You are on page 1of 52





Personal Survival Techniques Course Outline Duration – 2.5 days S.No 1. Descriptions/ Topics Chapter 1 - Introduction safety and survival - Safety Guidance - Principles of Survival at Sea - Definitions, Survival craft and appliances Chapter 2 - Emergency situations - Types of Emergencies - Precautions - Fire Provisions - Foundering - Crew expertise and Initial Familiarization - Muster List and Emergency Signals - Crew and Emergency Instructions - Extra Equipments and Survival - Abandon ship- Complications Chapter 3 - Evacuation - Abandoning Ship- Last resort - Personal preparation for abandoning ship - Need to prevent panic - Crew Duties to Passengers - Crews duties- Launching Survival craft - Master's orders to abandon ship - Means of survival Chapter 4 - Survival Craft and Rescue Boat - Life Boats - Life Rafts - Rescue Boats Chapter 5 - Personal Life Saving Appliances - Lifebuoys - Lifejackets Hours Lectu Demo re












7. 8.



- Immersion suits / Anti- exposure suits - Thermal Protective Aids Chapter 6 - Personal Life Saving Appliances (Demonstrations) - Life Buoys - Life Jackets - Inflatable Life Jackets -Immersion Suits / Anti-exposure suits - Thermal Protective Aids - Personal survival without a life jacket - Boarding Survival Craft Chapter 7 - Survival At sea Dangers to Survivors Best use of Survival craft facilities Chapter 8 - Emergency Radio Equipment (Lecture & Demonstrations) - Portable Radio Apparatus for survival craft - Emergency Position-indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) -Search and Rescue Transponders (SART) Chapter 9 - Helicopter Assistance - Communicating with Helicopter - Evacuation from Ship and Survival craft - Helicopter Pick up Correct Use of Helicopter Harness Review & Final assessments Sub Total Total


3.75 0.75



1.0 1.0 9.75

0.5 5.25 15.0





BASIC DETAILS OF THE COURSE AND OBJECTIVES Aims: This course aims to meet the mandatory minimum requirements for seafarers for familiarization, basic safety training and instruction in accordance with Section A-VIII of STCW Code. Objectives: After successful completion of this course the trainees would be able to: Don a lifejacket Don and use an immersion suit Safely jump from a height into the water Right an inverted life raft while wearing a lifejacket Swim while wearing a lifejacket Keep afloat without a lifejacket Board a survival craft from ship and in water while wearing a lifejacket Take initial actions on boarding survival craft to enhance chance of survival Stream a drogue or sea-anchor Operate survival craft equipment Operate location devices including radio equipment CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION SAFETY AND SURVIVAL Safety Guidance This course details/guides the safest ways and prepares to deal with any emergency that can occur on board. This course does not replace the ship's specific guidelines which are adhered to onboard a particular ship .This will only give the general procedures for conduct onboard. Principles of Survival at Sea A. Principles of survival include: ▫ Need to be ready for dealing with any emergency Action to be taken when called to survival craft stations Actions to be taken when required to abandon ship Action to be taken while in water ▫ Action to be taken when aboard survival craft ▫ Main dangers to survivors when in the water ▫ Value of training and drills ▫ Personal protective clothing and equipment B. Basic concepts of Survival: To control fear


Launching appliance or arrangement is a means of transferring a survival craft or rescue boat from its stowed position safely to the water. 3) Anti-Exposure suit is a protective suit designed for use by rescue boat crews and marine evacuation system launching is that method of launching a survival craft whereby the craft is automatically released from a sinking ship and is ready for use. Survival craft is a craft capable of sustaining the lives of persons in distress from the time of abandoning the ship. Definitions Survival craft and appliances (SOLAS Ch. Rescue boat is a boat designed to rescue persons in distress and to marshal survival craft Thermal protective aid is a bag or suit made of waterproof material with low thermal conductance.III. 6 . Inflatable appliance is an appliance which depends upon non-rigid gas filled chambers for buoyancy and which is normally kept un-inflated until ready for use. Embarkation ladder is the ladder provided at survival craft embarkation stations to permit safe access to survival craft after launching. Free-fall launching is that method of launching a survival craft whereby the craft with its Complement of persons and equipment on board is released and allowed to fall into the sea without any restraining apparatus Immersion suit is a protective suit which reduces the body heat loss of a person wearing it in cold water.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY The will to survive Knowledge of the equipments on the ship and the lifeboats Courage by way of up keeping the self morale Survival is more likely if the survival crafts stay together which will enhance moral support and back up anti also enable sharing each others equipment and expertise of personnel. Float. They should be connected by painters and the occupants’ evenly distributed amongst the Survival Craft which will assist in attaining a uniform rate of drift and easy location by the rescue party. Reg.

location of life buoys. Other than these mandatory safety symbols. SAFETY SYMBOLS Routes to the muster stations. 7 . Regulation -35) A SOLAS training manual complying with the above regulation is to be kept in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew cabin. many more symbols are available for the purpose of educating staff onboard including for all jobs where safety is of paramount importance. EPIRBs . SARTs. This training manual shall contain instructions and information in easily understood terms illustrated wherever possible. pasted at the bottom of the bulkheads at a height of less than a foot from the floor so that in case of fire they can still be clearly seen due to their inherent nature of luminescence.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Inflated appliance is an appliance which depends upon non-rigid. SOLAS Training Manual (SOLAS Ch III. near welding transformers. International Life -Saving appliance (LSA) Code means. near paint and chemical stores etc. For example-near oxygen and acetylene cylinders. LSA Code adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee. on the lifesaving appliances provided in the ship and on the best methods of survival. emergency escape routes. fire fighting equipments and all emergency items on board are required to be identified by safety symbols. These symbols are pasted on the bulkheads and for the purpose of emergencies. Marine evacuation system is an appliance for the rapid transfer of persons/items to the embarkation deck of a ship to a floating survival craft. This includes many points for survival included in this course 'Objective' will be explained in detail as per above SOLAS regulation. directions to the location of life boats and life rafts. gas filled chambers for buoyancy and which is kept inflated and ready for use at all times.

piracy. All personnel should be prepared at all times to meet any contingencies through their own initiative and skill. 8 . backed by excellent training and experience will prevent emergencies from going out of control.EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Types of emergencies Emergency may happen at any time. abandon ship--search and rescue. steering gear failure. man overboard. flooding. pollution. grounding. emergency assistance to other ships.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 2 . foundering. Some of the types of emergencies which may occur on board are :. Proper and timely action taken. explosion. collision. engine failure. cargo/cargo operation related accident-shifting of

Oily bilge-water separator 15 ppm monitor and associated alarms cut off devices for pumps. means of access to different compartments etc..General arrangement plans shall be permanently exhibited for the guidance of Ship's Crew. against Pirate attacks and to sail through adverse weather conditions. This FF A plan is approved by the Administration and displayed in all accommodation deck. ODMCS. A training manual shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation rooms or in each crew cabin. at all times be available on board in an accessible position. the sprinkler installation. To prevent pollution. Engine Room is alerted. up on the bridge in congested waters as a precautionary measure to avoid collision and consequential disasters.means shall be provided to detect al1d give alarms at an early stage in case of fire. Doubling up of lookouts. and one copy shall be. Protection against flooding will be in the form of high audible alarms. additional watch keepers are closed. types of fire extinguishers. Like wise. the above mentioned details may be set out in a booklet. For example. On board drills are conducted to comply with ISM code of Safe practices which caters for precautions to be taken for various emergencies in the form of Check lists/reports for various contingencies. A duplicate set of Fire Control Plans or a booklet containing such plans shall be permanently stored in a prominently marked weather tight enclosure outside the deck house for the assistance of shore side fire fighting personnel.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Precautions Most of the emergencies can be prevented if crew members are alert and observe all safety precautions as laid down on board vessels in various safety manuals which comply with regulations promulgated by IMO Flag state. The training manual shall explain the following in detail: 9 . as a precaution. various fire sections/class divisions together with the particulars of the fire detection and fire alarm systems. a copy of which shall be supplied to each officer. to man machinery which is likely to trip during heavy rolling / pitching of the vessel. In stormy weather. remote monitoring devices such as bilge level alarms etc. Courses and additional trainings are incorporated at every stage to update crew. By observing these safe practices. Fire precaution . Precautions are also taken to prevent Oil spills. Alternately. various precautionary measures are incorporated from the time of construction of a vessel to prevent emergencies. fire extinguishing appliances. at the discretion of the Administration. Fire Provisions Fire Control Plans . showing clearly for each Deck the control stations. accidents/ emergencies can be prevented.

