Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Geometry
o f
Manif0Ids
PURE A N D APPLIED MATHEMATICS
A Series of Monographs and Textbooks
Edited by
PAUL SMITH A. and SAMUEL EILENBERG
Columbia University, N e w York
I: ARNOLD SOMMERFELD. Differential Equations in Physics. Partial 1949 (Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume VI) 11: REINHOLD BAER.Linear Algebra and Projective Geometry. 1952 111: HERBERT BUSEMANN PAULJ. KELLY. AND Projective Geometry and Projective Metrics. 1953 IV: STEFAN BERGMAN AND M. SCHIFFER. Kernel Functions and Elliptic Differential Equations in Mathematical Physics. 1953 V: RALPH PHILIPBOAS,JR. Entire Functions. 1954 VI: HERBERT BUSEMANN. Geometry of Geodesics. 1955 The VII: CLAUDE CHEVALLEY. Fundamental Concepts of Algebra. 1956 VIII: SZETSEN Homotopy Theory. 1959 Hu. IX: A. OSTROWSKI. Solution of Equations and Systems of Equations. 1960 X: J. DIEUDONNB. Foundations of Modern Analysis. 1960 Curvature and Homology. 1962 XI: S. I. GOLDBERG. HELGASON. Differential Geometry and Symmetric XII: SIGURDUR Spaces. 1962 XIII: T. H. HILDEBRANDT. Introduction to the Theory of Integration. 1963 XIV: SHREERAM ABHYANKAR. Analytic Geometry. Local In preparation. XV: RICHARD BISHOPAND RICHARD CRITTENDEN. L. J. Geometry of Manifolds. 1964 XVI: STEVEN GAAL.Point Set Topology. In preparation.
Geometry
of Manifolds
Richard L. Bishop
Department of Mathematics University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois
Richard I . Crittenden
Department of Mathematics Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois
1964
ACADEMIC
PRESS
NEW YORK AND LONDON
COPYRIGHT 1964, 0
BY
ACADEMIC PRESS INC.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED I N ANY FORM, BY PHOTOSTAT, MICROFILM, OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION FROM THE PUBLISHERS.
ACADEMIC PRESS INC. 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003
United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS INC. (LONDON) LTD. Berkeley Square House, London W.l
LIBRARY CONGRESS OF CATALOG CARDNUMBER: 6420317
PRINTED I N THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Cartan. and problems are numbered consecutively within each chapter. besides being an interesting area for specialization. asides and problems. We believe that this subject matter. M . and thus should be studied by a wide spectrum of graduate students so as to break away from narrow specialization and see how their own fields are related and applied in other fields. T he theorems. lends itself especially to a synthesis of several branches of mathematics. and even probability and astronomy. Chern. the de Rham’s theorems and the GaussBonnet theorem. that is. an unmodified number reference is to the corresponding section. T h e word “section” is usually omitted in this usage . We feel that at least a part of this subject should be of interest not only to those working in geometry but also to those in analysis. for example. the background for these topics is thoroughly treated. However. lemmas. Th us in the text of Chapter 6. I t is intended for individual study and for use as a text for graduate level courses such as the one from which this material stems. topology. algebra. while “problem 5. because we did not wish to get involved in the theory of topological invariants.4” refers to the fourth problem in Chapter 5. the chapter number is always given. Our use of these numbers in cross references should be transparent. and Morse theory is carried to the point where topology takes over from analysis. Definitions are generally distinguished only by italics. V . Singer. T o get an idea of the scope of this book we refer to the table of contents and the introductory paragraphs to the chapters. Our contributions have been primarily to fill out the material with details. and point set topology. In order that this book be meaningful.PREFACE Our purpose in writing this book is to put material which we found stimulating and interesting as graduate students into book form. “theorem 7” refers to the seventh theorem in Chapter 6. We have not included the study of integration theory. In this case. Ambrose at M I T in 19581959. given by Professor W. the reader’s background should include real variable theory. Previously the material had been organized in roughly the same form by him and Professor I. propositions. and they in turn drew upon the work of Ehresmann. and to alter notation slightly. linear algebra. and E.
J.13.11. references to entries in the bibliography. R. namely. problems 1. 2. 2.15.14.vi PREFACE T h e problems range from trivial to very difficult. 2. of course.L. R. from essential to the text to clearly tangential. T h e reader is referred to [33]and [50] for their extensive bibliographies as well as to their very fine treatment of much of the subject matter of the present text. A brief appendix is provided with a statement of the theorem on existence and uniqueness of solutions of ordinary differential equations most appropriate for our needs. and 8. Some problems almost certainly will require recourse to the reference given. T h e subjects of holonomy groups and complex manifolds are developed exclusively in problems.7. Italic numbers in brackets are.B. April 1964 .C.
C O NT E NT S
Preface
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
v
CHAPTER 1
Manifolds
1.1
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
Introductory Material and Notation Definition of a Manifold . . Tangent Space . . . . Vector Fields . . . . Submanifolds . . . . Distributions and Integrability .
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
2 7 13 21 22
CHAPTER 2
Lie Groups
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Lie Groups . . . . . . Lie Algebras . . . . . . Lie GroupLie Algebra Correspondence Homomorphisms . . . . . Exponential Map . . . . . Representations . . . . .
CHAPTER 3
. .
. . .
.
. .
. . .
.
. .
. . .
.
. .
. . .
.
. .
. . .
.
. .
. . . . . .
.
. .
.
25 26 28 29 30 34
Fibre Bundles
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
Transformation Groups . . . Principal Bundles . . . . Associated Bundles . . . . Reduction of the Structural Group
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
38 41 45 49
CHAPTER 4
Differential Forms
4.1 Introduction . . . . . 4.2 Classical Notion of Differential Form 4.3 Grassmann Algebras . . . .
vii
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
53 53 54
Vlll
...
CONTENTS
4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10
Existence of Grassmann Algebras . Differential Forms . . . . Exterior Derivative . . . . Action of Maps . . . . . Frobenius’ Theorem . . . . VectorValued Forms and Operations Forms on Complex Manifolds . .
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
.
. .
.
.
57
. 62 . 64
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
68 70 71 72
CHAPTER 5
Connexions
5.1
5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6
Definitions and First Properties . . . . . . . Parallel Translation . . . . . . . . . . Curvature Form and the Structural Equation . . . . . Existence of Connexions and Connexions in Associated Bundles Structural Equations for Horizontal Forms . . . . . Holonomy . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 6
. .
.
. . .
. . .
. .
.
74 77 80 83 84 87
Affine Connexions
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
Definitions . . . . . . . . T h e Structural Equations of an Affine Connexion T h e Exponential Maps . . . . . Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms
.
. .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
89 99 108 111
CHAPTER 7
Riemannian Manifolds
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4
Definitions and First Properties T h e Bundle of Frames . . Riemannian Connexions . . Examples and Problems . .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
122 127 . 129 . 132
. .
CHAPTER 8
Geodesics and Complete Riemannian Manifolds
8.1 Geodesics . . . . . 8.2 Complete Riemannian Manifolds 8.3 Continuous Curves . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 145
.
152
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 158
CONTENTS
i x
CHAPTER 9
Riemannian Curvature
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5
Riemannian Curvature . . . . Computation of the Riemannian Curvature Continuity of the Riemannian Curvature Rectangles and Jacobi Fields . . . Theorems Involving Curvature . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . .
.
161 165 166 172 178
CHAPTER 10
Immersions and the Second Fundamental Form
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9
. . . . . . . Definitions T h e Connexions . . . . . . Curvature . . . . . . . T h e Second Fundamental Form . . . Curvature and the Second Fundamental Form . . . . . T h e Local Gauss Map Hessians of Normal Coordinates of N . . A Formulation of the Immersion Problem . Hypersurfaces . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 11
. .
. .
. .
.
. . .
.
.
. . .
.
.
. . .
.
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. 185
.
. .
. .
. .
.
.
.
.
187 189 190 192 195 . 197 . 199 . 207
. . . .
Second Variation of Arc Length
1 1 . 1 First and Second Variation of Arc Length 11.2 T h e Index Form . . . . . 11.3 Focal Points and Conjugate Points . I I .4 T h e Infinitesimal Deformations . . 1 I .5 T h e Morse Index Theorem . . . 11.6 T h e Minimum Locus . . . . 1 I .7 Closed Geodesics . . . . . 11.8 Convex Neighborhoods . . . . 1 I .9 Rauch’s Comparison Theorem . . 11.10 Curvature and Volume . . . .
.
. .
.
. .
.
. .
.
. .
. .
. .
.
. 213
220
.
. . .
.
. . .
.
. .
.
. .
.
. .
.
. .
. 224 . 226
.
. . .
.
. . .
.
. . .
.
. . .
. . .
.
. . .
.
. . .
233 237 241 . 246 . 250 . 253
APPENDIX: Theorems on Differential Equations
. . . .
258
BIBLIOGRAPHY . SUBJECT INDEX
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. 260 . 265
.
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Geometry
of
Manifolds
This Page Intentionally Left Blank .
831. namely.l Introductory Material and Notation If is a map of M into N and! . Frobenius' theorem on the integrability of pplane distributions is given in outline form [4. that is. J!. 78. 24.I o is followed by 4.CHAPTER 1 M an i fo Ids In this chapter the basic tools of manifold theory are introduced and the main theorems are stated without proof. will be used in the formation of sums. Lie derivatives are discussed via local oneparameter groups of transformations. and other combinations of maps. T are any sets and we understand that the domain of I.!J o is #l(P) n M (in particular. products. that the domain is the largest meaningful set. 25. N . 1 . If U c M we use +ILI for the restriction of to u. 1. I a map of P into T . 50. + + + + + + FIG. and various interpretations of the bracket of vector fields are given. $J c may have an empty domain). 33.!J o will J denote their composition. P. then I. 1. Here M . T h e same sort of convention.
then a map 4 : U + Rd is said to be of class C" (written 4 E C") if the realvalued functions ui o 4.) Consider the following properties of a set of coordinate systems %? on a topological manifold X : . f(0) = 0.. If 4 is a coordinate system. have all kth order continuous partial derivatives for every nonnegative k.. . that is. (Fig. 2. pp... we often write ( x l . . < Let {rm}be an ordering of the rational numbers and ) . C" maps are not necessarily analytic.. then ui(t) = t i . Let 4.2 Definition of a Manifold If X is a Hausdorff topological space.. if t = ( t l .. (See [85]. In fact. {ui}. xd) for the functions (ul o 4. Then 4. X is called a ddimensional topological manifold if X is covered by domains of ddimensional coordinate systems... . $ be ddimensional coordinate systems on X .) Problem 1. a ddimensional coordinate system in X is a homeomorphism of an open set in X onto an open set in Rd. $ are C"related if 4 o $l and $ o 4l are of class C". MANIFOLDS T h e ddimensional Euclidean space will be denoted by Rd. T h e domain of a coordinate system 4 is called the coordinate neighborhood and if x is in the coordinate neighborhood of 4.2 1..) if x > O if x 0. . 1.. If U is open in Re. 4 is said to be a coordinate system at x. Either 4 or (xl. In the case d = 1 we write R1 = R and u1 = u... xd) will be referred to as a coordinate system. W .. d. ud o 4).rJ. n=l Show that g is C" but nowhere analytic.provided with the usual coordinate functions. 25 and 26 for the construction of C" Urysohn functions. . ( g = 22 3 . Define exp(I/. i = 1. as is shown by the example: f(x) = exp(l/x2) if x # 0. there exist nontrivial C" realvalued functions on Rd which vanish outside a given compact set.td) E Rd..
