

can

of

mushrooms may be added.

POULTRY
Braised Chicken

133

and roast a young chicken in a hot oven until it is brown; put it into a hot cooker-pail with water about one inch deep

Draw,

stuff, truss

in the pan.

Cover
into

it

quickly, bring

it

to a boil,

and put

it

a cooker for

two and one-half

hours or more.

Make
is

liquor in the pan.

brown sauce of the The giblets may be added


a

when
be

the chicken

put into the water, and


to

may
Only

chopped

and

added

the

gravy.

young, tender chicken can be treated in this way. A tough bird may be trussed and cooked in

water to half cover


before
it

it

for ten or twelve

hours
it

is

stuffed

and

browned.

Baste

when

in the oven with fat taken from the broth.

Jellied

Chicken
a fowl of

Draw,

clean,

and cut up
Put
it

about four

or five pounds.

into a cooker-pail,

add
of

one teaspoonful of

salt,

two or three

slices

onion, and cover the fowl with boiling water. Boil it for ten minutes, then put it in the cooker
for ten or twelve hours.

Boil
six

it

up again and

replace

it

in the

cooker for

hours or more.

Repeat

this if the
fall

meat

is

not found to be ten-

from the bones. Remove the meat from the bones; take off the skin and Skim season the meat with salt and pepper. from the liquor and boil it down off all possible fat
der enough to
readily

134
to

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it,

about one cupful; strain


fat.

and take

off"

the

remaining

Decorate the bottom of a mould


in the

or bread pan with parsley and slices of hard-

cooked egg, pack


the
stock.
it

Place

the

meat and pour over it meat under a weight,


till

and leave

in a cold place

firm.

Braised Duck
Prepare and cook the duck in the same man-

duck is tough more hours in may be cooked for eight or it water in the cooker, then stuffed and browned in the oven, basting it with fat from the broth.
ner as braised chicken.
If the

Braised Goose Prepare


it

as braised chicken; or, if


in a

it is

tough,

cook
until

it

in

water

cooker as old braised chicken,

it

is

nearly tender.
it

Remove

it,

stuff

it,

and brown from the broth.


stuff,

in a hot oven, basting

it

with fat

Potted Pigeons and truss six pigeons, place them Clean, upright in a cooker-pail and pour over them one quart of water in which celery has been If the water was not salted for the cooked.
celery,

add
boil

one
the

teaspoonful
birds
for

of
five five

the

pail,

Cover minutes, and


salt.

put them into a cooker for


or
till

or six hours, the water,

tender.

Remove them from


salt

sprinkle

them with

and

pepper,

dredge

POULTRY
them with
in
flour,

135

and brown the entire surface


cups of Brown Sauce,

pork

fat.

Make two

using butter and stock from the pigeons; heat


the birds in this, place each one on a piece of

dry toast,
nish
it

and pour the gravy over

it.

Gar-

with parsley.

XVII

VEGETABLES
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING VEGETABLES

THE
be salted

flavour of vegetables

is

best preserved

if

they are put on to cook in boiling water.

For cooking
expression
''

in

a fireless cooker the water

must

when
to

the vegetables are started.

The

salted water," as used in this book,

means water
spoonful of
tables
as

each quart of which one teahas been


peas,

salt

added.
lima

Such vegebeans,
etc.,

asparagus,

which have a delicate flavour, must be cooked


with very
or
little

water; usually in a smaller pail


a

pan

set

into

larger

cooker-pail of water.

All vegetables should be

washed before cooking,

and such
for

as potatoes, beets, turnips, etc., should

be scrubbed with a small scrubbing-brush, kept


that

purpose.

Few

vegetables

are

injured

by overcooking

in a fireless cooker.

Asparagus

Wash, and
pieces,

if

desired,

break

into

two-inch
will

as

much

of the asparagus as
136

snap

VEGETABLES
easily.

137

That which

will not snap, if fresh, will

be too tough to eat.

Cook

it

in

enough
boiling

salted

water to barely cover the asparagus, setting the

pan

in

large

cooker-pail

of

water.

It will

be tender in one hour.

Cut
it

a a

in

Cabbage head of cabbage into two pieces; soak large bowl of salted water for one-half
Cut
it

hour or more.
pieces,

in

quarters

or

smaller

discarding the

tough

central stalk

and
into

any leaves which may not be


a teaspoonful of

perfect.

Put

it

four quarts of salted water to which one-fourth of

Bring

it

to a boil

baking soda has been added. and put it into a hay-box for

from one and one-half to twelve hours. Winter cabbage will require three or four hours of cooking
at the least.
it

Drain
If

it

into a colander

and serve

with White Sauce or with butter, pepper, and


to taste.

salt

cooked many hours, reheat


Cauliflower

it

before serving.

Soak the whole head


in
it

in a large

bowl of salted
If insects are

water for one-half hour or more.


it

this will

cause them to crawl out.

Bring

to a boil in four quarts of boiling salted


it

water

and cook
will

in

hay-box from one and oneIf much overcooked it remove the head whole. Take

quarter to four hours.

be

difficult to

138
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

out with a skimmer and serve


it

on a

platter,

pouring over
large

one cupful of White Sauce.


require

head

w^ill

more

sauce.
is

Cauliflower a la Hollandaise
the

prepared in

same way, substituting Hollandaise Sauce for White Sauce. Cauliflower au Gratin is prepared by removing
it
it

the cooked head to a baking dish, covering

with buttered crumbs and baking

until

the

crumbs

are brown, or

by covering

it

with grated

cheese before the crumbs are added.

Carrots

Scrub and scrape carrots.


need not be scraped.)
salted water, bring
into a cooker for

(Very young carrots

Cover them with boiling them to a boil and put them from one to three hours, accord-

ing to

the
will

age

and condition of the


be
injured

carrots.

They
hours.

not

by

cooking twelve

If old

and wilted they should be soaked

several hours in cold water before being prepared


for cooking.

When
strips,

done, cut young carrots in


serve
into

rounds
carrots
ing.

or

or
cut

them whole.
slices

Old
cook-

may

be

before

Drain away most of the water and make


using the

Sauce for Vegetables,


the water.

remainder of
be drained off
salt,

Or
taste.

all

the water

may

and the
pepper to

carrots

served

with

butter,

and

VEGETABLES
Corn

139

Husk fresh green corn, using a clean whiskbroom to remove the silk that clings to the ear.
Put
it

into a cooker-pail, cover


it

it

with salted water,


for

bring

to a boil

and put

it

into the cooker

from
serve

fifty
it

minutes to two hours.


a hot platter, covering
it

Drain

it

and

on

with a napkin.

Beets
Scrub new beets, that
is,

those freshly pulled.

Cut off the stalks three inches from the beets, put them into four quarts or more of boiling, salted water, boil five minutes, and put them into a cooker for five hours or more. Old beets, if wilted, should be soaked till firm, and cooked as new beets. They will require six or more hours according to their age and condition. When
sufficiently
off".

cooked the skin of beets


them.

will easily slip

Remove them from


and
slice
salt.

the water one by one,

peel

Serve them with butter,

pepper, and
reheat

If they cool while slicing

them,

them before

serving.

Fresh Shelled Beans Wash from one pint to one quart of fresh
shelled beans, put
salted

them

into three quarts of boiling

water, to which

one-fourth

teaspoonful

of soda has been added, boil, and put them into


a

hay-box for two and one-half hours.

They
Drain

are not injured

by several hours' cooking.

140

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


salt,

them and add

pepper, and butter to taste.

The

exact quantity of water in which the beans


is

are cooked

not material.

They
is

will

bear a

large amount, as their flavour

strong.

String
2 qts. string beans 3 qts, water

Beans

3 teaspoons salt

J teaspoon baking soda

Wash

the beans, cut

them

into small pieces,


salt,

and

put them on to boil with the water,

and soda.

Put them into a cooker for six hours. They will not be injured by cooking for ten or twelve hours.
If fewer

beans are to be cooked, the water must


is full

not be decreased, unless the pail of beans


or set into a larger pail of boiling water.

Serves six or eight persons.

Lima Beans

Wash

the beans and put

them on

to

cook

in

boiling salted water, to each quart of

which one-

eighth of a teaspoonful of soda has been added.


If the quantity
is

small, put

them
it

into a small

pail set into a larger pail of water.


will
fill

If the

whole

a two-quart cooker-pail

will

cook without

the larger pail.

Put them

into a cooker for one

and one-half hours or more.


Dried Lima Beans

Soak the beans over


in at least twice their

night, put

them

to boil

bulk of salted

v/ater.

Add

VEGETABLES
water.
Boil,

141

one-fourth teaspoonful of soda to each quart of

and put them into

cooker for

three or four hours or more.

Drain, add butter,

pepper, and
if

salt,

and reheat them before serving,

necessary.

Dried

Navy Beans

Soak one cupful of beans over night. In the morning drain off the water, add three quarts of boiling salted water and one teaspoonful of soda. Boil, and put them into the cooker for eight hours
or more.

When
and
salt

soft,

drain
taste.

pepper,

to

them and add butter, Or make pork and

beans of them.
Serves five or six persons.

Put a

Chard pint of water and

a teaspoonful of salt

into a cooker-pail.
little,

When

boiling add,
If,

little

by

the well-washed

chard.

after boiling

two or three minutes, there is not enough water to cover the chard, add more boiling water. If
a small

amount of chard

is

cooked the

pail or

pan

must be set into a cooker-pail of boiling water. Put it into a cooker for three hours or more. Drain in a colander and add salt, pepper, and
butter to taste.

Serve with

slices

of hard-cooked

eggs as a garnish.

One dozen
persons.

stalks

and leaves serve four or

five

Many

persons cook the stalks separately

142

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

and serve them with a white sauce, using only


the leaves for greens.

Spinach

same manner as chard, allowing two hours or more in the cooker.

Cook

in the

One peck
Cook

serves six or eight persons.

Beet Greens same manner as chard, allowing two and one-half hours or more in the cooker. Do not remove the little beets. When cooked,
in the

cut through the greens frequently with a knife,


to

make them

less

awkward

for serving.

Stewed Celery
3 cups prepared celery
I

teaspoon

salt

qt.

water

Scrub the celery with a small brush, remove the


strings,
it

cut

it

in one-half-inch

pieces and drop

into

the
set

boiling

salted

water.
into
a

When

it

is

boiling,

the

pail or

pan
it

cooker-pail

of boiling water and put

into the cooker for

from two
injured
it,

to

four hours or longer,


stalks.

depending
not be
drain

upon the toughness of the


by long cooking.
sauce.

It will

When

tender,

saving one-half cupful of the water to use in

making the

Serve with

one cupful of

Sauce for Vegetables.


Serves six or eight persons.

VEGETABLES
Macaroni
J
lb.

143

macaroni

(i

cup broken

i
i

qt.

water
salt

in pieces)

teaspoon

Break

the

macaroni

into

one-inch

pieces.
it;

Soak

it

in cold
it

water for one hour, then drain

or cook

without soaking.
let it boil,

Drop
it

it

into

the

boiling water,

and put
if

into the hay-

box for one and one-half hours


hours
if

soaked, or two

not soaked.

Stand the

pail or

pan

in a

cooker-pail of boiling water while in the hay-box.

Macaroni

will

break to pieces
it

if

cooked too long.

When
make

tender, drain

in a colander

and serve

it

plain, seasoned to taste with salt


it

and pepper, or into Macaroni and Cheese or Macaroni


five

and Ham.
Serves
or six persons.

Macaroni Italienne
I

cup macaroni
pieces

in

one-inch

4 cloves
i

small bay leaf

pt.

stewed

and

strained

teaspoon

salt

tomatoes
I I

2 teaspoons sugar

cup stock or water


medium-sized onion

^ teaspoon pepper
i

cup cheese, grated or shaved

Soak the macaroni


aroni,

in cold w^ater for

one hour;

stick the cloves into the onion.

Drain the mac-

put

it

into

pan or

pail,

add the other

ingredients, except the cheese, and,


set the

when

boiling,

pan or

pail into
it

a cooker-pail of boiling a cooker for

water and put

into

two hours.

144

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the onion
If
is
it

Remove
cheese.

and bay
slip

leaf

and add the back into the

cannot be served as soon as the


the
pail

cheese
cooker.

melted,

Serves five or six persons.

Macaroni Milanaise
I 1

cup macaroni
small onion

i
i

cup water
tablespoon butter

2 cloves
I

^ cup grated cheese

pt.

tomatoes,
strained

stewed

and

6 sliced

mushrooms

J cup smoked tongue or ham,


cut in strips

Break the macaroni, soak it for one hour, then it, and put it, v^ith the other ingredients, When except the last three, into a pan or pail.
drain
boiling, set the
v^^ater

pan
it

into a cooker-pail of boiling


a cooker for tv^o

and put

into

hours.

Remove

the onion and cloves, add the last three

ingredients,

and v^hen the cheese


If
it

is

melted
at

it

is

ready to serve.
replace
it

cannot be served

once

in the cooker.

Serves six or seven persons.

Spaghetti
Spaghetti
as

may

be treated
It
is

in

the
,

macaroni.
a
different

similar

same way paste moulded


is

into

form.

Vermicelli
still

also

the
It

same
is

paste,

moulded

into

finer threads.

frequently used in soups, and should be broken

VEGETABLES
into short pieces

145

and added not more than two


is

hours before
soft as to

it

served, or

it

will

become

so

break to pieces and lose

its

attractive

appearance.

Noodles Noodles are made from a richer paste than macaroni, having eggs in place of water to supply
the
moisture.

macaroni and similar pastes.


be soaked before cooking.

They may be used exactly They should

as

not

Wash
they are
salted

the

Creamed Mushrooms mushrooms, cut them in slices if large, bring them to a boil in enough
It

water to nearly cover them.

should

take about a pint for each quart of mushrooms.


Set the

pan or

pail
it

in

cooker-pail of boiling

water and put


to six hours.

into the cooker for


it

from two

When

is

nearly time to serve


reserving three-fourths

them, drain the water


of a cupful to use in

off,

making one and one-half

cupfuls of Sauce for Vegetables, or White Sauce.

Fricasseed

Mushrooms

Wash

the

oughly on a towel.

mushrooms and dry them thorLet them stand on the towel

may

some time before cooking them, so that they drain dry. Fry them in butter till they brown in a cooker-pail or pan, and make are one and one-half cupfuls of Brown Sauce for

146
each

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


quart
of

mushrooms, using any Hquor that may have come from them, and water for Pour this sauce over the liquid of the sauce. If a small quantity of mushthe mushrooms. rooms is being cooked, stand the pail or pan Put in a large cooker-pail of boiling water.

them

into a cooker for

two hours or more.


irri-

Onions Pare onions under water, to avoid their


tating effect on the eyes.

They

are so strong

in flavour that they will bear


in

an excess of water
directed
in

cooking.

Salt the water as


for

the

General

Directions

Cooking

Vegetables.

Four quarts of water

may be

used for cooking

one quart of onions. Bring them to a boil in a cooker-pail, and put them into a hay-box for

from two hours,

for very tender,

fresh onions,

to eight hours or more.

When

done, drain

them
taste

dry and add butter, pepper,


and,
if

and

salt

to

cream or milk. If the onions are very large let them boil five minutes before putting them into the hay-box.
desired, a
little

Boiled Potatoes Scrub potatoes well with a small scrubbingbrush.

Pare them, and

if

they are inclined to

be black when cooked,


or

let

them stand an hour

more in cold water before cooking them. Cook them in a large amount of boiling salted

VEGETABLES
water
in a cooker-pail.

147

When

they have boiled

one minute put them into the cooker for from one and one-half to three hours, depending upon their quantity, size, and age. New potatoes
will not require so

long to cook as old.


pieces will cook in one

Large
hour.

potatoes

cut into

Creamy Potatoes
1

qt. sliced

potatoes

2 teaspoons salt

2 tablespoons butter

| teaspoon pepper
pt.

milk

Wash and
thin
slices.

pare the potatoes and cut them into

Four

medium-sized
sliced.

potatoes

will

make
in

a quart

when

Put
of

all

the ingredients

together in a small cooker-pail or pan, set this


a
large
it

cooker-pail

boiling

water,

and

when
it

is

steaming hot, put the small utensil


heat
until
it

directly

over the

boils.

Replace
it

in the pail of boiling

water and

set

in

the

cooker for one hour.


Serves four or five persons.

Stewed Potatoes
1

qt. cold,

diced potatoes

2 tablespoons flour 2 teaspoons salt

2 cups milk

4 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons

j teaspoon pepper

chopped parsley

Melt the butter

in a small cooker-pail or pan,

add the
put
in

flour

and blend the two evenly, then


at a time;

add the milk, one-third


the
salt,

when

it

boils,

pepper,

and

potatoes.

Let

148

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

the whole reach boiling point and set


large
fills

in

a
it

cooker-pail
a small
pail

of
full,

boiling
in

water,

unless
it

which case

can be

placed
fits
it,

directly in

cooker nest which exactly

and

left for

one hour or more.

Serves six or eight persons.

Peas
Shell young, green peas
boil,

and bring them to a


Put the
pail or

using about one cupful of salted water for

each quart of shelled peas.


inside of another

pan

cooker-pail of boiling

water

and
day

set all in a

cooker for from one to two hours


left
all

or more.

Old peas may be


Rice, No.

night or

all

in the cooker.
I

cup

rice

3 qts water

3 teaspoons salt

Look over the


undesirable

and remove any husks or Wash it by allowing substances.


rice

cold water to run through a strainer containing

the

rice.

Sprinkle

it,

gradually, into the boiling

salted water in a cooker-pail.

When

it

is

boil-

ing put
is

it

into a

a considerable difference in rice,


it

hay-box for one hour. There and the time


but one hour will usually
is is

for cooking

will vary;

be found
cooking.

sufficient.

Rice

injured
soft,

by overit

When

the rice

drain

in a

colander and set this in the oven, with the door

VEGETABLES
open,
for
five

149
Rice,

minutes.

Serve at once.
its

when cooked,

swells to four times

original bulk.

Serves six or eight persons.


Rice, No. 2
I

cup

rice
I

3 to 4 cups water

teaspoon

salt

Look over and wash the


recipe for Rice,
salted water,

rice as directed in the


it

No. and put

i.
it

Bring
into a

to a boil in the

hay-box for one hour.

Serves six or eight persons.

Savoury Rice
I

cup

rice

4^ cups highly seasoned stock


2 tablespoons butter

Look over and wash


previous recipes, bring
it

rice

as

directed in the

to a boil in the stock,


it

with the butter, and cook

in a

hay-box for one


it

hour, standing the pail or pan that contains


in a larger pail of water, unless

more than one


full.

cupful of rice
pail

is

being cooked and the cookerleast

would be
a

at

two-thirds
peanuts.

Serve
rice

with

border

of

salted

The

should be moist but not sticky


Serves eight or ten persons.

when cooked.

Turkish Pilaf
J cup
rice
i

teaspoon sugar

2 tablespoons chopped green

ij cups stock or water


i

sweet pepper or onion


I

tablespoon butter

cup tomatoes

teaspoon

salt

150

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


rice,

Pick over and wash the


the -recipe
for

as
i.

directed in

boiled

rice,

No.
the

Chop
seeds,

the

onion
if

or

pepper,

discarding

and,

raw tomatoes are used, remove the


the

skins

and
in

cut

tomatoes

in

pieces

before

measuring
a
boiling,

them.
small
set
it it

Put

all

the
or

ingredients

together

cooker-pail
in

pan,

and,

when

a larger cooker-pail of boiling water.

Put

into a cooker for


it,

one hour.

When
till

ready
all

to serve

stir it lightly

with a fork
Pilaf

the

ingredients

are

evenly mixed.

is

injured

by much overcooking.
Serves five or six persons.

Samp
^ cup samp
I

(Coarse Hominy)
I

teaspoon

salt

cup cold water


in

3 cups boiling water

Soak the samp


hours or more.
boil
it

the cold water for eight


the salt and boiling water;
it

Add

hard

for

one hour, and put


twelve hours.

into a cooker
is

for

from

six

to

It

improved

by the longer cooking.


it is

The

pail or

pan in which

cooked should be stood

in a large cooker-pail

of boiling water.

tablespoonful of butter
if it is

may

be added before serving


Serves

used as a vegetable.

five or six persons.

Summer Squash
Scrub
young,
tender
in

summer squashes and


enough

cook them whole,

the cooker, with

VEGETABLES
salted

151

boiling

water to fully cover them, for


If they are not

from one to three hours.

young

enough

to

have a

soft rind,

they must be pared

and the seeds removed.

It will

then be better to

cook them as winter squash.


tender, drain off the water and
in a colander.

When

they are

mash the squashes

This

will allow a little of the juice

to

drain

Season them highly with

away and leave the squashes drier. salt and pepper, and
of butter to each pint
If not very hot

add two tablespoonfuls


of squash. before
serving.

when mashed,

reheat

Stewed Tomatoes
1

qt.

tomatoes

onion, sliced

2 teaspoons salt

^ cup buttered crumbs


2 teaspoons sugar

J teaspoon pepper

Scald and peel the tomatoes, remove the cores,

and
them.

cut

them

into

pieces

before

measuring
to

Add

the other ingredients, omitting the


if

sugar and crumbs,


boil,

preferred; bring

all

and put them

into a cooker for

from one
be injured

to

two hours or more.


indefinite cooking.

They

will not

by

Serves five or six persons.

Hubbard or Winter Squash


Scrub, pare and cut the squash into pieces,

removing the
will
fit

seeds.

Put

it

into a strainer that

into the cooker-pail, placing a rack

under

152
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

to raise

above the water

in the pail.

Fill

the pail below the strainer with boiling water.

Steam the squash


minutes, then put
five to

directly over the fire for ten


it

into

the cooker for from

eight hours,

depending upon the age of

the

squash

and the

amount cooked.

pail

of not less than six quarts' capacity should be


used, so that there

may

be at least three quarts

of water under the squash.


it

When
it

tender,
in

mash
cheese
it

through the strainer, or drain


squeezing
it

cloth,

as dry

as

possible.
it

If

is

to be served as a vegetable, season


salt

highly with

and pepper, and add two or three tablespoonof butter to each pint of squash.
If
it

fuls

is

to be

made

into pies, omit these ingredients.

Select a

Pumpkin pumpkin with a soft


cook
It
it

rind, if possible.

Prepare and
winter squash.
or

in

the

same manner

as

may

be used as a vegetable

made

into pies.

Creamed Turnips
Scrub, pare, and cut turnips into half-inch dice.

Cook each
least

pint

of

prepared

turnips

with

at

one quart of boiling

salted water, in the

cooker, for from one and one-half to three hours


or more.

When

tender,
to

drain them,

reserving

enough of the water

make one

cupful of Sauce

for Vegetables for each pint of turnips.

VEGETABLES
Mashed Turnip

153

Scrub and pare the turnips and cut them into


pieces.

Cook each

pint of turnip with at least

one

quart of boiHng salted water in the cooker for

from one and one-half hours

to three hours or more.


in a colander

When

tender, drain
to

and mash them

and add

each pint one teaspoonful

of

salt,

one-fourth teaspoonful of pepper, and two table-

spoonfuls or more of butter.


qt.

Serve very hot.


i| qts. water

Italian Chestnuts
I

chestnuts
2 teaspoons salt

Shell

given on page
salted

and blanch the nuts by the directions Bring them to a boil with 189.
put them
Press
in

water,

cooker for from


a potato

two
if

to four hours.

them through
a

ricer or serve

them whole, adding

little

butter

desired.

One

quart of nuts will

make about

one pint when shelled and blanched.


Serves four or five persons.

Brussels Sprouts
1

qt.

sprouts

Salt

2 or

more

qts.

water
Butter

Pepper

Wash

the sprouts, bring

them

to a boil in salted

water; put them into the cooker for from one to

two hours, drain them and add

salt,

pepper,

and butter

to taste.

Serves six or seven persons.

XVIII

STEAMED BREADS AND PUDDINGS


GENERAL DIRECTIONS

A
will
It
is

DEEP
be

mould breads and


less

is

best

for

cooking steamed

raised

puddings, since there

risk of the water's boiling over into

the food,

and a larger amount may be used. important to have one that is the right
recipe,
rise
its

size for the

for if

it is

filled

too

full,

the

mixture might

be heavy from
full,
it

pressure,

and push and


in

off the
if

cover or

not sufficiently

would be unsteady

the water.

The

water in the pail should come to two-thirds of The mould should the height of the mould.

be not
or a
large

less

than

half-full of

dough, and, generally


If a small

not more than two-thirds

full.

mould

number

of small moulds are to be used in a

cooker-pail,

stand

similar device to raise

them upon a rack or them until there may be


the
cooker-pail at
least

no
the

difficulty

in

filling

two-thirds

full

of water.