Each lifeboat should be launched with its assigned crew aboard and maneuvered in the water at least once every three months thereby making every one familiar with the procedure. Life Boat drills and life raft drills. Loss of stability due to cargo shift coupled with high seas could be another reason for foundering. Regular training of all personnel in life boat and life raft drills and its equipment's will prepare them for any emergency. electrical hazards. Crew expertise and initial familiarization. . . to ensure competency in field of assigned duties with respect to various drills and contingency plans as per ship's contingency plans. Every crew member with assigned emergency duties shall be familiar with safety installations and practice musters. It is first priority is to familiarize himself with his Muster station/ alternate station.Meaning of ship's alarms. . He is to physically sight the escape routes . Performance of the crew members are periodically evaluated by conducting on-board training and drills to identify the areas in need of improvement. . he is to familiarize himself with the vessel as per ISM check list.General fire safety practice and precautions related to the dangers of smoking. and similar common shipboard hazards. Engine failure in very rough seas with certain cargoes like steel coils/pellets or even in ballast due to material fatigue could founder a vessel.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY .escape systems and appliances Foundering This means sinking of vessel due to loss of stability due to some incident or accident . duties as per Muster list. All crew members shall receive instructions on safety and their assigned duties.General instructions on fire fighting activities and fire fighting procedures for notification of a fire and use of Manually Operated Call Points. should be carried out in a professional manner so as to ensure that everyone on board gains experience in the launching and.He is to familiarize with the arrangement of the ship as well as the location and operation of any fire fighting systems and appliances that may be called upon to use. When a crew member reports on board. The term also necessitates the use of all life saving appliances so as to save the lives of every individual.Operation and use of fire fighting systems and appliances . . 10 . flammable liquids. Expertise is achieved only by on board training and drills.Operation and use of fire doors.Operation and use of fire and smoke dampers. handling of lifeboats.say collision and flooding of the ship.

engine room and crew accommodation spaces. Illustrations and instructions in appropriate languages shall be pasted in passenger cabins and be conspicuously displayed at Muster Stations and other passenger spaces to inform 1. On-board training in the use of the ship's life-saving appliances. every person must locate his lifejacket in his cabin and read the Emergency Station Muster List. Also he should read his duties and ascertain the location of the necessary equipments he has to bring if any allotted for him.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY On joining the ship at the earliest. 11 . Every Crew Member shall participate in at least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month. and in the use of the ship's fireextinguishing appliances shall be given as soon as possible but not later than two weeks after a crew member joins the ship as per SOLAS. He has to ascertain the locations of the Muster Station. The drills of the crew shall take place within 24 hrs of the ship leaving a Port if more than 25 % of the crew have not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month. Muster list and emergency signals 1. On a ship engaged in a voyage where passengers are scheduled to be on board for more than 24 hrs. including survival craft equipment. Muster list and emergency instructions complying with the SOLAS requirements shall be exhibited in conspicuous places throughout the ship including the Navigation Bridge. Alternate muster station. the essential action they must take in an emergency 3. An officer responsible or a person designated by the Master should familiarize the items required to the new joiners and log down the same in appropriate familiarization checklists and in the appropriate book. the method of donning life jackets.. their Muster stations 2. musters of the passengers shall take place within 24 hrs after their embarkation. Clear instructions to be followed in then event of an emergency shall be provided for every person on board.

tinned milk. b.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY The emergency station Muster List shall be prepared by the Master or the vessel before the ship proceeds to sea. tinned fruits. extra fuel. Closing of water tight doors. fresh fruits and milk products. vent pipes. valves. cowls and other similar opening. the Master shall either revise the list or prepare a new list. sky lights. and blankets etc. scuppers. f. extra water. port holes. Each passenger ship shall have procedures in place for locating and rescuing passengers trapped in their staterooms. The Emergency Station Muster List shall show all the duties assigned to different crew members including: a.) and other life saving appliances c. The Muster List shall specify details of the General Emergency Alarms and Public address system and also action to be taken by the Crew and Passengers when this Alarm is sounded. biscuits. After the Muster list has been prepared. fire doors. side scuttles. The Muster list shall also specify how the order to abandon ship will be given. sugar cubes. d. if any changes takes place in the Crew which necessitates an alteration in the Muster List. Manning of fire parties assigned to deal with fires h. Use of Communication equipment g. The Muster List shall specify which officers are assigned to ensure that life-saving and fire appliances are maintained in good condition and are ready for immediate use. Equipping of survival craft (such as extra food. General preparation of other life saving appliances. e. Special duties assigned in respect to the use of fire-fighting equipment and installations. 12 . Preparation and launching of Survival Craft. Muster of passengers.

THERE MAYBE AN AUTOGENERATED FIRE ALARM WHICH MAY BE DIFFERENT FROM THIS. IN CASE OF FIRE. There will also be auto generated fire alarm onboard the ship. 13 . Instructions in the use of the ship's fire fighting appliances and life saving appliances and in survival at Sea shall be given at the same interval as the drills. Crew and emergency instructions On board training in the use of ship's life saving appliances. including survival craft equipments and in the use of ship's fire extinguishing appliances shall be given as soon as possible but not later than two weeks after a crew member joins the ship. THERE IS ONLY ONE ALARM FOR ALL EMERGENCIES WHICH IS SEVEN OR MORE SHORT BLASTS FOLLOWED BY A LONG BLAST WHICH IS REPEATED ON SHIP'S WHISTLE OR SIREN. Extra equipment and survival Rocket Line-Throwing Appliances and Landing Signals Line Throwing Appliances To be carried aboard both passenger and cargo ships engaged in long international voyages. as far practicable. but not necessarily limited to: a) Operation and use of the ship's inflatable life rafts b) Problems of hypothermia. to be conducted as if there were an actual emergency. first aid treatment for hypothermia and other appropriate first-aid procedures c) Special instructions necessary for use of the ship's life saving appliances in severe weather and severe sea condition d) Operation and use of fire-extinguishing appliances Drills are. to the places at strategic positions in the vessel. The apparatus is a completely self contained unit and the set of four units normally carried by ships. Every crew member shall be given instructions which shall include.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY The Muster List shall specify substitutes for key persons who may become disabled. taking into account that different emergencies may call for different actions.

As soon as either the stronger line or the shore rocket line is held. the person should normally face ashore and be prepared to bear off with his feel if crossing reefs or finally surmounting cliffs. As soon as it is seen. When such a risk of ignition exists. the shore party will set the jackstay tight and haul off the breeches buoy to the ship by means of a traveler pulley. Full pictorial instructions are printed on both sides of the plastic body and can be readily used by either right or left handed users. Often with another 135m rope which can be secured using a special sleeve which the traveler can pass over. Means rocket line held. When their signal is affirmative. to a stronger point. When firing a rocket. and a tailed block with an endless line reeve through. Signal: A red star signal or the horizontal motion of a flag or white light at night. Make the tailed block fast at a convenient position.Negative. It may be extremely dangerous to fire a rocket across such vessel due to the liability of flammable cargo of the tanker and fire a rocket only when it has been ascertained that it is safe to do so. for tanker or vessel with inflammable spirit. 14 . To mean. The out haul of the whip is called the weather whip and the in haul being known as the lee whip. heave it on the line. This is called the whip and may be 12mm fiber rope. This enables the date of manufacture of the rocket and the igniter to be checked without removal of cap. incorporating the handle trigger assembly. . a vast hauling. as far away from the breaking sea as possible with a clear working area around it making sure that the whip does not chafe on any part of the ship. As soon as all gear is on board. igniter and 275 m of ready flaked line. slack away.Green star signal or the vertical motion of a white flag of the arms or a white light at night etc. the coast guard will fire a rocket across the ship with a line attached. The unit consists of a plastic body launching. the distressed tanker should fire rocket line to the rescuing vessel and hoists code flag 'B' at the mast at day time and use a red light in the same position by night in poor visibility by sounding the international code group 'au' on the following signaling apparatus Signal affirmative. As soon as this is seen. signal affirmative and then wait for a similar signal from ashore. jackstay about 24mm dia manila rope to be secured to the beckets of the tailed block which may be 230m long rope. While this is being done. or rocket line is not held etc. such as a 8 mm hemp line. the officer in charge should instruct all hands in the procedure for using the buoy. will be heaved on board. If the crew of a ship fires a rocket ashore first. or the arms extended horizontally. the coast guard will get hold of this rocket line and attach a strong line to it. and containing the rocket. Cast off the rocket line and give signal affirmative. crew should pull their rocket line in order to haul together this stronger line on board. being sealed at both ends by transparent polythene caps. When possible. The unit is weather proof. The weight of the body should be taken partly by the elbows on the buoy itself.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Each unit can be fired independently as required.

the way in which they are handled will depend on the state of their injuries and in such cases Neil Robertson stretches may be used. 15 . The person in the buoy should sit well down and grasp the steadying line. Hold handle horizontally top era. allowing unit to naturally assume to correct firing angle. hold container until line is paid out. 4. b.6kgs. When he is secure. Attached messenger line 8mm dia. . 5.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY If a tally board is not sent out the ship with the tailed block or buoy. Breeches buoy. c. and apparatus after nine years in service on a ship. Rocket fired igniters should be replaced every three years. Remove the front cap. and then pass the jackstay gear a. How to use the Line Throwing Apparatus 1. Tail traveler. Endless line 12mm dia. With regard to injured persons. the officer in-charge must make sure that each person leaving ship is correctly tallied so that he does not finally leave a ship with people still aboard. 2. The line is a diameter of 5mm and the force which gives 1 kg and acceleration of one meter per second. The length of the container is 330mm in diameter 19Umm and weight 4. 3. attach the free end of a line to a strong point in the ship and attach second end which is fire proof end to be attached with projectile loop. signal affirmative. Remove safety split pin and squeeze trigger lever. And a jackstay about 24mm dia manila rope. and the coast guard will haul him shore and then return the buoy in the ship. When rocket fires.