If M is paracompact.2. the function 0 o $ o 4l is of class C". (We shall usually 2. and 8 at $(m) such that 8 o $ o +I E C". For $ : M + N to be of class C" it is sufficient that for every m E M .1. a map $ : M + N is of class C" ($ E C") if for every two coordinate systems on M . %). A C" manifold (or just manifold) is a pair ( X . omit W in the future. since partitions of unity which are subordinate to a given covering can be constructed from rational combinations + + . N are manifolds. there are coordinate systems at m. R FIG. Definition of a Manifold 3 (1) X is covered by the domains of coordinate systems in %?. (We have ignored the assumption that X be Hausdorff. Given a set goof coordinate systems on a set X satisfying (1) and ( ) requiring that they be homeomorphisms defines a topology on 2. and just write X for a manifold. 2. %? is said to be a C" structure on X .) If M .) A basis for ? the C" structure W is a subset Vo of % satisfying (1) and (2). (2) Every two coordinate systems in %? are C" related. (3) %? is maximal with respect to (1) and (2). ( ) and (3). 8 on N . and %? is a set of coordinate systems satisfying (1). Then there exists a unique C" structure W on X with basis eo and it is obtained by adjoining all C" related coordinate systems. X so that X becomes a topological manifold. where X is a topological manifold.
l ) . It then follows from pointset topology that manifolds are separable and so satisfy the second axiom of countability if connected. hence paracompact. 3 . (4) Ordinary sphere... . respec I Rd+' FIG. 0. = {#JE V j domain of # J C U}.. as its C" structure.. we shall assume henceforth that manifolds are paracompact... R ) = {nonsingular d x d matrices with real entries} is an open submanifold of Rd2. Because C" partitions of unity are an indispensible device for much of the analysis on manifolds.. MANIFOLDS of Urysohn functions. Examples (1) Euclidean space.detl(O)..R ) = Rd2. are metrizable. T h e ordinary C" structure on Rd is obtained by taking as basis V o = {identity}. . Then U is a manifold with V.. and let V. 0. # : S d . Gl(d. l). our ultimate object of study. 0.. Let M be a manifold with C" structure V .. .. .1)) + Rd by stereographic projection from (0. since GZ(d. 0. ( 2 ) Open submanifolds. Let Sd = {x E Rd+lI C $x () = l}.. we can get C" partitions of unity. let U be an open subset of M .((0. and define #J : S d . U is called an open submanifold of M ..((0.4 1.. 1)) + Rd.. and because Riemannian manifolds. (0. ( 3 ) General linear group.
55 and 561. . respectively. I o p z ) = ) **. 1) through x intersects ud+. T h e objects traditionally called "surfaces in 3space" can be made into manifolds in a standard way. + 9 Cylinder = R x S1 2dimensional (ordinary) torus ddimensional torus = S1 x = S1 x S1= T 2 x S1 ( d factors) = T d . N be C" manifolds with structures 93 and dimensions d. then this is no longer true. is. as an example of a long line showsthis is obtained by connecting together an uncountable wellordered collection of halfclosed intervals [39. A 2dimensional manifold is called a surface.. e. . T h e following example shows that the Hausdorff property of a manifold does not follow from the existence of a C" structure. Let Pa be real projective dspace. which takes x into the line through x. 3) with topology described in terms of neighborhoods as follows. Then Vo = {(+ o p . Note also that Rd+e can be canonically identified with Rd x Re.induces a C" structure on Pa. pp. (8) NonHausdorfl manifold.2.l(0) = Rd. +} is a basis for a C" structure on Sd. the collection of straight lines through the origin in Rd+'. T h e underlying point set consists of the interval (0.. ~ 1 0O P . Let p . 1) u (1. that is. : M x N + N be the projections. 3) would be as in the topology induced from the reals. uao + o P . Then Vo = {+. T h e compact surfaces have been classified as spheres or projective planes with various numbers of handles attached [80].] (5) Real projective space. If the restriction of paracompactness is omitted. T h e same structure could also be obtained by using only a basis for V.. 2) u (2. T h e neighborhood of a point in (0. . Let M . (See problem 4 below.. : M x N + M . 9 in their places. p . (7) Product manifolds. [Stereo( ) graphic projection: +. Essentially the only 1dimensional connected paracompact manifolds are R1 and S1. Definition of a Manifold 5 tively. there is a unique C" structure that on Pa such that is a C" map with local C" inverses.1. is the point where the straight line from (0. 0. ( ~ 1 0 ueo $ 0 ~ 2 )I + E V . T h e natural covering map : Sd + P d .) + + (6) Low dimensions. I ) E ~ } is a basis for a Cmstructure on M x N. . More specific examples are: %.
E . is said to evenly cover U and U is said to be a distinguished neighborhood of +.1 2 1 2 3 > We leave as a problem to show that this has a C" structure. Show that a C" map is necessarily continuous. Problem 2.pp.6 A neighborhood of i = 1. Show that if M is compact then a basis for a C" structure on M must contain more than one coordinate system. + + + + FIG.. . MANIFOLDS 1 or 2 is. When M and N are C" manifolds. i] u (2.. 801. (i . Problem 3. 2 + €). + A covering map : M e N is a continuous map such that for every n E N there is a neighborhood U of n such that +l( U ) is the disjoint union of neighborhoods of points of +l(n) such that is a homeomorphism on each such neighborhood [41.4. for 0 < E < 1. O . then M is said to be a C" covering of N if is a C" map and if the local inverses of are C" maps. 8997.
Make this precise and show that a complex manifold is an evendimensional (real) manifold.t N is a covering map and M has a C" structure such that for every Ui U j open sets in M on which . complex ddimensional projective space CPd. Let y be a C" curve in M . Prove that if : M . then N has a unique C" structure such that M is a C" covering of N . then there is a unique C" structure on M such that M is a C" covering of N. y ( t ) ) + R as follows: if f e F ( M . A C" curve in M is a map of a closed interval [a. T h e notion of a tangent can arise from the following considerations. . + + 1. then y * ( t ) ( f ) = (fo y)'(t). which may be described as a directional derivative off at m in the direction of y . the Riemann surface of a complex analytic function of one complex variable. m) is not a FIG.5. Prove that if N is a connected C" manifold. and denote by F ( M . Prove that if : M + N is a covering map and N has a C" structure.3. m). m E M . denoted by Gl(d. Tangent Space 7 Problem 4. (Part of the problem is to show that manifolds satisfy a condition sufficient for the existence of simply connected topological coverings. Then y gives rise to a linear function y * ( t ) : F ( M . C). then there exists an essentially unique simply connected C" covering of N .) Problem 7.1.3 Tangent Space Let M be a manifold. m = y(t). Problem 5. and the set of all nonsingular linear transformations of Cd. b] into M which can be extended to a C" map of an open interval. and these homeomorphisms are complex analytically related. Examples of complex manifolds are Cd itself. o 4 is q5 is a homeomorphism and +( Ui) = +( U j ) we have (4 a C" map on U i . m) the set of C" realvalued functions with domain a neighborhood of m. [Although F(M. Problem 6. A ddimensional complex manifold is a topological space locally homeomorphic with complex space Cd.
T h e problem includes proving t ( c ) = 0.. + + + T h e tangents at m form a linear space. as can be seen by evaluating a linear combination on each of the functions xi in turn. {D5i(m)} is linearly independent. Give an example to show that DZi depends on xl. We recall that fg and f g are the usual product and sum. Letting l u be the function defined only on U and there equal to 1. that is. Dzi(m). If m E M .. for a. . .. When the coordinates are {ui} on Rd we shall write Di instead of D U i . a tangent to M a t m is a map t : F ( M . I t is easily seen that Dzixi(m) = aij (Kronecker delta)... f . If c is a constant function. we see from (a) and (b) that t(flu) = t ( f ) and hence t ( f ) = t ( f lu).8 1.] f ( m ) y*(t)(g). linearity of realvalued functions has an obvious meaning. If = (xl. then t ( c) = 0. is the tangent defined by (DZi(m)) = f ( a ( f o+‘)/aui) (+(m)). Problem 8. MANIFOLDS y * ( t ) is a derivation. g E q M . x d ) is a coordinate system the partial derivative a t m with respect to x i . t( f ) depends only on the local behavior off. which is also denoted by Dzif ( m ) . but defined only on the intersections of the domains o f f and g. denoted by M . y * ( t ) ( f g ) = y * ( t ) ( f ) g ( m ) linear space. This linear derivation does everything required of “the tangent to y” and subsequently we show that every such linear derivation is associated with a curve (in fact many curves) in this way. . m). and not just on x i . of m that t(c FIG. m) + R such that + ( 4 t(af bg) = a t ( f > bt(g) (b) t(f1 = t ( f )g ( m ) f ( m ) t(g). Problem 9 .. and.6. b E R. that is. hence. xd . + Prove that for constant function c and neighborhood U 1”) = 0.
Hence. If : M + N is C". then d + ( t ) ( f )= t ( f o 4).(m) ta. p.. a). Therefore. t a tangent at m.(m)(f). of a. . then there are functions g.(a) = Dif(a).i(m).(a) = D i ( f o +')(a). Then by the lemma... in a neigh. where h. = t In the case of Ck manifolds (which we have not defined) the corresponding lemma is not true.. we define the dtfferential of 4. d+ : Mm P N+(nL. for Ckmanifolds the In space of derivations at m is infinite in dimension.. + Proof of Theorem 1. Let f € F ( I M .(m) = D r i f ( m ) . so the tangent space is defined to be the space spanned by {D. . Prove that the following is an alternate definition of d+: for every C" curve y in M and parameter value t.. x. Note. € F ( R d a) such that f = f ( a ) C (u. g. d+(y*(t)) (+oy)*(t). fact. then .) We have already defined the tangent vector y * ( t ) for parameter value t of a C" curve y in M .(m)) (4 2 t(xi) oz.3.. a = ( a l .) D.1. f = f ( m ) C (xixi(m)) hi in a neighborhood of m. since the gi's will not always be Ck. by: if t E M .Dz. (Proof: T h e dimension of Mrn is d. For if xl. . we assume the: Lemma. f o 4l = f 3 +'(a) C (u. x. {Dzi(m))is a basis.. + + ..+(m)). We point out that every tangent at m is such a y*(t). .). For the proof.a).) g in a neighborhood . . Tangent Space Tangents are completely characterized by the following: Theorem 1.) is a coordinate system at m E M .) g..a.i(m)} [64A]. there are g such that if a = +(m). m). the dimension of M.a. f € F ( N .m). From this it follows that g.. d+ is clearly a linear map. + + + tf = 2 t ( x d U r n ) + 2 =  . 94.. . a. 9 If (x. then t = C (tx..(m).. . borhood of a [72. . Problem 10. a coordinate system at m. 2211. hi E F ( M . . is a coordinate system at m and s = C a. . QED Corollary. and g. then s is clearly the tangent to the curve given by: y ( t ) = that point whose coordinates are x. giE F(Rd.? If f € F [ R d .
.. If + : M .. = as an element of ( M x N)(. . E M x N .a C" structure. x d ) is a coordinate system at m.10 lacobian matrices. N. then there is a natural isomorphism T between M x N. i.) .. m E M . ) n) Now let : M x N . . For (m. Chain rule. If p : M x N . then ~ ( t= dp(t) dq(t)... ./Jo d+. Let s E M. 1... T ( M ) .n).3) we shall give the collection of all tangents to M ..N @:MtP + + + by +. Theorem 2. t E N . then d($ o +) = di. (D = D . .) Later (3. so that y* will become a C" curve in T ( M ) .t M and q : M x N f N are the projections and t E M x N(... then the matrix of d+ with respect to the bases { D J m ) } and {Duj+(m))} is the Jacobian (Dzj(yio +)(m)). MANIFOLDS If : M t N .(t) = dy(D(t)). and view s +t d+(s + t) = d+%(S) + d+m(t)* T h e proof is left as an exercise.(n) = # ~ ~ ( m )+(m. . (Fig... N are manifolds.) and M . (direct sum)..+ P be C". define C" maps +. + FIG. omitting T ./J : N+ P are C". 8. We can rephrase our previous definition of the tangent y * ( t ) to a C" curve y as: y. (xl .t N . . .. y e )is a coordinate system at +(m).). = d/du.I +P .. 1. If M . (yl . Tangent space of a product. .