The

cover as well as
inside with

mould should be greased on the


154

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


butter.
If a

155

the same fat as that used in the dough or with

bread mould

is

not available, an

empty
tin

baking-powder can, coffee can, or


cover
trial

any

can or box with straight sides which has a

tight-fitting

may

be used, providing
If
it

it

is

found by
it

to

be water-tight.

leaks,

may be
tightly

soldered at small

expense, and

may

then be kept for cooking purposes only.


a

Where
be pro-

covered

can or box cannot

cured, an uncovered utensil could be used by tying

on securely a cover of heavy, well-greased paper.

Boston Brown Bread


I I I I

cup rye meal cup graham


flour

f tablespoon soda f cup molasses


2 cups sour milk or

cup corn-meal
teaspoon
salt

if cups sweet milk or


buttermilk

Mix and

sift

the dry ingredients together.

Mix

the liquid ingredients and add them, gradually,

Put the dough into a wellbrown bread mould or watertight can of the same capacity. Stand the mould in a six-quart cooker-pail in enough warm water to come two-thirds of the way up the mould.
to the dry mixture.

buttered, one-quart

Bring

it

quickly to a boil and boil

it

half an hour.
It will

Put

it

into a

hay-box for

five

hours.

not

be spoiled by six hours in the cooker, but will not

have quite such a dry

crust.

If sweet

milk

is

156

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


soda and use, instead, two table-

used add one tablespoonful of cream of tartar;


or omit the

spoonfuls of baking powder.

Serves six or eight persons.

Graham Pudding
i cup butter ^ cup molasses J cup sweet milk I egg
I

i^ cups graham flour


i teaspoon baking-powder ^ teaspoon soda
I

teaspoon

salt

cup

raisins,

seeded and cut in pieces

Melt the butter, add the egg, well beaten, Mix the dry ingredients and molasses and milk.

add

to

them

the liquid mixture.

Pour

it

into a

well-buttered,

one-quart mould or into

several

smaller moulds.
thirds
full.

Do

not

fill

them more than twoin

Place the

moulds on a rack

six-quart cooker-pail of
to

warm water,
minutes
if

bring quickly
if

a boil

and
Put
milk

boil thirty

the larger

cans are used; fifteen minutes,


are used.
If sour
it

the small cans

into the cooker for five hours.


available,

is

omit

the

baking

powder and add an extra one-fourth teaspoonful


of soda.

Serves six persons.

Steamed Apple or Berry Pudding


1

cup flour

tablespoon butter

2 teaspoons baking

powder

f cup milk (sweet)


4 apples cut in eighths

i teaspoon

salt

2 tablespoons sugar

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


Mix and
sift

157

the dry ingredients, cut the butter


it

into them, or rub

in

with the fingers, add the

milk, cutting

it

in,

Hghtly, with a knife.

When
roll

the

dough
toss
lightly

is
it

barely mixed, so that no loose flour

is left,
it

on

a floured

board and pat or


thick.

till
it

one-half inch

Spread the
Carefully

apples on
place
it

and
a

roll it like a jelly roll.

in

well-buttered,

one-quart
it

bread

mould or water-tight can.


stand
it

Cover

tightly

and

in

at least

a six-quart cooker-pail with to


it

enough warm water


up
its sides.

come two-thirds of the way


quickly to a boil, boil thirty

Bring

minutes and place

it

in a

cooker for three hours.

Serve immediately with

warm

apple sauce and

Hard Sauce.
apple-sauce.

If berries are used

add one cupful

to the dough, use one cupful of milk and omit the

Serves five or six persons.

Suet Pudding
i cup chopped suet ^ cup molasses cup sour milk
i^ cups flour

J teaspoon

salt

i teaspoon ginger J teaspoon grated nutmeg I teaspoon ground cloves | teaspoon ground cinnamon

f teaspoon soda

Mix and Mix suet.

sift

the dry ingredients and add the

the milk and molasses and add

them

to the dry mixture.

Put the dough into a buttered,


or water-tight

one-quart bread mould

covered

158

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

can, and stand

in

a six-quart

cooker-pail of

warm

water which reaches two-thirds of the way


Boil
it

up the can.

one-half hour and put into

the cooker for five hours.

Serves six or eight persons.

Rich Plum Pudding


^
J
lb. raisins lb.

| cup flour
J
lb.

currants

brown sugar

2 oz.

candied orange peel

^ nutmeg, grated
| tablespoon powdered cinnamon
|^

2 oz. citron

lb.

chopped suet
breadcrumbs

teaspoon ground allspice

lb. stale, soft

J pint brandy
4 eggs

(2i cups)

Wash and
with a

seed the raisins; rub the currants

little flour,

then

sift

out the flour and allow

water to run over the currants in the sieve until


they are
clean.

Spread them on a towel and


etc.,

remove

any stems, stones,


Let them

that

may

be

among them.

stand, covered with a

towel to keep out dust, until they are dry.


the orange peel and
citron very fine, or put

Cut them

through a food-chopper.
it

Chop

the suet or put

and the raisins through a coarse food-chopper;

a trifle of the flour

may
to

be mixed with the suet


help to keep
it

before

it

is

chopped
all

from
till

sticking to the chopping-knife.

Beat the eggs

blended.
ly,

Mix

the dry ingredients very thorough-

add the eggs and then the brandy. Put the pudding into a covered, greased mould, chopping

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


down through
it

159

few
it

times with the end of a


fills

knife, to be sure that

the

mould without
it

hollow spaces, and to avoid packing

firmly.

Stand
in
till

it

in at

least three quarts of

warm
but

water,

cooker-pail.

Heat
let
it

it

slowly
boil

steadily
if

the water boils;


is

one

hour

the

pudding
in

in

one mould, or one-half hour

if it is

two smaller moulds.


five

Put
it

it

into the cooker

for

hours.
If
it

Remove

at

once

from the
first

mould.
it

is

not to be used

when

made,

may
in

be kept several weeks, replaced in the


serving,

mould and reheated before


it

by putting
Serve

warm

water, heating
it

it

to the boiling point


it

and boiling

one-half hour or more.

with brandy sauce.


Serves ten or twelve persons.

Steamed Cranberry Pudding


J cup butter cup sugar
2 eggs
I

2^ cups flour
i

tablespoon baking powder

J cup milk

cup berries
soft

Rub

the butter

till it is

and add the sugar

gradually.

Separate the eggs and add the beaten

yolks to the butter and sugar.

Mix and

sift

the
a

baking powder
little

and

flour together

and add

flour,

alternately with a part of the milk,

to the

dough.

When

all

is

in,

add the

stiffly

beaten whites and the berries.

Put the mixture

i6o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

into a buttered, one-quart mould, stand

in hot

water and bring


boil.

it,

gradually, but steadily, to a

Let

it

boil one-half

hour and put


it

it

into

a cooker

for five

hours.

Serve

v^ith sv^eetened

cream or hard sauce.


Serves six or eight persons.

Ginger Pudding
J cup butter I cup sugar
I

3^ teaspoons baking powder i teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons ginger


I

egg

2i cups flour

cup milk

add the sugar gradually, and the v^ell-beaten egg. Mix and sift the dry ingredients and add a little of the mixture alterthe butter,
nately with part of the milk.

Cream

When

all

is

in,
it,

put the dough into a buttered mould, cover

and

boil

it

one-half hour in a large cooker-pail of


it

water, then put

into a cooker for five hours-

Serve

it

with Vanilla Sauce or

Nutmeg

Sauce.

Serves six or eight persons.


St.

James Pudding
| teaspoon salt

3 tablespoons butter

^ cup molasses ^ cup thick, sour milk


i cups flour

^ teaspoon cloves J teaspoon allspice I teaspoon nutmeg


J
lb.

f teaspoon soda

dates, stoned

and

cut in pieces

Mix

the molasses, melted butter, and milk and


to

add them

the

dry ingredients, which have

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


been mixed and
the dough
Boil
it

i6i

sifted.

Add

the dates and turn

into

buttered,

one-quart

mould.

in

a large cooker-pail of
it

water for one-

half hour and put

into a cooker for five hours.

Serve w^ith Hard Sauce.


Serves
five

or six persons.

Harvard Pudding
J cup butter J cup sugar
I

3^ teaspoons baking powder


i teaspoon salt 2^ cups flour
I

egg

cup milk

Mix

the butter and sugar, add the egg,

then
sifted

the dry ingredients, previously

mixed and

together, alternating part of the dry ingredients

and the milk


pail of

until

all

are

in.

Turn

it

into

buttered, one-quart mould, boil in a large cooker

water for one-half hour and put


five

it

into a

cooker for

hours.

Serve

it

with

warm

apple

sauce and Hard Sauce.


Serves six or eight persons.

Swiss Pudding
1 cup butter

Grated rind of one lemon


5 eggs

J cup flour 2 cups milk

I cup powdered sugar

Cream
first

the

butter,

add the

flour,

gradually;
it

scald the milk with the

lemon
it

rind,

add

to the

mixture and cook

five

minutes over hot

water.

Beat the yolks of eggs until they are

i62
thick,

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

add the sugar, gradually, and combine these with the cooked mixture; cool it and cut and fold in
the
stiffly

beaten whites of eggs.


it

Turn

it

into a

buttered, one-quart mould, boil


pail of

in a large cookerit

water for twenty minutes, then put

into

a cooker for three hours.

Serves six or seven persons.

Rice Pudding
I I

qt.

milk

| teaspoon grated nutmeg

tablespoon butter

| teaspoon ^ cup sugar

salt

J cup rice

Heat the

milk

and

other

ingredients

in

pudding pan over a cooker-pail of water. pudding


also to a boil.

When

the water boils, remove the pan and bring the

When

it is

boiling replace

the pudding in the large pail of boiling water,

cover and put


four hours.
for fifteen
is

it

into

the cooker for three or

It

may

then be put into the oven


this

minutes and browned, although

not necessary.
night,
is

This pudding

may

be cooked

all
it

but

if

cooked more than four hours


Serve either hot or

not quite so creamy.

cold.

One-half cupful of small, unbroken seed-

less raisins

may

be added to this recipe.

Serves six or eight persons.

Indian Pudding
2 cups water
I I

2 teaspoons ginger f cup corn-meal

cup molasses
teaspoon
salt

3 cups milk

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


Boil the water, molasses, salt, ginger,

163

and meal
to

together for ten minutes in

pail

or pudding
it

pan.
boil

Add
and
Put

the

scalding

milk.

Bring

set the
it

pan

in a cooker-pail of boiling

water.

into

a cooker for twelve

hours.

When
If
is

done, brown in a hot oven.

Serve with

plain or

whipped cream. fresh ground or coarse Southern corn-meal


it

used

may

first

be sifted with a coarse sieve


particles,

remove the grow soft with


to

largest
this

which

will

not

amount of cooking.

Granu-

lated corn-meal will not require sifting.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Tapioca or Rice Custard


cup pearl tapioca
2 eggs
i

f cup water 3 cups milk


teaspoon
salt

tablespoon butter

| cup sugar
^ teaspoon vanilla

Soak the tapioca

in the

water for one hour.

Add
pan
the

the milk, sugar,


in

butter,

and

salt.

Set the

cooker-pail of boiling water.


is

When
let
it

milk

scalding

remove the pan and


Replace
it

the pudding

come

to a boil.

in the

boiling water and put

into the cooker for


it
it

one
hot

and one-half hours.


water and
stir

Take

from the cooker,


in the pail of
till
it

add the beaten eggs, replace


it

over the

fire

registers

165 degrees Fahrenheit, using a dairy or chemist's

i64

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Put
it

thermometer.
for

again

into

the

cooker

one hour.

When

cold,

add the

vanilla.

Rice

may

be used instead of tapioca.

Serves six or eight persons.

Tapioca Fruit Pudding


I cup pearl tapioca
I

qt.

water

f cup sugar | teaspoon salt


2 tablespoons butter
it

6 whole medium-sized apples

Soak the tapioca one hour, bring


if

to a boil
pail,

with the other ingredients in a two-quart


that will
fill

the cooker "nest," or in a pudset

ding pan to be
into

over boiling water.

Put

it

cooker for one hour.


If
it

Serve

cold

with

cream.

is

preferred to serve the pudding


three cups of w^ater.

warm, use only

Serves six or eight persons.

Chocolate Bread Pudding


1
,

qt.

milk

2 or 3 eggs

pt. soft

breadcrumbs

2 oz. or squares chocolate

J teaspoon salt I teaspoon vanilla


2 tablespoons powdered sugar

cup granulated sugar

Scald

the

milk,

add the crumbs, and soak


hour.

them

for

one-half

Separate

the

eggs,

two of the whites for a meringue. Beat the three yolks and one white of egg together and mix them with half the granulated sugar. Melt the chocolate in a pudding pan set in a cooker-pail of boiling water, add the remaining
reserving

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


half
the
still

165
gradually,

of

the

granulated
milk,

sugar, and,
it

bread

and
salt,
it

stirring

in

well

while

over the boiling water.

Then add
Stir
it

the yolks

of eggs,

and

vanilla.

constantly,
is

and cook

over the water until the pudding


Set the
pail

160 degrees Fahrenheit.

contain-

ing the pudding pan in a cooker for from one to

two hours.
dish
a

When

done, put

it

into

a baking-

suitable for serving,

and cover the top with

meringue made by beating the whites of eggs

till stiff,

and adding the powdered sugar.


in
it

Brown
it

the

meringue

a very hot oven,

watching,

with cream.

Serve warm, two whole eggs may be used in the pudding, and in place of the meringue use sweetened, whipped cream.
carefully that

may

not scorch.

If preferred,

Serves six or eight persons.

Queen
I
I

of Puddings
3 eggs

qt.

hot milk

pt. soft

breadcrumbs

| teaspoon salt
i

J cup sugar J cup melted butter

teaspoon vanilla, or

J teaspoon spice

glass jelly

Melt the butter


in

in the milk;

soak the crumbs


mixed,

the

milk for one-half hour; beat the yolks

of three eggs

and the white of one


salt,

till

add the sugar,


all

and
it

spice
into

to

them.

Mix

together

and pour

pudding pan

i66
to
till
fit

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


in

a cooker-pail of boiling water.


is
it

Stir

it

the pudding
it

i6o degrees Fahrenheit, then


into a cooker for

cover
to

and put

from one
directed

two hours.

Make

meringue

as

in the recipe for chocolate

bread pudding, using

the whites of two eggs and two tablespoonfuls


of

powdered sugar.

Pour the pudding


spread the
this,

into

baking-dish for serving,

jelly

on top
it

and the meringue over


hot oven.

and brown

in a

Serves six or eight persons.

Steamed Cup Custard


I

qt.

milk

cup sugar
I teaspoon vanilla, or
|-

4 eggs

teaspoon grated nutmeg

Heat the milk, beat the


and
flavouring.

eggs,

add the sugar


into

Strain

the

mixture

hot

custard cups, set


strainer
in
in

them on

a wire rack or inverted

or

perforated

pan,

which

is

arranged

a large cooker-pail of rapidly boiling water

such a

way

that several quarts of water

may

be below the custards but not touch the cups. Cover tightly at once and set it into a cooker
for one-half hour.

Serves six or eight persons.

Compote
f cup
rice

of Rice

and Fruit
salt

3 tablespoons sugar
J-

3f cups milk

teaspoon

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


Heat
all

167
set into a

together in a pan which

is

cooker-pail of boiling water.

When
Replace

the

water
the
to

in the kettle boils, take out the

pan and bring


it

the mixture in
pail

it

to

a boil.

in

and put

it

into the cooker for

from one

Figure No. 13.

Wire rack arranged

for steaming,
it

with perforated
v/ater.

tin

can as a

stand to raise

above the

three

hours.

Put

it

into a mould, and,

when
on to on

shaped, but while


a serving dish.
top,

still

warm, turn
it.

it

out

Put stewed or canned

fruit

and pour the juice around

Serves six or eight persons.

XIX
FRUITS
Apple Sauce
l^
qts.

sour apples
I

pt.

water

cup sugar

Wash, pare, core, and cut the apples into pieces, add the water and sugar and bring them to a
boil.

Put them into the cooker for from one to

three hours or more, depending


ness of the
apples.
If

upon the

ripe-

they are not very tart

or high-flavoured the juice of half a

improve them.

Apple sauce
cooking
or,

will

lemon v^ill not be harmed


Beat
it

by
well

indefinite

in
if

the

cooker.
it

when cooked,

preferred,

may

be

strained.

Serves six or eight persons.

Stewed Apples
I

in

Syrup
lo cups sugar
i8 cloves

qt.

water

J lemon

10 qts. prepared apples

Pare, core, and cut tart apples in halves, unless

they are small.

Crab-apples

should not be pared nor cored.


1

may be used, but Wash and slice

68

FRUITS
the lemon.
pail

169

Put
let

all

the ingredients into a cookerto

and
a

them come

boil.

Put them
the

into

cooker for three hours.

If

apples

are not very ripe they

may cook

as long as twelve

hours v^ithout becoming too

soft.

Serves twenty-five to thirty persons.

Apple Jelly
6 quarts prepared apples
7 cups

water

Wash

the apples carefully, cut

them

into small

Put the pieces and remove any decayed parts. apples and water into a cooker-pail and let them

come

to a boil, then set

them
very

in a
soft,

cooker for four

hours or more.
a jelly

When

pour them into

bag and hang

this over a large

bowl for
juice,

several hours or over night.


boil
it

Measure the

for fifteen minutes,

add three quarters

as

much

sugar as the measure of juice, boil the


five

mixture for
will jelly

minutes more, or until a drop


if left

on a cold plate
jelly carefully

for a

few minutes.
Fruit

Skim the
that
is

while
is

it is

boiling.

slightly under-ripe
it

best for jelly.

When
inside

cold, seal

in the following

manner: For each


fit

glass cut a small piece of white paper to


it,

lying on the jelly.

This

is

to be

dipped into

alcohol or brandy and laid in place.

Cover the

top of the glass with another paper cut threefourths of an inch larger than the top of the glass,

and paste

it

down on

the sides of the glass, using

170

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


seal jelly glasses

white of egg or any paste without a strong odor.

Or

with melted paraffin poured


is

over the top until the jelly

completely covered.
it

Do

not let the paraffin get very hot or

may

give

a bad flavour to the jelly.

Blackberry and Apple Jelly


blackberries 5 qts.
2 cups water

Apple juice

Look
a boil.

over the berries carefully; put them, with


let

the water, into a cooker-pail and

them come
bag and

to

Put them

in a

cooker for three hours or


jelly
let

more, then pour them into a

them

drip for a least six hours.

To

each cupful

of juice add half a cupful of apple juice prepared


as for apple jelly.

Boil these juices for fifteen

minutes, then add five cups of sugar to each six

cups of juice and boil

it

for five minutes longer


if left

or until a drop will jelly on a cold plate


a

for
it

few minutes.

Pour

it

into glasses

and

seal

when

cold, as directed for apple jelly.

Stewed Blackberries Pick over two quarts of berries, put them, with
one cupful of sugar, into a cooker-pail and
let

them slowly come


a flame or very hot
into a cooker for

to a boil, stirring
if

them occacooked over

sionally as they are likely to scorch


fire.

When

boiling, put

them

two hours or more.

If

cooked

a very long time the juice comes out and leaves

FRUITS

171

the berries rather small and seedy, but otherwise

no amount of cooking hurts them.


Serves twelve or fifteen persons.

Currant

Jelly-

Wash

twelve quarts of currants, add one cupful


boil.

of water and put them on to

Stir

them

occasionally so that they will not scorch.


boiling, put

When
them
juice,

them

into a cooker for four hours or

more.

Pour them

into a jelly

bag and

let

drip for at least six hours.

Measure the

and when it has boiled fifteen minutes add an Boil the mixture for equal measure of sugar. five minutes, or until a few drops will jelly on a cold plate if allowed to stand a few minutes.

Skim

the jelly several times during the boiling.


it is

When
when

done, pour

it

into glasses,

and

seal

it,

cold,

as directed for apple jelly.

Cranberry Jelly
l^ qts. berries
i

cup water

Sugar

Wash

the

berries

and remove any

soft

and

decayed ones.
hours
or

Bring them to a boil with the^

water and put them into a cooker for one or two


more.

Mash them through


amount

fine

strainer or sieve,

measure the pulp and add equal


in sugar. will jelly

parts or three-quarters of the Boil five minutes, or


till

a
it

few drops
into

on

cold

plate.

Pour

moulds which

172

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


When
cold,
it is

have been wet with cold water.


ready to serve.
Serves eight or ten persons.

Cranberry Sauce
1

1 qts. cranberries
I

2 cups sugar

cup water

Wash

the berries and remove any that are soft

and decayed.

Put the

berries, water,

and sugar

into a cooker-pail

and bring them

to a boil, stirring

them
in a

frequently.

When

boiling,

place the pail

cooker for two and one-half hours or more.

Serve cold.
Serves eight or ten persons.

Dried Fruits

Wash
clean

the fruit very thoroughly.


five

If

it

is
it

first

soaked for

minutes and then washed,

will
fruit
at

more thoroughly.

To

each cupful of
let
it

add two cupfuls of water and


least six hours.
It is better if
all

soak for

soaked ten hours.


to a boil.

Add
ing

the sugar and bring

Put

it

into a cooker for

from two

to twelve hours,

depend-

upon the

fruit.

Prunes are improved by long


it,

cooking, apples are not injured by


or apricots, which are

but peaches

more

attractive if they are


if

not broken to pieces, will be better


as soon as they are perfectly soft.

removed
apricots,

The amount

of

sugar

varies

for

different
fruits

fruits;

prunelles,

and such sour

requiring about

FRUITS

173

one cupful of sugar for each pint of dried fruit; prunes, peaches, and apples requiring from onefourth to one-half as much.

Stewed Rhubarb
i^
qts.

prepared rhubarb
2 cups sugar

f cup water

Wash

the stalks, pare

them

if

old, cut

them

into one-inch pieces

and put them, with the sugar

two quart cooker-pail. When boiHng, set the pail in a cooker for from one to character three hours or more, depending upon the

and water,

into a

of the rhubarb.

Some people

prefer to use

brown

sugar with rhubarb.


Serves eight or ten persons.

Stewed Figs
I

lb. figs

Juice of one lemon

I i cups sugar

Water to cover figs


in

Use pulled figs; those which come crack open when they are pressed and
attractive

boxes

are not so

when

stewed.
figs,

The
and

natural

form

is

preserved in pulled

they have, besides,

Wash the figs the advantage of being cheaper. ingredients, into a and put them, with the other pan which fits the cooker-pail. Boil them, set
it mto the pan in the pail of boiling water and put When cold, a cooker for seven hours or more.

serve the figs with

whipped cream.

Serves eight or ten persons.

174

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Sweet Pickles
8 lbs. fruit (prepared)

5 lbs.
I

brown sugar
vinegar

qt.

f cup stick cinnamon f cup whole allspice J cup cloves

Prepare the
spices
in

fruit as

directed below.

Tie the

several

cheese-cloth

bags,

and bring
barely
it

them

to the boiling point in a cooker-pail, with the

sugar and vinegar.

Add
it

the fruit,

let

it

come

to a boil, stirring

carefully, so that
it

will

not break to pieces.

Set

in a

cooker for the

time directed below for each particular kind of


fruit.

When

it

is

sufficiently cooked,
it

remove

it

from the syrup and put


Boil the syrup until
sistency,
it it

into cans or crocks.


its

loses

thin,

watery conIf this

and pour

over

the

fruit.

occupies more than one receptacle, put one spice

bag
hot.

in each.

Cover or

seal the cans while

still

Sweet pickles should not be eaten

until

they have stood for several weeks.

Peaches
Select

firm,

ripe

peaches, rub them well with

a woolen cloth, but do not

pare

them.

Cook
hard-

them whole,

as directed

above, for from one to


the

two hours or more, depending upon


ness and size of the peaches.

Pears

Wash, pare and,


half,

if

desired, cut the pears in

removing the

cores.

Cook them,

as directed

FRUITS

175

above, for from one to two hours or more, depending upon the hardness and size of the pears.

Crah Apples:

Wash and
blossom.
the sugar
is

dry the

apples

and cut out the

Drop them
dissolved.

into the syrup as soon as

Let them boil and cook


for

them,

as

directed

above,

from

two

to

three hours.

Watermelon Rind or Citron:


Pare the rind and cut
into a
it

into pieces.
salt

Put

it

cooker-pail
in the

of

boiling

and water,
salt

mixed

proportion of one-half cup of


Slip the pail at

to one gallon of water.

once into

a cooker for ten hours or over night.

When

the

rind

is

soft drain
it

it

and wash and add


above,

it

in

cold water.

Drain

in a colander

it

to the syrup,

prepared

as

directed

and

cook

it,

as

other sweet pickles, for from four to six hours.

The

fruit shrinks to

about one-half

its

bulk after

cooking in the brine.

Prunes:

Soak the prunes


well,

for five minutes,

wash them
pits,

then soak them for six hours in enough

water to cover them.

them, and chop the kernels.

Remove the Cook

crack

the prunes

and kernels
for

in

spiced syrup as directed

above

ten

hours or over night.