Landing Signal a) By day with an orange smoke signal or three thunder lights fired at minute intervals or by night with three white stars.A more favorable place lies in the direction indicated.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Under the safety convention rules life saving stations will reply to a vessel's distress signal as followed. fired at minute intervals. These signals indicate that the vessel has been seen and that assistance will be given as soon as possible. the horizontal motion of a white light T0 mean landing here is highly dangerous. and By night: The vertical motion of white light. To mean: This is the best place to land. e) By day. By night. By day: A vertical motion of a while flag or the anus. d) To mean landing here is highly dangerous. Alternatively the letter 'S' may be used in Morse or a red star rocket.. A second white light may indicate a direction of landing or alternatively a green star or 'K' in Morse. By night: A similar procedure is carried out with White Lights. A second white flag is then carried in a certain direction. Man Overboard Smoke and Light Marker 16 . the horizontal motion of a white flag of the arms extended horizontally. Alternatively a White star rocket in a certain direction of 'S' in Morse followed by 'L' or 'R' to mean alter course left or right. By day: A white flag is moved horizontally and is then affixed in the ground. b) In many countries the following signals are l1sed when small boats are landing survivors of wrecked vessels.

The markers are situated on both bridge wings and on both sides in the after part of the ship. It is designed to be attached to a lifebuoy by means of a lanyard about 3. close to ship side. if any person falls. in such a position that it can be released from its stowage to fall unobstructed into the sea. This is a difficult operation requiring practical training and experience. or can be easily cast into the sea to give a sea mark by day or night for a man overboard casualty. Whenever any vessel runs aground near a coast or vessel on fire and lifeboats and life raft cannot be lowered to abandon the ship due to high coast. The light marker lifebuoy has also a similar attachment of a separate light installed and mounted on brackets. overboard. 17 . Large ships carry additional markers amidships Breeches Buoy It is a Life buoy fitted with canvass beeches on inner circumference and used with a rocket apparatus for hauling ashore people from a vessel wreaked near the shore. breeches buoy is rigged in such circumstances. safe to use on oil or petrol covered water. It is used if any person falls overboard especially at night. cliffs or rocky shore. and released manually. to rescue the people from the vessel. The weight of the lifebuoy should not be less than 4 kgs. It is kept on both sides of the navigating bridge in the wooden casing and released by pulling toggle or it can also be connected to a bulk -head mounted lifebuoy and released manually. it produces dense orange smoke for a period of 15 minutes and two all round activated light at candle power for a period of2 hours. The man over board smoke and light marker is carried in all merchant ships and is mounted.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY It is a combined day and night marker.5 meter in length and when released from its position in the water. It produces a light of2 candle power for a period of2 hours.

But never leave your vessel 18 . This will avoid a dangerous waiting period alongside the vessel. CHAPTER 3 – EVACUATION Abandoning ship -last resort When all our efforts to save the stricken vessel prove to be unsuccessful. Except in rough weather. Swimmers should group themselves together and support each other till the rescue boat comes to pick up.NO SHIP CAN BE ABANDONED EXCEPT BY THE VERBAL ORDER OF THE MASTER. When abandon ship order is given by the Master. Then. the life boats and life rafts should be secured together and towed well clear of the wreck area by a motor lifeboat and rescue boat should go round the wreck area to pick up any survivors. REMEMBER . The last person to abandon the vessel will be the Master along with those who were engaged in controlling the fire/ damage control party. Chief Engineer should ensure that machinery is stopped and water tight doors and hatches tightly closed. never jump overboard in Panic. wheel house. engine room and radio room personnel must be called off and mustered at their respective Life boat stations and final report made by each lifeboat in-charge to the bridge. Swimmers must move away from the ship as quickly as possible to avoid caught in the suction when a ship founders. fire fighting / damage control party. the ship will be abandoned. Abandoning Ship should be done in an orderly and disciplined manner. the Master of the vessel will give the order to man the boats and Abandon ship. they should be lowered with as many people aboard as possible and try to lower all life boats and life rafts and should quickly clear the ship side and lie off ready to embark the remaining complement from the water if any.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Abandon ship . Before giving abandonment order. clear the ship side and danger areas to a safer distance immediately. Public address system should be fully utilized. When ordered to man the Life boats and life rafts. in the water. After the Life Boat touches the water.complications The abandon ship signal will be verbal command by the Master. if any.

Thereafter. 19 . Hence. Points to Bear in Mind before jumping overboard: If there is no survival craft available it may be preferable to abandon ship from the bow or weather side in order to get clear of the ship side with more certainty. Every effort is to be made to save the vessel from foundering. Destination. Items are checked and the sequences of the boat duties are followed with the persons assuming the individual duties as per the list. Only a person who is well trained can cope up to the demanding circumstance and act accordingly to the requirement When all trainings fail to save the ship. exposure to weather. This is where the training and drills onboard come into picture. Have your lifejacket well secured and hold it down by crossing the arms over the chest blocking off the nose with one hand. Personal preparation for abandoning ship Every Crew member shall participate in at least one Abandon ship drill every month. There have been instances wherein ships have remained afloat for hours/days after she was abandoned. There will be every possibility of survival. Rescue will be resorted to immediately once your distress message is received by ships & shore stations. abandoning ship should be the last resort. then the last resort is to abandon 'the ship. Abandoning the vessel should be thought of only if the Master is for sure that the vessel has foundered and there is no chance to keep her afloat till help arrives. If weather conditions are not conducive for rescue. it could take several hours. Well trained crew will be able to handle the situation better when it becomes clear that the ship has to be abandoned. ▫ Every person should assemble at the Muster station for a headcount. The objectives and aims of the training and drills onboard are to ensure that the panic is avoided by repeated mock up situations so that persons who are involved are aware of what actions to take in an emergency. your training in Survival techniques comes into play for survival at Sea. location and chances of survival are unclear. Never jump in panic. 1. Your ship is the safest lifeboat. ▫ Once the duties of the individual and lifejacket and other things as per SOLAS are checked.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY until she leaves you. Abandoning the ship should be the last resort as food. When the emergency alarm is sounded. the boats will be manned as per the station list. comfort are going to be difficult. ▫ Every individual should rush to his respective life boat/life raft with his lifejacket donned correctly and await the instructions of the leader of the boat. communication.

6. Draw attention of the lifeboat or life raft if any nearby with whistle. However. Try to board survival craft without getting into the water by ladders.prepare passengers to board life boat and help them in doing so. .Check that passengers are suitably dressed.Check that life jackets are correctly dawned. Crew duties -launching survival craft l. Never jump more than 4. 2.Crew and passengers report to muster stations and prepare for duties as described in the muster list. including the possibility that the crew may need to move along these routes in a direction opposite to that of the passengers. Need to prevent panic In case of any emergency and in case of actual abandonment of the ship. avoid jumping into water. . 5.Crew should avoid congestion which may develop during an abandonment due to normal movement of passengers and crew along escape routes.During abandon ship. lifeline. Make sure that every thing clear in the water. If panic is avoided. The chance of making any mistake does not exist if things are dearly defined and followed.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 2. 20 . water hose and scramble nets or available means. Never swim for longer periods. Try to board the lifeboat pr life raft as soon as possible. Swim on your back stroke. . . 3. such as any floating object etc. all can survive and chances of survival is increased many folds.. the biggest tragedies that can occur will loss of life due to panic situation of the staff. 7. crew and passengers are summoned to Muster stations after sounding necessary alarm and announcement on the public address system or other communication system and ensure that they are made aware of the order to abandon ship. keep your feet together. . Remove the guard rail. As far as possible. look straight ahead and cross legs while jumping. Never dive. the survival chance is enhanced provided if all things move as per the order of sequence in a calm manner. Two persons will go inside the lifeboat and remove the boat cover etc. 8.5 to 6 meters height. 4. Crew Duties to Passengers .Escape routes should be clear of any obstructions . .Recheck all passenger accommodation spaces to ensure physically that all passengers have proceeded to their life boat stations and nobody is left behind and a completion of search is reported to the Master.