. at least for manifolds of dimension greater than six. Then .. Let (xl. as is true allegedly also in dimensions four through six according to unpublished work of Cerf. M .. ..eomorphism of M onto N is a onetoone map 4 . For any integer n > 1 the map : R + R is such an example.. o is a coordinate system y5 at m [25.. 52. 841 show that this equivalence relation is not the same as topological equivalence. It is easy to give examples to show that a C" homeomorphism need not be a diffeomorphism. 8.1. we get examples of different C" structures on the same space. 4 : M P N is a diffeomorphism if and only if 4 is a C" homeomorphism with range N and for every m E M . FIG. these manifolds are equivalent in the above sense. and three it is known that both equivalence relations are the same..) Characterization of diffeomorphism. that is. p. two.. at m E M .m). . fl . 58. y5 a coordinate system at +(m). If we change our viewpoint and consider the C" homeomorphism as the identity map on an underlying topological manifold. Tangent Space 11 A dz. fd) restricts to a ..l } as a basis for a C" structure on R we get different structures for different n's. 53.3. x d ) be a coordinate system 4 = ( fl . (However. + Inverse function theorem. 751. Existence of a diffeomorphism is the natural equivalence relation for manifolds.P N such that 4 and 4l are C". fd E F ( M . that the condition that 4' be C" is independent. Difficult results of Milnor and others [44. For manifolds of dimensions one. T h e example given then shows that if we take { P . since the inverse does not have a derivative at 0. although the resulting manifolds may be diffeomorphic under another map..
ye) is a coordinate system at #(m). Prove Surd's theorem: If # : N + M is C". ... then S = { m E M I m = #(n) for some n such that d# : N . . p. m E M such that d+ : M . # E C". . . Every element f of F ( M . If # : M + N . 791. Corollary. MANIFOLDS coordinate system at m if and only if det(DXji ( m ) ) # 0. Prove the following generalization of the first corollary above. Note that under this identification. Moreover. . then a coordinate system at m may be chosen from restrictions of y1 o +. via its differential. is onetoone into. Corollary.. Then there is a neighborhood of C which is mapped homeomorphically under # [83. and hence df : M m + R. 4 E C".* of M . . f d# is nonsingular on M .(nl)with R [ a D ( f ( m ) )is identified with a ] . m E M . is onetoone into. then # is constant [25.. y eo #. I f # : M + N . if (yl . 701. (Inverse function theorem for manifolds. p. c" # E C"... . Let C be a compact subset of M . to an element of the dual space M. if (yl ... # ( S )C Rd has measure zero. p Differentials of functions.. . that is. SO]. Measure zero is a sensible notion on manifolds: S C M has meczsure zero if for every coordinate map #. then there are functions x . is onto.) If Corollary.. + M .(. . then there is a neighborhood of m in M which is mapped homeomorphically (into) under #. such that # is onetoone on C and for every m E C.. m E M such that d# : M . . then # # : M + N . + N4(.. p. .. d&. p.. is a diffeomorphism of an open neighborhood of m onto an open neighborhood of #(m) if and only if d# is an isomorphism onto at m [25. p. + ~ . + N4(. Problem 11. # E C". then the image under # of every neighborhood of m in M is a neighborhood of #(m) in N . .. y eo # [25. # : M +N . SO]. If # : M+ N . m ) gives rise. xd defined in a ~ neighborhood of m such that (yl o #. is not onto} has measure zero [79]. VI451. Corollary. d# = 0 everywhere. xd) is a coordinate system at m [25. SO]. [25. .12 1 . x ~ . # E C". e R.. and M is connected. Problem 12... if . ye) is a coordinate system at #(m). Moreover. as follows: we may identify R.
1.Y X . I n fact..f e ) withfi real valued. A vector field X is of class C" if its domain is open and for every m in the domain of X and ~ E F ( M . .4 Vector Fields A vectorfield.called the bracket of X and Y. Now if ( x l .. . is a function defined on a subset E of a manifold M which assigns at each point m E E an element X ( m ) of M.. df = C Dxif ( m ) dxi . (c) I f f and g are realvalued C" functions. .m) also. If X and Y are C" vector fields prove: (a) [ X ..(m). X . If (xl. then rfK gY1 = f g [ X YI + f(Wy . .* dual to the D... Xfe). If X is a vector field. (b) X Y is not a vector field unless one of them is 0. X = C f i D . . ( x l . 1... then Xf E C". Prove that X E C" if and only if the f i E C". where the fi are realvalued functions.. If X. If X is a vector field with its domain contained in the coordinate system. . . . m). xd) is a coordinate system. Y = C g i D x z on the common . Vector Fields 13 t E M . . then we define a C" vector field [ X . then we have dxi(DZj(m)) a i j . P r o b l e m 13. x d ) is a coordinate system = at m. . f E F ( M . we may write X = C f i D x . m). Y ] = X Y . ~ It is clear that if X E C"... then <f(t) = t ( f ) .. Frequently we shall consider a C" vector field X to be the map on C" functions given by f + X f . Xf E F ( M .. so ( d x . then Dxi is a C" vector field. Similarly we define t f Re. since X is entirely determined this way by varying f . Iff is a C" map of M into Re.. Y ] actually is a vector field. and X a vector field on M . .. Multiplication of vector fields here is composition of their action on functions.. on the intersection of their domains by [ X . for a tangent t..d Y f ) x Coordinate expression for bracket. xd) a coordinate system. Problem 14. Y ] . Y are C" vector fields.. .then Xf is the function defined on the intersection of the domains of X and f by: Xf(n) = X(n)(f)... dxd) forms a basis of M. we write Xf for ( X f l . Yare C" vector fields..4. for any f ~ F ( n / lm). If X . so f = ( fi .
if m. Namely. C" vector fields on M. 4 = " X . then 1. If X is a C" vector field. Y] = [Y. [ X Z l l . + If + : M . If X . XI + "2. XI. If Note that in general. T h e bracket operation is bilinear with respect to real coefficients. Vector fields and maps. then y is the integral curve o X starting at m if y(0) = m and for every t in the domain of y . the Lie derivative with respect to X . E C".f.then d+ X is not single valued at +(m). N . . Problem 15. then [ X I . + + Integral curves. 841. Y are related if for every m in the domain of X .14 part of the domains. 21. X. p. If has the property that d+ is onetoone at every point then is called regular. Problem 16.. Brackets and maps. f y*(t) = X ( y ( t ) ) . Y. Y. [ X . XI lacobi identity. If : M + N . N = S'. n E M a r e such that +(m) = +(n) but d+(X(m))# d+(X(n)).Y. [ X .1 1 [Y. that is.i .] [25.YI = 0. where multiplication in that algebra is bracket: [X. YI = 2(fiD& 1. then X .then there E is a unique C" vector field X on M which is related to Y [25. if : M +N .. 2 are C" vector fields. respectively. d+(X(m))= Y(+(m)). 2 [Y. Y.] is 9 related to [Y. X. + + + M = Give an example for which d+ X is not defined when R. E C". X. Another way of expressing this is to say that the map Y t [ X .D. is a derivation of the algebra of C" vector fields.) DZj. C" vector fields on N such that X i is related to Yi (i = 1. XI. E C". + Problem 17. Y ] . or equivalently. then "X. Y vector fields on M. 851.t + + + + 4 is regular and Y is a C" vector field on N such that for every m E +l(domain of Y ) . It is also skewsymmetric. = 0. YI.g. p. X a vector field on M . 2 YII 1 + "Y. Y(+(m)) d4(MWJ. then d+ Xis not defined. MANIFOLDS [X. 2) .. X .T h e existence of integral curves and their essential uniqueness are immediate consequences of the corresponding theorems . N . and 4 is regular.
Local oneparameter group. By theorems in differential equations on the dependence of solutions on initial conditions. Then at m the value of the vector field is X ( m ) = ( T oj. s t E (c.. By essential uniqueness we mean: if y and T are integral curves starting at m. if we are given a C" map having domain of the same type as T and satisfying the additive property. Since the real numbers used as the second variable of T a r e parameter values along a curve. xd) be a coordinate system at m. t ) = y ( t ) . We associate with X a local oneparameter group of transformations T which for every m E M and real number t sufficiently close to 0 assigns the point T ( m .. then their restrictions to the common interval of definition are the same. Vector Fields 15 for solutions of systems of ordinary differential equations: at any point we merely take a coordinate system and transfer everything to an open set of Rd.. t . for every m there is a positive number c and a neighborhood Uof m such that T is defined and C" on U x (c.1.). so that each fi is a realvalued C" function defined on an interval of the real axis containing 0. s. where y is the integral curve of X starting at m. fi = xi o y.(O). then again calling it T . Conversely. t ) . they satisfy an additive property: if n E U ..+. so that the problem of finding integral curves is equivalent to solving systems of ordinary differential equations as claimed.. t). Problem 18..(t) = (m. we get a vector field having T as its local oneparameter group as follows: let the injection j.s t). s) = T(n. y the integral curve of X starting at m. Show that the equation y * ( t ) = X ( y ( t ) ) is equivalent to an equation involving thefi and their derivatives. 9. be defined by j. Let X be a C" vector field. then T(T(n. c).4. FIG. + + . Let (xl. c).
. In the case of a differential of a function. denotes the restriction of d T . since we are just differentiating the value o f f along y with respect to the parameter of y . Since in each case the values are in a vector space we can differentiate. the integral curve of X starting at m. . p.).( Y ( y ( t ) ) . [24. 10. then by using the transformations T . . t ) . and other geometric objects on M are acted upon by transformations: functions by composition with the transformation. = T o 'j. which we do via d T . ulD. + + Lie derivatives. Now if we consider the values of one of these geometric objects along y . Let X = ulD. differentials by composition with the differential of the transformation. action of the differential of the transformation. .* is given by t 4df(y(t))o ( d T . we get X ( m ) f . where 'jt(a)= (n. .16 1. vector fields. I t is not difficult to show that the Lie derivative in this case is ( d ( X f ) ) . we can get a curve of values at m.* or in M. df. Functions. ) . so the curve in M . In the case of a function f. is t+ dT. and vector fields by the FIG. differentials. that is. where (dT. we get the tangential derivative with respect to the curve. 751. u 2 D . Find explicit equations for T : R2 x R + R2. the curve in M. Do the same for Y = u2D. that is either a realvalued function of t . . In the case of a vector field Y we must pull back the value at y ( t ) to m.. . It should be noticed that functions and differentials are pulled back from the range to the domain of the transformation whereas vector fields are pushed forward from the domain to the range.. T h e derivative at 0 is then called the Lie derivative of the object with respect to X at m. or a curve in M. MANIFOLDS Problem 19.. to M .
Theorem 3..O) in R2.1 1 . Then if we define G : V + R. Vector Fields 17 Since we shall return to this case in the chapter on bundles we state the result as a theorem. consider derivatives with respect to Y . FIG. and hence we introduce S.) . where V is a neighborhood of (0. by G(t. m) Noticing that d T .  t)) it is immediate from the definition of S that . the result agrees with the terminology already introduced above under Jacobi identity. the oneparameter group associated with Y . ( Y ( y ( t ) ) ) f = Y ( y ( t ) ( f oT P t ) we see that we must .r ) = f ( T ( S ( y ( t )r. T h e Lie derivative of Y with respect to X is [X.4.1. Proof. yl. We must show that for f E F ( M .
. [ X . Let g.D.Y starting at g3(c). r .D. it follows that D. r . 0. Proof.D D H(0.they make explicit the dependence of g . .c ) = g3(t).r ) ) . Also let h ( t ) = h3(t. and thus D. QED Let X .' It follows that D. r . Since H ( t . on c.H(O.O) in R2 into M by: h.c ) = g4(t).H(O. These maps are C" because they can be expressed as compositions of the oneparameter groups of X and Y . . 0) . 0. s) = f ( T ( S ( m . Geometrical interpretation of bracket. Y ] ( m ) = limf+o+g*(t). so that g ( t z ) = h(t).H(t. First it will be shown that h. h.(t. Let g .H(O.D. which follows. Ylf(m) = (foW O ) . be the integral curve of X starting at m. Let g . be the integral curve of .18 1. . t ) . .D.O) = x ( m ) Y f . g*(t) f. 0) = f ( T ( S ( y ( t ) . h2(t. Theorem 4. for every ~ E F ( M . r ) . Define maps h . s)). it follows from the chain rule that D.O) = Y f ( y ( t ) ) .I ) .(O) = 0. and thus D. FIG. of a neighborhood of (0. s)). the integral curve of . 0. r)).g .Define a curve g by g(cz) = g4(c). We shall define a curve which has [ X .O). 0.O) = Y ( m ) X f . MANIFOLDS Now letting H ( t .X starting at g2(c). be the integral curve of Y starting at gl(c).G(O. s) = f ( T ( S ( y ( t ) . m). 0.12.that is. Y . and then according to problem 20. c) = gz(t). it will remain to prove that 2[X. u l ( m )f = limf0. Then for sufficiently small positive c the remainder of the construction works. 0 ) ) = f ( S ( y ( t ) . Y be C" vector fields both defined at m E M .H(O. 0) = D.g . Then [ X . h3(t.r ) . h . Since H(0. g . Y ] ( m ) as a limit of its tangents. 0) = X f ( S ( m .