Weigh

the fruit

176
after
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


has been soaked in order to estimate the

amount of syrup needed.


Plums:

Wipe

the fruit, prick


it

it

and put

it

into the
it

syrup, bring

slowly to a boil and cook

as
If

directed above, for from one to two hours.

each plum

is

pricked once with a sharp-pointed


it

fork or nut-pick

will not burst.

Quinces:

Wash
to

and core

fruit and wipe it. Peel, quarter, and bring it to a boil in enough water half cover it; cook it in a cooker for ten hours

the

it

or over night or steam

it

in a

wire rack over boiling


it

water for ten minutes and place


for three hours; put
it

in a

cooker
it

over the

fire
it

and bring
in the

again to a hard boil and replace


for

cooker
unless

another three hours.

The

quinces,

very hard, will then be ready to cook in the syrup


as directed above, for ten hours or over night. If

they are
ing, the

first

cooked

in

water instead of by steamfor other purposes.

water

may

be used for making a syrup

to use as a

pudding sauce or

Orange Marmalade
1

large grape-fruit

large

lemon

2 large oranges

Sugar

Water

Wash
cut
it,

the fruit with a brush, wipe

it

dry and
seeds.

in very thin slices,

removing only the

FRUITS
Discard the
first

177

and

last

slices,

which consist

of nothing but skin.

and

to

water.

Measure the sUced fruit, every quart of fruit add three cups of Bring it to a boil and put it into a cooker
Bring
it

for ten hours or over night.


boil

again to a

and cook it again for ten hours. Add the equivalent measure of both fruit and water in sugar, bring it to a boil, and put it again into
the cooker for ten hours or more.
sufficiently

If

it

is

not

thick

in

consistency,

boil

it

slowly

until a drop will jelly slightly if put on a cold As marmalade is plate and left a few minutes.

not usually sealed with

air-tight

covers

it

will

evaporate

somewhat,

and

become

thicker

by

long standing, and will therefore not need to be The longer it is boiled the boiled until very stiff.
less

This recipe deHcate the flavour becomes. more of marmalade. should make five pints or

Candied Orange or Grape-Fruit Peel


Peel of 6 oranges or 2 grapefruit

3 cups sugar
I

peel was i cups water in which

cooked

Carefully scrub the fruit

till

very clean, remove


it

the peel in quarters and soak

in

water for a
into very

few hours.

If

it

is

to be used as candy, scrape


it

away
poses,

little

of the white part, and cut


If to be

narrow
it

strips.

used for cooking pur-

need not be scraped or cut small.

Put

178
it

THE FIRELESS
a cooker-pail

C([)OK

BOOK
it

into

and ccWer
set
it
it

with boiling

water.

Let

it

boil

and

in a

cooker for ten

hours or more.

Reheat

to boiling point

and
will

cook

it

again for ten hours or more.

This

be enough for grape-fruit, but orange-peel


require one

may

more such period of cooking.

When
Add
to

soft and nearly transparent, drain the peel, saving

one and one-half cups of the water.


it

three cups of sugar, and,


Boil
it,

when

this

is

dissolved,
last,

the peel.

slowly toward the

until

most of the water has boiled away.


strips

Remove

the

and lay them

in a

bed of granulated sugar,


Let them stand

covering them

also with sugar.

until cold, then

shake off the loose sugar, which

can be used for cooking purposes, and put the


candied peel into covered boxes or cans.

Canned Quinces
6 qts. quinces (prepared) 6 qts. water

4^

lbs.

sugar

Wash,

peel, quarter,

and core the quinces before

measuring them.
boiling hard put

Bring them to the boiling point

with the w^ter in a cooker-pail.

When

they are

them

into a cooker for ten hours

or more.

If they are not then very soft to the

centre of the pieces, bring

them again
ten or

cook them for from


according
to

six to

to a boil and more hours,

their

condition.

When
all

perfectly

tender add the sugar and bring

again to the

FRUITS
boiling
point.

179
a
to

Set

hours or more.

them in Bring them

cooker for four


a boil

and put

them

at

once into clean, sterilized cans.


full, seal

When

overflowing

the cans at once.

This recipe makes about eleven quarts.


Preserved Quinces
8 lbs.

prepared quinces
2 qts.

8 lbs. sugar

water

Wash,
pail,

peel,

quarter,

and

core

the

quinces

before measuring them.

Put them into a cooker-

add the

v^ater,

and when they are boiling

hard, put them into a cooker for ten hours or

more.

If not perfectly tender, heat

them again
cooker

to the boiling point

and

set

them

in the

for as

many more hours


upon
will

as they require,

ing

their

ripeness.

dependThoroughly ripe
this

quinces

probably not require

second

period of cooking.
to a boil,

Add

the sugar, bring

them

and

set

them in the cooker for four


enough, boil
boiling
until

hours or more.

If they are not rich

them
what

slowly,

uncovered,

they are of the


slow
is

desired

consistency.
gives

Long,
the red

quinces

colour so

much

admired.
Citron and Ginger Preserves
6 lbs. fruit (prepared)

lb.

green ginger

4 lemons
6 lbs. sugar

i| qts. water

i8o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

Pare the citron and cut

into thick

slices.

Remove
the

the seeds, cut the sHces across into cubes,

strips, or

fancy shapes, and weigh them.


slice

Wash
seeds.
citron,

lemons,

them and remove the


the
ginger.

Wash and

peel

Put
a

the

lemon, ginger,

and

water

into

cooker-pail.

Bring them to a boil and put them into a cooker


for

eight

hours or more, depending upon the

hardness of the citron.

When

this

is

soft
it,

and

nearly transparent, add the sugar, boil

and
the
the
at

cook again for four hours or more.


fruit,

put

it

into cans or jars,


it

Remove and boil down


Pour

syrup until

will just cover the fruit.


fruit

it

once over the

and close the cans when cooled.


in

Cover them with a clean towel while cooling.

Watermelon rind may be preserved same manner. Grape Jam

the

Remove
in

the grapes from the stems,

colander,

then

press

the

pulp

wash them from the


it it

skins.
will

Boil the pulp for a few^ minutes, until


easily

separate
sieve,

from

the
skins,

seeds.

Rub

through a

add the

and weigh or
fire

measure the mixture.


of sugar, heat
it

Add

an equal quantity
until
it

over a moderate
it

is

simmering,
it

stirring

frequently.
will

Do

not

let

boil
it

hard or the skins

be toughened.

Set

in a

cooker for three hours or more.

Put

FRUITS
it

i8i

into sterilized glasses or jars, cover


it

it

with a

towel until

is

cold,

and

seal

it

as directed for

apple jelly on page 169.

Remove
wash them

ripe
in

Grape Juice Concord grapes from the stems,


a

colander,

bring

them
fire,

just

to

the boiling point over a moderate

stirring

them
five

frequently.

Put them into a cooker for

hours or more.
at

Drain them
about

in

a jelly

bag

for

least

eight hours.

Each quart of
one pint of

loose
juice.

grapes should yield

Add one cup


bring
it

of sugar to every quart of juice;

just to the boiling point

and pour

it

at

once into
quite

sterilized bottles, not filling the bottles

Cork them at once. When cold, press the corks down more firmly, cut them off level with the top of the bottle, and dip the inverted
full
bottles

into

Wax

for Sealing for

an instant.

If

bubbles appear
cork, break

in the

wax around

or over the

them and dip the

bottle again.

Wax
rosin.

for Sealing Bottles

Melt together equal


or

parts
liquid

of
it

beeswax
will

and
not

As soon as it is drawn back on the


It will

should be used
it

stove

where

burn.

keep
green

indefinitely.

Preserved Ginger

Buy
quality.

fresh,

ginger,
it

of good
it

size

and

Peel or scrape

and cut

into lengths

82

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cook
it

for serving.

in a

cooker for ten hours

or

more

in boiling salted

water (one-half cupful

of salt to

one gallon of water).

Drain away

the brine and add fresh boiling water to

more

than cover
the

it.

When
ten
it

boiling put

it

again into

cooker

for

hours

or

more.

Change

the water and cook


cess until the ginger

again, repeating this pro-

is

very tender.

It

may

take

several days.

Make
this

a syrup, using

two cupfuls
for

of sugar to each cupful of water, bring the ginger


to
five

a boil

in

syrup, set

it

in

a cooker

or six

hours;
to a

syrup

down

remove the ginger, boil the rich consistency, and pour it

over the ginger.

XX
MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
White Sauce
2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour
i

cup milk
salt

I teaspoon

Few

grains of white pepper

Melt the butter over moderate heat, add the Heat the flour, and blend the two thoroughly.
milk over hot water, add
to the butter
it,

one-third at a time,

and

flour,

stirring constantly

and

allowing the mixture to become perfectly smooth

and glossy before adding more milk. Season it and allow it to come to the boiUng point. If it is not to be served immediately, cover it and slip
it

into the cooker to keep hot.

Sauce
2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour

for

Vegetables
i cup milk

i teaspoon

salt

I cup of vegetable stock

Few
in

grains of white pepper

same manner blending the milk and water white sauce, which the vegetables were cooked, which

Make

the

sauce

the

as
in
is

called vegetable stock.


183

84

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Brown Sauce
2 tablespoons butter or clarified fat
i

cup brown stock

3 tablespoons flour

I teaspoon salt yV teaspoon pepper

Brown
stir

the butter slightly, add the flour and


is

constantly until the flour

rich

brown.

Add

the seasoning and stock, one-third at a time,


it

stirring

until

smooth.

If butter

is

not used,
melted, as
if

add the

flour

as

soon as the fat

is

other fats will acquire a strong flavour

allowed

Mutton or to brown before the flour is added. lamb fat, or that from smoked or salted meats, is not suitable for brown sauce.

Drawn
J cup butter
2 tablespoons flour
Y^-g

Butter Sauce
i

cup boiling water


salt

| teaspoon

teaspoon white pepper

Melt the butter, add the


ing,

flour

and season-

and mix them


at

well.

Add
until

the water, onethe sauce grows


to

third

time, stirring

smooth.
point
it

When
is

it

has

come

the

boiling

done.

Caper Sauce Drain one-half cup of capers, and add them


to

one cupful of drawn-butter sauce.

Egg Sauce

To

one cupful of drawn-butter sauce add two


in one-fourth-inch dice.

hard-cooked eggs, cut

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
Sauce
for

185

Fish

one cupful of drawn-butter sauce add onehalf tablespoonful of lemon juice and one-half tablespoonful of chopped parsley.

To

HoUandaise Sauce
I cup butter Yolks of two eggs
1

i teaspoon

salt

Cayenne pepper
| cup boiling water soft

tablespoon lemon juice

Rub

the

butter

until

the egg yolks,

lemon

juice,

and creamy, add and seasoning, and

rub them

till

blended, then pour on the boiling

water and stand the covered bowl, containing the sauce, on a rack over a cooker pail of boiling water and put it into a cooker for three minutes; or

cook

it

on the stove over hot water


it

as

soft custard, stirring

constantly.

Tomato Sauce
^ can tomatoes, or
2 cups
I
i

teaspoon

salt

raw tomatoes
onion

| teaspoon pepper
3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour

slice

h bay leaf

^ cup water or stock

Cook
flour in

all

the ingredients but the butter and

a cooker for one hour or more. a strainer

Rub

them through

and add
flour.

this, gradually,

to the blended butter

and

Hard Sauce
J cup butter
i

cup powdered sugar

Nutmeg

86

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the butter
till

Rub

soft

and creamy, add the


blended, pile
it

sugar gradually.

When

perfectly

the sauce on a small dish or plate and put


a refrigerating
for serving,

into

box or other cold place then grate nutmeg over the


Fruit Sauce

till

time

top.

glass of jelly, or

I pint grape juice

f cup boiling water Sugar to taste

Cut the jelly into small pieces, add the water, and bring the mixture to a boil. Let it stand in a cooker for one-half hour or more, or leave it
on the stove
used,
till

melted.

If very

sour jelly

is

some sugar may be required to make it With grape juice about one-half sweet enough. The sugar and cupful of sugar may be used.
water should be brought to a
boil,

the grape juice

added, and the sauce immediately

set aside to cool.

Brandy Sauce
^ cup butter
I

2 tablespoons

brandy

cup sugar

^ cup milk or cream

Yolks of two eggs

Whites of 2 eggs
it;

Warm

the butter to soften, but not melt

add the sugar gradually, and rub the two together;


add the beaten yolks and, when mixed, the brandy and the milk or cream. Heat the sauce
over
ters

warm
i6o

water
degrees

in a cooker-pail until

it it

regis-

Fahrenheit,

stirring

con-

stantly.

Cover

it,

and

set

the pail into a cooker

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
for twenty

187

minutes.

When
stiff
it

it

is

nearly ready,

beat the whites of eggs

and pour the hot


until
it

sauce over them, beating


Serve

is

smooth.

immediately.

Serves six or eight persons.

Vanilla Sauce
2 tablespoons butter
I

cup boiling water

tablespoon flour
I

j cup sugar

teaspoon vanilla

Rub

together the butter and flour in a sauceit

pan, add the water and cook until

thickens.

Add

the sugar, and,

when

dissolved, the vanilla.

Serve hot.

Make

it

in

the

Nutmeg Sauce same way as


for

vanilla

sauce,

substituting

brown sugar
teaspoonful

white,

and using

one-eighth

of

grated

nutmeg

in

place of the vanilla.

Buttered Crumbs
I I

tablespoon butter

| teaspoon salt

cup

soft, stale

breadcrumbs
is

Few

grains pepper

Use bread that


not
sufficiently

at

least

one day
hard.
;

old,

and
the
it

stale
it

to
in

be

Grate

bread, or crumble
into

the fingers

or cut

one-inch slices, and these and rub two quarters together.


pieces
fingers.

into
If
fine

quarters,

any large
with the

break
If

off,

crumble them
is

bread

being crumbled for scalloped

i88
dishes,
ing,
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

should be carefully done;

if

for stuff-

bread puddings, and such uses where becomes moistened and softened it may be
small
dice

cut into very thin slices, then across into strips

and

one-eighth

the seasoning with the


to the

Mix crumbs, then add them


inch
in
size.
first

melted butter.
all

When

mixed a few
if

crumbs absorb
stirred

of the butter, but

lightly

with a fork for several minutes they will


If richer

become evenly buttered.

crumbs are

needed, the quantity of butter

may
i

be doubled.

Salted Nuts
I

pt.

water
salt

cup blanched nuts


teaspoon butter

J cup

Blanch the nuts according to directions given


below.
eight

Boil

them

in

the

salt

and water

for
into

minutes,

drain

them and put them


the
a

a roasting-pan or pie plate with the butter.

When
coat
until

warm,

stir

each nut.

them well that Bake them in


they
are

butter

may

moderate oven
done,

they are a very light brown, stirring them frequently.

When

spread

them

out to cool and allow


before
If

them
into
a

to stand until crisp

putting

them

covered receptacle.

peanuts are used, take raw nuts.

To Blanch Nuts Pour boiling water on to shelled


them stand two
or three

nuts,

let

minutes,

drain

them

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
and pour cold water over them. from their skins.
Press

189

them

To
Cut them
into

Shell Italian Chestnuts

a sHt in each nut with a sharp knife; put

frying

or

roasting

pan with one

teaspoonful of butter for each pint of nuts.

Shake
is

them over moderate heat melted, and put them into


five
fire

until

the

butter

a moderate oven for

minutes; or continue to shake them over the


for that length of time.
it

This

loosens the

shell so that

may be removed
Sterilize Jars or
jars

with a knife.

To

Wash

cans,

or

bottles

Cans and their covers

and put them


water, which

into a large
is

deep enough to

pan of cold or tepid fill and cover

them.
Bring the water to a boil over moderate heat,
unless a rack in the

pan prevents contact of the


be used.

glassware with the bottom of the pan, in which


case
a

hot

fire

may

Let them

boil

for five minutes or more,

and remove them, one

by one, as they are


or long

to be filled.

clean stick

wooden spoon-handle thrust into them may be used to take them out. Rubbers for
sterilized,

cans should not be


injure them.

as the

heat will
into
it

Corks may be dipped


allowed
unless
to

boil-

ing

water

or

remain
stifF

in

for

minute;

but

very

and

shrunken.

190

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


much
to
fit

they will swell too long in the water.

the bottles

if left

Boiled Dressing
I

teaspoon

salt

teaspoon sugar

J teaspoon mustard

egg

Cayenne
2^ teaspoons butter

^ cup milk
J cup vinegar

Mix

the dry ingredients, add the beaten egg

and milk; heat them over a cooker-pail of warm


water until
constantly.

i6o

degrees
it

Fahrenheit,
a

stirring

it

Put

into

cooker
it is

for

twenty

minutes.
it

Add
is

the vinegar

when

cold, unless

is

to be used for cole-slaw, in

which case the

hot vinegar

added

at

once and the dressing

poured over the cut cabbage.


Soft-Cooked Eggs, No.
Into a cooker-pail put as
to
i

many

eggs as are

Pour over them one pint of boiling water for one egg and one cup extra
be
cooked.

for

each

additional

egg.
into

Without heating
the
at

it

further,

put

the

pail

cooker for ten


the

minutes.

Remove them promptly


them
in

end

of that time and place


to

a folded napkin

keep warm.

Soft-Cooked Eggs, No.

Put the eggs and cold water

them
fire

into

a cooker-pail.

more than cover Heat them over the


to

until

165 degrees Fahrenheit, then put

them

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
into

191

cooker for ten minutes.

Remove them

immediately and serve them

in a folded napkin.

Hard-Cooked Eggs and enough cold v^ater to more than cover them into a cooker-pail. Heat them till simmering, then put them into a cooker for tv^enty or thirty minutes, depending upon their size.
Put the eggs
Chocolate
2 squares chocolate
i

cup hot water

i cup sugar

3 cups hot milk

^ teaspoon vanilla

Melt the chocolate


pail of boiling water;

in a

pan

to

fit

over a cooker-

add the

salt

when

mixed, the water.


let
it

Remove

and sugar and, the pan from

the pail and

the chocolate cook directly on

the stove until


gradually, and

has thickened, add the milk,


scalding hot, but not boiling,

when

put the pan back into the cooker-pail of boiling Set all in a cooker and leave it until it is water.
to

be served.

Just before serving beat

it

well

with
It will

an

egg-beater

and

add

the

vanilla.

keep hot without injury for a number of hours and makes a good drink for a late evening It can be prepared before going out and supper.

on

returning

from

concert,

theatre, or

other

entertainment, will be found ready to serve.


tablespoonful or two of cream improves
Serves four or
five
it.

persons.

192

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cocoa
ij tablespoons cocoa
2 tablespoons sugar
2 cups boiling water 2 cups hot milk

Few

grains salt
salt.

Mix
ing

the cocoa, sugar and


boiling

Mix
the

it

to

paste with

water, add
it

to

remain-

water,

and

let

boil

one
it
it

minute.
well

Add
an

the

scalding

milk and
it;
it

beat
or put
is

with

egg-beater and serve


to keep

into a cooker
It

warm

until

to be

used.

will

keep for several

hours

and

should

be
is

beaten

upon

removal.

Reception

cocoa

generally
is

made with double


served with

the quantity of cocoa and

a spoonful of

whipped cream
For

laid

on

top.

Serves
serves

four

or

five

persons.

reception

eight

persons.

Cocoa Shells
i^ cups shells
3 cups water
3 cups milk

Sugar

to taste

Bring the

shells

and water

to a boil, put

them
the

into a cooker for eight hours or more.

Add

hot milk, strain the liquid

off,
it

pressing the shells

with a spoon to squeeze

out.

Add

the sugar
one-third

and heat

all

until boiling.

By adding

of a cup of cocoa nibs a


is

obtained.

This recipe
five

more satisfactory drink makes one quart.

Serves four or

persons.

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
Coffee
i cup coffee 1 egg
Cold water
I

193

qt. boiling

water

Mix
pan.

the

coffee,

egg

and washed
it,

shell

with
or

enough water

to moisten

in a cooker-pail
let
it

Add

the boiling water and

just

come

to a boil.

Put the

pail or
set
it

pan

into a large pail

of boilinp- water

and

in a

cooker for one hour


is

or more.

If a larger quantity of coffee


fill

made

and

it

will nearly

the cooker-pail, the outside

pail of

water

may

be omitted. Cereal Coffee

f cup cereal coffee

ij

qts.

water

it

Put the coffee into a cheese-cloth bag and drop Bring it to a boil and put it into cold water.
It is best
is

into a cooker for five hours or more.

cooked over night and

a different thing

from
All

ordinary cereal coffee prepared by boiling.

brands of cereal coffee may Serve, if possible, with cream.

be treated in this way.

Croustades

Cut stale bread into slices one and one-half Cut off the crusts, making or two inches thick.
rectangular blocks of the bread, or cutting
a large biscuit cutter, into rounds.
carefully
it

with

With

a fork,

scoop

out

the

centres,

leaving

cases

with walls about one-fourth of an inch thick.

Brush them

lightly

with melted butter and brown

194

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


In

them

a
fish

moderate
or

oven.

Creamed

oysters,

lobster,

meat and some vegetables are


Farina Balls

served in croustades.

J cup farina 2 cups milk

Dash of cayenne
5 drops of lemon juice

J teaspoon

salt

Yolk of one egg

Cook
liquid

the milk and farina in a cooker for two


all

hours or more, over boiling water, until


ingredients while
well
cool.

the

has been absorbed, then add the other


still
it

over the water, and

when
to
in

mixed remove

and spread
it

it

When
roll

cold, roll

into balls

on a dish one inch


in

diameter,
to

them

in sifted

crumbs, then

egg

which

one tablespoon of water has been added

and

slightly beaten,

and again

in

crumbs, and fry

them in hot, deep them on soft brown paper


open door of an oven.
be used in this way.

fat until a

golden brown.
laid

Drain
in the

on a plate

Any

cold cereals

may

XXI

RECIPES FOR THE SICK


Flaxseed Lemonade
2 tablespoons whole flaxseed
I

j cup lemon juice

J cup sugar
water

qt. boiling

little

grated lemon rind

Pick over and wash the flaxseed in a strainer,

put

it

into a cooker-pail
it

and add the boiling water.

When
to

boils put

it

into a cooker for

from two

two and one-half hours.

Strain

it

and add the

sugar and lemon.

Farina Gruel
1

tablespoon farina

i
i

cup milk
egg
salt

2 cups boiling water


I

tablespoon cold water

f teaspoon

Mix
it

the farina and cold water, add

them
for

to
set

the boiling, salted


in

water and when boiling


over boiling
water,
the the

the

cooker,

one

and one-half hours.


a

Then
it

scald

milk in
beaten

double

boiler

and add
case

and

egg to the cooked farina.


omitted, in which

The egg may be


of water

only one cup

should be used.
195

196

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Imperial
I
I

Granum
J cup boiling water
J teaspoon
salt

tablespoon Imperial

Granum

tablespoon cold water

J cup milk

Mix
add
it

the Imperial

Granum

with the cold water,

to the boiling water.


it

Add

the salt and

milk and cook


over the
fire
it

in a small cooker-pail or
it

pan
in a

until

boils,

stirring occasionally.

Then put
milk

into a pail of water

and

set

it

cooker for one hour or more.

If preferred,

more

may
I

be added.

Cracker Gruel
tablespoon
plain

cracker

cup milk
salt

crumbs

j teaspoon

Scald the milk in a small double cooker-pail,

with boiling water in the under


cracker, and put
it

pail.

Add

the

into a cooker for

one hour or
It
is

more.

Add

the salt just before

serving.

often convenient to keep such gruels hot for use


in the night,

being improved rather than harmed


not merely

by the long cooking.


that they
are
hot,

Care must then be taken warm. Milk is

considered scalding hot

when

a thick skin forms

on the top and bubbles appear next the pan, or

when

it

registers 180 degrees Fahrenheit.

Oatmeal Gruel
J cup rolled oats 3 cups boiling water
i

teaspoon

salt

Milk

to taste

RECIPES FOR THE SICK

197

Put the oatmeal, salt and water into a cookerpan, boil it five minutes and set it in a cooker
for eight or ten hours over a cooker-pail of boiling

water.

Rub

it

through
it

strainer,

dilute

it

with hot milk and pour

again through a strainer.

Barley Flour Gruel


1

cup water

3 tablespoons cold water

J cup milk 3 tablespoons barley flour J teaspoon salt

Mix

the barley and cold water to a paste, add


salt,

the boiling water and

bring

it

to a boil

and

cook it over boiling water for one hour or more Strain it, dilute it with the milk and in a cooker.
heat
it

over hot water.