extra fuel. 4. 7. Prior lowering the life boat to abandon ship. The embarkation of the crew begins. 4. the staffs that are still onboard for lowering the boat can get down using the embarkation ladder. waterproof watch. Check all lifeboat equipment to ensure that they are properly secured and ready for use. If you are in the water try to board your lifeboat or life raft. Once the permission is granted to lower the boat to the embarkation deck. extra torches. it may be necessary to have some extra items put in the boat such as VHF. biscuits. 13. The tricing pendant is released after making fast the tackle. Lifeline clear. 10. the Master takes a decision to abandon the ship. Remove the harbor pin if it is still in place. boat-charts etc. the boat should be brought to the embarkation deck. Wring out top layer of wet clothing and put it on again as quickly as possible. SART. 2. Report to the bridge when ready to lower the Life Boat. Always try to keep dry and board the lifeboat or life raft. EPRIB. Once the boat is waterborne. Wet clothes are better than no clothing. 1. it uses vital energy and assist hypothermia to set in. 9. rudder shipped (some boats have two plugs one forward and one aft and some boats have only one plug). 5. Then the boat is brought alongside the ship with bow sing in tackle. let go the gripes and lower the boat to embarkation deck. 12.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 3. 6. The boat is now released and cleared from the ship. tinned food. Master's order to abandon the ship will be taken after considering all the facts including the survival sustainability in the 21 . extra water. Pass the toggle painter forward from inner side of the sling and report plug-shipped. Note: Never jump without lifejacket. If permission is granted. Once all the Passengers and crew (other than ones for lowering) are in the boat. Do not try to swim unnecessarily. Have all the crew and passengers Emergency Station Muster Listed and lifejackets checked. falls clear. batteries (cell) and bulbs. 5. palm and needles. (Normally harbor pin is put only in the ports and not at sea) 8. ship's pyrotechnics. Master's orders to abandon ship When all efforts to save the ship fail. 11. the lowering of the boat to the water level can be resumed and the descent continued up to the water. blankets. 3. pencils. notebooks. Test the engine both ahead and astern for a period of not less than 3 minutes. Some ships always keep the toggle painter fastened at all times.

one more life boats as stipulated by the administration. complying with the requirements of such aggregate capacity on each side of the ship as will accommodate the total number of persons on board will have to be provided. Lifeboats may be open. Each life buoy shall be marked in block letters with name and port of registry of the ship.Life buoys complying with the requirements of the Code shall be so distributed as to be readily available on both sides of the ship as far as practicable.A life jacket complying with the requirements of the code shall be provided for every person on board the ship. a number of life jackets suitable for children (equal to 10 % of the no.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY life boats. of life buoys shall be provided with life buoy self igniting lights. A life boat may be accepted as a rescue boat provided it also complies with the requirements for a rescue boat. 22 . Life buoys: . They shall be approved by the Administration must be kept ready at all times. and not permanently secured in any way. One or two Rescue boats complying with the regulation of the code shall be carried on board the ships. or free-fall life boats In addition. As per the International Law. Not less than one half of the total no. totally enclosed self righting lifeboats or partially enclosed self righting lifeboats. Master's order will be verbal command for abandoning the ship. life rafts and buoyant apparatus and its arrangements on board ships is specified in Chapter III of SOLAS. Survival craft and rescue boats. Means of survival Availability of Life Saving Appliances The Law governing the provision of life boats. In addition life buoys with buoyant life line smoke signal and light are to be provided.. Only Master can give orders to abandon the ship. at least one shall be placed in the vicinity of the stem and so stowed as to be capable of being rapidly cast loose. Life jackets: . inflatable or rigid life rafts are to be provided as per regulation of SOLAS. of passengers) are also to be provided. In addition. nobody else is authorized to give the order to abandon the ship. They should be readily accessible. on all open decks extending to the ship's side.

wire falls to be renewed. 5. Lifeboat's and rescue boat's engine shall be run ahead and astern for a total period of not less than 3 minutes. Administration may accept. c. Weekly Inspection: All survival craft.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Immersion suits and anti-exposure suits: . rescue boats and launching appliances should be physically and visually inspected to ensure that they are ready for use. All life saving appliances and their components which are subject to excessive wear and tear with time and use need to be replaced regularly or whenever required. At 30 months wire falls of lifeboats to be turned end to end. b. the falls can be renewed in 4 years. 23 . If the falls of a lifeboat are worn out of up to 11% of the circumference or 7 to 11 wires of a single strand is damaged or broken then whole wire falls is required to be renewed without any delay. provided they are in good condition. A report of the inspection shall be entered in the logbook. 3. The general emergency alarm system should be tested from all strategic points weekly. The same shall be as Planned Maintenance System which is approved. Maintenance 1. unless this is required earlier by their condition.An immersion suit shall be providing for every person assigned to the crew of a Rescue boat or assigned to the Marine evacuation system party. 4. At 5years. Monthly Inspection: Inspection of the life saving appliances including lifeboat equipment shall be carried out using the check lisi and ensure that they are complete and in good working order. d. in lieu of 'end for ending' change then after periodical verification as required. Stainless steel wire falls may be kept for a longer period. Wire falls of launching appliances: a. crew must be informed about testing the system. or earlier in case of deterioration. 2. Before testing the emergency alarm.

a ship may be detained until such defects have been rectified. hydrostatic release unit (HRU) must be sent for yearly (12 months) intervals survey by the administration to a proper and approved service station for inspection and maintenance . 4. All lifeboats shall have rigid hulls and shall be capable of maintaining positive stability when in an upright position in calm water and loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment. It is an offence for the life saving appliances on any ship to be in defective condition. Properly constructed and shall be of such form and proportions that they have ample stability in a sea way and sufficient free board when loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment. it is a boat which sustains the life of people from the time of Abandon Ship until the rescue comes. On abandoning ship. Partially enclosed lifeboats 3. Upon each occasion. Official Log Book Entries 1. which include any change / damage faulty equipment/or repairs carried out / replacement made of any equipment which involve safety. Self righting partially enclosed lifeboats. Some of these boats are: 1. in some cases proceedings may be taken against the owner or company and master if such appliances are not kept at all times fit and ready for use. inflatable life jackets. boats should be pulled or driven clear off the stricken vessel. Additionally. There are boats of special design and construction. Open lifeboats 2.As per the latest rules. Monthly inspection of LSA equipment. 3. Self righting totally enclosed lifeboats 24 .SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Periodical Survey: Life rafts. 2. whenever according to the training program. and under the powers contained in Merchant Shipping Act 1958. drill of any nature is taking place on board. an Emergency Station Muster List. All inspection involved. details of content and type of drills or training given including the occasion when survival crafts are lowered. hoisted or launched. Type of Life Boat All ships carry lifeboats and life rafts for the purpose of safety of personnel out at sea until help arrives.SURVIVAL CRAFT AND RESCUE BOATS Life Boats In official terminology. CHAPTER 4 . EPIRB should be tested annually by an approved company for its performance and the results of its print out to be kept on board as a record.

with air support and sprinkler system. fire protected lifeboats. Rescue boats Open lifeboats Partially enclosed lifeboats Self righting totally enclosed lifeboat Free Fall Lifeboat 25 .SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 5. Self righting totally enclosed. 7. Self righting totally enclosed free fall lifeboats 6. self lowering.

Should be air cooling or water cooling system. with two independent re-chargeable energy sources of power for radio and search light: 7. oil tankers..3 m for a lifeboat permitted to accommodate 21 persons or less and 1. Must be protected adequately from the weather 4. Have fuel for 24 hours continuous running at a speed of at least six knots.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Rescue Boat Classification of Life Boats 1 Between the floor surfaces and interior of the boat shall not be less than 1. must be: l. 2.7m for 24 persons and more. Shall start at an ambient temperature of I 5 degree Celsius or at different temperature capable of operating for not less than 5 minutes after starting from cold upon the lifeboat out of water. Life Boat Engine The engine. Shall be provided with either a manual starting system or power starting system. No lifeboat shall be approved to accommodate more than 150 persons having an average mass If 75 kg and all wearing lifejackets that can be seated in a normal position without interfering with the means of propulsion or the operation of any of the life boat's equipment. when the lifeboat is fully loaded when carried by passenger ships. 6. Engine casing must be fire resisting. if fitted. The speed of lifeboat when loaded with its full complement and equipment shall be at least 6 knots when towing a 25 person’s life raft loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment's. 3. 8. 5. LPG carrier and oil platform etc. and at least four knots if carried in by cargo ships. Life boat equipments/operating instructions/additional equipments 26 . Kept ready for use at all times and can be started in all weather conditions 2.