2 D 1 ( Y f o h.)(O) .)(O) D z 2 ( f ch. (2) T h e same tangent is 2 liml+o+g*(t).2 D 2 ( Y f 0 h. and let m = h(0).2D. .4."(fo h.)(O) D.)(O) YZf(m) 2 X Y f ( m ) .where the meaning of lim is the same as above. .(O) = 0.2 X Y f ( m ) X2f(m) .1)st order tangents vanish.2 Y A p ) . Vector Fields T h e following facts are immediate from the definitions: 19 (f0 h)"(O) = Dl"f = 0 h3)(0) +2DZW 0 h3)(0) + DZYf @ hdO) KO) = (O.1.2D1(Y f 0 h...)(O) + + + + + X2f(m) 2 D d X f o M O ) .(Yf 0 h. (n .2DZ(XfO hl)(O) + Dl"f hl)(O) + 2D. Show that: (1) T h e map defined on F ( M .O>l = Y y m ) .2YXf(m). Let h be a C" curve such that h.2Y2f(m) . generalize (1) so as to define an nth order tangent to h at a point where the 1st order.. 2nd order.)(O) 2 D . D d f o h.2X2f(m) Y 2 f ( m ) 2 X Y f ( m ) X2f(m) = 2XYf(m) . and define g on small positive numbers by g(P) = h(t). QED + + 0 0 0 + + + Problem 20.)(O) . If we call this the 2nd order tangent to h at a point where the 1st order tangent vanishes. m) by f + ( f c h)"(O) is a tangent at m.Dl(f hl)(O) + 4Yf hl)(O)  = Y2f(m) 2 X Y f ( m ) . and prove a result analogous to (2).
Then there is a coordinate system (x. g ( t ) = m for all t near 0. always correspond to integral curves of X . and such that [ X i .. i e. t . 0.20 1.. = 1. Define $ : U + M . ai+... . so for this reason or directly from theorems on differential equations... = 0 in that neighXj] borhood for every i . Y ] = 0 in a neighborhood of m then the broken curves of theorem 4 are actually closed for sufficiently small t...... If X is a C" vector field and X ( m ) = 0.. .. a{+. . d.. . Problem 23.. ad) is the integral curve of Xistarting at $(O. Use theorem 3 and also theorem 4 to show that [ X . By the inverse function theorem $l is defined and C" in a neighborhood of m and thus defines a coordinate system (x. . . under 4. in the coordinate neighborhood (i e ) and xi(m) = 0.... xd) such that Xi coincides with Dz. . Problem 22. that is. i = 1. j .. in the coordinate neighborhood. .(m) are a basis :... . I t is a consequence of the following theorem that if [ X . then y* does not have an extension to a C" vector field unless y is a constant curve... and such that X . Theorem 5.. Hence if y is a C" curve with y*(O) = 0. . 0. T h e map $ can also be expressed as compositions of the oneparameter groups of X .... . . ycoordinate map. and of the inverse of the . Let X i .. 0. Y ] = 0.(O)) = Xi(m). and d$(Di(0)) = D. be C" vector fields defined and i linearly independent in a neighborhood of m E M .(m). X. where M is a &dimensional manifold. Choose a coordinate system ( y . ad). D. e. where U is a neighborhood of 0 E Rd by the conditions t + $(O. where X and Y are as in problem 19. all i. i e.. Dye+l(m). From the definition it is immediate that d$(D. 0. of M . X. ( m ) . For X as in problem 19 and f = u p show explicitly that the Lie derivative of df with respect to X is d ( X f ) = df. it is clear that DZ1= X .. MANIFOLDS Problem 21. We complete the proof by showing by induction on i < < .. show that the integral curve of X starting at m is the constant curve: y ( t ) = m for every t.. .. i > e. X.. ..(m).. < Proof.. . we see that $ is C". Because the integral curves of D . y d ) such that yi(m) = 0... x d ) such that xi(m) = 0.. all i.
This example i : N +M . a d ) correspond to integral curves of Xi under +. 0... ad). Compute that the inverse of stereographic projection R + Rd+l has onetoone differential everywhere. that is. 0. = Sij . Let M be the twodimensional torus.. is constant along the integral curves of X. if it is C" it may not be regular at some points. . We call i an imbedding and say that N is imbedded in M by i. . Thus Xp. + 1. By altering the C" structure of an open submanifold we can get examples of subspaces (topological) which are not submanifolds. X k ( X i x j )= X. exp idx) E S1 x S1. 0. Xixi = a.. a ... a .so X. but i ( N ) is not even closed in M . T h e dsphere as a submanifold of Rd+l and Rd. . For example. = Sij everywhere. But X. X . ad). and point out d how this shows Sd is a submanifold of R d f 1 . Frequently we start with a subset of M .5 Submanifolds Let M be a C" manifold. Striped pants example. that for K < i. . Thus N is a submanifold of M . . imbedded as a dense oneparameter subgroup of M [that is. Submanifolds 21 that Xix. or. . .. in this way an open submanifold of M becomes a submanifold of M . i ( x ) = (exp icx. . . need illustrates that the map not be a homeomorphism into... are examples where the dimension of the submanifold is less than that of the containing manifold. . describe a C" structure for it.. N = R..x.. although continuous.5. QED Problem 24.. Since the integral curves of Di starting at points of the form (0. . Find the expression for in the above proof as compositions of the oneparameter groups of X.(X. Problem 25.. .) = 0 by the so induction assumption. X . and hence not locally compact. k < i.x.Xi = XiX. where c/d is irrational].. since the inclusion map need not be C". and of the inverse of the ycoordinate map.. a... at points of the form $(O.. so that it becomes a submanifold under the inclusion map..1.. the topology on i ( N ) induced as a subset of M need not be the same as the manifold topology of N . But every point in the coordinate neighborhood can be reached via chains of such integral curves starting at points of the form $(O. A manifold N is a submanifold of M if there is a onetoone C" map i : N + M such that di is onetoone at every point.. imbedded as Rd x (0) in Rd+e.. for x E R. ..
then f o i E F ( N . N a submanifold of M .). this is f not true globally. then locally y* can be extended to a vector field in M (cf. + (a) If g is continuous show that g is C". such that f ( P ) C i ( N ) . MANIFOLDS Problem 26. Prove that if m 4 S then P = $l(m) with the topology induced from N has a unique C" structure so that it becomes a submanifold of N under the inclusion map [88]. if g E F ( N .6 Distributions and Integrability A pdimensional distribution on a manifold M(p dim(M)) is a function 6' defined on M which assigns to each m E M a pdimensional linear subspace O(m) of M . then by problem 15 there is a C" vector field Y on N such that di(Y(n)) = X ( i ( n ) ) . problem 21). X a C" vector field on M such that for all n E N . i : N + M a submanifold. f E F ( M . problem 17 the bracket of restrictions is the restriction of the bracket. locally realized as restrictions. Y is the restriction of X to N . If i : N + M . If i : N M . However. Problem 28.3u1u2 : R2 f R find what S is and show why +l(m) is not a submanifold in the cases where m E S. in the same way as functions. When t+b is a realvalued function on R3 the submanifolds obtained as in problem 26 are the traditional surfaces in 3space. . For $ = uZ3 u13 . I n particular. Let g = i' o f : P 4N . Let f : P + M be C".m). Problem 27. (b) Find an example for which g is not continuous. if y is a C" curve in M with nonvanishing tangent y* .i(n)) such that f o i I u = g I u . that is. N a submanifold of M .il(m)) is the restriction o f f to N . X ( i ( n ) )E di(N. Note that by Restrictions of vector fields.22 1. Let t+b : N + M be C" with dim M < dim N . 1. and let S be the set of measure zero defined in problem 11.n). A pdimensional distribution 6' on M < . Restrictions of functions. m E i ( N ) . in the striped pants example the identity function u : R + R is not the restriction of any continuous realvalued function on the torus M . Conversely. then there is a neighborhood U of n in N and f E F ( M . Vector fields on N can be extended locally. For example.
Problem 29. 941.6.Show that 8 is involutive if and only if p(D& . Going around a oneparameter family of rectangles having sides tangent to a distribution might give a curve which has a tangent not in the distribution. by the existence of integral curves. A C" involutive distribution 8 on M is integrable.D$) +Q ( 4 R  + R(D$ = . Every onedimensional C" distribution is both involutive and integrable. An integral manifold is a solution of the equation P dul + Q du. . That an integrable C" distribution is involutive is easily seen by problem 17 or by theorem 4. Furthermore. A distribution 8 is involutive if for all C" vector fields X .. . .. .X. X p defined in a neighborhood Uof m and such that for every n E U . Y which belong to 8.&Q) = 0. Let O(m) be the linear subspace of Rm3which is orthogonal to (P(m). We sometimes write 8 for 8(m). T h e dual formulation in terms of differential forms is the classical theorem of Frobenius. is proved most easily by first getting the local form.. T h e latter also gives us an insight into the reason the converse is true.1. X (m ) E 8(m). if for every m in the domain of X .. X. p.Q(m). the converse mentioned above. but in the case of an involutive distribution this cannot happen. T h e following theorem.Q. We say that a vector field X belongs to the distribution 0 and write X E 8. Let P. R be C" functions on an open set U in R3 which do not all vanish simultaneously. 0. . Theorem 6.. A distribution 8 is integrable if for every m E M there is an integral manifold of 8 containing m..R(m)).) = 8(i(n))for every n E N . we have [ X .(n). Distributions and Integrability 23 is of class C" at m E M if there are C" vector fields X . T h e form stated here then follows by taking unions. + R du. thus when the distribution is involutive integral manifolds can be generated by going along the various integral curves of vector fields belonging to the distribution. through every m E M there passes a unique maximal connected integral manifold of 8 and every other connected integral manifold containing m is an open submanifold of this maximal one [25. Y ]E 8.(n) span 8(n). An integral manifold N of 8 is a submanifold of M such that di(N.
1)dimensional distribution. i < e..yl) Ye. Dxd span . Ye be C" vector fields which span 6 in a neighborhood of m.. dh = d ) . Xewhich span 6 and such that the first i.(m) for every m E M .. then there is a coordinate system (xl. x d ) on a neighborhood of m.'] y1 = 0 for all i .'.. .. . ..'yl = 0. < + Problem 30. i < e.. step by step. In particular. Ye' = Ye. where d. Y..... i < e. = dim 6. Y.'. m E M . and then that [Y. Yj'] can be written as a linear combination (with realvalued C" functions as coefficients) of Yl'. span an involutive ( e . Dxd1 span 0 1 . . is the direct sum of the O. 6 h be complementary C" distributions on M ... . Y e .... such that x. = 0 for i > e. Problem 31. Then since Y.Xk h e a r combination of the Xh with h < i). Yel' . . j . Dldhl+l.'..24 1. and hence need less ( X k X i = X. .( Y. Repeating this process e ..2 more times gives vector fields Xl . Prove that if all the 6. the proof of theorem 5 except in the last paragraph. x d ) such that D x l . . it follows that [Yi'.etc.. .) Let Yi' = Y. Let 6. i e.. Choose coordinates yi so that Ye = D V 1 . when given the obvious manifold structure induced by the coordinate map.. o h ... M .. have brackets expressible as a linear combination of the first i . (do = 0... Outline of proof. Theorem 7. Prove the following addition to problem 28: (c) If N is an integral manifold of a distribution on M . then g is continuous.(m) = 0 and for every m' in the coordinate neighborhood the slice { p E M I x i @ ) = xi(m') for every i > e} ( e = dim 6) is an integral manifold of 6. Let Yl .. where we want to show less (Xixj = 0 only for j > e).(This can be done by theorem 5 applied to one vector field.. Using the Xijust constructed we follow. It suffices to construct a coordinate system such that for every X belonging to 6.. Xx. = Xel = Y.. MANIFOLDS T h e local theorem gives more information as to how the integral manifolds are situated with respect to each other: If 6 is a C" involutive distribution on M .1 (X. .d. . that is. are integrable.).. then they are simultaneously integrable in the following sense: at every m E M there is a coordinate system (xl.