Indian Gruel
2 tablespoons meal
I

2 tablespoons cold water 3 cups boiling water

tablespoon flour
salt

J teaspoon

Milk or cream

the flour and meal, add the cold water and add this mixture to the boiling, salted water. Boil it and let it cook over boiling water in a

Mix

cooker for ten hours; strain it, add the milk or cream, heat it over hot water and serve it. Or
less

water

may
or

be used for the long cooking and


serving.

more milk
1

cream be added before

Arrowroot Gruel
cup boiling water
i

tablespoon cold water


salt

2 teaspoons

Bermuda arrow-

J teaspoon

root

198

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the arrowroot and cold water, add

Mix

them

to the boiling, salted water, let the mixture boil

and cook

it

over boiling water in a cooker for one

hour or more.
Pasteurized Milk
degree of heat which,

There

is

a certain

if

maintained for a

sufficient

period of time, will

destroy disease germs and certain other harmful germs which tend to spoil milk, while at the same time it is not high enough to cause the delicate flavour of

raw milk

to disappear.
is

Bringing

milk to this exact condition


it.

called

*'

pasteurizing"

Into feeding bottles put the


is

that

to be used at one time.

sterilized

(baked)

cotton.

amount of milk Plug them with Stand them on a


Gradually
raise

rack in a cooker-pail, surrounded, to the depth of


the
milk,

with

warm
till

water.

the temperature

the milk in the bottles registers

150
set

degrees
it

Fahrenheit.

in

a cooker for

Cover the pail, and from twenty minutes to

half an hour or more.

Remove

the bottles, cool

quickly and keep the milk in a cold place, but not


freezing,
till

needed.
if it

Do
is

not remove the milk

from the
be used.

bottles

used for feeding infants.

If used for adults

do not remove it until it is to Pasteurized milk will keep for a long


but
is

time without souring,

dangerous unless

continuously kept very cold.

Milk

to

be kept

RECIPES FOR THE SICK

199

hot in a cooker for use in the night, should be put


in

while

scalding hot,
device
for

not

merely pasteurized,
milk
[merely]

since

"any

keeping

warm

should never be used." *

Rice and Milk


J cup
rice

ij cups milk J teaspoon


salt

Bring the ingredients to a boil


pan, set
it

in

a cookerit

over boiling water and put

into a

cooker for one hour or more.

Peptonized Beef Broth


J
lb.

lean beef

cup water

^ tube Fairchild's peptogenic powder

Remove
heat
it

all fat

from the meat, chop


it

it

fine

and
it

with the water until

boils,

stirring

constantly.

Drain

off the liquid

and grind the


Put
its
it

meat
it,

to a paste

with a mortar and pestle.

with the liquid and Fairchild's powder, or


into
all

equivalent,

sterilized

glass

can, close
till
it

and shake
mixed.

together vigorously

is

well
it,

Stand the jar with the cover

laid

on

but not fastened securely, on a low rack in a


cooker-pail of

warm
it

water.
is

Place

it

over moder-

ate heat until the water

115 degrees Fahrenheit.

Cover

it

and put

into a cooker for three hours.

Warm

the cooker-nest, previously, with a pail of


in

"Bacteria

Milk," by L. A. Rogers.

Yearbook

of the

Department

of

Agriculture, 1907, p. 194.

200

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

boiling water set into

for half

an hour.

Take

out the broth, put

it

into a
it is

saucepan and quickly


for a very sick patient
it

bring
it

it

to a boil.

If

should be strained.

Keep
it.

cold unless

it

is

used immediately.

Add

one-fourth teaspoonful

of salt before serving

Peptonized Milk
i
pt. fresh

milk

| cup water

^ tube Fairchild's peptogenic powder

Put the powder with the water, which has been


boiled and cooled, into a sterilized pint glass can,

and shake them

until the
it

powder
slightly

is

dissolved.

Add
it

the milk and shake

again.

Put

the can into a cooker-pail of

warm
into

water and heat


is

over a moderate
Fahrenheit,
for

fire

until
it

the water
a

115

degrees

Set

previously

warmed cooker
If
it

from ten
it

to thirty minutes.

remains too long

will

develop an unpleasant
it

flavour.

When
it

done, remove
boil.

to

a saucepan
it

and bring
place

quickly to a

Keep

in a cold

if it is

not used immediately.

Apple "Water
I

large sour apple


I

2 teaspoons sugar

cup boiling water


it

Wash

the apple thoroughly; cut

into pieces,

removing the core but not the to a boil in the water; cook
water
in a

skin.
it

Bring

it

over boiling
Strain

cooker for two hours or more.

RECIPES FOR THE SICK


it

201

through a wire strainer and


it

add the sugar.

Serve

cold.

Barley Water
3 tablespoons barley
2 cups cold water
Salt

Lemon juice
Sugar

Pick over the barley and soak


or for several hours.
it

it

over night

Bring

it

to a boil

and put
it,

into a cooker for eight hours.

Strain

add
hot.

salt,

sugar and lemon juice to taste.

Serve

it

XXII

RECIPES

FOR COOKING IN LARGE


QUANTITIES
cookers are specially adapted to
it

FIRELESS
cooking
in fuel,
is

use on a large scale, as

is

in cases

where

done on

a business basis that

economy
intelli-

range space, and labour form such an

important factor, and because there some


the

gent person will generally oversee the work of

ignorant

and
not,

careless.

In

their

present

form
large

they

are

perhaps,

adapted to very

institutions,

where

many
is

hundreds
a

of the

persons
size

are

fed, since

there

limit

to
in

of

utensils

which

can
box.

be

lifted

and
small

out of

the

insulating

But
cooker
as

for

institutions, hotels, boarding-houses, restaurants,

and lunch rooms the


ably,

fireless

will, inevit-

become

indispensable

soon

as

it

is

understood.

The United

States

Army

has used the


its

fireless

cooker and, owing partly to

demand, some

of the manufacturers of commercial cookers

make
large

them

in

sizes

appropriate for use on


203

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


scale.

203

For those who wish


outlay of

to try

them without

much money the home-made an initial cooker will be found in every way satisfactory. As an encouragement to those who wish to use them for such purposes, it may be said that
there
is

less

chance of failure

in

cooking large

quantities of food than with small.

In the main, the directions for making and


using cookers are the same no matter what the
size,

but a few points

may

be suggested as more

necessary for large than small cookers.

In

many
it

kitchens there will be no space near

the range for a cooker or a

number

of cookers,

and

will be a

matter of necessity to have one

which can
castors,
as are put

easily be

moved.

Instead of ordinary

use,

for these,

such small iron wheels

on hand trucks.

They
fit

will

be found

to

run more easily and to injure a


Select a

floor

much
make
with

less.

box which
it

will

under

a table,
to
it

when

loaded, and then

will not

seem

the kitchen any fuller than before.

Fit

two strong handles, preferably on the front of the


box, so that
it

may

be guided

when

pulled out

from under the

table.

The
useful
tral

portable
for

insulating

pail

may

be
a

found
cenis

transporting

hot

food

from

kitchen to outlying dining-rooms, as

so

often done in large institutions,

aluminum

utensils

204

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


lightest

and the

packing material that

is

prac-

ticable being advisable for these.

The temperature maintained by


of food in a well-made
rapid
this

a large

mass

box, will result in more

cooking than with small quantities, and

must be taken
is

into

account

with

foods,

such as potatoes, which are easily overcooked.

There

always

difficulty

in

stating

the

number
recipe, to

of persons that
since the

may

be served by any
to

amount served
with
in
this

each varies

such

an

extent

circumstances.

number
a
la

indicated

between the
carte

small
portions,
at

table

d'hote

and
an

book is a and the large is based upon the


family
table.
is

The mean

amount

served

ordinary

Three-quarters of a cupful
portion of soup.

allowed for each

Rolled Oats
7J
qts.

water

4 tablespoons
3 qts. rolled oats

salt

Boil the water, add the salt and sprinkle in the oats gradually.
for

When
or

boiling put
It
is

it

into a cooker

two hours

more.

improved

by

twelve hours' cooking.


Serves forty or
fifty

persons.

Cornmeal Mush
8 qts. water
7 cups

2^ tablespoons
cornmeal

salt

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Mix
and
the

205

bring the
stir

meal with one quart of the water, remainder to a boil, add the salt
the meal
it

in

paste.

Let

it

boil four

minutes and put


or more.

into the cooker for five hours

Serves thirty-five or forty persons.

Hominy
7iqts. water

Grits
3 tablespoons salt

i qts. hominy grits

Add
let
it

the

hominy

to the boiling, salted water;

boil for ten

minutes and put


persons.

it

into the

cooker for eight hours or more.


Serves forty or
fifty

Samp
1

qt.

samp
in the cold

3 tablespoons salt

2 qts. cold water

6 qts. boiling water

Soak the samp


or more.
let
it

water for eight hours


water and
salt,
it

Add

it

to the boiling

boil

uncovered

for

one hour and put

into

a cooker for six hours or more.


it,

little
is

butter added before serving improves

if it

used as a vegetable.
Serves forty or
fifty

persons.

Cracked
5 cups wheat

Wheat
2^ tablespoons salt water 5 q^s. boiling
in the cold
it

2i

qts. cold

water

Soak the cracked wheat


nine hours or more.

water for

Add

to the boiling water

2o6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


salt, let
it

and
into
it

boil for ten


at

minutes and put


nine

it

cooker for
boiling

least

hours;
it

reheat
for

to the

point

and cook

again

nine hours or more.


Serves forty or
fifty

persons.

Steel-cut Oatmeal
5 cups oats
qts. cold
it

2^

water

2^ tablespoons salt 5 qts. boiling water


as cracked wheat.

Cook

in the

same manner
fifty

Serves forty or

persons.

Pettijohn's Breakfast
7^
qts.

Food
salt

water

4 tablespoons

3 qts. Pettijohn's Breakfast food

Cook

it

as directed
fifty

on page

56.

Serves forty or

persons.
of W^heat
3 tablespoons salt

Cream
S^
qts.

water

5 cups cream of wheat

Cook

it

as directed

on page

56.

Serves forty or

fifty

persons.

Cook

it

in

Wheatlet the same way as cream of wheat.


Farina

Cook

it

in the

same way
Rice

as

cream of wheat.

5 to 7 qts. water i^ qts. rice

i cup

salt

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Wash
water;
the rice,
let
it

207
salted

add

it

to
it

the boihng

boil

and put
fifty

into a cooker for

one hour.
Serves forty or
persons.

Brown Stock
10 lbs.

meat and bone

tablespoon sweet marjoram

10 qts. water
I

3 tablespoons 2 cups carrot 2 cups turnip 2 cups celery


i

chopped parsley

J teaspoons peppercorns
teaspoon cloves

3 bay leaves
I

tablespoon chopped thyme


I cup

cup onion
salt

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

6o.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

White Stock
10 lbs. knuckle of veal lo qts. water
2

teaspoons peppercorns

^ cup onion
2 cups celery, or
I

I cup

salt

tablespoon celery seed

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

62.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Mutton Broth
15 lbs neck of mutton 10 qts. cold water
i

teaspoon pepper

i I

cup

rice,

or

I cup

salt

cup barley

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

63.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

2o8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Mock
5 lambs' livers
5 calves' hearts

Turtle Soup
i

teaspoon cloves

i| tablespoons peppercorns
J cup salt
5 bay leaves
I

5 knuckles of veal
lo qts. water 2 cups onions 2 cups turnip 2 cups celery

J doz. yolks of hard-cooked


eggs

2^ lemons

Madeira

v^^ine

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

66.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Creole Soup
6 qts. brown stock
3 qts.
I

2 cups flour

tomatoes

i^ tablespoons

salt

cup chopped green sweet


pepper

J teaspoon cayenne f cup grated horseradish


2 tablespoons vinegar

f cup chopped onion


i cups butter

i^ cups macaroni rings

Make

it

as directed

on page

69.

Serves forty or forty-five persons.

Cream
3 qts.

of Celery
I

Soup
cup flour
3 qts. hot milk
I

white stock
small

4^
i^

qts. celery, cut qts.

water

qts.

hot cream

i^ cups sHced onion

2 tablespoons salt

f cup butter

f teaspoon pepper

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

68.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Asparagus Soup
5 qts. white stock, or 5 qts. water in which aspara-

209

if cups butter

if cups flour

gus has cooked


7 cans asparagus, or

3^
i

qts.

hot milk
salt

tablespoon

7 pts. of

cooked asparagus
I

f teaspoon white pepper large onion

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

68.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Macaroni Soup
10 qts.

brown stock
it

2^ cups macaroni rings

Make

as directed

on page
fifty

70.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Vegetable Soup with Stock


10 qts.

brown stock

2^ cups cabbage
i| cups onion
i

2 J cups turnip

2^ cups carrot
2^ cups celery

tablespoon

salt

f cup rice or barley

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

67.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Ox
6 ox tails 9 qts.

Tail

Soup
i^ cups Madeira wine
2 tablespoons Worcestershire

brown stock

2 teaspoons salt

sauce
2 tablespoons

J teaspoon cayenne J cup butter

lemon juice

Flour

Make

it

as directed

on page

70.

Serves forty or forty-five

persons.

210

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Julienne Soup
10 qts. brown stock
2 J cups carrot

i| cups peas
ij cups string beans
i

2j cups turnip

teaspoon

salt

Make

it

as

directed on page
fifty

70.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Tomato Soup with Stock


5 qts.

brown stock
qts.

i| cups butter
i cups flour

5 cans or 5
I

tomatoes

cup chopped onion


it

2^ tablespoons

salt

Make

as directed

on page

69.

Serves forty-five to fifty persons.

Vegetable Soup without Stock


2 cups carrots 2 cups turnips 3 cups celery 3 cups onion 3 qts. tomatoes
I

cup butter

J cup chopped parsley j cup salt


I

2 qts. potatoes 6 qts.

J teaspoons pepper

water 71.

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Bean Soup
5 pts.

beans

cup chopped celery

10 qts. water or stock


I

cup Chili sauce

cup chopped onion


lbs.

f cup butter
beef,
if

2J

lean,
is

raw

f cup flour

stock

not used

| cup salt

ij teaspoons pepper

Make
Serves

it

as directed

on page

72.

fifty

or fifty-five persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Black Bean Soup
2^
qts.

211

black beans

10 qts. water
I

f teaspoon pepper i| teaspoons mustard


| teaspoon cayenne
i

cup chopped onion

1 I

cup chopped

celery, or
salt

cup butter

J teaspoons celery
salt

^ cup flour
10 hard-cooked eggs

^ cup

5 lemons

Make
Serves

it

as directed

on page

72.

fifty

or fifty-five persons.

Tomato Soup
7 cans or quarts of tomatoes

2 large onions

3^
1

qts.

water

J cup salt
I

tablespoon peppercorns

teaspoon soda

4 large bay leaves


2 teaspoons cloves

J cup sugar

f cup butter

l^ cups flour

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

73.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Potato Soup
24 medium-sized potatoes
4 4
qts.
qts.
i

cup

flour
salt

milk

| cup

water

2 teaspoons celery salt


i

f cup chopped onion


2 cups butter
|-

teaspoon pepper

^ teaspoon cayenne

cup chopped parsley

Make

it

at directed

on page
fifty

75.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

212

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Puree of Lima Beans
5 cups dried lima beans
5 cups cream or milk

7i J cup chopped onion

qts.

water

li cups butter
cup flour
salt

f cup chopped turnip


1

i cup 1 teaspoons pepper

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

73.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Baked Bean Soup


3 qts. cold, 6 qts. water

baked beans

J cup butter

i cup chopped onion I cup chopped celery


l^ qts. tomatoes

i cup flour i cup Chili sauce


4 teaspoons
salt

4 teaspoon peppei

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

74.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Green Pea Soup


8 cans marrowfat peas, or

J cup chopped onion


i i

qts. shelled

peas

cup butter cup flour

5 tablespoons sugar

4
4

qts.

water
milk
it

3 tablespoons salt

qts.

ij teaspoons pepper

Make

as directed

on page
fifty

74.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Split-Pea Soup
2 qts. split peas
8 lbs. 8 qts. water

soup bones, beef


I

j cup

salt

teaspoon pepper

Make
Serves

it

as directed

on page

77.

fifty

persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Fish Chowder
12 lbs.

213

cod

or

other

firm,

3 qts. scalded milk

white

fish

I
f-inch dice

lb. fat salt

pork

in 3 qts. potatoes,

3 tablespoons salt

f cup sliced onion i cup butter

i teaspoon white pepper 2 cups oyster crackers

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

75.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Make
stituting

this

Connecticut Chowder as directed for fish chowder, sub-

two quarts of stewed fresh or canned tomatoes for the milk, which may be added to
the chowder before putting
it

into the cooker.

Serves forty-five or

fifty

persons.

Creamed
6
lbs. codfish

Salt Codfish
2 doz. eggs

12 qts. water

3 cups milk

li cups butter

f teaspoon pepper

Cook

it

as directed for

Creamed

Salt Codfish,

No. 2 on page 84.


Serves forty or
fifty

persons.

Codfish Balls
2 qts.
in

raw,

salt

codfish.

About
8 eggs

12 qts. cold water

small pieces
potatoes,
in

qts.

l-inch

pieces

I cup butter teaspoon pepper

Cook

it

as directed

on page

85.

Serves forty

or

fifty

persons.

214

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Pot Roast
12 lbs.

beef from round or

^ teaspoon pepper
I

rump
ij
oz.

cup carrot

beef

drippings

i i I

cup turnip
cup onion

(3 tablespoons)

Flour
I

cup celery

tablespoon

salt

4 bay leaves
3 qts. water

Have
if
it

the

butcher

bone

and

roll
it

the

meat,

is

from the rump.


it

Wipe
Wash,
Put

with a
it

damp
on
all

cloth,

dredge

with flour and brown


pare,

sides in the drippings.

and cut the

vegetables into pieces.

all

the ingredients

with the hot, browned meat, into a cooker-pail,

add the water, boiling


minutes and put
or more.
boil,
it

hot, let

it

boil for thirty

into a cooker for nine hours

Before serving bring the meat to a


it,

remove

put

it

in

warm
sauce.

place,

and
If
it

make
there

three quarts of

brown
it

Strain the

liquor in the pail and use


is

for the sauce.

fat
it

on the top of the liquor remove


in

and use
Serves

making the
persons.

sauce.

fifty

Brown Sauce
^ cup butter or
J cup
flour
I

fat

2 teaspoons salt

J teaspoon pepper
qt.

stock or water

Make

it

as directed

on page

184.

Serves sixteen or twenty persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Beef
12 lbs. round of beef

215

a la

Mode
i

cup

sliced onion
allspice

I Flour

lb. fat salt

pork

J teaspoon

3 tablespoons salt
I

i teaspoon grated nutmeg J teaspoon whole cloves


J cup rendered beef fat

teaspoon pepper

About

3 qts. water

Cook
Serves

it

as directed

on page

95, except that there

need not be an outer pail of boiUng water.


fifty

persons.
Irish

Stew
2^ cups
celery, in pieces

5 lbs clear meat


2 J qts. potatoes, in dice 2 J cups turnips, in dice

3 tablespoons salt
i

teaspoon pepper

2^ cups
I

carrots, sliced

J cups onions, sliced

2J cups flour i cup clear fat


qts.

4J

water

Cook

it

as directed
fifty

on page
persons.
la
i

100.

Serves forty or

Beef Stew a
10 lbs. beef brisket

Mode

teaspoon pepper

Flour
I

teaspoon ground allspice


teaspoon grated nutmeg teaspoon whole cloves

cup rendered

fat

i i

J cups sliced onion


salt

I cup

lemon, sliced

Water

to cover

Buy
as

tw^enty-five

or thirty

pounds of brisket

to get ten

pounds of clear, lean meat. directed on page 97.


fifty

Cook

it

Serves forty or

persons.

2i6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Boiled Dinner
8 lbs. lean, salt pork

5 heads cabbage

I pk. turnips J pk. beets


t

1} pks. potatoes
2 teaspoons pepper

qt. carrots

Water to cover

Cook

it

as directed
fifty

on page
persons.

96.

Serves forty or

Cannelon of Beef
6
lbs.

lean meat, chopped

| cup clear fat or butter

Grated rind ij lemons


J cup chopped parsley
1

f teaspoon nutmeg
3 tablespoons salt

doz. eggs

2 tablespoons grated onion

f teaspoon pepper ij qts. soft breadcrumbs

Cook

it

as directed

on page 10 1.
persons.

Serves forty or

fifty

Okra Stew
6
lbs. clear,

lean mutton
fat

3 qts. tomatoes 3 qts. okra, in pieces 3 tablespoons salt


i

f cup clear beef l^ cups flour

2 cups sHced onion 3 qts.

teaspoon pepper

water

Cook

it

as directed
fifty

on page iii.
persons.

Serves forty or

Creamy Potatoes
I

pk. potatoes
qts.

milk

J cup salt i tablespoon pepper


ij cups butter

One peck quarts when

of potatoes

will

maKe about
creamy

ten

prepared

for

potatoes.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Melt the butter
and, while
it

217

in the cooker-pail,

add the milk,

is

heating, slice the potatoes

which

have been pared and soaked, for two hours or more, in cold water. As each quart of potatoes
is

sliced put

it

into the hot milk.

The

potatoes

will

thus be heated to boiling point, quart by

quart.

Add

the seasoning.

When

boiling, after
all

the last quart of potatoes has been added, put


into the cooker for

one hour or more.


persons.

Serves forty or

fifty

Veal Loaf
5 lbs. minced veal

2^ tablespoons

salt

10 eggs

ij cups melted butter


5 cups soft breadcrumbs

f cup chopped parsley f cup chopped onion


|
lb. fat salt

pork

f teaspoon pepper

2J teaspoons ground sage

Cook
Serves

it

as directed

on page 117.
persons.

forty

or

fifty

Macaroni Italienne
2 qts. macaroni, in one-inch
pieces

32 cloves 4 large bay leaves

qts.

stewed

and

strained

3 tablespoons salt 1 cup sugar

tomatoes
2
8
qts. stock or

water

teaspoon pepper

medium-sized onions

2 qts. grated or

shaved cheese

Cook

it

as directed

on page 143.

Serves forty or

fifty persons,^

2i8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Turkish Pilaf
I

qt. rice

2^ tablespoons
ij

salt

8 green sweet peppers (2 cups)

2 tablespoons sugar
qts.

3 qts. tomatoes

water

I cup butter

Cook

it

as

directed on page 149, without the

lower pail of water.


Serves forty-five or
fifty

persons.

Pork and Beans


2 qts. dried beans
I

2 lbs. salt pork


i i

tablespoon soda
qts.

cup molasses
tablespoon mustard

water

3 tablespoons salt

| teaspoon pepper
to half cover

Water

Soak the

beans, drain them, cook

them

for

seven hours or more, as directed on page 141,

with the nine quarts of water, soda, and

salt.

Drain

them,
till

bake them

add the other browned.


fifty

ingredients,

and

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Boston Brown Bread


2 qts. rye meal
2 qts. granulated cornmeal

J cup soda J cup salt i^ qts. molasses

2 qts.

graham

flour

qts. thick,

sour milk, or 3I qts. buttermilk


it

Mix and cook


it

as directed

on page

155.

Put

into seven or eight moulds.

Serves

fifty

persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Suet Pudding
3 cups chopped suet
3 cups molasses 3 cups thick, sour milk

219

li tablespoons

salt

i^ teaspoons ginger
i^ teaspoons nutmeg

2i

qts. flour

i^ tablespoons soda

f teaspoon cloves i tablespoon cinnamon as directed


six

Mix and cook


the

it

on page 157.
Serve
it

Put

pudding
sauce.

into

moulds.

with a

liquid

Serves forty or

fifty

persons.

Rice Pudding
6 qts. milk
3 cups sugar
1

li cups

rice

teaspoon nutmeg
it

I teaspoon salt J cup butter

Cook

as directed

on page 162, except that the


be omitted.
If

outer pail of water

may

served

cold and not browned, omit the butter.

Serves thirty or thirty-five persons.

Indian Pudding
2 qts.

water

2 tablespoons salt

4J qts. milk (scalding hot)


I

qt.

cornmeal

I cup ginger i^ qts. molasses

the dry ingredients with one pint of the water, add them to the boiling water and molasses,

Mix

add the milk.

Let

all

come
it,

to a boil

and put
Put
it

it

into a cooker for ten hours or more.

it

into

baking dishes and brown


Serves forty or
fifty

or serve

without

browning, either plain or with cream.


persons.

220

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Chocolate Bread Pudding
6
qts. milk,

2 cups sugar
1

3 qts. soft
I

breadcrumbs
salt

8 eggs
lb.

tablespoon

chocolate

2 tablespoons vanilla

Cook

it

as directed

on page
persons.

164, in three pud-

ding pans, set over cooker-pails of water.


Serves forty or
fifty

Stewed Apples
15 qts.

prepared apples

f teaspoon whole cloves


2 lemons

7 lbs. sugar
I

qts.

water

Cook them

as directed

on page

168.

Serves thirty-five to forty-five persons.

Apple Sauce
I

pk. sour apples


3 lbs. sugar

li qts. water

Cook

it

as directed

on page 168.
persons.