) they are generally made of ash or elm wood and stowed with their blades facing forward on both outer side in the boat. It is used extensively to provide additional leverage in order to steady the boat's head when used in conjunction with the sea anchor. These are secured by lanyards to the structure of the boat. They are normally stowed in the small gear locker. Pulling oars are normally between 3.3m longer than the pulling oars. 27 .05 and 4. is usually approximately (12 inches) O. It is fitted with an easily removable cover to allow cleaning and the suction end contains a gauze filter to avoid blockage of the system. A steering oar.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY List of standard equipments which are required to be fitted in a lifeboat. operating instructions and list of additional equipments which are required to be fitted in a lifeboat are given below: STANDARD LIFE BOAT EQUIPMENT 1. if carried. to be left unlashed and ready for use in fending away from the ship side. 8. attached to not less than 30 meters of buoyant line. 9. 3.26m in length (lO. Two axes (hatchet) stowed one at each end of the boat. Two boat hooks. A manual pump usually fixed to the structure of the boat. Two buoyant rescue quoits. Their blade faces aft and is usually coated in a distinctive color. 7. Buckets are usually of a 2 gallon size and manufactured in galvanized iron stowed either end of the boat. A Jack knife to be kept attached to the boat by a lanyard. It is common practice to cover the metal head of the axe with a canvas protective cover to prevent the metal from pitting and corrosion. The blade normally incorporates a tin opener and screw driver. which is no longer specified. The medicine is normally in tablet form. Six doses of anti sea sickness medicine and one sea sickness bag for each person boat is permitted to accommodate. A survival manual 5. A buoyant bailer and two buckets. Sufficient buoyant oars to make head way in calm seas.l4ft. crutches or equivalent arrangement shall be provided for each oar. and a small hand spike is usually attached. The hole pins. 2. 4. 6.

the mariner should bear in mind that it must be visible to the coxswain and a fore and aft line may have to be set up between the stem and stem to provide reference for means of aligning the boat's head to the lubber line. The lamp provided with colza oil continuous burning for 12hours.5 miles. Four rocket parachute flares (red is color while burning) visibility 10. One copy of the life saving signals table. tension. 15. whichever is the greater. One whistle or equivalent sound signal. The strength of the hawser and the tripping line shall be adequate for all sea conditions. When setting up a boat's compass. Two buoyant smoke floats (Orange color smoke) ranges 5 to 7 miles burning period of 3 min. 19. placed at the forward end of the lifeboat must be capable of being released when under. 13. 18. Two efficient painters of a length equal to not less than twice the distance from the stowage position of the lifeboat to the waterline in the lightest sea going condition and 20 degree list either side or 15m. Tripping line which provides a firm hand grip when wet. One daylight signaling mirror with instructions for its use for signaling to ships and aircraft. An efficient radar reflector. In a totally enclosed boat the binnacle shall be permanently fitted at the steering position and any other lifeboat. range 5 miles. One waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signaling. it shall be provided with suitable mounting arrangements. on a waterproof card or in a waterproof container. 14.5m longer than the hawser. Six hand flares (red is color while burning). A binnacle containing an efficient magnetic compass which is luminous or provided with suitable means of illuminations. 16. together with one spare set of batteries and one spare bulb in a waterproof container.30 m depending weather condition 12. The other painter shall be firmly secured at or near the bow of the lifeboat ready for use. 11. range 4. 20. 28 . 17. Normally of plastic construction this will allow its use in cold weather without discomfort to the user. and tripping line. A sea anchor of adequate size having a shock resistant hawse which is 3 times the length of the boat. Tripping line is 3. One painter attached to the release device.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 10.

Ship's Boat Chart 29 . A rust proof dipper with a lanyard. 26.000 kj for each person the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate. Thermal protective aids which comply with the regulations. 22. 23. 25. 24. Water is issued in morning. or secured by brackets or other similar mounting arrangements. Tin openers. Considerable changes in standard equipment have taken place with the 1983 amendment to the SOLAS convention. 30. The lanyard should be long enough to reach the bottom of any water trunk. 28. Set of fishing tackle. 27. should be secured by lashing or kept in storage lockers. The water is 1/3 liter per person per day. 31. for passing time. mid-day and at the time of sunset. A first aid outfit in a water proof casing capable of being closed tightly after use should be renewed after 3 years. A food ration totaling not less than 10. Portable fire extinguishing equipment suitable for extinguishing oil fires. Rustproof graduated drinking vessel. 29. These rations shall be kept in air tight packaging and be stowed in a water tight container. Sufficient tools to allow minor adjustment to the engine and its accessories. All items of equipment of the life boat with the exception of the two boat hooks. in sufficient number of 10% of the total number of persons that the boat and life raft permitted to carry.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 21. used for extracting fresh water from the containers. A search light capable of effectively illuminating a light colored object at night having a width of 18m at a distance of 180m for total period of 6 hours and of working continuously for not less than a 3 hours period. A water tight receptacle containing total of 3 liters of fresh water for each person the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate I liter of this amount may be replaced by a desalting apparatus capable of producing an equal amount of fresh water in two days.

3. Now turn handle slowly from 3 to 20 turns to prime combustion chamber and lubricating system. currents and management of boats. chemical charges each contains 4 cubes. On the reverse side appear notes on charts using winds. Residual solids and salts are retained by the filter pad in the purifier bag: these deposits are rinsed from the bag before the next desalting operation. plug and lanyard. 6. 1 storage bag of rubberized fabric with filter pad. Prime the full system if necessary. The charts are printed on strong papers and may be supplied in a water proof wallet as a set for oceans. Check that the gear lever is in neutral position. OPERATION OF LIFE BOAT ENGINE To Manually Start a Motor: Life Boat Engine: (pre Start Checks) l. The reaction between the chemical charge and the dissolved salts in the water is then complete and clear drinking water can be squeezed through the outer tube into mouth or into a container. a metal plug is inserted in the purifier bag outlet 1 liter. Move the decompression lever towards the flywheel and fits starting handle. They may be installed in ships lifeboats for use in the event of mariners finding themselves in the position of having to navigate such boats across oceans stretches. drinking tube. Desalting Apparatus Contents of the desalting kit 1 storage bag of rubberized fabric with securing cord. 5. Turn throttle control level to almost vertical on fast position. Using of Desalting Kit After removing the contents of the pack.e. engine and the gear box. 7. Connect or open the fuel supply by opening the fuel supply lever check the dip stick lubricating oil level at two points i. 30 . The bag is then filled with sea water to the level indicated and one chemical charge of 4 cubes 1 is added. The contents are kneaded for 5 minutes and then shaken occasionally during a period of 30 minutes. 2. weather. When oil starts flowing down then screw down the plug. if water is there open the bottom of screw plug and drain out the water from the fuel tank.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY These ocean charts gives us simple indication of winds currents ice and magnetic variation. 4. Check that there is sufficient fuel in the full tank or pre check the oil level and there should not be water in the fuel. Full instructions are printed on the storage bag.

If the engine is running smoothly and cooling water discharge is steady. If the Engine Does Not Start 1. Engine may be choked or water in the fuel. but continue to crank until the engine fires. Spark can be checked by earthen the plug on the engine casing. 31 . Check that the fuel line is not obstructed or chinked. Adjust speed with the throttle control. Close the fuel supply lever. 6. 10. In case of rescue boat outboard engine. 12. Crank the engine really fast and when speed is obtained return the decompression lever to the compressing position. 4. pull the remote stopping control. plug for few seconds or 2. Do not touch the plug when this is being done. Check that the fuel pump filter is clean. Or push in the choke gradually until the engine is running smoothly. 2.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 8. turn throttle counter anti-clock wise and hold it until the engine stops or if fitted. Stopping the Engine 1. The reason is that the impeller is a tight fit and will rip in seconds if operated dry. Correct this by disconnecting the fuel line at the engine and hand cranking until clear flow of oil. if the fuel level is satisfactory. lifeboat and rescue boat fuel tanks should be thoroughly cleaned out annually. After starting check the engine. 13. 9. check oil pressure gauge to check the flow of oil. put the helm over in the required direction and engage the gear lever Ahead or Astern. Note: To ensure a fuel supply free of sedi!"!1ent and continuous running in an emergency. Check the fuel levers opened or 3. Check the fuel in the tank. but fear of water in the tank then open the tank . To stop the engine. never run outboard engine out of water. in order to check for blockage. or 5. 11. carbonate or loose or oiled. Check that sparkplugs are not wet. Must remove starting handle and reduce engine speed as required. depress the ball bearing in end of fuel line and pump fuel by hand or by squeezing the bulb.

Every lifeboat shall be provided with at least one drain valve fitted near the lowest point in the hull. The rudder and tiller shall be so arranged such that it shall not be damaged by operation of the release mechanism or the propeller. the tiller shall be capable of controlling the rudder in case of failure of the steering mechanism. Drain valves shall be readily accessible from inside the lifeboat and their position shall be clearly indicated or marked with white paint arrow towards the drain plug. All lifeboats shall be provided with a rudder and tiller. 2. Except in the vicinity of the rudder and propeller. Each valve shall be provided with a cap or plug to close the valve. 3.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY ADDITIONAL FITTINGS OF LIFE BOAT (In accordance with the 1983 amendments of the SOLAS 1974 convention) 1. 32 . which shall be attached to the lifeboat by a lanyard or chain or other suitable means. the tiller may be removable and securely stowed near the rudder stock. if the lifeboat has a remote steering mechanism. however. When a wheel or other remote steering mechanism is provided. which shall be automatically open to drain water from the hull when the life boat is not waterborne and shall automatically close to prevent entry of water when the lifeboat is waterborne. The rudder shall be permanently attached to the lifeboat. a buoyant lifeline shall be bucketed around the outside of the lifeboat. The tiller shall be permanently installed on or linked to the rudder stock.