CHAPTER 2 Lie Groups T h e basic definitions and theorems on Lie groups and Lie algebras are given. T e is then a Lie group by defining multiplication componentwise. R ) may be considered as the group of nonsingular linear transformations on Rd. the product of Lie groups is a Lie group under componentwise multiplication. that is.t g h g +g' are Cc. and the adjoint representation [25. given by given by (g. and every ddimensional vector space V over R is isomorphic to Rd.) I n general. 33. Gl(d. 42. the maps G x G + G G + G Examples. T h e group operations are given by rational functions in the coordinate variables. Since Gl(d. This is the most general Abelian Lie group. along with homomorphisms. G1(V ) . Rd is a Lie group under addition. the exponential map. may be considered a Lie group isomorphic to Gl(d. 721. T he circle T 1= S1 is a Lie group under the usual multiplication. 55. In particular. (See problem 13. R). 2.the group of nonsingular linear transformations of V . the correspondence between subalgebras and subgroups is discussed. so that they are not only C" but analytic. and so also is Rd x Te. while a covering space of a connected 25 .1 Lie Groups A Lie group G is a set which is both a group and a manifold and such that the group operations are C". 27. mostly without proof. h) . R ) is a Lie group under the standard operations of multiplying matrices.
y ] E K . [ Y . for the Lie algebra of linear transformations of a vector space V .2 Lie Algebras A Lie algebra is a vector space L for which is given a bilinear function from L x L to L . R). which satisfies (1) [x. A Lie subgroup of a Lie group is a subgroup which is also a Lie group and a submanifold.BA. Y ) .26 2. then K @ L is a Lie algebra with the bracket [(x. [z. An ideal of a Lie algebra L is a subalgebra K such that for any x E L and y E K . and denoted by [ . (3) For any vector space V a bracket may be defined by setting all brackets equal to 0. A subalgebra of a Lie algebra L is a subspace which is closed under the bracket operation of L. (XI. gI(d.Y11 [Y.211 = 0. We use similar notation. y ] = . [Y. the global C" vector fields form an infinite dimensional Lie algebra. every connected Lie group is locally isomorphic to a simply connected Lie group. Examples + + (1) If M is a C" manifold. x] and this relation implies (1) if L is not over a field of characteristic 2. (2) T h e set of all linear transformations of Rd. (4) If K and L are Lie algebras. A homomorphism of one Lie algebra into another is a linear transformation which preserves brackets. z E L [x. An isomorphism of Lie algebras is a homomorphism which is onetoone onto. In particular. Y" = ([x. 21 3 [x. A consequence of (1) is [x. In this way we obtain the Abelian Lie algebra on V . 3. called bracket. y . 2. 4.[X. T h e image of a homomorphism is a subalgebra. . is a Lie algebra under the bracket operation: [ A . LIE GROUPS Lie group admits a Lie group structure such that the covering map is C" and a homomorphism. x ] = 0 for every x E L (2) the Jacobi identity: for every x. gI( V ) . Y ' l ) . T h e kernel of a homomorphism is an ideal.[ y . B] = AB . [x.
A left invariant vector Jield of G is a vector field which is fixed under the differentials of left translations. that is.(h) = gh. Locally isomorphic Lie groups have isomorphic Lie algebras. T h e Lie algebra of Rd x T e can be identified with the Abelian Lie algebra on Rd+e. w . R ) as the space of all d x d matrices. Lie Algebras 27 Let G be a Lie group. A left invariant vector field is uniquely determined by its value at the identity of the group (cf. denoted by g. Then the map J : g+gI(d. pp..2. R).. that is.. : G + G is defined by L. is the Lie algebra of left invariant vector fields. namely.". and g1(d. and similarly for any covering group of a Lie group.w on Gl(d. X E g + X(e) E G. . T h e Lie algebra of G. R) as follows. if we consider Gl(d. w E Rd define a realvalued C" function f. For example. Then J is a Lie algebra isomorphism J : g + gI(d. Let { . for each X E g we get a linear transformation J ( X ) on Rd by defining J ( X )ZI = X(e)v. we shall write X v for X ( e ) u .w u. the product of a left invariant vector field by a real number. Also. then g may be identified with gr(d. Equivalently.then we get an isomorphism of the Lie algebra g of Gl(d. R ) and gr(d.2. T h e sum of two left invariant vector fields. and the bracket of two left invariant vector fields are again left invariant vector fields. General linear group. if L . for every v. R ) + Rd if we set v( 7 = T(v). From now on we make the identification J ( X ) = X .( ) = (TZJ.. 102 and 103). [25].X(h) = X(gh) for every g .R) as being the group of nonsingular linear transformations on Rd.K). R2 and T 2 both have R2 as Lie algebra. R ) as follows: if { x i j } are the coordinate functions on Gl(d. R ) . > . If we consider Gl(d. we may identify the vector space of the Lie algebra of G with the tangent space at the identity. On the other hand. According to the above remark. h E G. R ) as matrices. For each v. R). A left invariant vector field is globally defined and C". R) by f. given by < J ( X ) w) = X(e)fi. we may do as follows: every element v of Rd may be ' ) Then considered as a C" map Gl(d. the Lie algebra of the product of Lie groups is the direct sum of the Lie algebras. T w T E Gl(d. then X is a left invariant vector field if dL. ) be the usual inner product on Rd. is the isomorphism.
LIE GROUPS ijth entry of g as a matrix. there is a onedimensional subgroup with Lie algebra generated by X . E g. (b) dLg(DzhAl)) (c) If Eii is the matrix with 1 in the i j position. xij(g) x(e>(xii>* Problem 1. For every Lie algebra the onedimensional subspace generated by a nonzero element is a subalgebra. then for X xpj. 107109).3 Lie GroupLie Theorem 1. the Lie algebra of G.28 that is. Then there is a oneone correspondence between the connected Lie subgroups of G and the subalgebras of the Lie algebra of G.(g) xjk = xjh(g) sik. For every X E g. R ) [25]. If H is a Lie subgroup. Xij = Show that: (a) xii o Lg = C. 0 elsewhere.x. I t then follows trivially from problems 28 and 31 of Chapter 1 that it is a Lie subgroup (cf. then the left invariant vector fields on H can be extended uniquely to left invariant vector fields on G. T h e one containing the identity of G is easily seen to be an abstract subgroup of G. [25]. there is a curve y : R + G such that t ) = Y ( 4 At) (1) r ( S (2) X ( Y ( 4 ) = Y*(+ + . Outline of proof. T h e set of extensions form a subalgebra of the Lie algebra of G which is isomorphic to the Lie algebra of H . Thus we have: Corollary. T h e correspondence is given as follows. then the left invariant vector field Xij corresponding to Eij is (d) Use this formula for Xij to verify directly that the brackets are preserved under the identification of g with gI(d. Algebra Correspondence Let G be a Lie group. that is. = 2. 2. pp. T h e existence of the subgroup corresponding to a subalgebra is established by considering maximal integral manifolds of the involutive distribution obtained from the subalgebra..
+ dL. We assume for the remainder of this section that our groups are connected..is right multiplication by g. . T h e group of all orthogonal transformations of Rd. O(d). Lemma 1. R). If X then d J X is right invariant. T h e fact that O ( d ) is a Lie group follows from theorem 1 as applied to the component of the identity in O(d). or SO(d). It is the integral curve of X which passes through e. There is a parallel formulation of the Lie algebra of a Lie group in terms of right invariant vector fields and d J gives the connection with our formulation. is a Lie subgroup of GZ(d. Then if t E G. R).4.4 Homomorphisms A homomorphism of one Lie group into another is a mapping which is both a homomorphism of the underlying groups and a C" mapping of the underlying manifolds.(dJ(t)) Corollary.2) QED = dP(t = + dl(t)) dR.. Homomorphisms 29 y ( R ) is called the oneparameter subgroup corresponding to X . as a subgroup of the component of the identity of GZ(d. Under the isomorphism J of 2. h ) = = gh. 0 = dP o d(1 x ]) o d D ( t ) = dP 0 (dl(t) + dJ(t)) (theorem 1. the rotation group R. R ) consisting of all skewsymmetric transformations. Orthogonal group.) Proof. so d/? o d(1 x J ) o dD 0..(t) E g. d ] ( t ) = dR. 2. . . /3 : G x G + G by /3(g.2. = Then /3 o (1 x J ) o D Let t E G.(t). o dL. Let J : G + G by J ( g ) = gl. Let D : G + G x G by D(g) = (g. then constant.2 the Lie algebra of O(d) is identified with the subalgebra o(d) of gl(d.that is.g). (R.
then the set of left cosets G / H can be given a natural manifold structure in such a way that the projection G + G / H is a homomorphism of Lie groups.. then it is easily verified that the left invariant vector fields corresponding to t and dj(t). pp. and the kernel of the corresponding Lie algebra homomorphism is an ideal. a local homomorphism can be extended to a homomorphism. 115 and 1241. if H is a closed normal subgroup of G. T h e kernel of a homomorphism is a closed normal subgroup. If H is a Lie subgroup of G . then it is closed.. and it is easily seen that this ideal belongs to the subgroup. Thus. Then by theorem 2 there is a homomorphism of G corresponding to the projection g +g/t. a necessary and sufficient condition for H to be normal is that its Lie algebra f~ be an ideal in the Lie algebra g of G . unless we replace the concept of homomorphism by that of “local homomorphism” in which case the correspondence is onetoone. [25. H i s closed. More generally we have: Theorem 3. [25. 2. is closed. LIE GROUPS If j : G + H is a homomorphism and t is a tangent at the identity of G . p. respectively. T h e converse of this last result is not true. It is known that a closed subgroup of a Lie group is a Lie group (Cartan’s criterion. is an ideal of g. p. If G is simply connected and t. Then the exponential map Q + G is the map . moreover.30 2. I f . if a Lie subgroup of a simply connected group is normal. 1351). However. Then the correspondence j t)d j is onetoone between homomorphisms of G into H and homomorphisms of g into b. Let G and H be Lie groups with G simply connected. then by Ado’s theorem there is a Lie group having Lie algebra g / t . Thus j gives rise to a Lie algebra homomorphism dj : g + t. so we obtain: Theorem 2. X E ~Let y x be the integral curve of X . are j related. [42]. [25.5 Exponential Map Let G be a Lie group. Conversely. from which it follows that the normal subgroup H belonging to t. the Lie algebra of G / H is naturally isomorphic to the factor algebra g/t. the Lie algebra of G . if G is simply connected. starting at the identity. 1121.
GH Proof. Exponential Map which assigns yx(l) to X . T h e map exp is everywhere C" and in a neighborhood of 0 in g . Commutativity with homomorphisms. From this and the following theorem we see that the exponential map gives the correspondence between subalgebras of g and subgroups of G. it is a diffeomorphism. then the diagram exp I7 dj If j : G +H is a homomorphism. 13.2. .5. we write exp t + exp t X is just y x . This follows immediately from the fact that y d j ( x ) = j o y x for any X E ~ . 31 Clearly the map X = yx(l). FIG. Theorem 4. exp is commutative.
I n a sufficiently small neighborhood U of 0 in g. . convergence is uniform on bounded sets. = s.. If s E G. I t is sufficient. then there is a left invariant vector field X such that X(e) = s. LIE GROUPS Proof. Furthermore. it is evident that if A B = BA. be a basis of g. in particular. R ) for every A. exp takes the ray generated by X (that is. that is. . By definition.. c. then eA+B= eAeD. Hence d exp takes the tangent to this ray at 0 into the tangent to the integral curve of X at e. if A is a d x d matrix we define eA = z g A k 0 " 1 (Ao= I ) .32 2. X... which turns out to be the same as the one already defined if we identify the Lie algebra of the matrix group with the right subalgebra of the Lie algebra of all matrices of the given order. exp is a diffeomorphism and hence can be taken as a coordinate map. and the curve s + esAis a oneparameter subgroup. QED Let X .and in fact.). then we identify g with Rd as a manifold by the correspondence CciXi tf (c. according to the inverse function theorem. and eAe' = eo = I . Assuming for the moment that exp is C" we first show that it is a diffeomorphism in a neighborhood of 0. e(s+t)A esAeLA. into s. this In way it is shown that the two exponential maps are essentially the same.. I n this case we have the system of differential equations determined by a left invariant vector field X and X depends linearly on a system of linear coordinates of g. . the curve in g given by r + r X ) into the integral curve of X through e .. t real numbers. namely. to prove that d exp is onto at 0. it is easy to see that the tangent at I of this oneparameter subgroup is naturally identified with A = (d/du)(O)(eUA). For matrix groups there is another exponential map. M a t r i x exponential. Thus e A E Gl(d. . T h e coordinates and coordinate neighborhood obtained in this way are designated as canonical. We blame the differentiability of exp on theorems in differential equations which say that solutions depend in a C" manner on parameters entering in a C" manner into the functions defining a system of differential equations (see appendix). This series can be shown to converge in the norm induced on the space of d x d matrices through identification with Rd2. . .