Serves forty-five to

fifty

XXIII

THE INSULATED OVEN

MANY
but our

women
to

in

these

days will
that
it

find

it

difficult

believe

is

possible
fire,

to bake without the constant presence of

great-grandmothers

were

well

aware
ovens

that foods continued to cook

in the brick

Insulated oven with stones and pan in place.

long after the

fire

in

them had burned out or


insulated oven represents
ideas
to

was raked
an

out.

The
of

adaptation

old-fashioned

new

and modern conditions. Although we cannot go back to the days of brick ovens, superior as

222

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


its

they were, in certain respects, to the portable

range with

quickly fluctuating heat and great

waste from radiation, yet the insulated oven will


not be found impossible or very difficult to set
up,

and the adventurous


fireless

woman

will,

perhaps,

not be content until she has tried this develop-

ment of the

cooker.

The advantages

of an insulated oven

lie
it

in the

even brown and thorough baking which


greater than with ordinary baking; the
fuel

gives;

the development and retention of flavours, which


is

economy
the

in

where food

requires long cooking;

absence of heat

in the kitchen;

and the
is

possibility

of baking where only a camp-fire

obtainable.
a portable
is

The
oven

principle

is

the

same whether
a

is

insulated

or

cooker-pail

utilized.

There must be hot stone slabs, iron plates, firebrick, or some such heat-radiators, which can be made very hot and which will retain their heat
well.

Stones

or

fire-brick

are

preferable

to

iron in this respect.


for the

There must be insulation


cooking will then

oven

or utensil, and

proceed,

although

the familiar

somewhat diff'erently method of baking with a fire.


TO INSULATE AN OVEN

from

Choose

as small a portable

oven as

will hold

the food to be cooked, since the larger the oven

THE INSULATED OVEN


the larger or
to

223

heat

it.

awkward
oven
is

to

more numerous the stones must be Very large stones are heavy and manage, and with their number

the cost of using the oven increases.

A
a

portable

on the market which

is

about thirteen
is

inches in each dimension.

This

good

size

for a family of four or five.

Cut

six pieces of

heavy sheet asbestos,


bottom.
is

fitting

one to each surface

of the oven, except the door,

and two
the

to

the

One
it

of the two pieces for the bottom


Place
asbestos

to

go inside the oven.

These pieces may be tied on temporarily to hold them in place during packing. Select a box which is at least two or three inches larger in every dimenso that
entirely covers the oven.

sion

than the corresponding dimension of the


It

oven.
just as

should be

fitted

with cover and hasp


while packing, with

any cooker.
sufficient
is

Lay
layer

it,

the

cover opening
a

upward.
of

Pack

in

the

bot-

tom

insulating

material,

such as

used for other cookers, to raise the


top.'

y^

oven to within a couple of inches of the


Place the
oven,
lying

upon

its

back,

on

this

layer with the door uppermost, and opening in

the

same
all

direction as the cover of the box.

Pack
cover

on

sides

around
a

it

till

level

with the door.

If desired,

facing

may

be

made

to

the packing material, from a piece of cloth cut

224
a

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


larger, in

few inches

each direction, than the


it

top of the box.


the oven.

Draw on

a square the size of

In the centre of this cut a small hole

to insert the blade of scissors.

From
of the

this hole

cut

diagonally
the
cloth

to
is

the

corners

square.

When

put in place over the pack-

ing the triangular flaps thus

made may be tucked

between the asbestos and the packing, while the


edges of the cloth

may

be tucked between the


Fit a cushion
it

packing and the sides of the box.


that will
fill

the space

left at

the top and nail


this

to the cover of the box.

Face

with a piece
It will
little

of the sheet asbestos nailed into place.

be well to reinforce the nail-heads with

rounds of

tin,

in

order to prevent them from


soft

pushing through the

asbestos.

The box

is

then ready for use and should be stood up on

end so that the cover


of asbestos

will

open

like a door,

and

the oven will be right side up.

The

extra piece

may
of

be laid in the bottom, the stones

heated, and the food put in to cook.

Method
It will

using the
first

oven.

Heat the

slabs

very gradually the

time that they are used.


flame and

be best to put an asbestos mat or piece


g?.s

of the sheet asbestos between a hot

the stones for a few minutes, not turning the gas

on
the

full
first

force

for
it

the

first

five

minutes.

After

using

will be safe to heat the stones

THE INSULATED OVEN


directly over the flame, providing
it

225
not burn-

is

ing with

full

force

for

the

first

few minutes.

The

degree of heat in the stones will regulate

the heat of the oven.

For most baking, the centre


This
is

of the top side of the stones should be about as

hot as a flatiron for ironing.


that the
hotter,
test
is

side

toward the flame


red
hot.

mean very much


will

perhaps

Another

and

better

the browning of a piece of white tissue

paper laid on the centre of the stones when they


are put on to heat.

When

this

grows a shade

darker than manila paper, or a golden brown,


the stones are right for loaf cakes, pastry, apples,
potatoes,
dings,

beans,

scalloped

dishes,

most

pud-

and bread.

should be a rich brown.


biscuits,

For a hot oven the paper This is suitable for


etc.

small cakes, roasting meat,


is

Although gas
ed a hot enough
stones may,

the fuel here mentioned any

other fuel will serve to heat the stones, provid-

flame can be procured.

The

hot coal or

when warmed, be set directly on a wood fire to complete the heating,

and, for out-of-doors use, a crude fireplace might

be built up of rough stones to support the soapstones, or they


coals.

may
some

be buried directly in the hot


it

In such a case
to

will

probably be necesperhaps
the
ice-tongs,

sary
for

have

device,
as

removing the stones,

metal handles

226

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


in

might

time become burned

off,

bent, or

weak-

ened so as to be unsafe.
Small soapstone griddles or foot-warmers
excelle.nt slabs for the

make

home-made
and

insulated oven.

Griddles are on the market that are as small as


twelve
inches
in in

diameter,

foot-warmers
eight by

come

many

sizes.

Those measuring

ten inches will be about as large as most

women
their

can easily handle, since they are thicker than


the
size.

griddles,
It will

and
to

are

very
difficult

heavy

for

not be
these,

to get an

extra

which will make them manage. For baking many less awkward to loaves of bread and cake, and for foods to cook over night, or for many hours, more
handle
fitted

than two stones

may

be necessary to maintain

enough

heat.

The oven
baking, but

should not be opened during the


if

the food
it

is

not found to be cooked

when
and

it is

opened,
be

may
is

be quickly closed again,


done.
in

left

till

the food

succession of

articles

may

baked

an

already

heated

oven by quickly removing the finished article and one or two stones to be reheated and tested,

and slipped again into


door
after

place.

In this case the


instantly
it.

of the oven should be removing anything from

closed

This method

of baking a

number of

things in quick succession

THE INSULATED OVEN


is

227

very economical as a few minutes will reheat the

already

warm

stones.

Lay one hot stone on the asbestos at the bottom of the oven with the hotter side down; put
a wire

oven shelf on
If

this,

and the food on the


will

wire

shelf.

the

food

not

rise

higher

than the top of the pan, a hot stone


directly across the pan, but if this
is

may

be laid

not possible

place the second wire shelf as close over the food


as the cleats at the side of the

oven

will permit,

and the stone on


side

this

shelf,

also with the


is

hot

down.

In case more than one pan

to go

in at once,

and two stones


them.
is

will not

supply enough

heat,
to

hot flatirons or stove lids


It
is

may

be used

supplement
the oven

often

convenient,
article,

when

heated for baking one

to put other things in to

cook
not

at the

same time,
browning.
be cook-

even though they

may

require

For instance:
ing

chicken or roast

may

between two stones, while on top of the

upper stone the giblets


or
in

may

be stewing in water,
It will
till

some vegetables be
such
cases
to

boiling.

be best
boiling

heat these foods

before putting
cool
it

them in the oven, or they will Such foods, as do not require too much.

browning, will not need another stone on top. It may not be wise to put so much watery food
in the

oven when baking anything so

critical as

228

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

bread or loaves of cake, as

cools the oven to

some

extent.

No
given

matter

how

carefully

the

directions

are
will

and followed some experimentation


feel at ease

probably be required before a novice, or even


an experienced cook, will
with this

new method of cookery, since the conditions may be so variable. But there is no reason why
a careful observation of results

and

their causes

should
of her

not

soon lead one to become


insulated oven, and
it

mistress

own

is

likely that
it

she will then

become

sufficiently

attached to

to justify her perseverance.

In case a cooker-pail
ing
it

is

to be utilized for
it,

bak-

will

be well to surround

on top, bottom,

and
for

sides,

with the heavy sheet asbestos described


oven.

insulating the

wire rack will be

needed for separating the food from too direct


contact with the hot stones,

and some device,

such, perhaps, as an inverted wire frying-basket


for supporting the

upper stone.

LIST OF ARTICLES

REQUIRED FOR MAKING AND USING AN INSULATED OVEN

Box.
Hinges.

Hasp.

Packing material, hay,


Portable oven.

excelsior, etc.

THE INSULATED OVEN


Two
or

229

more stone
utensils,

slabs, or iron plates.


etc.

Cooking

baking pans,

Cloth for facing and cushion.


Nails and screws.

One dozen
One and

small

rounds of
yards

tin

about

one

inch in diameter.

one-quarter

sheet

asbestos

(price about 20 cents a yard).

Roast Beef

Weigh
or stews.
cloth.
flour,

the

meat,

trim

off

all

parts

which

will not be

good

to serve,

and save them


with
salt,

for soups

Wipe
it
it

the

meat clean with a damp


pepper,

Dredge
put

well

and
it

into a dripping pan,

and cook

in

an insulated oven heated as directed for roasts of meat on page 225. Heat the pan and meat a
little

before putting

them

into the

oven.

The
size

time for roasting beef depends

upon the

and shape of the

roasts.

Thick pieces weighrare in

ing under ten pounds will roast rare in twelve

minutes to a pound,
to

medium
a

from

fifteen

eighteen minutes, and well done in twentyor


thirty

five

minutes

pound.

Thin

pieces

will take a

few minutes

less to

each pound.

Roast Mutton or

Lamb

Prepare the meat for roasting as directed for


roast beef.

Cook

it

in

an insulated oven heated

230

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


on page 225, allowing twentyminutes to each pound for lamb, and from
minutes for mutton.

as directed for roasts


five

fifteen to eighteen

Roast Veal Prepare the meat for roasting as directed for Cook it in an insulated oven, heated roast beef.
as
for

roast beef, allowing

from twenty-five

to

thirty

minutes for each pound.


Spareribs
the
it
it

Wipe
sprinkle

meat clean with a damp with pepper and salt, put it in


in

cloth;

a pan,

and roast

an insulated oven, heated as directed

for roasts

on page 225, allowing twenty minutes Heat the pan and or more to each pound. meat a
little

before putting

it

in the oven.

Brown Gravy
Drain away
all

for

Roasts

fat

brown
to

sediment.
the

Add

from the pan, leaving the to this enough water

make

desired

amount of

gravy.

Using

this in the place of stock or

water make Brown

Sauce, using a measured quantity of the fat from


the
to
roast.
this

Various

seasonings
a

may

be

added
etc.,

sauce to
sauce,

make

variety.

Wine, Worjelly,

cestershire

ketchup,

currant

are used in this way.

Draw,
on page

stuff,

Roast Chicken and truss a chicken


it

as directed

130.

Put

on

its

back

in a baking-pan,

THE INSULATED OVEN


breast,
legs,

231

lay strips of fat salt pork on the breast, or rub

and wings with butter or clarified Dredge it well with salt and pepper. veal fat. Heat the pan and chicken over the fire for a few minutes, and put it into an insulated oven heated
as directed for roasts
five

on page 225.
for

Allow twentychicken.

minutes

pound

roasting

Remove the string and skewers and serve it with Brown Gravy for Roasts to which the chopped The giblets may be giblets have been added.
cooked, with salted water to cover them, in the insulated oven at the same time that the chicken
is

roasting; but in this

case the stones should

be hotter than otherwise.

Roast Goose
Singe
goose.

and

remove the
it

pin-feathers

from

a
it

Wash
it

in

hot,

soapy water.
Fill
it

Draw

and
full

rinse

in

cold water.

two-thirds

with Stuffing for Poultry, or Potato Stuffing. Truss it, and rub the surface with butter, or
lay fat salt pork
salt

on the
it

breast.
to

Dredge

it

with

roast

and pepper, heat it in an insulated oven heated

warm

the pan, and


as directed

for roasts on page 225, allowing

fifteen or

twenty

minutes a pound.

Roast Leg of Venison Prepare and cook it as roast mutton, allowing from twelve to fifteen minutes a pound for it to

232
roast.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Venison
should
for

be

served

rare,

with

Brown Gravy

Roasts, to one pint of which

one-half tumbler of currant jelly and two tablespoonfuls of sherry wine have been added.

Potato Stuffing
2 cups hot potato,
1

mashed
bread-

cup

soft,

stale

J cup melted butter J cup milk


2 teaspoons salt

crumbs
J cup chopped
salt

pork

i i

teaspoon powdered sage


egg

2 tablespoons chopped onion

Mix

the ingredients in the order given.

Roast Wild Duck Draw, clean, and truss a wild duck

in the

same
use

manner
fill

as

a goose.

If

it

is

to be

stuffed,

Stuffing for Poultry, omitting the herbs; or merely

the cavity with pared and quartered apples,

or

pared, whole onions. These should be removed before serving, but Stuffing for Poultry

should be served with the duck.

Roast

it

for

from twenty
other
roast

to

thirty

minutes in an insulated
little
it

oven, the stones heated a


meats.

hotter than for

Serve
jelly.

with

mashed

potato and currant

Grouse

Draw and
and
legs.

clean a grouse, remove the feathers

and the tough skin of the breast.


Truss
it,

and lay
with

fat salt

breast.

Dredge

it

salt

Lard the breast pork on the and flour, put it

THE INSULATED OVEN


into

233
fat
salt

the

roasting-pan

with

scraps
or

of

pork.

Roast
in

it

for

twenty

twenty-five
as for

minutes
wild
sprinkle

an
with

insulated

oven

heated
or

duck.
it it

Remove

the

strings

skewers,

browned

breadcrumbs,

and

garnish

with parsley.

Roast Quail
Prepare the quail in the

same way

as grouse.

Roast

it

for

fifteen

or

twenty minutes in an

insulated oven heated as for duck.

Roast Plover
Prepare and cook
it

the same as quail.

Potted Fish
3 shad or 6 small mackerel

^ cup peppercorns

J cup salt ^ teaspoon cayenne pepper

^ cup whole
i

allspice

onion, sliced
to cover

^ cup whole cloves

Vinegar

Clean the
skin,

fish,

remove

the

head,

tail,

fins,

and

large bones.

The
salt,

small bones will be


fish into pieces

dissolved in the vinegar.


for serving.

Cut the

Mix
in

the

pepper, and spices.


a small stone crock
salt

Pack the

fish

layers in

or deep agate-ware utensil, sprinkling the

and adding pieces of onion between the

layers.
it.

Pour

over

it

vinegar

to

completely

cover

In the absence of a tight-fitting cover, use heavy,


buttered paper tied on.

Bake

it

for five or six

hours in an insulated oven, the stones heated

234
until

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the paper test

shows
if

deHcate

brown.
a

Potted fish will

keep well
with

put into a cold place


It

and good

kept

covered

vinegar.
tea.

makes

relish for

lunch or

Pork and Beans


I
I I

cup beans
teaspoon
salt

teaspoon molasses
tablespoon butter, or
lb. salt

teaspoon sugar

pork

Water

to cover

Cook
directed

the
in

beans for four or more hours, as


the
recipe
for

navy beans. Put them into a baking-dish, add the other ingredients, gashing the pork frequently and
dried

laying

it

on

top.

Put
that

it

into

an

insulated
tissue

oven

with

stones

will turn

white
for

paper a golden
hours or more.

brown.

Bake them

eight

Baked Potatoes
Select
will all

potatoes

of equal

size,

so

that

they

bake in the same length of time; wash them and bake them in an insulated oven with the stones heated till the paper is a
golden brown
as

explained

in

the

test

on

page 225.

Good-sized

potatoes (eight

ounces)

should bake about

forty-five minutes.

Lay them
in

on

rack to prevent them from touching the

hot stone.

They

will

bake better than

an

ordinary oven.

THE INSULATED OVEN


Macaroni and
I

235

Ham

cup macaroni,
pieces

in

one-inch

tablespoon flour

^ teaspoon pepper
| teaspoon salt

small onion, grated

i^ cups milk
2 tablespoons butter

i cups minced, cooked


2 cups buttered

ham

crumbs

Cook
for

the macaroni as directed in the recipe

macaroni.
flour,

Make
and

white sauce of the milk,

butter,

seasoning,

add
into

the
a

onion,

ham, and
bake
it

macaroni.

Put

it

buttered

baking-dish, cover the top with the crumbs, and


until the

crumbs

are brown, heating the

stones until the paper test shows a golden brown.

Serves six or eight persons.

Scalloped Oysters
I

pt. or

30 oysters

^ cup oyster juice


i

3 cups buttered

crumbs

tablespoon

finely

chopped

^ teaspoon

salt

celery leaves

Few

grains pepper

Wash

the

oysters,

strain

the

juice

through
in

cheese-cloth.

Put one-fourth of the crumbs

the bottom of a baking dish, add half the oysters,

half the salt and pepper and celery leaves; repeat

these layers, pour over

it

the oyster juice, and

put the remaining crumbs on top.


insulated oven
till

Bake
recipe

it

in

an

brown, as directed for scalloped


If double this
is

dishes, page 225.

used

allow three-quarters of an hour for the

baking,

and do not heat the stones quite

so hot.

236

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Macaroni and Cheese
I

cup macaroni
pieces

in

one-inch

teaspoon

salt

^ teaspoon pepper
2 cups buttered

cup grated or shaved cheese

crumbs

Cook
it

the macaroni in salted water as directed

in the recipe for

macaroni.
salt,

When

tender, drain

and add the

pepper, and cheese.

Turn
are
test

it

into a buttered baking-dish

and cover the top

with the crumbs.

Bake

it

until the

crumbs

brown, heating the stones until the paper

shows a golden brown.


Serves six or seven persons.

Scalloped Chicken and


2 cups buttered crumbs
i

Mushrooms
cup White Sauce
salt

i^ cups cold, cooked chicken


or fowl

^ teaspoon celery
^ cup mushrooms

Cut the chicken


the

in

small pieces, slice or cut

mushrooms
into
a

small.

Put one-fourth of the

crumbs

buttered baking-dish.

Mix

the

other ingredients and pour

them

into the dish.

Spread the remaining crumbs on top and bake


it

in

an insulated oven
dishes,

till

brown, as directed

for scalloped

page 225.

Scalloped Tomatoes
I

can of whole tomatoes, or

3 tablespoons butter
i

8 good-sized

raw tomatoes

tablespoon

salt

3 cups soft breadcrumbs


I

^ teaspoon pepper

small onion

THE INSULATED OVEN


If

237

canned tomatoes are used, drain away the

liquid
If

from them, using only the soHd tomatoes.

water

raw tomatoes are used, scald them in boiling and remove the skins and hard core. Melt the butter, add the crumbs, and stir them
until

lightly

they

are

evenly
a

buttered.

Put

one cupful

in the

bottom of

baking dish, lay


salt,

the tomatoes over them, sprinkle the

pepper

and grated onion over these and cover the top


with the remaining crumbs.

Bake them for one an insulated oven, heating the stones until the paper test, given on page 225, shows a
hour
light
in

brown

colour.

Serves six or eight persons.

Scalloped Apples
3 cups chopped sour apples 2 cups soft breadcrumbs

(Brown Betty)
^ teaspoon cinnamon

J teaspoon nutmeg
| lemon, juice and rind

4 tablespoons butter

i cup brown sugar

^ cup water

Melt the

butter,

add the crumbs, and


evenly
buttered.

stir

them
spice

till

they

are

Mix

the

and grated rind with the sugar. Divide the buttered crumbs in quarters. Into a buttered baking dish put one-fourth of the crumbs.

On

this layer

spread one-half the apples, then oneSprinkle


this.

half

juice

lemon Repeat these layers with one-fourth the crumbs and the remaining
half

the

sugar.

of

the

and water over

238

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


left.

apple, sugar, etc.

that are
in

Cover the top with the crumbs Bake it for one hour and a half
oven.

an

insulated
till

The

stones

should

be

heated
the

the test given on page 225 will

papers a dehcate brown colour.

show Look at

the apples at the end of one hour, closing the

oven after a quick glance, and


the oven,
if

alter the heat of

necessary.

Serve

it

with Hard Sauce.

Serves

five

or six persons.

Rice Pudding
I

qt.

milk
rice

^ cup sugar
^ teaspoon
I teaspoon nutmeg
salt

^ cup

Put
dish.

all

the ingredients together in a bakingit

Bake

for three

hours in an insulated
be heated
until

oven.

The
test,

stones

should

the

paper

given on page 225, will show a light

brown shade.
will

The pudding,

if

correctly baked,
soft crust

be creamy, with a golden brown,


top.

on

Serves five or six persons.

Pastry for
i^ cups pastry flour
J teaspoon baking-powder

Two

Crusts
salt

^ teaspoon

J or ^ cup butter or lard

Water

Mix
cut

and

sift

the

dry
in

ingredients

together;

the

butter

or

lard

with
paste

fork.

Add
moist

enough

water to

make

barely

THE INSULATED OVEN


enough
it

239

to hold together, using a knife

and cutas

ting through the

dough
is

to

mix

it.

Roll half of
rolling-pin

with as

little
it

pressure of the

possible, until
thick.
this

about one-eighth of an inch


is

crust

plate,

to be made, lay on the inside of an unbuttered pie trim the edge, and put the trimmings If a
roll it

two-crust pie

with the remaining paste and

out for the


is

upper

crust.

If a

single

under crust
the

to

be

used, as for lemon pie, lay the paste on the outside of a pie plate, trim

edge
places.

and

prick
it

through the

crust

in

several

Bake

for about fifteen minutes in a

moderate insulated

oven, with the pie plate upside

down
it.

in the oven.

Remove

the baked crust and

fill

Apple Pie
Sour apples
i cup sugar ^ lemon, juice and rind
J tablespoon butter ^ teaspoon cinnamon

Make
half of

pie
it

crust

by the preceding

recipe,
plate.
full,

put

in

the
to

bottom
fill

of

the

Pare

enough apples cored and cut


grated
crust,

the pie heaping


eighths.
Fill

when
with

into

the

pie

the apples, spread the sugar and


rind cut

over them.

Roll
it

out
to

cinnamon and the upper


allow steam

several
it

gashes in

to

escape; lay
press

over the pie, trim the edges


a

and

them together with

fork.

Bind

240

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

the edge of the pie by laying around


strip

a wet
it

of cloth

about one inch wide.


in

Bake

for one-half hour

an

insulated

oven with
test

the

stones

heated

until

the

paper

shows

a golden

brown

colour.

Apple and berry pies are better made without an under crust in an extra deep pie plate.
Berry Pie Line a deep plate with
fill

Pick over the berries.


crust, or

omit the lower crust;


of berries,

the pie heap-

ing

full

cupful

or.

cover them with one-half more of sugar mixed with one-fourth

cupful of flour.

Add

the upper crust, bind

it,

and bake
will

it

as apple pie.

The amount

of sugar

depend upon the

acidity of the fruit.

Cherry or Plum Pie

Wash

the fruit, remove the stones, and

make

the pie in the same

manner

as berry pie.

Pumpkin Pie
i^ cups cooked
I I

pumpkin

| cup sugar

cup boiling milk


egg

J teaspoon salt J teaspoon cinnamon

Cook
Put
of a
it

the

pumpkin
spoon to

as directed
it

on page
the
a

152.

into a cloth

and press
squeeze

with the back


out
into

strong
all

water.

Mix
it

the ingredients, put

it

pan

set

over a cooker-pail of boiling water;


is

stir it

until

165 degrees Fahrenheit, then put the whole

THE INSULATED OVEN


into a cooker for one hour.

241

with the mixture.

Fill the baked crust Cover the top thickly with

whipped cream.

Lemon
^ cup flour
I I

Pie
Rind of one lemon
4 teaspoons butter

cup sugar, granulated

cup boiling water

J cup powdered sugar


2 eggs

3 tablespoons lemon juice

Mix
Boil
it

the

sugar

and

flour

together,
it

add the
the
time.
it

boihng water
gently
frequently.

slowly,
for

stirring

all

twenty

minutes,

stirring

lemon with the yolks, pour the hot mixture slowly on the yolks, return it to the fire and cook it below boiling point until
the

Mix

the eggs have thickened; then

add the
it

butter.

Cool the

filling

little

before putting

into a

baked
stiif,

crust.

add

Beat the whites of eggs until very the sugar, and when barely mixed
spread
it

with the whites,

over the pie for a

meringue; bake
insulated

it till
it

a delicate
for a

brown

in a

very

hot oven, or put

few minutes into an


hot.

oven with one very hot stone close


Serve
it

over the pie.

warm, but not

Serves five or six persons.