It shall have a canopy to protect the occupants from exposure and shall be constructed to be towed at a speed of 3 knots in calm water. Lifeboats which are not self righting when capsized shall have suitable hand. This shall be so constructed to withstand a drop test of at least 18m height. holds on the underside of the hull to enable persons to cling to the lifeboat. If the light is a flashing light. 5. Life rafts Life raft is a survival craft which is constructed to withstand exposure for 30 days afloat in all sea conditions. It shall be provided with means for collecting rainwater. All life boats shall be fitted with sufficient watertight lockers or compartments to provide for storage of the small items of equipments.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 4. Every life boat shall be provided with a permanently installed earth connection and arrangements for adequately sitting and securing in the operation position the antenna provided with the portable radio apparatus required by the regulations. All life boats intended for launching down the side of a ship shall have skates and fenders as necessary to facilitate launching and prevent damage to the lifeboat. Adequate viewing. after and to both sides of the lifeboat must be provided. It should have at least one viewing port. 8. A lamp of source of light shall be fitted inside the lifeboat to provide illumination for not less than 12 hours to enable reading of the survival and equipment instructions. 6. The hand holds shall be fastened to the life boat in such a way that when subjected to impact sufficient to cause them to break away from the lifeboat. Forward life raft can have a carrying capacity of less than 6 persons and its mass shall not be more than 185 kg. from the control position to allow safe launching and maneuvering. Each seating position in the boat should be clearly indicated. It shall be fitted with a painter not less than 15m plus distance 33 . it shall initially flash at a rate of not jess than 50 flashes per minute over the first 2 hours period of operation of the required 12 hours operating period.5m for the persons to jump into the life raft. however oil lamps shall not be permitted for this purpose. 10. Unless expressly provided otherwise. 9. every lifeboat shall be provided with effective means of bailing or be automatically self bailing. A manually controlled lamp visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere at a distance of at least 2 miles for a period of not less than 12 hours shall be fitted to the top of the cover or enclosure. Lifelines shall be securely becketed around the inside and the outside of it. Means shall also be provided for the storage of collected rain water. forward. Its interior shall be of a color that does not cause discomfort to the occupants. It shall provide insulation against heat and cold. 7. This shall also withstand repeated jumps from a height of 4. 11. they break away without damage to the lifeboat. water and provisions required by the regulations.

The weak link will break automatically once under the water and releases the life raft when the ship sinks. tholepins/ crutches etc. Throw the liferaft in the water and pull the painter. of persons it is certified to carry. Or the painter can be manually released before abandoning for boarding. launching instructions and no..SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY from the lightest sea going condition where it is stowed whichever is greater. Life Raft –Inflatable Below fig. Life raft is kept in a container which is installed normally by a single person. It is inflated by a non-toxic gas. date of servicing. SOLAS pack. manufacturer's details. The launching is so simple. give a jerk onto the painter it will inflate. The painter is connected to a weak link which in turn is connected to the strongpoint of the ship. This container shall be marked outside by the serial no. length of painter. Float free Arrangement 34 . The liferaft will be inflated automatically and in case if it does not happen. Most of the equipments are common to the lifeboat except for boathooks.


It shall be fitted with a grab line of 5mm dia at least and fitted around its circumference at four equidistant places so as to form a loop for survivors to hold on. 36 . Survival craft in Formation CHAPTER 5 .5 kg. It shall be constructed with an inherently buoyant material and not dependent upon corks or other loose materials for buoyancy. It shall withstand a drop test of at least 30m or from a height in the lightest sea going condition where it will be stowed whichever is greater.PERSONAL LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES Lifebuoys Lifebuoys Shall have an outer diameter of not more than 800mm and an inner diameter of not less than 400mm. It is capable of supporting a mass of not less 14. It shall not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 seconds. A lifeboat may be accepted as a rescue boat provided it also complies with the requirements to the rescue boat. Its mass shall not be less than 2.5 kg of iron in fresh water for a period of not less than 24 hours.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Rescue Boats Rescue boat is a boat designed to rescue persons in distress and to marshal survival craft.

b) From 1st July 1986 should be worn one way only but old types of life jacket which is still carried on board ship's are being worn inside out or both ways and cannot donned incorrectly. k) A lifejacket which depends on inflation for buoyancy shall have not less than 2 separate compartments l) It shall inflate automatically on immersion or be capable of being inflated by mouth. g) Allow the wearer to jump from a height of at least 4. Lifejackets Every lifejacket must have a proper workmanship (orange in color) and highly visible in color. j) Be fitted with a light of 0.5 m into the water. A lifejacket is made of non-inflammable material and so designed that: a) It can be worn or donned within a period of 1 minute without any help or assistance after demonstration. 37 .75 candela powder for 8 hrs of 50 flashed per minutes and can be connected or disconnected. c) Capable of turning the wearer to safe floating position in still water within 5 seconds and support the head so that the mouth shall not be less than 120mm (6 inches) above the water. Two of the lifebuoys shall be with buoyant heaving line of at least 30m in length kept one at each side. All the lifebuoys shall be marked in roman capitals with the name of the ship and the port of the registry on which they are carried. f) Be fitted with an approved plastic whistle attached by a lanyard. h) It turn the body of an unconscious man around over his back to an angle of 20 degree from vertical and keeps his face 120mm clear of water i) It shall allow the person wearing it to swim and board a survival craft. d) Unaffected by oil or oil products and it will not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 second e) Be fitted with a strong loop to facilitate towing or rescue a man.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY As per SOLAS requirements half of the lifebuoys Oil board should have self igniting lights. Out of these two shall be fitted with self activating smoke signals kept on the navigating bridge for quick release for 'man overboard' purposes on both the sides of the bridge.

SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY m) It shall be marked with its serial number its trade marks: M. and 32 kgs and upward which support the weight is marked adult.O. Hands shall also be covered if permanently attached gloves are provided. Immersion suits/anti-exposure suits Constructed with water proof materials. n) 5% extra carried on passenger ships and cargo ships should be stored on deck near embarkation deck or at Emergency Station Muster List stations o) Every ship must carry an approved type of lifejacket for every person on board. Unless these can be adapted by children a ship must also carry a sufficient number of lifejackets which are suitable for children. Note: It is important to understand that lifejackets are issued to every individual person on board the ship which support him in water until rescued. 38 .T.O. A child lifejacket which support up to 32kgs of weight is marked as child.T stamp and the FRONT is to be printed on both sides of the lifejacket. p) Be fitted with Retro-reflective tapes. It will cover the whole body with exception of the face. It will not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for 2 seconds period. Children lifejacket should be marked child. or D.

An immersion suits which has buoyancy and is designed to be worn without lifejacket shall be fitted with a light and a whistle. They are highly visible in color and easily donned. An immersion suit shall permit the person wearing it and also wearing a life jacket.9ft) into the water without damaging or dislodging the immersion suit. or being injured and Swim short distance through the water and board a survival craft.5m iii) Thermal Performance: The wearer body temperature should not fall below 2 degree C when immersed in a sea water temperature of 5 degree C for the period of 1 hour. insulating material. if the immersion suit is to be worn with a lifejacket.5 (14. They can 39 . These will be required for all persons in open lifeboats who have not been equipped with immersion suits. These are light weight strong plastic bags or suits with arms which cover the whole of the body with the exception of the face. A person wearing such an immersion shall be able to don lifejacket without assistance. ii) So constructed that when worn in conjunction with warm clothing. An immersion suit which also complies with the requirements for a lifejacket may be classified lifejacket.25ft) in length. HELP Posture Thermal Performance Requirements for Immersion Suits An immersion suit made of material which has no inherent insulation shall be i) Marked with instructions that it must be worn in conjunction with warm clothing. then the person should be able to climb up and down a vertical ladder at least 5m (16. Thermal Protective Aids are made of water proof low convective. Their function is to reduce both convective and evaporative heat loss from the wearer's body. Perform normal duties during abandonment. if the immersion suit is to be worn with a lifejacket. The immersion suit continues to provide sufficient thermal protection following on jump by the wearer into the water from a height of 4. and lifejacket. Jump from a height of not less than 4. If the immersion suit is to be worn in conjunction with a lifejacket the lifejacket shall be worn over the immersion suit.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY It is provided with arrangements to minimize or reduce free air in the legs of the suit.