R). thus exp sA is orthogonal for every s. R ) Problem 2.(y) + ( a . where tangents to Rd are identified with elements of Rd by the map C a. Exponential Map 33 The following commutative diagram for Gl(d.*(s)>.. be two C" curves in Rd. x E Rd. Using theorem 1.. R). show that ((expsA) x. G4d. . x E Rd. ad). . A canonical coordinate neighborhood of the identity in O(d) is obtained by taking the exponentials of skewsymmetric matrices lying in a sufficiently small neighborhood of 0.. R ) with the identification indicated by " w'' will clarify relations. (exp $A)x) is a constant function of s. o. O(2) is the onedimensional group having as neighborhood of the identity the matrices and this correspondence is a diffeomorphism for 1 B 1 Problem 3 . Problem 5.D. < 7. Orthogonal group. Then a C" function 5 is defined by U(S) = (ul(s). If A E gl(d. prove that exp does not map the Lie algebra of SZ(2. a. Prove this directly using the map e above. Thus the dimension of O(d) is +d(d . R)(= 2 x 2 real matrices with determinant 1) onto . thus equal to (x. the value at s = 0. Prove that u*(s) = A (exp sA) x.5. By showing that B = ('/. T h e coordinates for a skewsymmetric matrix may be taken as the elements of the matrix lying above the main diagonal. R ) is skewsymmetric. a(s) = oz Let ( .2. For example. Rd by Let A E gr(d. and define a C" curve u in (exp sA) x.'(s) = (01*(4 4)) + ( 4 ) 1 u. prove that Problem 4.1). . ) be the usual inner product on Rd and let o l .':) has no square root.(s)).2 or otherwise. x).542.
then we say we have a representation on V . and the complex torus P ( C ) = C d / D . if $(a ib) = ( a . Let U ( d ) = { g E Gl(d. 2. C = complex numbers. GI(V ) . C). A faithful representation is a representation which is an isomorphism into. by j(x i y ) = () .R ) . complex Lie group is Abelian (use a generalization of the maximum modulus theorem) ~31.: is a faithful representation of the Lie group C* of nonzero complex numbers with multiplication as operation. (a) Show t h a t j : C+ GZ(2. Show that U ( d ) is a compact Lie group (the unitary group) but not a complex Lie group. Problem 8. i as the basis of C as a vector space over R.6 Representations A representation of a Lie group G is a homomorphism of G into a matrix group. Problem 7. 1) and is a Lie group homomorphism which covers S1 x S’. A representation of a Lie algebra g is a Lie algebra homomorphism of g into a Lie algebra of matrices.” that is. Cd. show that j corresponds to “multiplication by. (c) Construct a map 4 : C* + S1 x S1 such that &eis) = (cis. If instead of matrices we use the group.[or Lie algebra gI( V ) ] linear transformations of of a vector space V . + + + Problem 10. Let Q* = nonzero quaternions.34 Problem 6. LIE GROUPS Define a complex Lie group. if a group has a faithful representation it is thus isomorphic to a subgroup of a matrix group. What is the subalgebra of g l ( 2 .where D is a group generated by 2d reallinearly independent translations of Cd. Problem 9. (d) Taking 1. b ) E R2 then the matrixj(z) acts on x E R2 asj(z) x = $(z$l(x)). I n neither case do we exclude matrices with complex entries or vector spaces over the complex numbers. 2. C ) 1 ggl = I } . R ) corresponding to j(C*) ? What are the oneparameter groups of C * ? (b) Show that the restriction of exp to the Lie algebra of j ( C * ) corresponds to the usual complex exponential function ex+ig = ex ( c o s y i sin y ) and that C with addition as its operation is the simply connected covering group of C* with e* as the covering map. Examples are Gl(d. Show that a connected. T h e regular left re . compact.
but we do not show this here [25. Since dj is a nonsingular linear transformation of g we have that the map j + dj takes A into the group of linear transformations of g. j . we prove this directly. (a) Show that with respect to basis 1. 137 and 1381. pp. i. j must then leave the image of exp fixed. this means that for every X E ~d j X = X . a fact which follows from the remarks of 2. An automorphism of a Lie group G is an isomorphism of G onto itself. Suppose j were in the kernel. The set of all automorphisms of G form a group A . For every j E A we have the automorphism dj of the Lie algebra g of G.2. since d ( j o k ) = dj o dk.6. we have a representation of A on g. and since this contains a neighborhood of the identity. + + + (b) Show that +(q) is orthogonal if and only if IqI = w2+xZ+y2+22= 1. and it is evidently a homomorphism. (c) Compute det +(q) by showing +(q)+ ( q ) I is a multiple of I and observing what the coefficient of w 4 is in det +(q). for q = w xi y j zk. . Representations 35 presentation of Q* on Q is the representation q3 of Q* on the real vector space Q given by +(q) q’ = qq‘ (+(q) = “left multiplication by 4”). since . k (with the usual multiplication table) q3 has matrix form. which generates G. Speaking loosely. and the diagram is commutative. Automorphisms. However. In case G is connected this representation is faithful.4. However. j is the identity automorphism. j (exp X ) = exp (djX ) . T h e group A is actually a Lie group.
and since j .j . is faithful if G is connected. 2. The map Ad : G ..(y) = exp (C taij(x) Xi). As such it is a closed subgroup. SincejJy) is C" in x this means that aij(x) is C" in x for all i. the center is the kernel of the adjoint representation. of g.+ GZ(g) defined by Ad(x) = d j . for every x E G we have the inner automorphism j . giving a polar decomposition of Q* = R* x S 3 . i = 1.1 we shall see that the differential of the adjoint representation is the adjoint representation of g. Now for y = exp( tXj) we get j. Ad is a representation of G on g. d.. Show that Q* is the direct product of the positive real numbers and S3.. is a group homomorphism. we have that the adjoint induces a faithful representation of the factor group G/(center of G). and being obviously normal. is called the adjoint representation of G.(y) = exp(Ad(x) X ) . T h e center. is just the center of G. . + dj. this being defined for t sufficiently small. and by commutativity. yl. j. xy1) f (x. the map x . yx1) 4 xyx1.36 Adjoint representation. T h e center of G is the set of all elements of G each of which commutes with every other element of G. that the canonical coordinates so of j. that is. Problem 11. then Ad(x) is given in terms of a matrix (aii(x)): Ad(x) Xi = C aij(x) Xi. to show that it is C" in a canonical coordinate neighborhood. d(Ad)(X) is the restriction of the Lie derivative with respect to X to g. : y + xyxl.. that is. In fact. which are obviously C": x + (x.. LIE GROUPS T h e set of inner automorphisms of G is a subgroup of A . If we choose a basis X I . As a corollary to theorem 3. x) + (x. j . Ad is evidently a group homomorphism so that it suffices to show that it is C". X . Proof.. and in fact.that is. Moreover. . Now for y in a canonical coordinate neighborhood we have y = exp X.(y) is C". Proposition. First we note that for a fixed y in G the map x +j.(y) are taij(x). Since R* is in the center of Q* the adjoint representation has R* . which is given by ad(X)Y = [X. whenever G is connected. it is the composition of maps involving group operations. It is clear that the kernel of the group homomorphism x + J . Ad(x) is C".
Problem 15. where D is a discrete subgroup. Therefore conclude that G w Re x Tf. + + Problem 12. . 2. Problem 14. pp. and the PeterWeyl theorem [55. 0. Problem 16. p. R). X . G acts as diffeomorphisms on G/H. Let X I . Use this. P = xi yj zk. 991 to show that every compact Lie group has a faithful (C") representation. Representations 37 in its kernel and may be considered to have as representation space the tangent space to S3 at the identity 1. X . j. Remark on quotient spaces. 0. 9 and find the corresponding formulas for X . 4. I n 2.2. Show that an Abelian Lie group G has an Abelian Lie algebra (see problem 3. Show that a continuous homomorphism of a Lie group is C". ql = 6. k and show that the adjoint representation on S3is then given by $(q) P = qPql. p. 1281. problem 14. . 0). Problem 13. T h e H has the induced topology and the left cosets G/H have a natural manifold structure such that the projection r : G + G/H is C".) Identify the rest of the center of Q* and the image of the adjoint representation on S3as a subgroup of GZ(3. Show that there is a neighborhood of the identity in a Lie group which contains no subgroups except the trivial one. X . Now let H be a closed subgroup of G. (For q E S3. Identify that space with the subspace of Q spanned by i. Prove that an integral curve of a left invariant vector field is also an integral curve of a right invariant vector field. X. e + f = d [55. . X . at I = (1. 8386)].3) and hence by theorem 2. 3. . be the left invariant vector fields on Q* which are equal to Di . and hence show that a Lie group structure is a topological group invariant [25.6.4 we considered quotients of Lie groups by closed normal subgroups. G M Rd/D. . i = 1. (Here we have identified Q with R4.) Show that Xi = UiDi + ~ $ 2 + ~ $ 3 +u~D.. and f: G/H + R is C" if and only if f o r is C".
all m E M . = h(gm). G acts (dzxerentiably) on M to the left if there is a C" map : G x M + M .1 Transformation Groups + Let G be a Lie group and M a C" manifold.51. G acts on M to the right if (b) is replaced by: (b)' +: M For all g . while it acts on itself to the right by right translation. h E G. T h e remainder of the chapter is devoted to principal and associated fibre bundles and reduction of the structural group. given by g ( m ) = gm. although coordinate bundles are also defined [4. and we write +(g. of G into M defined by: m(g) = gm. (gh) m x G + M in this case. denoted by m also. 38 . G is said to act effectively if g m = m. We also shall write Every Lie group acts on itself to the left by left translation and by inner automorphism. (b) For all g . m E M .CHAPTER 3 Fibre Bundles In the first section transformation groups are discussed and an interpretation of an important special case of the bracket operation is derived. then to every m E M there corresponds a C" map. 66. 55. M . m E M . the map g : M is a diffeomorphism. m ) = g m . (gh) m = g(hm). satisfying the following conditions: + (a) For each g E G . h E G. implies that g = e = identity of G. the treatment being from the point of view of transformation groups. If G acts on M . 3. 8.
If GIH is compact. A’) = (BB’. If G acts freely.1. Moreover.1. let H = {gE G 1 g(m) = m}.the isotropy group of m. if for some g E G there is m E M such that g m = m. then the elements of are nonvanishing vector fields on M . denoted by g. If G acts effectively. R ) and Rdl. if group G acts as homomorphisms to the right on a group H. A)(B’. fixing some m E M .] Conversely.. Transformation Groups 39 G acts transitively to the left if for every m. Gl(d. R). then g = e. N = {gm I g E G}. G acts freely if the only element of G having a fixed point on M is the identity.1 zeros. Prove that the oneparameter group of transformations of X is elx. if N is the orbit o m. We shall also write X = A X . h’) = (gg’. T h e subgroup H may be identified as the semidirectproduct of Gl(d . Problem 2 . for example if G is compact. A E Rdl. then the semidirect product of G and H is given by defining the products as (g. Prove that if X(m) = 0 then etx(m) = m for every t. if H i s a closed subgroup of G.(0) is transitive. onto. g the Lie algebra of G. (hg’) h’). there is a unique X E g such that 8(m) = t. .1.. as follows: if X E g. Example. that is. AB‘ + A’). then G acts transitively on GIH byg(kH) = (gk)H. then for every t E N . the multiplication is given by ( B .. then h is onetoone. then H is a closed subgroup of G and the map GIH (left cosets of H) + defined b y g H + M g m is C“. that is. B E GZ(d . n E M . the isotropy group of (1. [In general. . h)(g’. 0 is a column of d .3. then this map is a homeomorphism. then we define a Lie algebra homomorphism h of g into a Lie algebra of vector fields on M . T h e action on Rd . 0) consists of matrices of the form (i where g). R ) acts differentiably to the left on Rd and on Rd . onetoone.(0). then (hX)(m) = dm(X(e)). If G acts on M . Problem 1. 0. there is g E G such that g(m) = n. A space with a transitive group of operators is called homogeneous. I n this case. since m : G 4 M is a diffeomorphism #J of G with N and hence we may take the XEg such that X(e) = d#J’t. f that is.