Baked Apples

Wash and
sugar, and
if

core sour apples of uniform size.


dish,
fill

Put them into a pudding

the cores with


it

more

is

desired

put

into

the

242

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


dish, not over the apples.

in

Pour enough boihng water to fill the dish one-fourth full. Bake them in an insulated oven for onethree-quarters
size

bottom of the

half to

upon the
stones

of an hour, depending and ripeness of the apples. The

should
a golden

be

heated

until

the

paper

test

shows

brown

colour.

Baked Spiced Apples


6 apples
2 cups water cup sugar 6 slices

30 cloves

lemon
five

Pare the apples, remove the cores and stick

whole cloves into each apple.


the water and sugar.

Make

a syrup of

Put the apples into a pud-

ding dish, pour the syrup over them, and place a


slice

of lemon over the top of each.

Bake them
a light

in

a slow insulated

oven for one hour with the stones


test

heated until the paper

shows

brown.

Baked Pears
Prepare and cook the pears as directed for baked sweet apples. If desired, a bit of butter the size of a bean may be put on each pear before
baking.

Baked Quinces
Prepare

and

cook

the

quinces

as

directed

in the recipe for

baked sweet apples.

Twice

as

much
and,

sugar and water will be required for quinces,


perhaps,

more

time

for

baking.

This

THE INSULATED OVEN


will
fruit.

243

depend upon the


It is

size

and ripeness of the

usually cut in halves before baking.

Baked Sweet Apples


8 sweet apples
I

J cup sugar

cup boiling water

Prepare the apples as for baked apples.

Cook

them
hours.

in

a slow insulated oven, for about three

The

stones should be heated


colour,
as

until the
in

paper barely changes

explained

the test given on page 225.

Bread
I 1

pt.

water or milk

j cake compressed or | cake dry


yeast and

tablespoon butter or lard

2 teaspoons salt

cup

warm

water, or

2 teaspoons sugar

^ cup
Flour to

liquid yeast

make a dough

Soak the yeast


cupful of
water,

for a

few minutes
cool

in the half

warm

water.
fat,

Scald the milk or boil the


let
it

add the
If

till

lukewarm,
add
as

then add the remaining ingredients, except the


flour.

compressed

yeast

is

used,

much flour as is needed to make a dough that may be kneaded. If dry yeast or liquid yeast
is

used, add only one and one-half pints of flour;


let
it

beat the mixture well, and

rise

till

full

of

bubbles, usually over night; then add the remaining flour.

The

rest of the process


is

is

the same, the

no matter what yeast

used.

Knead

dough

244
until
set
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it is

smooth and

elastic, return

it it

to the bowl,

in a

warm
Knead

place to rise until


it

has doubled

in size.

again until

all

large bubbles

mould it into two loaves, put it into greased pans and let it again rise until it has doubled in size. Heat the insulated oven
are pressed out,

stones until the paper test, given

shows a golden brown. bake


it

Put the bread

on page 225, in and


If

from

fifty

minutes to one hour.


a hot oven for a large

two

stones will not

make

amount
stove

of bread to be baked, use hot flatirons or


lids to

supplement them.
Rolls

Add one
just

tablespoon of butter to the recipe

for bread, or

before

moulding

put them into


a
little

knead the butter into the dough it. Shape it into rolls, a buttered pan, and when risen to
their size,

more than double

bake them

for

twenty minutes in an insulated oven with

stones that will turn the


as explained in the test

paper a rich brown,

on page 225.

Baking Powder Biscuits


4 teaspoons baking-powder, or
I

pt. flour

teaspoon soda and two tea-

^ teaspoon

salt

spoons cream of tartar

2 tablespoons butter or lard

f to

cup milk or water

Mix and
fat

sift

the dry ingredients,


it

work

in the

with the fingers, or mash

in

with a fork.

THE INSULATED OVEN


Add

245

the liquid, one-third at a time, mixing the

dough in three separate portions in the bowl. Cut through these three masses until they are barely mixed, then roll the dough to about onehalf inch thickness; cut it into biscuits, lay them on a greased pan, brush the tops with milk or melted butter, and bake them for fifteen or twenty
minutes in an insulated oven with stones heated
so as to turn the

paper a

rich,

dark brown, as

explained in the test on page 225.

Cup Cake
i cup butter 1 cup sugar
i| cups flour
2 eggs

J cup milk ^ teaspoon nutmeg, or


I

teaspoon vanilla

i^ teaspoons baking-powder

| teaspoon

salt

Cream

the butter, add the sugar, then the beaten

yolks of eggs.

Mix and
at

sift

the dry ingredients,


time,
to

add them, one-third


mixture,
alternating
stiff,
till

the

butter

with

the

milk.

Beat the

whites
the

till

add them and the


doiigh should not

vanilla, beat
it

dough

barely mixed, and pour

into a

greased pan.

The

much more
on

than half
in

fill

the pan.

Bake

it

for forty minutes


as

an

insulated

oven,

tested

explained

page 225, for loaves of cake. This recipe may be varied by adding one-half
cupful
of raisins,
currants,

chopped

citron

or

246
nuts.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Or two ounces
baked
of

chocolate

may

be

melted and added to the dough.


If
in layers or in

gem pans

the stones

must be heated somewhat


cake.

hotter than for a loaf

Allow

fifteen or

twenty minutes in the oven.

Sour Cream Cake


3 large eggs
I

^ teaspoon baking powder

cup sugar

ij cups flour

f cup thick sour cream ^ teaspoon soda

^ teaspoon nutmeg
i

cup

raisins

Beat the yolks of the eggs,


then the cream.

add the sugar,

Mix and

sift

the dry ingredients,

add them to the liquid mixture, then add the raisins, which have been floured with a little
of the

measured

flour,

and,

lastly,
it

the
a

stiflfly

beaten whites of eggs.

Put

into

greased

pan and bake


test

it

for forty minutes in an insulated

oven, heated for loaf cake, as explained in the

on page 225.

Apple Sauce Cake


(Made without
pings
I

butter, milk or eggs)


-j

^ cup white veal or beef dripcup sugar cup sour apple sauce

teaspoon cloves teaspoon nutmeg

I
i i

cup

raisins

teaspoon soda

i^ teaspoons cinnamon

2 cups flour

Mix
the

the ingredients in the order given,


well, put
it

beat

dough

into a greased pan,

and

THE INSULATED OVEN


bake
it

247

for forty minutes in an insulated oven,

heated for loaf cakes, as explained on page 225.

This cake seems, when baked, very much

like

any spice cake.

Sponge Cake
6 eggs
I

Juice and rind of h lemon


i

cup sugar

cup
salt

flour

J teaspoon

Beat the yolks of the eggs,

add the sugar

them
Put
it

and lemon; beat the whites of eggs till stiff, add to the mixture, and when barely mixed
flour

add the
it

and

salt,

folding

them
tin,

in

lightly.

into

bright,

ungreased
in

and bake

fifty

minutes or an hour

an oven heated

not quite so hot as for butter cakes.

The paper

should turn light brown

when

tested as explained

on page 225. Let the cake stand


ing
it

five

minutes before remov-

from the pan.

Plum Cake
^ cup butter
2 cups sugar
i

cup currants
fruit

4 eggs ^ cup chopped nuts

f cup pickled molasses


2 cups flour

syrup

or

^ cup candied orange peel


I

^ teaspoon soda

cup

raisins

^ teaspoon cream of
2 teaspoons mixed spices

tartar

Mix and
and
spices.

sift

the flour, soda, cream of tartar,


all

Put

the

ingredients

together

248

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


flour.

in the order given, flouring the fruit with a little

of the measured pan and bake it


in

Put

it

into

greased

for one

and one-quarter hours


v^ith

an

insulated

oven,
till

stones
is

heated

as

explained on page 225,

the paper

a light brov^n.

Rich Fruit Cake


i
^
lb.

butter (i cup)

lb.
lb.

citron

lb.

sugar

(i

cup)

^
I

candied orange peel

6 eggs

teaspoon nutmeg
cloves

J cup brandy ^ cup lemon juice

^ teaspoon
i

teaspoon cinnamon
allspice

Rind of
2 cups

lemon, grated

^ teaspoon
i
i

blanched,

chopped

lb. raisins lb.

almonds
^
lb. flour

currants

(if cups)

Line the pan


Flour

v^ith three thicknesses of paper,

buttering the top layer.


all

Mix

the flour and spices.

the fruit except the citron.

Mix

the

ingredients in the order in v^hich they are given.

The pan may


rises

be

filled
it

nearly

full,

as this cake

but

little.

Bake

for three hours

or

more

in

very

moderate insulated oven.


change colour.
cake
is

Test the

stones as explained on page 225, until the paper


v^ill

barely

If,

at

the

end of
all,

tv^o hours, the

not browned at

take

out one or both of the stones very quickly and


heat them again
tissue paper.
till

they will slightly brown the

The oven must

be promptly closed

when

the stones are removed, or the cake will be

THE INSULATED OVEN


injured.

249
needle or
a
little

Test

it

with a

steel knitting

straw.

greasy

The when
it

needle will
the cake
is

come out only


done.
five

Let the cake stand

at least

minutes

after

removing

from the oven before taking out of


it

the pans, or

is

likely

to

break.

Fruit cake

should be kept for at least a week in a tightly

covered tin box or a crock, before


use.
It

it

is

ready for

will

keep

for

months,

and

improves

with time.

XXIV

MENUS

THE Only
taste

planning of a
a

menu

is

an

art in itself.

knowledge of the food value of

different dishes,

combined with a good sense of and fitness, and some idea of the com-

parative wholesomeness of diff^erent methods of

cooking, can produce a meal that

is

scientifically

correct as well as pleasing to the palate.

And

now

the

conditions

under which

menus must

be planned will be further modified in order to


250

MENUS
obtain the freedom from the kitchen that
less

251
fire-

cookery

makes
book,

possible.

It

is

thought
of time
to cook,

that a classified time-table of the various dishes

given

in

the

giving

the

length

which they require or may be allowed


will be of assistance in

grouping dishes that can


for the

be started at one time, put on to cook, perhaps,


in

one cooker, and

left

same period of

time.

The

illustration

at

the head of this chapter,


as to

shows a cooker-pail so arranged


than one
article at once.

cook more

a cooker with several

With this arrangement compartments would accomone time.


it

modate

number of

different foods at

The

fireless

cooker makes

possible to plan a

breakfast which would be ready to serve at once,


or would take only a few minutes to prepareIf started in the evening,
night,
cereals

may cook
night.

all

and be

entirely

ready in the
all

morning;
Coffee,

some meat dishes may cook


although better

when made

fresh,

may

be put
being

into the cooker over night,

cereal coffees

at their best after all-night cooking.

With these

for a basis, the

menu may be

varied by dishes

which would cook quickly, such as eggs; or which might cook through the night and be completed
in a

few minutes

codfish; or

in the morning, such as creamed which might be cooked the day before,

252
if

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


But
Httle of the

served cold, such as stewed fruits; or by fresh


precious early morning

fruits.

time would thus be required.

BREAKFASTS
No.
I

All dishes cooked over night, or served cold.

Ready

to

serve

at

once

Apple Sauce

Oatmeal
Beef or mutton stew

Postum

No.

Ready

to serve in fifteen minutes.


Stewed
rhubarb (served cold)
of

Cream

Wheat (cooked

all

night)

Soft-cooked eggs (cooked in the morning


in the already

warm

water over which

the cereal was cooked)

Coffee (cooked in the morning or over night)

No.

Ready

to serve in ten minutes.


Stewed prunes (served cold)

Cornmeal mush (cooked


Stewed kidney (cooked
all

all

night)

night, finished in the

morning)

Cocoa (cooked

in

the morning or

all

night)

For a midday dinner the cooker


be
filled

may

often

in

the

morning, after breakfast, with

MENUS
foods
requiring

253

about three or four hours to


dinner
served,
to

cook, such as vegetable soup, beef stew, spinach,


etc.
filled

Where
in

a late

is

it

may
stand

be
all

the

morning and allowed

day, provided foods are chosen

that need or will


it

not be

harmed by the long cooking; or


after lunch.

may
meal

be

partly filled after breakfast and other dishes be

added

Even where the


cooker,
it

entire

is

not cooked in a

fireless

may

be conve-

nient to have one or two dishes so prepared, and the

remainder served cold or cooked on the

stove.

DINNERS

No.

To

be

left

in the

cooker three or four hours.


Creole soup

Veal cutlets

Mashed

potatoes

Carrots

Stewed celery
Rice pudding

No.
Put into the cooker
all

in the

morning and cooked

day.

Cream of

celery soup

Pot roast
Beets

Dried lima beans

Tapioca

fruit

pudding (previously cooked and


served cold)

254

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


No.
3

Put
all

into the cooker in the

morning and cooked

day.

Mutton broth
Stuffed heart

Cabbage
String beans

Compote of

rice

and

fruit

(previously cooked and

served cold)

No. 4
Part cooked
the afternoon.
all

day, and part cooked through

Consomme
Fricasseed chicken

Samp
Winter squash

Creamed
Stev^^ed
figs

turnips

with

cream

SUPPERS OR LUNCHES

No.

Hot

dishes in the cooker


Breaded veal

two hours.
cutlets

Creamy

potatoes

Stevv^ed apricots

Cookies

Cocoa

MENUS
No.
2

255

Hot

dishes requiring only one hour to cook.


Turkish pilaf

Salmon loaf
Lettuce salad

Canned quinces Cake Tea

MIDNIGHT SUPPERS
Served
after

theatre

or

entertainment,

the

hot dish to be put into the cooker before going


out.

Ready

to serve at once.

No.

Stewed oysters
Saltines

Celery

Bonbons

No.
Salad

Cocoa
Bread and butter sandwiches
Olives

APPENDIX
ing
is

Reading references and experiments illustratthe principles upon which fireless cookery
based.

I.

test

of the insulating powers of different

materials.

Apparatus:
One One
rial,

or or

more boxes and

fittings,

described on pages 9 to II.


size,

more

pails

of the

same

shape and mate-

preferably

of from two to four quarts' capacity, with

close fitting covers.

Cooking thermometer

Sawdust

Wool
Mineral wool
Cotton batting or waste
Excelsior

Newspapers

Ground cork
Southern moss
Pencil

Hay

Notebook
as

Pack the box successively with


the
different

many

of

packing materials given above as

are to be tested, following the directions given

on page 15; or have several exactly similar boxes packed at the same time. For all tests fill the
cooker-pail with water,

bring

it

to

the

boiling

257

258

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

point, let

boil

one minute, to permit


its

all

parts

of the utensil and

contents to reach the same


it

temperature; then put

at

once into the cooker-

box and leave

it

for

an equal length of time,

not less than one hour.

Record the temperature


full

of the contents of the pail at the expiration of


this

period.

In order to get a
it

record and

a fair comparison

would be well

to repeat this

experiment with varying periods of time, taking


the temperature, for instance, at the end of one,
three,
six,

nine,

and twelve hours.


pail,

In taking

temperatures do not wholly remove the cushion

and cover of the

but

slip

them

to

one

side,
is,

enough

to

insert the

thermometer.

This

of

course, a crude

method of taking temperatures,


If
it is

but answers for purposes of comparison.


desired to

make more
and the
bored
read
pail

accurate records this can


box,
the

be done by boring the cover of the

cushion

cover,

and inserting a
to

thermometer through corks which are used


close the
holes.

The temperature
the

can
done,

then

be

while
first

apparatus
if

is

closed.

However, the
will

method,

carefully

give

probably within

one

degree
the

of

the
in

correct

temperature.

Record
find

results

tabular form.

Which
insulation

material
.?

do you

gives the

best

APPENDIX
Winkelman,*
Duff,t

259
other
writers

and

on
felt,

physics give tables of the

conductivity of

asbestos paper, paper, cotton, flannel, and other


materials;

but

as

different for

figures

are

shov^n,

from

same material, it is likely that the insulating power of any material used for packing a cooker will depend as much or more upon the way it is packed as upon
different

sources,

the

the

material

used.

Experiment:

Conductivity of different materials.

Take

a piece of copper wire about six inches

long in one hand, and a piece of steel wire of the

same length and thickness in the other. Put one end of each piece in a flame, holding the Notice which first wire by the extreme end. hot to hold at the end farthest from becomes too
the
flame.

This

illustrates

the

different

con-

ductivity of the two materials, steel and copper.

There

is

not a great deal of difference in the


of different
materials,

conductivity
are relatively

but

metals

good conductors, and

air is a

very

poor conductor.
2.

Heat

is

carried from the pail partly by consolid

vection,

except where

insulating
fibre,
is

material,

such as wood or indurated


* " Handbuch der Physik." " t Textbook of Physics."

used; and

26o
that

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


manner of packing which
air

best

entangles

the
fore,

and

prevents
increase

air

currents

will, there-

most

the

effectiveness

of

the

insulation.

Experiment:

Convection.

Into a glass flask of cold water drop a few


crystals

of

potassium

permanganate,

being
a flame

careful not to agitate the flask.


to

Apply
As
the

the

bottom of the

flask.

water

rises,

becomes heated its density is reduced and it forming convection currents which are coloured by the permanganate and may be
distinctly

seen.

Convection currents
liquid

may

be formed in
air.

any
of

or gas; for instance,


will

By means
air

them heat
contact
to

be carried from one part of the

Hquid or gas to another.


with
a
kettle

Thus
heat

heated by
allowed

of food
the

will, if

flow

freely,

carry

away from the


This takes

food.
3.

Heat

IS

also lost by radiation.

place less rapidly from a bright, highly polished


surface,

and

for

this

reason

"Thermos" and
outside
surface
finish.

similar

bottles

are

encased in polished nickle.


polished

cooker-pail

with

retains heat better than one with a dull

In those cookers

made with

metal

outside

APPENDIX
retainer,

261
not

the

surface

should

be

painted

or roughened or dulled by any means.

Experiment:

Radiation.
tin

Take two empty


shape.

cans of the same size and

Wash

off the

paper

labels.

Keep one

of them bright and shining, but move the other through a candle flame until the entire outer sur-

same same temperature. Note carefully the temperature and the time. At the end of any given period, say one hour,
is

face

smoked.
of

Into each pour exactly the


at

quantity

water

the

again

take

has

lost the

the temperature of each. Which most heat, that in the bright can or
}

that in the dull can


4..

The

effect

of different degrees or thicknesses of

insulation.

Materials:

The same
section
sizes,
i,

as

those

used in the experiment,

with the addition of boxes of various


smaller,
first

some

some

larger,

than the one

used in the
various

experiment.

Pack the boxes with one or


insulating
so
as

more
in

of
the

the
first

materials
to allow

used

experiment,
of

varying thicknesses
cooker-pail.

insulation

around

the

This
with

should
in

be

the

same or an exactly
Fill

similar pail
tests

each case.

the pail for

all

262 an

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


equal
quantity
it

of

water, boil

it

for

one

minute, and leave


length

in the

boxes for an equal

of time.

Record the temperature maintest.

tained in
ular form.

each

Keep

the record in tab-

What
your

thickness

of insulation

do

you
to

find

gives the best result with the materials used in

experiment

Is

it

necessary
will

assume
with

that the
all

same thickness
?

be

required

insulating materials

5.

The

effect

of the density of foods upon the

temperature maintained.
Materials:

One

cooker or hay-box

Cooking thermometer
Scales

Starch

Water
Salt

Litre or quart measure

Notebook and
litres

pencil

Bring one or more


a boil, boil
it

or quarts of water to

for one minute,

and put

it

into the

cooker for one hour or more.


using,
successively,
five

Repeat the test, grams of salt to each litre, or one teaspoonful to each quart, and 5, and 20 per cent, mixtures of starch 10, Record the temperatures in tabular with water. form, and compare the results. What would you gather to be the effect of density upon the
temperatures maintained
.?

APPENDIX
6.

263
of
filling

The

effect

on

temperature
one-half,

the

cooker-pails

one-fourth,

three-quarters,

and

entirely full.

Materials

Cooker or hay-box
Pail of

pail of

"Space adjuster"

eight quarts' capacity

two quarts' capacity

Water Thermometer
pencil

Notebook and
Fill

the

large
it

cooker-pail
to

one-fourth
it

full

of

water.

Bring

a boil

and put

into the

cooker for a definite period of time, not less than one hour. Record the resulting temperature.
If desired to

make

the test more comprehensive,


six,

leave the water in the cooker for

nine, or twelve

hours, being careful to allow the cooker to


cold

between

each
the

test.

Perform
pail
full,

the

become same
full,

experiment
again

with
it

same

one-half

when
and

is

three-fourths

and again

when
form

entirely full.

Record the results in tabular compare them. Repeat these tests

with a pail of two quarts' capacity. What is the influence on temperature of having pails
partially, or completely, filled
.?

The explanation

is

that evaporation takes place

in partially filled pails.

7.
{salt,

Chemistry of the action of food materials


soda,
acids,

water,

etc.)

upon

cooking

264
utensils

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


made of
tin,

or

aluminum, when used

in a cooker or hay-box.

The amount

of tin dissolved by foods

is

indi-

cated by the corrosion of the utensil, which can


often be seen by the

naked eye

to be altered in

appearance.
or other tin

The

exact

quantity

of

tin

salts

compounds which may be formed


determined

can

only

be
It

by

careful

chemical

analysis.

has been found that


inert,

many canned
tin.

goods supposed to be
with a

such as squash and

pumpkin, have a marked


tests

effect

upon

Crude
copper

number
tin,

of different foods can be

made with
utensils,

iron,

aluminum,
is

and
It

as in

many

cases there

evidence to

the eye of action

upon the metals.


however,
that

must be
tests

borne

in

mind,

such

are

crude and not decisive of the fact of there being

no action

in

case

no action

is

plainly visible.

Only chemical

analysis can prove this.

The
used in

action of foods

relation to their
fireless

upon tin cans bears a close action upon the utensils when
is

cookery, since there

time with

the long cooking involved for similar reactions


to take place in the cooker. *

Tin

utensils

rust

badly after short use in a

cooker, and thus affect the flavour of food cooked


* See " Food Inspection and Analysis," by Leach, published by John

Wiley Sons,

New

York, 1904, page 694.

APPENDIX
in

265

them.

This

is

due

to the action of acids

and
off,

water on the iron which forms the basis of sheet


tin.

When

the thin plating of tin

is

worn

the iron

is left

exposed to the action of water,

etc.

Soda
stance
in
is

dissolves

aluminum, and leaves


utensils.
is

a black

surface on

aluminum
which

This black sub-

iron,

present with the


the
acid.

aluminum
not try

the

utensils.

To remove

black appear-

ance,
to

clean the utensil with


it

Do

remove
well,

by scouring,

as this will not

do the
to

work

and

is

laborious

and

injurious

the pail.

Detection of poisonous metals that dissolved from the cooker utensils.

may

be

Experiment
boil

A.

Tin.

In

tin

cooker-pail

such foods as apple sauce, tomatoes, squash,

or others that act on tin, and put

them

into a

cooker for twelve hours.


over steam until they
lain
this

Transfer them to an

agate ware or porcelain utensil, evaporate

them

may

be burned in a porcebrittle.
it

dish

until

charred

and

Pulverize

charred

mass,
Filter

and extract and wash

with hydroSaturate the

chloric acid.
filtrate

it.

with hydrogen sulphide gas; add a satu-

rated solution of potassium acetate to neutralize


the hydrochloric acid present and assist in the

coagulation of sulphide of
filter

tin.

Warm

it

slightly,
it

and wash out the stannic sulphide, dry

266

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

and weight
tin dissolved

as stannic oxide,

from which the

may

be calculated.

Experiment B.

Aluminum.

To

simphfy the

experiment a weak solution of mahc acid may be used (seven grams per litre being about the
average amount found in apples).
a
boil
in

Bring this to
it

an aluminum cooker-pail and put


Transfer
it

into a cooker for twelve hours.

to

a porcelain vessel
tate

the

alumina.

and add ammonia Filter and wash

to precipithis,

dry

and weigh the aluminum oxide.


that a smaller quantity of

It is

probable

dissolved by foods of would be found in this


8.

aluminum would be mushy consistency than

clear solution.

The

efficiency

of home-made
other

refrigerating

boxes

compared with

means

of

keeping

foods cold.
Materials:

One box
as

fitted

as for fireless cooking, with

two or three

covered crocks of at least one-half gallon capacity, packed


directed

on page

37, with either


is

sawdust,

hay,

straw,

excelsior or paper.

Sawdust

specially

recommended.

Thermometer
Ice

Notebook and
Fill
tity

pencil

the central crock with


ice.

weighed quanthe crocks

of

Fill

one or both of the other crocks

with water

at

room temperature. Cover

APPENDIX

267

and close the box. Record the temperature of the water at the end of six, twelve, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours.