SURVIVAL AT SEA Dangers to survivors Search and Rescue to Survival Search and rescue (SAR) is a featured subject in safety of life at sea and at any moment. The thermal protective aid shall 1. Thermal Protective Aids A thermal protective aid shall be made of waterproof material having a thermal conductance of not more than 7800Wand shall be constructed that. signaling equipment and even survival 40 .PERSONAL LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES (DEMONSTRATION) Lifebuoys.~ct only to the Administrative dispensation. Inflatable lifejackets.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY be removed in the water in 2 minutes. Hands shall also be covered unless permanently attached gloves are provided. when used to enclose a person. become a matter of vital concern to any mariner. Personal survival without a lifejacket and Boarding survival craft DEMONSTRATION TO BE GIVEN TO THE TRAINEES. CHAPTER 6 . Thermal protective aids. They provide thermal insulation to the body in temperature ranging from 20 degree to . Cover the whole body of persons wearing a lifejacket with the exception of the face. be capable of being unpacked and easily donned without assistance in a survival craft or rescue boat.30 degree Celsius. it shall reduce both the convective and evaporative heat loss from the wearer's body. if any. food. and 3. if it impairs ability to swim. such as water. Lifejackets. CHAPTER 7 . if the wear finds it difficult to swim. A disaster at sea can result in your being cast away either in a lifeboat or life raft with your survival dependent on outside assistance. Permit the wearer to remove it in the water in not more than 2 minutes. 2. first aid kit. the life boats and life rafts are equipped with the requirement for few days. The thermal protective aid shall function properly' throughout an air temperature range -30°C to + 20°C. The effectiveness and efficiency of the search and rescue services are well known. These thermal protective aid shall be carried onboard every ship for all the persons who are not provided with the immersion suits sub}. However to meet the short term needs of the survivor. Immersion suits or antiexposure suit.

The next most pressing need will most likely be to look for the survivors in the water if any and followed by protection from cold conditions. Remember in location signaling. Never swim unnecessarily. dehydration. Open life boat must erect any shelter available to protect the survivors against cold. rain. In the event of hot climate shelter will be needed from the sun to avoid over heating of the body. Covering any exposed skin from the sun to avoid dehydration of body fluids. water and to conserve body fluid and determine location. 5. Covering head is important. Using any shade available to reduce dehydration from direct sunlight. sunburn etc. 10. The basic methods of achieving this include. 8. Talking only when necessary. 1. Your first step is to protect and preserve the water already in your body. The odds in your favor will be vastly improved if you acquire survival information and techniques before any emergency arises. but the range of possible survival situation is infinite. Chewing any suitable small twig or button to help to keep away thirst. snow and frost bite etc. Water drinking in the cool of the morning mid day and evening in small sips. save food. 6. 3. Your survival depends on successful search and rescue. Breathing through the nose to minimize saliva evaporation. you may never have a second chance to make good first impression. heat. 2.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY instructions are in the life boats or life rafts. Use your signaling devices whenever required but carefully and reasonably. Best use of survival craft facilities 41 . 9. Using sea water at day time to wet clothes to reduce heating wet cloth should dry before sunset as nights are very cold. The highest priority in any emergency situation is to help injured and disabled survivors. Avoiding unnecessary movement to prevent loss of the heat of the body. wind. 4. Never forget that cold is most dangerous than heat. About 30% to 40% of body heat can be lost via neck and head. 7.

SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Survival after Ship wreck 1. bring the lifeboat. Use sea anchor and/ or paddles for maneuvering the life raft away from the wreck. Never try to swim far off distance. Join other life raft and lifeboats together with the longest line possible to prevent snatching. 4. 42 . Search for survivors and rescue them as soon as possible by way of maneuvering the life boat or rescue boat. only just take a dip with rescue ring. Repair kit is supplied in the emergency pack and after repair. top up the raft with bellows. Heave up to the sea anchor. rescue boat or life raft close to the survivors. repair the raft. throw a rubber ring or rescue quoits. if any. Stream the sea anchor to avoid leeway or drifting your boat or life raft. 5. 6. In the case of life raft. Never try to swim in the sea in case of feeling warm or hot. minimum 10 meters. there is a spare sea anchor in the life raft emergency pack. 3. Patch damage as detailed on emergency repair kit. Leak stoppers are provided for temporary repair. 2. as life boat or life raft is very prone to wind and they may drift away from you. Check for any leakage.

This will help rescuers looking for survivors. Try to stay put nearer the position of the wreck. Read the instructions in the first aid kit before treating them. Keep your clothes or canopy wet during day. Do not cut down this ration. 18. It should be only when you are on the last day then save one cube for the following day. Treat injured. 17. Put trustworthy person as in-charge of food and water. 19. 11. In cold only 2 an hour and normal weather 2 hours duty. Water: There are three liters off fresh water in lifeboat and one and a half litres in life raft for each person. Food ration should be given at morning and evening only. it should be collected before sun rise. 9. It is a remedy to prevent a person from dehydration and seasickness. and if water is issued on the first day it will go as waste in the form of sweat and urine. Only when you are down to the last cans. Protect the lookout against exposure to hot or cold weather. In case of tropical area deflate the floor to help cooling during the day time but inflate it again at night as tropical nights can be cold. 23. 15. 16. Arrange duties or watches as a lookout inside and outside the lifeboat and life raft. No water during the first 24 hours as your body is already full of water. No water or food for the first 24 hours to anyone except. 21. 13. half liter per day per person. sick persons or injured. Issue sea sickness tablets to every one and sea sickness bag.000 (kj) Kilojoules kept in air tight and water tight tinfoil packing. One or two men can right up the capsized raft by standing on the gas cylinder and heaving back on the righting strap facing windward and two or three men can right up the open. 14.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 7. 22. salt free sponge for collecting up dew or condensation. Bailout raft and mop up with sponge. Do not worry about this as these valves are safety valves. Top up the raft with bellows as the gas contracts at night when it is colder. capsized lifeboat by holding the keel grab line. Inflate floor with bellow to insulate you from the cold sea and vice versa. make them comfortable and as warm as you can with clothing or hugging them or cuddling them. A food ration totaling net less than 10. If you do. Avoid sunburn 43 . 20 Keep a log for recording every day happening. Do not cut down this ration. The ration shall be readily divisible into four one day proportion per person. Wring out all wet clothing and keep as dry as possible. Rinse them out before sunset and get the raft as dry as possible before sunset. you will weaken yourself. mid-day and sunset. Do not over inflate as floor has no outlet escaping of air. 12. But during the day the gas will expand and probably blow off through the escape valve. Water and food can be given to them as required or the person who have had lot of bleeding or dehydration by way of vomiting. Water should be given at sunrise. should you save for the following day. It is better to have wet clothing on the body than no clothing on it. Adjust entrances as per the weather conditions. 10. 8.

it will keep your mouth moist. by way of your leadership qualities. Do not smoke 6. Source of water A. Have confidence in yourself and have ability to stay alive and have will power to stay alive. Do not swim and do not leave your raft.I. Take charge of weapons or any sharp objects. Put feet up for at least 5 minutes in every hour. 7.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY for direct exposure to the sun. 44 . in future emergency. Do not drink alcohol 5. and switch on E.B and SART. Do not massage frost bite. Watch for frost bite and hypothermia. it may drift away fast. clench fingers and stretch limbs. 9. 8. Dew or condensation C. Distribute crews evenly and bunch together for warmth in case of cold and be at ease incase of warm climate. Take slow and long breath through nose. keep a button in the mouth. whether you are in lifeboat or life raft. Do not panic and help each other by way of high morale. keep feet dry. Try to find out ways and means to survival. Do not drink urine 2. You I must make yourself fit in all climatic condition. keep moving fingers and toes. You have survived so far. Rain water B. Try and increase your water ration by way of collection of rain water. we have to look for EPIRB. SAR or emergency radio also. keep weather cover closed except for small opening to ensure ventilation. 4. 33. Take any unoccupied survival craft in tow and use them for store. Heat balance is achieved after 20 to 25 minutes time. Rig emergency transmitter aboard. Do not drink sea water 3. 30. 31. Take charge of all pyrotechnics. This keeps the blood circulating. In case of very cold. 32. the clothes are wet. in case if we are not able to carry them in the lifeboat. 29. move ankles and knees. Do not chew or suck ice. as possible. People wearing wet clothing will soon find that air becomes saturated and no further cooling of their bodies occurs. 27. Once they are switched on they should not be switched off. Collect useful flotsam and some time. 25. Snow D..R. then close both the entrance of the life raft. Drink as much as you can and save the cans of water. 26.P. sleeping accommodation and as back up craft for use. Do not dilute fresh water with sea water. 24. If no water at all. ear with hands. Desalting apparatus Do Not 1. 28. Drink rain water first as it will not be fresh for long. first melt it and then drink it. wrinkle face and nose.