is regarded as the Lie algebra of GZ(9). we state and prove the corollary on the differential of the adjoint representation: Corollary.1.40 3. then d g ( x ) = AdglX. in GZ(9). are given as follows: (a) If G acts to the left. QED Let W be the linear space of C" vector fields on M . and let 9be a finitedimensional subspace of W invariant under G. we have a representation? j of G in the group of nonsingular linear transformations of 9.1 .yl. particular. dj(X) Y = [x. right multiplication by gl. and X is t Here we are assuming the action is a left action. Lie algebra of a Lie group G. [X. In the case of a right action.(X(e)) = dm(Adg X ) ( e ) )= A d g X(m). Thus (dg x ) ( m ) = dg(x(glm)) = dg o d(glm) X ( e ) = dm c dj. Y For every X Y E9. that and hence.  (h) If G acts to the right. In Momentarily assuming this. the transformation g is just R. then Proof. we have the commutative diagram 1 Theorem 1. Proof of (a). then d g ( 8 ) = Adg X . as they act on g. FIBRE BUNDLES T h e differentials of the transformations making up a transformation group G. although the statement of the theorem is the same. that is. First we compute the composition of g : M+ M and glm : G + M : g c glm(h) = g(hglm) = ghglm = m(j. obvious modifications are necessary in the definitions.Y]. o dR. ad(X) Y = If X . for any g E G. g : G + G is defined by g(h) = hgl. Since Ad g is dL. T h e following result has many uses. that is. G lexp i GZ(Y) E g. is. Let G act to the left on itself as follows: g E G. . if g I ( 9 ) . d g ( 9 ) C 9. the algebra of all linear transformations of 2. g the .(h)). Hence. ]is in 9. Y ~ [X.
so for m E M . we shall also write R.X ) ) m pulled back to m by the action of the oneparameter group t + exp(t(X)). for X E g. where P. the theorem now gives the result. the theorem with 9 = g and j = Ad. so there is a vector field 2 on M which arises from differentiating functions along orbits. and the projection 7~ : P+ M is C". dj(X) Y is the derivative at 0 of the curve t + ( j exp ( t x ) ) Y = d(exp(tX)) Y in 2 . where J is the inversing map. that is. ' But for m E M . (2) M is the quotient space of P by equivalence under G.X .(X(e)) = .t X ) m)). G. since the diagram above is commutative exp ( t d j ( X ) ) = exp (dj(tX))= jexp ( t X ) .3 the conclusion follows. G is simply transitive on rl(m). the curve in M . so m =L. Principal Bundles 41 invariant under left translations dL. Proof of theorem. M ) . so y : t+ exp t X is a oneparameter group of diffeomorphisms of M . For g E G. o dJ(X(e)) = dL.2. M are C" manifolds. Thus. then g is Abelian. Thus we are taking the Lie derivative with respect to 8 (see 1.4). Problem 3 . (d exp tX(Y))(m) = d(exp(tX))(Y(exp ( . so by theorem 1. and m E M we have d Zf(m)= ( O ) ( f @ 0 Y) = dm(r*(O))f. 32 Principal Bundles . we have that m : G+M as above is given by m(g) = g(m) = mgl. Prove as a corollary to this: if G is Abelian. for the map g : P + P.3. P x G + P. Thus x ( m ) = dL. Therefore k = . We have to determine. Let X Eg. Since dj = d(Ad) = ad. which we are differentiating is given by the values of Y along the curve t + exp ( t ( . o J . A (Cm) principal fibre bundle is a set (P. For a realvalued function f on M . For m E G= M .1. by lemma 2. . for every X E ~we may apply . On the other hand.X ( m ) . the vector field on G. so Z(m) = dm(X(e)) = X ( m ) . G is a Lie group such that: (1) G acts freely (and differentiably) to the right on P. Assume the action is to the left.
: nl( U )+ G such that F . .42 3. Trivial (product) bundle. ( m . the trivial bundle. then pg + (n(p). ) F. = . M the base space.I ( n ( p ) ) C P. P is called the bundle space. ). for every g E G and the map of n . commutes with R. defined by p ( g ) = R. T h e fibres are diffeomorphic to G.(p)) is a diffeomorphism. d ( m ) is called the jibre over m. that is. if p 4( ~ ( p . that is. that is. pp. is the bundle space of a principal bundle. We note that in terms of the F . the right action of G on P is given by right translation. gh). in a special way via the map p : G +r . FIBRE BUNDLES (3) P i s locally trivial. For m E M .14. P If G is a Lie group. A bundle is isomorphic to a trivial bundle if and only if there is a C" cross section of n. This follows from the fact that F d P d = F d P )g . [85].F&) g ) . then M x G provided with the right action of G on itself in the second factor. g) h = ( m .I ( U ) + U x G given by p + ( ~ ( p F. and G the structural group. there is a neighborhood U of m and C" map F .(p)). 25 and 36). for any m E M . a C" map K : M . M a manifold. that is. We now give some examples of bundles.p. G U FIG.t P such that n o K is the identity on M (cf.
. el ..).. R ) as the nonsingular linear transformations of Rd... R ) acts to the right on B ( M ) by: let g E GZ(d. If =p (as a map) o g. and let r : B ( M ) + M be given by r ( m . R). where xii are the standard coordinates on Gl(d.. ddimensional projective space.. e l . . T h e n GZ(d. ( R d f l.. Examples (1) Let R . h) +gh (see [85]. pg (as a map) Problem 4.. . p. Principal Bundles 43 Bundle of bases. and structure group H such that IT : G + G / H is the canonical map and the right action is given by (g.l ( U ) . we see that B ( M ) is the bundle space of a principal bundle.fa)= (dxj(fi)) = (gij) E GZ(d. bundle space G. P d ) . (xl . and define R. e...{0}..$(b)) = Cj yiil(b)ej . viewed as a matrix. and simply transitive on orbits. el. C giaei).(0) by scalar multiplication. When this is done it is natural to consider GZ(d. .. ea) with the map p : ( r l . . If m E M ... by: if m' E U ... ed) = ( m .. g = (gij). Thus the functions yi = xi o 7r and yii = xii o F . b = (m. T h e orbit space is Pd. el.3.(m. ed) = rn. R ) (see 2... ed) E B ( M ) is in the coordinate neighborhood rl( U ) show that dr(D.. then there is a principal bundle with base space G / H (left cosets). Using the C" structure given to B ( M ) by the local product representation (IT. 33). let (m. .. .. C gilei .. free. If G is a Lie group. Let M be a C" manifold and B ( M ) the set of (df 1)tuples (m.. that is. .2.. . R*. .... It is sometimes convenient to view B ( M ) as the set of nonsingular linear transformations of Rd into the tangent spaces of M . r d ) +c riei. F.. . where (yiil(b)) is the inverse of the matrix (yii(b))... r d ) = that is. we identify p = (m. give a coordinate system on r . .. Fu(m'. R). x d ) a coordinate system defined in a neighborhood U of m. ed) E B ( M ) .. for we have: pg(rl. Then this action is differentiable. so is a principal bundle.. . H a closed subgroup.ed is a basis of M.. where m E M and el . . el . called the bundle of bases of M .. Homogeneous spaces. ed).fl . then we define F .(0) = R* act on Rd+l.2).
(P) g(Fi(P) g)l as desired. For i.44 3. ? examples 1 and 2 above). we define a map Gji : U. and put Gji(m) = Fj($)(Fi(p))l. that any set of functions Gii defined for a covering { U i } . C*. C P d )  is a principal bundle. with this covering they define a principal coordinate bundle in the sense of Steenrod. there is a unique principal fibre bundle (P. Problem 5. x {e} under the product structure given by Fi differs from the cross section over U j determined similarly by F j .(m) = G.(m) Gji(m) for mE U in U j n U. so we have Principal Coordinate bundles. M ) be a principal fibre bundle with P connected. p. C = complex numbers. (3) If we use C* and Cd+l . 141.g) F. Therefore. Let (P.G. We give an alternate approach to principal fibre bundles. Then if Go is the component of the identity in G.(P')FZ(P')F1= P. our definition of bundle is an equivalence class of coordinate bundles.l U i )+ G. then since r . n Uj+ G as follows: if m E Ui n U j . . G. We want to show that the definition of G j i ( m )is independent of the choice of p . and let { Ui} an open covering of M such that wl( U i ) can be represented be ( as a product space via the function Fi: ~ .{ 0 } .{0). F.F. If p' E . then we get complex projective space CPd as base space: (Cd++' {0}. G o . Hence. there is g E G such that p'=pg.. = F. Gji measures how much the cross section over Ui corresponding to U.and in fact. M ) be a principal bundle.S d ) is a principal bundle. we have. FIBRE BUNDLES ( 2 ) If we use the positive reals R+ instead of R* we get (Rd+l . T h e functions satisfy the further properties: G.. j such that Ui n U j # 0.l ( m ) is the orbit of p .. Let (P.(Pg)l = FAP) F i ( P Y . which is another way of saying that principal coordinate bundles are equivalent if and only if their right actions agree. R+. by [85. (*I T h e functions Gji are called the transition functions corresponding to the covering { Ui}.rrl(m) also.h?) such that the action of Go on P is the same and h is a connected covering space of M (cf. let p E nl(m).
. o 4. N ) may be taken as G. c*. = uzjPl iuZj}is the dual basis to the standard complex basis of Cd+') find the expression for h(aXl + bX. X . are the left invariant vector fields on C*: X. G. (a) Show that 1? is a submanifold of N x P under the inclusion map. M ) is a principal bundle.. and h is the isomorphism associated with (Cd+l . on which G acts to the left. X E g.{O}.3. = ulDl u2D2. + + + 3. N ) is called the bundle induced by and (P . p ) g = (n. Problem 7.. M ) .(h(X)) = h(Ad(gl) X ) .t M is a C" map. G.{O} ({z. p g ) . then let P = {(n. M ) be a principal fibre bundle. so that we could define the coordinate bundle directly.. ( P . . ( P . and X . For the real coordinates u l . ulD. p ) E N x P 1 +(n) = ~ ( p ) } . where X . uZd+. G.1 we have dR. on Cdfl .). G. If (P. M ) a principal fibre bundle. We define the jibre bundle associated to .3 Associated Bundles Let (P. CPd). If 4 : N . = u. where g E G. which consists of nonvanishing vector fields. and let F be a manifold G. are Problem 6 . By remark (6) in 3. N ) becomes a principal fibre bundle if we define right action by (n.3. (b) Show that ( P . G. G. then since G acts freely and effectively we have an isomorphism A : g + 8 = Lie algebra of vector fields on P. Associated Bundles 45 satisfying (*). P N P M (c) Show that transition functions for (P. uniquely determine a principal bundle whose transition functions relative to the covering { Ui} the Gji. The vector fields of 8.D.
Associated coordinate bundle. G. the quotient space under equivalence by G. F . (Note that we shall often denote a bundle by its bundle space alone. in the sense of Steenrod [85. we have. FIBRE BUNDLES (P. If we define transition functions Gji‘ for the associated bundle ( B . F . : T’( U )+ G. We have the following structure. $91.’: r’l( )+F given by U so that 7 r t . [the “m” in the pair .2(3).46 3. Then we have F. with F . and consider the right action of G on B’ defined by ( p . = We therefore have that ( B . (2) Tangent bundle. and the bundle is called the tangent bundle to M . Part I. then B is the bundle space of the associated fibre bundle. Then (P. M ) be as above. where p E P. for a covering { Ui} admitting functions Fit. M ) analogously to the definition in the principal bundle case. R ) is the group of nonsingular linear transformations of Rd. G. f~ F. G. M ) is the bundle associated to itself with fibre G. G. t ) . t E M . take U a neighborhood of m as in 3. and let G act on itself by left translation.and hence acts on Rd to the left. G. (p.f)G E 7rtl(m): Gji’(m) = F j ( ~ ) ( F i ( p ) ) . T ( M ) can be identified with the space of all pairs ( m . Let B’ = P x F . glj). ) G) = ~ ( p ) If .l ( U ) is homeomorphic to the product U x F . and also the natural projection B’ + B is C“. f )g = (pg.l Gji(m). where m E M . M ) with Jibre F (it also depends on the action) as follows. Let B = B‘/G. T h e projection 7r’: B + M is defined by: ~ ’ ( ( pf. m E M .) Now by definition GZ(d. Note that now 7r’ E C“. M ) is the equivalence class of the coordinate bundle associated to the principal coordinate bundle defined by the transition functions Gji. and hence we define B as a manifold by requiring these homeomorphisms to be diffeomorphisms. for m E Ui n U j . Consider the bundle of bases B (M). The bundle space of the associated bundle with fibre Rd is denoted by T ( M ) . Examples (1) Let (P. g E G.