Make

repeated observations of the tempera-

tures found in ordinary household refrigerators,


cellars, cold storage

rooms, and any other places


cold.

used

for

keeping foods

Compare
with
a

these

with the temperatures obtained

made

refrigerating box.

Is

there any

homeeconomy

in using these

boxes

Bacteriology of Insulating Boxes


p.

Temperatures which

kill

disease

and putre-

factive
It is

germs or check
y

their growth.

taken for granted that the student of this


be more or
less

subject will

familiar with the

nature of bacteria and the elements of bacteriology.


It

will

be

recalled
life;

that

bacteria

are

vegetable form of

that, like all plants, they

have,

under certain
is

conditions,
largely,

the

power of

growth which
duction;
are killed.

shown,
their

by

their repro-

and that under other conditions they

When

growth

is

merely checked,

they are in a dormant state, or perhaps form


spores, in either of

which cases they are ready


environment permits.
do with the state of
to

to develop as soon as their

Temperature has much


bacteria.

If the temperature

and other conditions

268

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


they will multiply with enormous rapidity.
in

are such that they are in an active or growing


state,

When

food

stuffs

they effect certain changes


as

by reason of the products which they form


the

result of their life processes, or of the alteration in

food

materials,

owing

to

their

abstraction

of some chemical elements or


for
their
nutrition.

compounds used
bacteria

When
or
tasting

form

unpleasant

smelling

substances

we

speak of them as "putrefactive bacteria."


which,
if

Those

introduced into the bodies of

humans

or animals, will cause diseases, are called "disease


bacteria.''

Foods are
it is,

liable to contain

both kinds;
all

and, therefore,
is

obviously, wise to do

that

possible to

kill

them

or prevent their growth.


in

Most

forms

occurring

foods

grow

best

at from 80 degrees to 98 degrees Fahrenheit. Few bacteria grow at above 100 degrees, and, if kept at 125 degrees, the weaker ones soon die.

After subjection to a temperature of 150 degrees


to

160 degrees Fahrenheit, for ten minutes,


is

if

water
unless

present,

almost

all

kinds
state.

are

killed

they are in the spore


will often

Prolonged

boiHng
is

be resisted by spores.

Dry heat

not as effective in killing bacteria as moist, and

a higher temperature must, therefore, be reached

Below 70 degrees Fahrenheit the growth of bacteria is more and more retarded,
to
effect this end.

APPENDIX
reached.
relied

269
is

but not entirely checked until freezing point

The popular

idea that freezing


is

may

be

upon

to destroy bacteria

not true.

The
is

bearing of these facts

upon the subject

of bacteria in foods cooked in insulating boxes


evident.

cold, care
is

Whether foods are cooked or kept must be taken that such a temperature

reached that bacteria

may

not grow.

In application of these principles


foods must be heated sufficiently to
before
it

we
kill

see that

bacteria

will be safe to subject

them
is

to the

comfor

paratively

low temperature of the


This

cooker

the long period necessary.

one reason

why

foods in large pieces, such as roasts of meat,

whole vegetables, and moulds containing a mass


of food, must be boiled for a considerable time
before being put into the cooker.

Heat

will not

penetrate at once to the centre of such foods,

and they would be


unless boiled

likely to

ferment or putrefy
to

long enough

heat the
thrive.

centre

beyond the point where bacteria


fact

The

that meats,

cereals,

and other foods have

been known to sour or ferment, even after such


boiling, if left in the cooker for a very long time,

may

be explained by the fact that, though


bacteria

all

growing
resisted

were

killed,

spores,

which
present

the

boiling,

might have
it

been

in the food,

and when

cooled to a point con-

270

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


at this

ducive to the germination of these spores, and

remained

temperature for long, they might


active,

have developed, become

and produced the

objectionable changes characteristic of their kind.

In the case of foods to be kept in refrigerating


boxes,
a

temperature
Fahrenheit

considerably

belov^

70

degrees

must

be

maintained.
vs^ill

degrees Fahrenheit, or lower,


excellent preventive of

50 be found an

germ growth.
a

Mr. L. A. Rogers has written


concise
description

clear

and
and

of the nature, growth,

conditions necessary to combat

bacteria such as

are found in food, in his paper entitled "Bacteria


in

Milk,"

published

in

the

Yearbook of the

Department of Agriculture, 1907, pages 180 to 196. Other books which give information on this subject are "Bacteria Yeasts and Molds in the Home," by Conn, and "Household Bacteriology," by S. Maria Elliott.

Yeasts and moulds also

may

take part in the

changes which spoil foods; but the temperature


conditions

which

control

bacteria

would

be

practically the
10.

same

for them.
different starches.

Cooking temperatures of

Experiment:

Cooking

starch.

Pare and grate one or more potatoes.


the gratings

Wash

by placing them

in

cheesecloth

APPENDIX
bag and immersing them
in cold water.

271

Squeeze

and press the contents of the bag


settle,

until

no more
Let
it

starch seems to pass through the cloth.

pour

off the water;


settle

the

starch

again.

add clear water and let Pour off the second


of the
starch,

water.

Take one tablespoonful


fire,

mix
and

it

with one cupful of cold water.


stirring
it

Heat

it

slowly over a moderate

constantly,

which the mixture becomes noticeably clearer and thickens. Repeat this experiment with corn-starch; wheat starch, washed from wheat flour, as is done
recording
the
at

temperature

with

the

grated

potato;

with

starch

washed
bean,

from rye flour; and, if desired, with pea, oat and tapioca starches, also.

rice,

"Food and
starches
gelatinize.

the

Principles

of Dietetics,"

by

Hutchison, gives, on page 378, a Hst of different

and the temperatures

at

which they

In a bulletin entitled "Digestibility of Starch


of
Different
Sorts
as

Affected
S.

by

Cooking,"

by Edna D. Day, Ph.D. (U.


culture, Office of

Dept. of Agri-

Experiment Stations, Bulletin

No. 202, page 40), we read that starch takes up water at 60 degrees to 80 degrees Centigrade
(140
degrees
a to

176

degrees

Fahrenheit)

and
as

forms

sticky,

colloidal

substance
it is

known

starch paste, in

which form

very easily digested.

272

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


boiling,
at

Long

least

to

the

extent

of three

make it more quickly digestible. There is something to be considered besides the mere starch in cooking starchy foods, and the fact that potato starch will form paste at
hours, does not

149 degrees while rice starch requires 176 degrees

does not
for

mean

that less cooking will be needed


for
rice.

potatoes

than

The woody

fibre

or other constituents of foods, as well as their


density

and difference

in

size,

must be taken

into account.
II.

Cooking temperatures of

proteids.

Egg Albumen
In
the
bulletin entitled

"Eggs

and

Their

Uses as Food," by C. F. Langworthy, Ph.D.,


published
the U. S.
as Farmers' Bulletin, No. 128, by Department of Agriculture, the state-

"egg white begins to coagulate White fibres appear which become more numerous until at about 160 degrees Fahrenheit the whole mass is coaguis

ment

made

that

at

134 degrees Fahrenheit.

lated, the white almost

opaque, yet
temperature

it

is

tender

and
212

jelly-like.

If the

is

raised to

degrees

Fahrenheit,

and

continued,

the

coagulated albumen becomes

much harder and


it

eventually more or less tough and horn-like;


also

undergoes

shrinkage.

It

has

been found

APPENDIX

273

by experiment that the yolk of egg coagulates


firmly at a lower temperature than the white."
It also

says that these changes in the


it

suggest the idea that

eggs in boiling water in


desirable
result.

albumen is not advisable to cook order to secure the most


changes
that

Experiment

A: To

show the
at various

take place in egg white


Materials'.
Test-tube and holder

temperatures.

Thermometer

Beaker or saucepan of water

Egg white
Insert

Put the white of egg into the test-tube.


the thermometer.

Hold the

test-tube in the

pan

of cold

water to the depth of the egg white.

Gradually heat the water and observe the temperature


at which the first change in the egg albumen takes place. Notice also the tempera-

ture of the water at this

point.

Continue the

experiment until the water in the outer vessel


has
boiled

ten

or

twenty minutes, noting the

temperatures at which the various changes occur.

Experiment

B:

To

shov/

the

temperatures

obtained in the proper cooking of eggs.

Materi ah
Fireless cooker

Eggs

Water Thermometer

Cook eggs

as directed for soft-cooked eggs

on

page 190, observing the temperature of the water

274

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


are added to removed from the cooker;
it,

after the eggs

and when they

are

also the condition,

flavour, etc., of the eggs.

Cereal Proteids
Professor Harcourt,
fast
in

his

bulletin,

*'

Break-

Foods," published by the Ontario Depart29,

ment of Agriculture, pp. 20 and


digestible.

says that

long cooking of cereals renders the protein

more The cooking which he describes was


in

carried

on

double boiler,

and,
in

therefore,

below boiling temperature, and


is

this

respect

similar

to

fireless

cookery.

He
cereal

says

that

while short cooking, which was done at boiling

temperature,

seemed

to

make

proteids

less digestible, the

long cooking at below boiling

temperature, which followed, somewhat changed

them and made them more


While
little

digestible.

study appears to have been

made
prob-

of the digestibility of cereal proteids


for a long time at a

when cooked
it

low temperature,
that,
like at a

is

ably

fair, in

the absence of further definite infor-

mation,
it

to

assume
to

animal proteids,

is

better

cook them

low temperature
or
higher.

such as that of the


temiperature

fireless

cooker, than at the

of boiling water

Meat Proteids
In the bulletin entitled
of

"A

Precise

Method

Roasting Meat,"

by Elizabeth A. Sprague

APPENDIX
and H.
sity
S.

275

Grindley, published by the Univeris

of IlHnois, a study
at

made

of the temperaplace

tures

which
to

the

changes
"well

take

from

raw meat
rare," and

"rare"; from "rare" to


this to
if

from

"medium done" meat. The


is

authors found that

the centre of the meat

between 130 degrees and 148 degrees Fahrenheit (55 degrees and 65 degrees Centigrade), it is
rare; if
it is

Fahrenheit
grade),
it

between 148 degrees and 158 degrees (65 degrees and 70 degrees Centi-

is

medium
and

rare;

and

if it

is

between
(70

158

degrees

176

degrees

Fahrenheit
it

degrees and 80 degrees Centigrade),

is

well

done.

They found no advantage


in a very hot

in

cooking

meat

oven (385 degrees Fahrenheit,


a
diffi-

or 195 degrees Centigrade), but rather

culty to keep it from burning; that in an oven which was about 350 degrees Fahrenheit (175 degrees Centigrade), the meat cooked better;

and that in an Aladdin oven which kept the meat at about 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degree
it cooked best of all; that is, it was more uniform character all through, more juicy, and more high flavoured. This seems

Centigrade),
of

to point to an

advantage

in fireless

cookery for
it

meats,

and
initial

practical

experience

bears

out.

The
to

heat of the insulated oven serves

sear

and brown the meat,

and when

this

276
heat
is

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


reduced by the cooHng of the stones, the
obtained.
in

low temperature found to be best for completing


the roasting
is

With regard

to

meats

cooked

in

water

the

cooker, experience has


are

shown

that they

become well done and


boiled,
to

more
of

tender than
peratures

when

showing that the temthat

necessary

reach

degree

cooking are obtained even

in the centre of a large

piece of meat, without toughening or hardening

the outside of the meat, as


intense heat
is

is

done when more


cooking
can
at

applied.
effect

The hardening
monstrated
until
it is

of long

high temperature on meat

proteids

be de-

by broiling a tender piece of steak

rare, cutting off a small piece, continuing

the broiling for a few minutes, cutting off another piece

and

comparing

these

pieces

with
until

the

remainder, which should be broiled


well done.

very

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

277

278

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

279

28o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

281

282

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

283

284

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

285

286

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

287

288

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

289

290

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

291

292

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

293

294

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

295

296

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

CLASSIFIED INDEX OF RECIPES AND TIME TABLE FOR THE FIRELESS COOKER
CEREALS
Boil

on Stove Minutes
5
5

In Cooker

Hours
Rolled Oats
.

PAGE
.

2 -12
. <;

54,

204

Corn-Meal Mush

-10 or more
10
or

54, 204
55.

lO

60
10 10
5

Hominy Samp
.

Grits

more

205

6 -12

150,
55.

205
205

Cracked Wheat
Steel-cut

20
.
.

Oats

20
2 -12
I I

56,

206

Pettijohn's
.

Break iastFood

56, 206

Boii Boil Boil Boil

Cream
Farina

of

Wheat
.
.

-12
-12

56, 206
56, 206

Wheatlet

I
.

-12

56, 206

Rice

1-2

149, 206

SOUPS
Boil

on Stove Minutes
10

In Cooker

White Stock

....
.
.

Hours

PAGE
.

9-12
9-12 9-12 9-12
h

62, 207

2 10 10 10

To

Clear Stock

J or more
.

59
60, 207

Brown Stock, No. Brown Stock, No.


Bouillon

61

62
63
63, 207

Warm
Boil
.

Beef Broth

10

.... Mutton Broth Consomme ....


. . .

20 and 5

Mock-Turtle Soup No.

9-12 9-12 9-12

64 65

297

298

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


In Cooker

Boil on Stove

Mimites
IC
I
.

Hours
.

Mock-Turtle Soup No. 2


Vegetable Soup with Stock

9
3 3

or or
or

more

more

Boil

Cream

of Celery

Soup
.

more

Boil Boil Boil

Asparagus Soup

Tomato Soup with Stock


Creole Soup

....
.

2J or more or more I
I

or
or
or

more

Boil
Boil Boil

Ox

Tail Soup

2 2

more
more
. .

Julienne Soup
.

Macaroni Soup
Vegetable Soup

2
3
.

2
Boil
Boil
.

or
.

more
.

Bean Soup

....

Black Bean Soup

9-12 8-12
I

Boil Boil Boil Boil

Tomato Soup Puree of Lima Beans Baked Bean Soup


Pea Soup
Split-Pea

or or

more more

4
.
.

or
or

more more

10
Boil
.

Soup

5
1
. .
.

Potato Soup
Fish

1 or more

Boil

Chowder

and h
. .

Boil
Boil
Boil Boil

Clam Chowder
Oyster Stew

1-2
I

Connecticut Chowder

....
FISH

and J J or more
J or more

Clam Stew

Boil

on Stove Minutes
.

In Cooker

Boil Boil Boil Boil Boil

Boiled Fish

....
No.
i

Hours
I
I

...
J or more
.

Creamed
Creamed

Salt Codfish Salt Codfish

No. 2

Codfish Balls

....
.
.

^ or more
. .

li

Salt Fish Souffle

li

15

Salmon Loaf

1-2
f-2
li- 3

...
. .

10
Boil
Boil
.

Casserole of Fish

Cape Cod Turkey

Creamed Oysters
Lobster
. .
.

or more
3

5 5

Crabs

....

1-3

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


VEGETABLES
Boil

299

on Stove

In

Minutes
Boil Boil
.
.

Cooker Hours
1
.

PAGE
. .

Asparagus

136
137 137

Cabbage, Summer

Ii-I2
3 or

Boil
Boil

Cabbage, Winter
Cauliflower

4-12

ii-3
.

137
138

Boil

Carrots

Boil
5 5

Corn
Beets,

....
new
.

- 3

or
.

more
.

?- 2 ^ 4

139
139

5-6
. ,

or

more

Beets, old

or

more

139 139

Boil

Fresh Shelled Beans


String Beans
.

2i or more

Boil

6-12
I

140
140

Boil Boil

Lima Beans
Dried

J or more
or or or or

Dried Lima Beans

more more
more

140
141
T4I

Boil

Navy Beans

Boil
Boil
Boil

Chard

....
. . . .

8 3

Spinach

more
more
.

142
142

Beet Greens

2 1 or

Boil
Boil

Stewed Celery
Macaroni, soaked
I

2-4
J, or 2 J, or 2
J,
if if if if if
I I

142
143

not soaked
not soaked not soaked

Boil
Boil Boil
Boil

Macaroni and Cheese , soake d


.

236

Macaroni and Ham, oaked


s

or 2

235
143

Macaroni Italienne, s oaked


Macaroni Milanaise, soaked
Spaghetti, soaked

1, or 2

not soaked
not soaked

li, or 2
1

144

Boil

J, or

if

not soaked

Boil Boil
Boil

Noodles

Creamed Mushrooms
Fricasseed

Mushroom s
. .

Boil
1

Onions
Potatoes

2-6 2-6 2-8


ii-3

... ...
. .

144
78 y 145

145

... ...
.
.

145 146
146
147

Boil

Creamy Potatoes
Stewed Potatoes
Peas
.

Boil

Boil
Boil Boil Boil
Boil

i-3i 1-3 ... 1-2 or more


.

216
147
148

Old Peas
Rice, No.

2-12
I
I

...

148

Rice No. 2

Savoury Rice
Pilaf

Boil

... ...

149' 206

149
149. 218

300
Boil

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


In Cooker

on Stove Minutes
60

Hours

PAGE
or

Boil Boil

Samp Summer Squash


Tomatoes

6
.

more

150 205
150

3
I

or

more

151

10 10 10 10
Boil Boil
.

Hubbard

or Winter

Squash

- 8

151
. .
.

Pumpkin
Creamed Turnips

- 8
3
3

15^
152
153 153 153

ih.

or

more
more

Mashed Turnips
Chestnuts
Brussels Sprouts

li-

or

2 - 4
.

- z

BEEF
Boil

on Stove Minutes
30 30
30

In Cooker

Roast Beef
Pot Roast
Beef a la
.

....
.
.

Hours
2 9
or or
,

PAGE

more
more
.

229
94, 214

Mode

9-12
10 -12
6

30-40
10

Corned Beef
Boiled Dinner

....
la

95,215

96
.

or
or
.

more more
.

96, 216

10
2
5

Beef Stew a

Mode

5 5 or 6

97,215
98

Stuffed Rolled Steak

Beef Stew with Dumplings


Irish

Boil

Stew

....

li
5

99
100, 215

or

more

30
5
5 5

Cannelon

of Beef

Meat

Pie

.....
.

4
2

loi, 216

or or
or

more more more


more

lOI

Braised Beef Liver

10 10
10

102
103

Beef Kidney
Stuffed Heart

....
.

or

104
105

20-30
20-30

Corned Tongue
Fresh Tongue
.

10-12
10
or

more

105
93

30

Braised Beef

4 or more

MUTTON AND LAMB


Boil on Stove

In Cooker

Minutes

Hours
Boiled Leg or Shoulder
.

PAGE
or or
or

20-30 20-30
5
.
.

6
6

more more more

108
108

Braised Mutton

Stew

109

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


Boil

301

on Stove Minutes
5
5 5

In Cooker

Hours
Chestnut Stew
Syrian Stew Syrian Stuffed Cabbage
Casserole of Rice and
. . . .

PAGE
.

4 or more
4 or more

109

no
III

5-6
I

15
5

Meat

to 3

...
or or

112
.

OkraStew
.

more
more

Ill, 216

Boil

Ragout

of Boiled

Mutton

113

VEAL
Boil

on Stove Minutes
. .

In Cooker

Hours
Breaded Cutlets
Plain Cutlets
.
.

PAGE

Boil
Boil

20
2
10 10
Boil
.

Veal Loaf

Sweetbreads
Calf's

Heart

Calf's Liver

Veal Kidney
Calf's

.... .... .... .... ....


PORK

2-4 2-4
4
2
10
.

... ...
.
. . .
.

116 116

117,217
118

or or

more

118

4
2

more
more more

118

or or

119

20

Head

a la Terrapin

119

Boil on Stove

In Cooker

Minutes

Hours
Boiled

PAGE
or
or
i

20-30
15

Ham or Shoulder

more
more

122
123 123

Fresh Pork with Sauerkraut

8-10
10 and

Headcheese
15 and 5

or

more
more

Scrapple

10 and 4 or more 10 and


i

124 124

15
5

Souse

or
or

Pickled Pigs' Feet

...

10

more

125

POULTRY
Boil

on Stove Minutes
10 10 10
10 10

In Cooker

Hours
Stewed Chicken
. .

PAGE
or or or
or

10 10

more more
more

13^
131

Fricasseed Chicken

Chicken Pie
Curried Chicken

10 10
5 -10

132

more more

132 132

Creamed Chicken

or

302
Boil

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


In Cooker

on Stove Minutes
30
10
in

Hours
Braised Chicken
.
.

PAGE

oven
.

2 J or
.

more more

133 133

Jellied

Chicken

10 and 6 or more
2 1 or

30 30
5

in in

oven oven

Braised

Duck

134

Braised Goose

2ior more
.

134 134

Potted Pigeons

5-6"

..

STEAMED BREADS AND PUDDINGS


Boil on Stove
In Cooker

Minutes

Hours
Boston Brown Bread

PAGE
. . .

30
15-30

5-6
5
3
.

155,218
156

Graham Pudding
Apple or Berry Pudding
Suet Pudding
. .

30 30

156

5-6
5
5
.

157,219
158

30-60

Rich Plum Pudding


Cranberry Pudding Ginger Pudding
St.
.

30 30 30 30
20
Boil
.

159

5
.
.

160
160
161
161
or

James Pudding

5
5

Harvard Pudding
Swiss Pudding
. . .

3 3

Rice Pudding

- 4
12

more

162, 219 162, 219

10
Boil
Boil
.

Indian Pudding

Tapioca Custard
Rice Custard

I
1

J and
1 and
- 2 - 2 - 2

I
I

163

....
. . .

163

Boil

Tapioca Fruit Pudding

164
164, 220
.

Warm Warm

Chocolate Bread Pudding

Queen

of

Puddings

165
. .

Steamed Cup Custard

h
I

166

Boil

Compote

of Rice

and Fruit

166

FRUITS
Boil on Stove

In Cooker

Minutes
Boil
.

Hours
Apple Sauce

PAGE
or

Boil
Boil
Boil

.... Syrup Stewed Apple .... Apple


in
.

- 3

more

168, 220
168, 220

3-1^
4
3

Jelly

or or

more

169
170

Blackberry and Apple Jelly

more

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


Boil

303

on S o\e Minutes
. .

In Cooker

Hours
Stewed Blackberries
Currant Jelly
.

PAGE
170
or

Boil

Boil Boil
Boil

....
. . .

2.-3
4
I

more

171 171

Cranberry Jelly

or 2 or

more

Cranberry Sauce

2^ or more
2 -12
I

172 172
173 173

Boil Boil Boil


Boil

Dried Fruits (soaked)

Rhubarb
Stewed Figs

....
.

- 3
7

or or or or

more more
more more

Sweet Pickled Peaches Sweet Pickled Pears


.

I I

- 2 - 2

174

Boil
Boil

174 175
175

Sweet Pickled Crab Apples


Sweet Pickled Melon Rind Sweet Pickled Plums Sweet Pickled Quinces
.

Boil

Boil

2-3 4-6 1-2


12 or or or
or

176

10
Boil
.

more
more

176

Orange Marmalade

30
.

176
.

About 30
Boil
Boil Boil
.

Candied Orange Peelj

20
20

more
more

177
178

Canned Quinces

Preserved Quinces

20
1

or

more more more

179
179

Citron and Ginger Preserve

2
3

or
or or

5 or

rr
.

ore
.

Boil

Grape Jam Grape Juice


Preserved Ginger

180
181 181

more
.

Boil

Several days

MISCELLANEOUS
Boil

on Stove Minutes
8

In

Cooker Hours
i
I
. .
.

PAGE
.

Hollandaise Sauce
.

1S5
185

Boil Boil

Tomato Sauce
Fruit Sauce
.

or

more

Warm Warm
Boil Boil
. .

Brandy Sauce
Soft-Cooked Eggs

J or more 20 minutes
10

186
186
190
191 191

minutes

Hard-Cooked Eggs
Chocolate
.
. .

20

minutes

Boil
Boil Boil Boil Boil

Cocoa
Shells

Coffee

.... .... ....


.
.

5 min. to 5 hrs. 5 min. to 5 hrs.


8

192 192
193
193

or

more more more

1-3
5

....
or
or
. .

Cereal Coffee

-10
2

Farina Balls

194

304

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


RECIPES FOR THE SICK
In Cooker

Boil

on Stove Minutes
. .

Hours
Flaxseed

PAGE
195

Boil
Boil

Lemonade
.

i I

2i
I

Farina Gruel
Imperial

^ or more
or or
.

m
.

Boil

Granum
.
.

I
I

more
more
.

196 196
196
197 197

Scald
5

Cracker Gruel

Oatmeal Gruel

8-10
I

Boil Boil
Boil

Barley Flour Gruel

or or
or

more more

Indian Gruel

10
.

Arrowroot Gruel
Pasteurized Milk

more

197
198

Warm
Boil
.

20 -30
.

minutes

Rice and Milk

1-3
3

199

Boil Boil

Peptonized Beef Brot h


Peptonized Milk
.