EMERGENCY RADIO EQUIPMENT (LECTURE AND DEMONSTRATIONS) Portable radio apparatus for survival craft Every vessel is provided with at least 3 two-way VHF radio telephone apparatus (walkie talkies) as per SOLAS. These should not be used for normal communications except for testing. These have various frequencies including channel 16. These radio telephones are meant for the purpose of the emergency stations of the ship when the ship is abandoned. They shall also be provided with spare batteries with charger one for each. These are operating in 9 GHz frequency band and when triggered by a radar. Search And Rescue Transponders (SARTs) Search And Rescue Transponders are radar transponders for detecting vessels/survival craft which are in distress. Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) These are 406 MHz beacons designed for COSPAS-SARSA T satellite to pick-up signals so that the positions of the vessels in distress can be is time for slowing down maneuvering. It can be manually activated also. When a ship in distress is abandoned. either person carrier or leave this EPIRB on board (which is float free) then it starts transmitting automatically. When the vessel starts proceeding towards this SART and at a distance of 1 mile then it gives a circular band signal (wider arc becoming a circle) Means-. 45 . This is a signal for a vessel in distress and assistance can be provided. send out a 12 blip codes/dots (response signals) in the line of direction of the abandoned vessel/life boat away from the target or outward from the SART's position along its line of bearing displayed in the PPI (Plan Position Indicator). Signals to the Satellites will alert the Search and Rescue center.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 8 .

Every ship has to carry one onboard and kept in such a location so that it can be readily placed in survival craft in an emergency. state of visibility. type of ship and any other operational details regarding the readiness of the ship. description of ship. Direct contact between both ship and aircraft should commence with positive identification followed by the confirmation by the ship's Master as to the nature of the operation.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY The SART also gives an audible and visual warning when it is interrogated by Radar so the survivors are also aware that somebody is nearby. wind direction and force. CHAPTER 9. Evacuation from ship and survival craft It is often the case with rescue operations that injured parties are present and that the level of injuries will dictate the method of evacuation or rescue.HELICOPTER ASSISTANCE Communicating with the helicopter It is a standard requirement that aircraft engaged in marine operations are fitted with a VHF radio with channel 16 and at least two other working frequencies. This becomes the normal method of communications between stations involved. It is kept in the survival craft at a distance of 1 m above the sea level (when abandoned) so that at the distance of 5 miles it can be detected by radar.Then it is a normal practice to adopt this method. The use of the single strop is well practiced. Additional information. is essential so that rescue operation can be carried out in an efficient manner to the distressed victims. provided the survivor can be airlifted in this manner . call sign. on closing the rendezvous. It operates in a temperature range of -20°C to +55°C. ship's name. The use of the strop about a physically fit and able person should not cause too much discomfort. sea state. course and speed should be passed to the helicopter. The ships bridge being similarly equipped with a marine VHF radio under GMDSS regulations. The area should be well lit in case of darkness and should be free of any obstructions. but may not fit the body too well if the individual is wearing a lifejacket. may include any or all of the following: weather conditions at the surface. barometric pressure. A well mounted SART in moderate conditions of weather is capable of giving a detection range of over 10 nautical miles. Where a person is injured a stretcher 46 . The deck landing officer should ideally be equipped with a portable transceiver with noise excluding headset and boom microphone. Operation of a helicopter depends on circumstances of the bad weather conditions and visibility. General particulars relating to the ships current position. The master of the vessel in distress must have efficient communication between all parties.

plot the position of the ship and ascertain the distance and the course to steam towards it so that the master can make a decision quickly. The distressed vessel may not be able to do this that effectively. The decision to proceed for assistance is taken by the Master however. Food.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY may be employed. When such signal is received. or 2 He is relieved of this duty by the SAR authorities 3 The condition of his own ship is such that. Whether the ship proceeds to assist or not the following shall be carried out and logged: 1a. When an injured party is to be hoisted by a stretcher. It may be possible that only your ship is able to provide a particular kind of assistance. he or she should still be strapped into a lifejacket if the case permits. Upon receiving emergency or distress signals Any ship.30° on the port bow. regarding amount of fuel remaining on board or other restricting factors such as draft. 47 . Retransmit the distress call giving required details. All aerials should be struck and loose objects secured inside the boat. water. needs to proceed with all speed towards the distress ship for saving of life. it is practically impossible for him to proceed for assistance owing to own limitations. With the exception of one man outside (enclosed craft) all other personnel should be seated inside the boat with lap straps secured. Enclosed craft should have all access points and hatches closed and secure. 3c. of which there are several types in current use. medical help etc. e. 2b. Be standby in convenient position or proceed to an intermediate position if advised by SAR coordinating authorities. if you happen to be the first one to have received the distress call or you think that appropriate rescuing or coordinating authorities are still unaware of the distress.g. It is very important for the people on the distressed ship to know that others know of their distress. Acknowledge the call and note down the position and whatever information you have received. he may sometimes decide not to go towards distressed ship because: 1 The ship has already received or is about to receive the assistance required and he has been so informed. which receives a distress call. The lifeboat should be maintained at maximum speed with the wind approximately 20° .

A sharp knife is required for this purpose. `Prevention is better than cure` is most fitting in case of sea piracy. Such secure area must be effectively sealed from inside and it should also have an emergency escape to prevent the crew from being trapped inside. bells. 2 Seal off accesses as per security plan. Seamen must be careful not to get hit by hooks and to cut the rope immediately.e. 48 . If pirates threaten the ship or if unauthorized persons are likely to board the vessel. They normally use fast boats mostly unlit. 6 Security plan must consider a secure area. This will indicate to the prospective pirates that the ships crews are alert and they will then try to find another target for their activities. Searchlights. Most actions require being prepared and ready. they will overpower the ships crew and it is advisable not to resist after the ship has been boarded. Principle action therefore is called for in not allowing them to board. whistle etc. where crew appears to be slack.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Unidentified or suspiciously maneuvered vessels in vicinity Much has been written regarding piracy. Many rules have been made in this respect. ships which are not taking anti piracy precautions. The saying. Ships must draw up a security plan. Course and speed is altered to benefit and the police / port control / authorities are informed about the impending attack so that they may render assistance. Deck water may be kept running at hawse pipes. Once they are successful in boarding. This may include use of fire hoses. A powerful jet of deck water may be used for preventing the pirates climbing up the ropes. Study them and follow them. 5 Shore authorities and ships in vicinity are informed at earliest. 3 Lock up deckhouses and areas easily accessible. Pirates and similar persons are armed these days and any resistance is not recommended once they have boarded. may be used to indicate it to these boats that they have been spotted. which must also be implemented in advance. The crew should move around while keeping anti piracy watches in such a manner that someone observing from outside the ship can see them. theft etc on merchant ships. It has been observed that pirates normally attack between 0100h and 0600h. More men may be called and the security plan should be followed. Hence. 4 Pirates normally throw a rope with a hook on to the gunwales and then climb up when the hook is caught on the gunwale. following actions should be taken: 1 Prevent the unauthorised persons from boarding the vessel by using all means at your disposal. Pirates normally prefer ‘soft targets’ i. it is advisable to light up the ship to an extent so that it does not interfere with normal bridge watch keeping. Main deck water also may be started. Your ship carries instructions in this respect.

affected by the downdraft from the helicopter rotors. The strop should be positioned under the armpits and the toggle should be drawn downwards. Helicopter pick-up The helicopter will approach from a downwind direction and off the port side of the boat. the hook handler will ensure that the strop is placed correctly. It may be appropriate for the person in-charge of the boats to reduce the speed to provide a more stable platform for landing the frogman in the event of bad weather. Correct use of helicopter harness In case of a single strop (which is slowly becoming obsolete and double strop is becoming famous even though it is not quicker). If total evacuation of the boat is not achieved with a single aircraft passage the boat should be returned to its normal sea condition to await the aircraft's return. Although the sea anchor will reduce the rate of drift. If a frogman is employed. (SAQ – Self Assessment Questions) 1Read the instructions relating to Pirates and armed robbery available on board. Would-be survivors are expected to follow the instructions of the aircrew when involved in hoisting operations.SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 7 It is advisable not to keep too much cash on board and particularly in the safe. 2Name a few areas which are prone to pirate attacks. Not all search and rescue authorities employ the use of a frogman and some aircraft may only send the rescue strop or basket. on the end of the hoist wire. If a boat is without motive power the sea anchor should be streamed.. boat crews can expect considerable movement as the craft yaws from side to side. Up to this point the boat in-charge is in full command of the boat and personnel would be expected to remain seated with lap strap secured until ready for evacuation to the aircraft. The helicopter would expect to lower a frogman and close station on the surface craft. depending on the circumstances. (SAQ – Self Assessment Questions) 49 . at a height of about 40 meters above the surface. he would land on the survival craft and disconnect himself from the hoist wire. etc. The person should stand directly under the winch of the aircraft in a vertical posture. and note the same in your technical journal. Prehoist and winch checks will be carried out by the aircraft prior to engagement. It would be expected that the frogman would organize the evacuation of the boat by either single or double lift.

SCHOOL OF SEMANSHIP & NAUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Study the IAMSAR manual and identify the responsibilities of the ship receiving a distress call. 50 .