199

10 -30

minutes

200

RECIPES FOR THE INSULATED OVEN


Boil on Stove

Minutes
12 to 30 min. per 12 to 25 min. per

PAGE

pound pound

Roast Beef Roast Mutton or


Roast Veal
Spareribs

Lamb

....

229

229
230

25 to 30 min. per pound

20 min. per pound

Brown Gravy
15 min. per

for Roasts

....

230 230

pound pound

Roast Chicken Roast Goose


Potato Stuffing

230
231

15 to 20 min. per

232

12 to 18 min. per pound

Roast Leg

of

Venison

20 to 30 minutes 20 to 25 min.
15 to 20
.

Roast Wild Duck

....;.

231

232

Grouse
Roast Quail Roast Plover
Potted Fish

232
233

mmutes

15 to 20 minutes
5 or

233 233

6 hours

8 hours or

more

Pork and Beans

234
234
235

45 minutes

Baked Potatoes
Macaroni and

30 minutes 30 minutes 30 minutes

Ham
Mushrooms
.

Macaroni and Cheese


Scalloped Chicken and

236
236 235

30 to 45 minutes

Scalloped Oysters

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


Boil

305

on Stove Minutes
.

PAGE
Scalloped Tomatoes
Scalloped Apple

I
I

hour

236
237 238
238

h hours
3

hours

Rice Pudding
Pastry

15 minutes

30 minutes 30 minutes
30 minutes
I

Apple Pie
Berry Pie

239

240
240 240
241

Cherry or Plum Pie

hour

Pumpkin

Pie

Lemon
30 to 45 minutes
I

Pie

Baked Apples Baked Spiced Apples


Baked Sweet Apples

hour
hours
hours

.....

241

242
243

3 3

Baked Pears
more

242 242
243

3 hours or

Baked Quinces
Bread
Rolls

50 to 60 minutes

20 minutes
15 to 20 minutes

Baking-Powder Biscuits

....

244

244
245
245

40 minutes
15 to 20 minutes

Cup Cake, loaf Cup Cake, layers


Sour-Cream Cake
Apple-Sauce Cake

40 minutes 40 minutes
50 to 60 minutes

246
246
247

Sponge Cake

1^ hours
3 hours or

Plum Cake
more
.

247
.
.

Rich Fruit Cake

248

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Advantages of Fireless Cooker, 6 to 9. Albumen, Temperature of Cooking,
272.

Beans, continued

Lima,
Puree

140.
of

Lima,

73.

Aluminum, Detection
Utensils, 14.

of,

266.

String, 140.

Bean Soup,

72, 210.

Appendix, 257 to 276. Apple Jelly, 169. or Berry Pudding Steamed, 156.
Pie, 239.

Soup, Black, 72, 211. Soup, Baked, 74. Beef, 89

la

Mode,

95, 215.

Sauce, 168, 220.

Cake, 246. Water, 200. Apples, Baked, 241.


Scalloped, 237. Stewed, 168, 220.

Broth, 63. Broth, Peptonized, 199. Braised, 93.

Required for Making Insulated Oven, 228. Arrowroot Gruel, 197. Asparagus, 136. Soup, 68, 209.
Articles

Care of, 92. Cannelon of, loi, 216. Cooking, 92. Corned, 96.
Cuts
of, 91.

Diagram

of Cuts, 90.

Kidney, 103.
Liver, Braised, 102.

Bacteriology of Insulating Boxes, 267 Baked Apples, 241. Spiced, 242. Sweet, 243.

Other Parts Used for Food, 91 Roast, 229.

Stew a la Mode, 97, 21 5. Stew with Dumplings, 99.

To

Select, 89.

Bean Soup,

74.

Pears, 242. Potatoes, 234.

Uses of Different Cuts, 89. Beet Greens, 142.


Beets, 139. Berry Pie, 240.

Quinces, 242.

Baking Powder
Egg> 79-

Biscuits, 244.

Balls, Codfish, 85, 213

Pudding, Steamed Apple or, Bind Soup, To, 59. Biscuits, Baking Powder, 244.
Bisques, 58. Blackberries, Stewed, 170. Blackberry and Apple Jelly, 170.

156.

Farina, 194.

Forcemeat, 79. Barley Flour Gruel, 197. Water, 201. Barrel Used for a Cooker, Beans, Dried Lima, 140.

10.

Black Bean Soup, 74. Blanch Nuts, To, 188. Boiled Dinner, 96, 216.
Dressing, 190. Fish, 83.

Navy,

141.

Fresh Shelled, 139.

307

3o8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cauliflower, 137. a la Hollandaise, 138.

Bouillon, 57, 62.

Boston Brown Bread, 155, 218. Box for Making Cookers, 9.


Braised Beef, 93.
Beef's Liver, 102.

auGratin, 138.
Celery, Stewed, 142.

Soup, Cream

of, 68, 208.

Chicken, 133.

Duck,

134.

Cereal Coffee, 193. Cereals, Breakfast, 52.

Goose, 134.

Brandy Sauce,

186.

Bread, 243. Boston Brown, 155, 218. Breads and Puddings, Steamed, 154. Breakfast Cereals, 52. Breakfast Food, Pettijohn's, 56, 206. Broth, Beef, 63. Peptonized, 199.

Chard, 141. Cheese, Macaroni and, 236. Cherry Pie, 240. Chemistry of Utensils, 263.
Chestnuts, Italian, 153.

To

Shell, 109.

Chestnut Stew, 109. Chicken, Braised, 133.

Creamed,

132.

Mutton, 63, 207.


Broths, 57. Brown Betty, 237. Bread, Boston, 1 55, 218. Gravy for Roasts, 230.

Curried, 132. Fricasseed, 131.


Jellied, 133. Pie, 132.

Sauce, 184,214. Stock, 57,60, 207. Brussels Sprouts, 153.

Roast, 230. Stewed, 131.

Buttered Crumbs, 187.

To Cut Up, 129. To Draw, 128. To Truss, 130.


Chocolate, 191.

Cabbage, 137.
Stuffed, Syrian, III.

Cake, Apple Sauce, 246. Cup, 245. Plum, 247. Rich Fruit, 248. Sour Cream, 246. Sponge, 247.
Calf's

Bread Pudding, 164, 220. Cup Cake, 245. Chowder, Clam, 76.
Connecticut, 76, 213. Fish, 75, 213. Citron and Ginger Preserve, 179.

Sweet Pickle, 175.

Clam Chowder, 76.


or Oyster Stew, 77. Cloth Lining for Cooker, 18. Cocoa, 192.

Head

a la Terrapin, 119.

Heart, 118.
Liver, 118.

Candied Orange
Peel, 177.

or

Grape

Fruit

Shells, 192.

Codfish Balls, 85, 213.

Canned Quinces,

178.

Cannelon of Beef, 101,216. Cans,to Sterilize, 189. Cape Cod Turkey, 87. Caper Sauce, 184. Caramel, 51.
Carrots, 138. Careof Poultry, 128.

Creamed, Creamed,

Salt,

Salt,

Cold Foods, To

No. 1,84. No. 2, 84, 213. Keep, 35.

Coffee, 193. Cereal, 193.

Compote of Rice and

Fruit, 166.

Connecticut Chowder, 76, 213. Conductivity, 259.

Casserole of Fish, 87.


of Rice

Consomme,

57, 64.

and Meat, 112.

Convection, 259.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Cooking Temperatures,
of Starches, 6, 270.
6.

309

Diagram

of Cuts, continued

Lamb

or Mutton, 107.

of Proteids, 272.

Pork, 121.

Cereal, 274. Egg, 272.

To Cut up a Chicken, 1 29 To Truss a Chicken, 131


Digestibility of Fireless Cooking, 9. Dinner, Boiled, 96, 216.

Meat, 274. Cooking for Two, 40.


Corn, 139.

Directions

for

Making

Fireless

Corned Beef, 96. Tongue, 105. Corn Meal Mush, 54, 204. Covers Fastened on Utensils, 33. Crab Apple Sweet Pickle, 175.
Crabs, 298. Cracker Gruel, 196. Crackers, Crisp, 80.

Cookers, 9. Drawn Butter Sauce, 184. Dressing, Boiled, 190. Dried Fruits, 172. Beans, Lima, 140. Beans, Navy, 141.

Duck, Braised,

134.

Cracked Wheat, 55, 205. Cranberry Jelly, 171. Pudding, Steamed, 159.
Sauce, 172. Creamed Chicken, 132.

Roast, Wild, 232. Dumplings for Stew, 99.

Egg Balls, 79.


Sauce, 184. Eggs, Hard-Cooked, 191. Soft-Cooked, No. i, 190. Soft-Cooked, No. 2, 190.
Excelsior,
.

Mushrooms,
Salt Codfish, Salt

145.

No. 1,84. Codfish, No. 2, 84, 213.

5.

Turnips, 152. Cream of Celery Soup, 68, 208.

Experiment on Bacteriology
less

of Fire-

Cookers, 267-270.

Wheat, 56, 206. Creams, Frozen, to Keep,

Chemistry of Utensils, 263.


35.

Cream Soups, 57. Creamy Potatoes, 147,216.


Creole Soups, 69, 208. Crisp Crackers, 80.

Conductivity, 259. Convection, 259.

Cooking Temperatures, 270.


Proteids, 272.

Crocks for Refrigerating Box, 37.


Croustades, 193. Croutons, 80. Crust for Meat Pie, 102. Crumbs, Buttered, 188.

Cereal, 274. Egg, 272.

Meat, 274. Starches, 270.


Density of Foods, 262. Detection of Poisonous Metals, Tin, 265.
166.

Cup Cake, 245. Cup Custard, Steamed,

Aluminum, 266.
Effect of Evaporation
11.

Currant Jelly, 171. Cushions for Fireless Cookers, Custard, Steamed Cup, 166. Tapioca or Rice, 163. Cutlets, Breaded Veal, 116.
Plain, Veal, 116.

on Tem-

perature, 263. Efficiency of Refrigerating Boxes,


266.
Insulation, 257,261. Radiation, 260.

Cylinder, 17.

Farina, 56,206.

Density of Foods, Experiment, 262. Diagram of Cuts of Beef, 90.

Balls, 194.

Gruel, 195.

310

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Graham Pudding,
156.

Fastening Covers on Utensils, 33. Figs, Stewed, 173, Fireless Cooker, the, 3.

Grape Fruit Peel, Candied, Jam, 180.


Juice, 181.

177.

Advantages of, 6. Army Use of, 202. Barrel Used for, 10.

Gravy for Roasts, Brown, Green Pea Soup, 74, 212.


Greens, Beet, 142.
9,

230.

Box Used for, 9,


Directions for Making,

Grits,

Hominy,

55, 205.

For Large Quantities, 203. Ice Box Used for, 10.


Possibilities of, 3,4.

Practical Suggestions for Using,

Grouse, 232. Gruel, Arrowroot, 197. Barley Flour, 197. Cracker, 196.
Farina, 195.

Principle of,
Fish, 81.

5.

Trunk Used for,

10.

Indian Meal, 197. Oatmeal, 196.

Balls, Codfish, 85, 213.

Ham or Shoulder, Boiled, 122.


Hard-Cooked Eggs, Hard Sauce, 185.
Harvard Pudding, Hasp, II, Hay, 6. Hay-Box, 3. Head-Cheese, 123.
Calf's, 118.

Boiled, 83.

191.

Care

of, 8 1.

Casserole of, 87.

161.

Chowder, 75,213. Cooking of, 82. Salt Cod, Creamed, No. 1,84. Creamed, No. 2,84, 213.
Sauce
for, 185.
etc.

Heart, Beef's Stuffed, 104.

Seasons,

Fresh Water, 82. Salt Water, 83.


Souffle, Salt, 86.

Hinges, 11.

HoUandaise Sauce, 185.

To Clean, 8 1. To Skin, 82. To Tell Fresh, 8 1.


Flavouring Materials, 49-51. Flaxseed Lemonade, 195.

Hominy Grits, 55, 205. Hubbard Squash, 151.


Ice Cream, to Keep, 35. Imperial Granum, 196.

Forcemeat Balls, 79.


Fresh Shelled Beans, 139. Fresh Tongue, 105. Fricasseed Chicken, 131.

Indian Gruel, 197. Pudding, 162,219. Insulate an Oven, To, 222.


Insulated Oven, The, 221.
Insulation, Experiments,
Effect of Different Thicknesses,

Mushrooms,
Sauce, 186.
Fruits, 168.

145.

Fruit Cake, Rich, 248.

261.

Dried, 172.
Garnishes, Soup, 78. Ginger, Preserved, 181.

Test of Materials Irish Stew, 100. 215.

for, 257.

Jam, Grape,

180.

Jars, to Sterilize, 189.


Jellied Chicken, 133. Jelly, Apple, 169. Blackberry and Apple, 170.

Pudding, 160. Goose, Braised, 134.


Roast, 231.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Jelly, continued

311

Cranberry, 171. Currant, 171. Juice, Grape, 181. Julienne Soup, 70, 210.

Milk, Pasteurized, 198. Peptonized, 200. Rice and, 199. Mineral Wool, 5, 11,21. Mock Turtle Soup, No. i 65.
,

Kidney, Beef, 103.


Veal, 119.

No. 2, 66, 208. Mush, Corn Meal, 54, 204. Mushrooms, Creamed, 145.
Fricasseed, 145. Scalloped Chicken and, 236. Mutton, Cuts, 106.

Lamb

and Mutton, 106. Cuts of, 106.

Diagram

of Cuts, 107. Roast, 229. Table of Cuts and Uses, 107. Other Parts Used for

Diagram

Lamb

of Cuts, 107. and, 106.

Leg of. Boiled,


Ragout

108.

Braised, 108.
of Cold, 113. Roast, 229. Stew, 109. of

Food, 107.

Leg of Mutton, Boiled,


Braised, 108.

108

Lemonade, Flaxseed,

195.

Table

Uses

of

Cuts,

Lemon Pie, 241.


Lima Beans,
140.

107.

Other parts Used, 107.

Dried, 140.

Puree of, 73,212. Liver, Braised Beef's, 102


Calf's, 118.

Navy Beans, Dried,

141.

Loaf, Salmon, 86. Veal, 117,217. Lobster, 298.

Noodles, 78, 145. Nutmeg Sauce, 187. Nuts, Salted, 188. To Blanch, 188.

Oatmeal Gruel,
Macaroni, 143. and Cheese, 236. and Ham, 235.
Italienne, 143,217.

196.

Steel Cut, 56, 206.

Oats, Rolled, 54, 204.

Okra Stew, 111,216.


Onions, 146.

Milanaise, 144.

Soup, 70, 209. Marmalade, Orange, 176. Mashed Turnip, 153. Materials for Packing Cookers, 11,
257.
for Utensils, 14.

Orange Marmalade, 176. Orange or Grape Fruit


died, 177.

Peel,

Can-

Oven,

Articles

Required for

Mak-

ing, 228.

Method of Using, 224. The Insulated, 221.

Needed for Home-made Cookers,


25-

To Insulate, 222.
Ox-Tail Soup, 70, 209.
Oysters, Creamed, 88.
Scalloped, 235. Stew, 77.

Measures, Table of Weights and, 45. Measuring, 43.

Meat Pie,

loi

Crust for, 102.

Menus, 250-255. Method of Packing a Hay-Box, Using the Oven, 224.

Packing Materials,
15.

5, 1

Pail, Portable Insulating, 32.


Pails, 13.

312

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Poultry, 126.

Paper Insulation, 5,11.


Lining for Cooker, 19. Test for Oven, 225. Pasteurized Milk, 198. Pastry for Two Crusts, 238. Peaches, Sweet Pickled, 174. Pears, Baked, 242. Sweet Pickled, 174. Peas, 148. Pea Soup, Green, 74, 212.
Split, 77, 212.

Care

of, 128.

Stuffing for, 131.

To Cut up, 129. To Draw, 129. To Truss, 130.


Practical Suggestions for Using the

Cooker, 25. Citron Preserved


179.

and

Ginger,

Quinces, 179.
Proportions, Table of, 47. Prunes, Sweet Pickled, 175.
56,

Peptonized, Beef Broth, 199. Milk, 200. Food, Breakfast Pettijohn's


206.

Pudding, Chocolate Bread, 164. Cranberry, Steamed, 159.


Ginger, 160.

Pickled Pig's Feet, 125. Pickles, Sweet, 174. Pie, Apple, 239. Berry, 240.
Pie, Cherry or

Graham,

156.

Harvard, 161.
Indian, 162,219.

Plum, 240.

Pan,

13

Chicken, 132.

Puddings, Queen, of 165.


Rice, 162, 219, 238.

Lemon, 241.
Meat, loi.

Pumpkin,

240.

Rich Plum, 158. Steamed Apple or Berry,


St.

156.

Pigeons, Potted, 134. Pilaf, Turkish, 149,218.


Plover, Roast, 233.

James, 160.

Suet, 157,219.

Swiss, 161.

Plum Cake,

247.

Pie, 240.

Tapioca Fruit, 164. Breads Puddings, Steamed


154-

and,

Pudding, Rich, 158. Plums, Sweet Pickled, 176. Experiment, Metals, Poisonous
265.

Pumpkin,

152.

Pie, 240.

Purees, 58.

Pork, 120. and Beans, 149,218,234.

Quail, Roast, 233.

Diagram of Cuts,

121.

Fresh, with Sauerkraut, 123,

To

Select, 122.

Quantity of Food Cooked, 26. Queen of Puddings, 165. Quinces, Baked, 242.

Uses of Cuts, 121.


Portable Insulating Pail, 32. Potatoes, Baked, 234. Boiled, 146.

Canned,

178.

Preserved, 179. Sweet Pickled, 176.

Creamy, 147,216.
Soup, 75, 211. Stewed, 147,
Stuffing, 232.

Radiation, Experiment, 260.

Ragout of Cold Mutton, 113. Ready-made Cookers, 23.

To Select, 24.
Recipes
for

PotRoast, 94, 214.


Potted Fish, 233. Pigeons, 134.

Large

Quantities,

202.

For the Sick, 195.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Refrigerating Box, 36.
Efficiency, Experiment, 261.

3^3

Scalloped Apple, 237.

Chicken and Mushrooms, 236.


Oysters, 235.

Made with Bread Box, 39.


Crocks, 37.
Rice, No.
Pail, 39. 1, 148.

Tomatoes, 236.
Scrapple, 124 Sealing Wax for Bottles, 181.

No. 2, 149, 206. and Milk, 199. Custard, Tapioca


Savoury, 149.

or, 163.

Pudding, 162, 219, 238.

Rich Plum Pudding, 158. Rhubarb, Stewed, 173. Roast Beef, 229.
Chicken, 230.

Seasoning Materials, 49-51Sick, Recipes for the, 1 95. Shell, Italian Chestnuts, to, 189. Shelled Beans, Fresh, 139. Shells Cocoa, 192. Shoulder of Pork, Boiled, 122. Slate for Recording Time, 30. Soft-Cooked Eggs, No. i, 190.

No.

2, 190.

Duck, Wild, 232.


Goose, 231, Grouse, 232.

Souffle, Salt Fish, 86.

Mutton or Lamb, 229.


Plover, 233.

Soup, Asparagus, 68, 209. Baked Bean, 74, 212. Bean, 72, 210. Black Bean, 72,211.

Quail, 233. Veal, 230. Venison, Leg of, 231.

Cream

of Celery, 68, 208.

Creole, 69, 208. Garnishes, 78-80.

Wild Duck, 232.


Rolled Oats, 54, 204.
Steak, Stuffed, 98.
Rolls, 244.

Green Pea,

74, 212. Julienne, 70, 210.

Macaroni, 70, 209.

Making,

58.

Mock
Salmon Loaf,
86.
Salt Fish Souffle, 86.

Turtle, No. i, No. 2,66,208.


1.

65.

Ox-Tail, 70, 209.


Potato, 75, 21
Sticks, 80.
Split Pea, 77, 212.

Salted Nuts, 188.

Samp, 150,205. Sauce, Brown, 184, 214.


Brandy, 186, Caper, 184.

Stock, Brown, 57. Brown, No. 1,60,207.


184.

Drawn Butter,
Egg, 184.
for Fish, 185.

No.

2, 61.

for Vegetables, 183.

To Clear, 59. To Make, 58. To Remove Fat from, 59.


White,
57.

Fruit, 186.

Hard, 185. HoUandaise, 185.

Nutmeg, Tomato,

187. 185.

No. 1,61. No. 2, 62, 207. Tomato, with Stock,

69, 210.

Vanilla, 187.

White, 183. Savoury Rice, 149. Sawdust, 5, 22, 37.


Sauerkraut, 123.

without Stock, 73, 211. Vegetable, with Stock, 67, 209. without Stock, 71, 210.

Cream,

57. 58.

To Bind,

Sour Cream Cake, 246.

314

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Sweetbreads, 118.

Souse, 124. Space Adjuster, 22.


Spaghetti, 144. Spare Ribs, 230.

Creamed, 118.
Sweet Pickles, 174. Crabapples, 175. Peaches, 174.
Pears, 174.

Spiced Apples, Baked, 242. Spinach, 142. Split-Pea Soup, 77, 212.

Plums, 176.
Prunes, 175. Quinces, 176.

Sponge Cake, 247. Squash, Hubbard, or Winter, 151.

Summer,

150.

Watermelon Rind, or
'75-

Citron,

Starch, Cooking Temperature, 6, 270. Steak, Stuffed, Rolled, 98.

Steamed Breads and Puddings, 41,


154. General Directions, 154. Steamed Apple or Berry Pudding, 156

Swiss Pudding, 161. Syrian Stew (Yakhni),

10.

Syrian Stuffed Cabbage, in.

Cranberry Pudding, 159.

Tableof Cutsof Beef,9i. Mutton and Lamb,


Veal, 115. Flavourings for Sweet
50-

107.

Cup
Steel

Custard, 166.
50, 206.

Cut Oatmeal,

Dishes,

Sterilize Jars or

Cans, To, 189.

Stew, Beef a la Mode, 97, 215. Beef, with Dumplings, 99. Chestnut, 109.
Irish, 100,215.

Materials

for

Home - made

Cooker, 25.
Seasonings, 50. Seasons of Fresh Water Fish,
Salt

Mutton, 109. Okra, 111,216. Oyster or Clam, 77.


Syrian (Yakhni),

Water Fish,

83.

Proportions, 47.

no.

Stewed Apples

in Syrup, 168, 220.

Blackberries, 170. Celery, 142.

Weights and Measures, 45. Tapioca or Rice Custard, 163. Temperatures of Cooking Starches,
6, 270.

Chicken, 131.
Cranberries, 172.
Figs, 173. Potatoes, 147.

Proteids, 6, 272. Cereal, 274.

Egg, 272-^
Terrapin, Calf's

Head
in

a la, 119.

St.

Rhubarb, 173. Tomatoes, 151. James Pudding, 160.

Time

for

Cooking

Cooker, 29, 41.

On Stove, 28.
Tin, Detection
of, 265.

String Beans, 140. Stuffed Cabbage, Syrian,

Thermos

in.

To

Bottle, 5, 260. Insulate an Oven, 222.

Heart, 104. Rolled Steak, 98.


Stuffing for Poultry, 131.

Tomatoes, Scalloped, 236.


Stewed, 151.

Tomato Sauce,

185.

Potato, 232.

Soup, with Stock, 69, 210.


Fireless

Suet Pudding, 157, 219. Suggestions for Using a Cooker, 25. Summer Squash, 150. Sweet Apples, Baked, 243.

Without Stock, 73, 211. Tongue, Corned, 105.


Fresh, 105.

To Tie Cover on Utensil, 33. To Truss a Chicken, 130.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Turkish
Pilaf, 149,218. Turnips, Creamed, 152.

315

Mashed,

153.
i,

Veal, continued Tableof Cuts, 115. Other Parts used, 115.


65.
2, 66, 208.

Turtle Soup, Mock, No.

No.

Vegetables, 136. Directions for Cooking, 136.

Using Insulated Oven, Method


224. Utensils, Material for, 14.

of,

Sauce for, 183. Vegetable Soup with Stock, 67, 209. without Stock, 71,210. Venison, Roast Leg of, 23 1

Shape,

13.

Size, 14,40.

Water, Apple, 200.


Barley, 201.

Vacuum

Insulation, 5.

Watermelon Rind Sweet

Pickle, 175.

Vanilla Sauce, 187.

Wax for

Sealing Bottles, 181.


55, 205.
of, 56, 206.

Veal, 114.

Wheat, Cracked,

Age, 114.

Cream
115.

Cooking of,

Cutlets, Breaded, 116.

Plain, 116.

Wheatlet, 56, 206. White Sauce, 183. Stock, No. I, 61.

Diagram

of Cuts, 115.

Kidney, 119.
Loaf, 117,217. Roast, 230. Season for, 114.

No. 2, 62, 207. Wild Duck, Roast, 232.


Winter Squash, 151. Wool, 5, 11,21. Mineral 5, 11, 21.

MAY

11

190P

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

014 639 355 A

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