that is. T h e group of a tensor bundle is Gl(d. and T ( M ) itself as the union of all the tangent spaces supplied with a manifold structure. and hence. or. for if (p'. 1 1 Td)) G W . but is inserted for convenience]. When we replace Rd in example ( 2 ) by a vector space constructed from Rd via multilinear algebra. Furthermore. R). since as a map. (3) Tensor bundles. then y* is a C" curve in T ( M ) .. p'x' = (pg) (glx) = p x . xd. R ) .3. I n particular. as follows: ( ( m . leading to tensor bundles .3. Frequently the bundle B ( M ) has its structural group reduced to a subgroup (see 3. Problem 8. x') GZ(d. R ) such that p' = pg. x' = glx. the tensor product of Rd and its dual with various multiplicities or an invariant subspace thereof. we get a tensor bundle. and is given type numbers according to the number of times Rd and its dual occur...R)  (m. then there is g E Gl(d. x ) GZ(d. where m = ~ ( p ) . as M m .. A cross section which is C" on an open set is called a C" tensor field. p With this later formulation it is easy to see that the identification is ) well defined. namely. g E GZ(d. R). with coordinates x l .el 7 *'*I + 4. z yiez). it acts on the factors of the tensor product independently. Y2d on rr'l( U ) as follows: if (m.then for x E Rd this identification is ( p . on the dual via the transpose of the inverse: if v E the dual.( y 1 . We define coordinates y l . R ) t (m. if we regard B ( M ) as the set of maps p : Rd +M m . x GZ(d. Associated Bundles 47 is actually redundant. the coordinates of T ( M ) may be easily exhibited. x ) . as it is in the ( d 1)tuples making up B ( M ) .. and on Rd as with the tangent bundle.. pg is the composition of p and g.. . t ) E trl( U ) . that is.4) in which case more subspaces of tensor products of Rd and its dual may become invariant. under this identification. . t ) = d%(t) Y d S h A C" vector field may then be regarded as a cross section of T ' . R ) = ( p . Hence we may view the fibre of T ( M ) above m E M as the linear space of tangents at m. Prove that if y is a C" curve in M . X E Rd. let U be a coordinate neighborhood in M . the trivial vector field (values all 0) gives an imbedding of M as a submanifold of T ( M ) .. then g v ( x ) = v(g'x).
. t di(N%))... ( 5 ) Grassmann bundles. where n’ is the projection from the bundle space to N . Then for (n‘. Another example of this type is the quotient space bundle of an imbedding. so we may consider the bundle space as the collection of pairs (n. FIBRE BUNDLES of different sorts. linearly independent. . .. all of the same dimension.. . T h e fibre over n E N is the quotient space Mi(Jdi(Nn). we define coordinates z1. j = d‘ 1. X)= Vj(n’)(X) + 1. Then for some neighborhood U of n. . d.. T h e bundles associated to B ( M ) by this action are called the (unoriented) . zd by: + + + + zj(n’. T h e tensor bundles are a special case. is employed to get a uniform choice of representatives for the quotient spaces).... and defining the manifold structure via smooth. They are frequently defined with no explicit mention made of the structural group by giving the bundle space as the union of vector spaces.i(n)) di(Nn) are linearly independent for j = d‘ 1. Xj(n’).. where t E Mi(%).*.. These are bundles in which the fibre is a vector space and the structural group is a subgroup of the general linear group of that vector space. X ) = yj(n’) if if j = 1. . X ) E ~’l( U ) .d. d are still linearly independent. and the bundle space is the union of these fibres. get To coordinates we first take a coordinate system in M at i(n).. and that Xj(n) = D. T h e set of edimensional subspaces of Rd can be given a manifold structure so that Gl(d. For example..d‘.. defined in Chapter 7. d‘ give a coordinate system at n. j = 1. R). T h e group of this bundle may be taken to be Gl(d . j = d’ . problem 11). (4) Vector bundles. For example. spanning cross sections over a covering system of coordinate neighborhoods... and we may assume that xj o i = yi. xd... we essentially did this for T ( M ) when we exhibited the coordinates: in that case the cross sections were the coordinate vector fields D. R ) acts in the obvious manner as a differentiable transformation group on the left.. This vector bundle may be defined as follows: Let i : N+ M be the imbedding of the submanifold N in M . say xl. this is the case when M has an almost complex structure (cf. d‘ zj(n’.. each associated to an element of the base space..48 3. . so there is a dual basis Vi(n’).. which usually is considered in the case of Riemannian manifolds as the normal bundle (the Riemannian metric.
An associated bundle is trivial if its principal bundle is trivial. Let H be a subgroup of G.4. (P'. 3. G'. but implies the existence of a family of cross sections with pairwise disjoint ranges which fill the associated bundle. n In terms of the right action P x G .9). G. G'. The action of a principal bundle on an associated fibre. Let (P. Then the quotient projection P x F + B defines. this definition can be formulated in the following way ([66]. G. namely. It is well known [85] that the tangent bundle to a differentiable manifold admits a nonzero cross section if and only if the Euler characteristic is zero. able). We have already seen this in the case of B ( M ) and T ( M ) (cf.fM) between the obvious pairs. Reduction of the Structural Group 49 Grassmann bundles of M . e. Problem 9 . then in the sense of Steenrod. if the manifold is compact and odddimensional. such that fc is a homomorphism.t P.fc. if and only if there exists a covering { Ui} whose Gji satisfy Gji(Ui U j )C H . and also show that for a vector bundle with fibre Re triviality is equivalent to the existence of e cross sections linearly independent at each point. the structural group G is reducible to the subgroup H if and only if there exists a coordinate bundle in the equivalence class determined by ( P . S7 have trivial tangent bundles (i. although it is a deep result of Milnor and Kervaire [I41 that only S1. for example. M ' ) is a set of C" maps (fp. $8. by restriction of the first variable. Hence all odddimensional spheres have such cross sections. Remark. M ) . M ' ) be principal bundles. p. and the following . A C" edimensional distribution is a C" cross section of this bundle. I t satisfies p(gf) = (pg) f for every g E G. for every p E P a C" map p :F + B. are parallelizS3. [85]. M ) be a principal bundle. Part I. the bundle space may be regarded as the collection of eplanes in the tangent spaces of M .4 Reduction of the Structural Group Let (P. f ) G. that is. G. This is not equivalent to the existence of a cross section of the associated bundle. M ) whose transition functions take their values in H . Verify the above. M ) +(P'. p(f) = (p. 20).3. G. G. M ) be a principal bundle and B an associated bundle with fibre F. A bundle map f : ( P .. We assume G is separable. Let (P.
(c) d m all t E Y m = such that tFT R.50 relations are satisfied: 3. in an obvious sense. define if = if. gm the annihilator = of F a in Tm.R ) as structural group [for example. Problem 10. G . f E 9 . Let M be a complex manifold. bundle with structural group N. t E F m . H . H a subgroup of G. F a = holomorphic functions in F. (a) Y m d m i d m = (b) f E TwL for every t E Ym. Show that For (direct sum). If (P.) Theorem 2. . M ) is a principal bundle. Now we may state the second definition as a theorem. H a maximal compact subgroup of G. = RfG(g. B(M)]can be reduced to a bundle with structural group the orthogonal group O(d). since we have given the definition in terms of transition functions only. M ) +(P.In particular. then G is reducible to H if and only if there exists a principal bundle (P'. T h e reduction of a principal bundle induces the reduction of associated bundles. F T= real valued functions in F. Steenrod proves [85. G. M ) such that f M is the identity on M . f p o for every g E G. f p is onetoone. M ) is a principal bundle. C (d) Sm the annihilator of Fa. 9 = complex valued differentiable functions defined on a neighborhood of m E M . m d complex linear extensions of Mm . = (e) t = f if and only if t E Am.Ym of 9. = conga jugates of functions in flu (conjugate holomorphic functions). + (f) Z m iFm = 0. = complex linear derivations . p. n (g) y m = *m + 2.. We shall return to this when we consider Riemannian metrics on a manifold.H . then G can be reduced to a Complex manifolds. 591 that if (P. every principal bundle with Gl(d. G. M ) which admits a bundle map f : (P'. and f G is the inclusion map H C G (Proof omitted. FIBRE BUNDLES fiMcx=7r'0fp f p o R.
if J is a complex structure the X v l agrees with our previous definition and [Z. C) represented in Gl(d. every 2. C)). Y Y However.4. Every 2dimensional orientable differentiable manifold admits a complex structure.E H then [X. Problem 11. + be (i) J z = identity. (1. (j) Compute J in terms of real coordinate vector fields which come from the real and imaginary parts of a complex coordinate system. i. ]E 8. where h E Z v l .3. I t is not in general true that if X E 8.e. defines This a onetoone real linear map P : d m Z m . Show that the reduction . (2) J z = identity on each Mm.Z]c 2 . t h. Reduction of the Structural Group 51 (h) If t E d m then the decomposition of t from (g) is of the form . T h e J obtained in the above problem is called the complex structure of the complex manifold M . then M has even dimension. 1} = T h e maximal compact subgroups of R* and C* are So and {eie} = S1. We say that C" vector field X belongs to Z if X ( m ) E Z m for every m.respectively.(which corresponds to ( A iB)E Gl(d/2. (b) M has an almost complex structure if and only if the group of the bundle of bases can be reduced to Gl(d/2. (k) J is defined on T ( M ) and is a bundle map. this latter condition has been shown to be also a sufficient condition that J be a complex structure [64]. t = h h. T h e latter result is not true for higher dimensional manifolds [21]. of course. so. An almost complex structure on a manifold M is a bundle map J : T ( M ) + T ( M ) such that (1) J ( M m ) = M . Define J = Pl jP. + + + + Problem 12. An almost complex structure will be called a complex structure only if it is obtained in this way. + t + + Let j : Y m Y m multiplication by i.in fact.. d m {h = I h €Zm}. R) as matrices of the form (g ) : . If M has an almost complex structure then Mm iMnlhas a direct sum decomposition Z m Sln such that H m= all x iJx for x E Mm. and then write X E 2.dimensional manifold which admits an almost complex structure admits a complex structure. (a) If M has an almost complex structure. for every m E M .
In the case d = 1 the bundle projections become the Hopf maps S + S 2 = CP1.2 to these subP S1.52 3. groups gives principal bundles: ( S d . Carry out the same construction to get principal bundles over quaternionic projective spaces QPd:(S4d+3. FIBRE BUNDLES of the principal bundles of examples (1) and (3) in 3.So. d ) and (SZd+l. S3. S7+ S = QP'. QPd). 3 4 . CP).
However. we must develop some machinery. and this correspondence is smooth in the following sense.. 4.33. dxiy. the reader is referred to [12. Such a smooth assignment of linear functions is called a differential 1form. Grassmann algebras. the subject of the present chapter are just special types of tensors.36. namely. 1.29.. although not every differential Iform arises as the differential of a C" function. before pursuing this subject further. and forms on complex manifolds are also discussed [24.CHAPTER 4 Differential Forms Differential forms are defined via Grassmann algebras.831.3.25. vectorvalued forms. For other topics. then we notice that to every m E M there corresponds the differential of f at m. then df(X)(m)= df. 781. which is a linear functional on M .1 Introduction In the last chapter the concept of a tensor was briefly mentioned. 30. and differential forms. Frobenius' theorem.X(m) =Xf(m) defines a C" function Xf on M . and the intrinsic formula for the exterior derivative is derived. dxi.66. . particularly the use of differential forms in the study of topological invariants. I f f is a C" function on M .5). 4. where the summation 53 . we shall initially introduce differential forms here by means of the more explicit formulation in terms of Grassmann algebras and shall then return briefly to the tensorial approach (4.i.2 Classical Notion of Differential Form A differential form at m is something which in terms of a coordinate system can be expressed as C ail. However. Let X be a C" vector field on M .
every element of G is a sum of products of scalar multiples of e and elements of V . if u. d } as follows: (a) If the subset is+ = empty set. This is shown by the standard polarization trick: 0 = (u + V)Z = u2 + + vu + v2 = uv + vu. (iv) G has dimension 2d.54 4. 1v 1 Property (iv) is a short but poor way of stating that there are no more relations among the elements of G than those which follow from (iii). i of (1. T o each basis e l . then uv = vu..dyiD... (v) G is generated by e and V . which we now discuss... . e..... are .* will be imbedded in an algebraic system which has both multiplication and vector operations. .. So a strict definition will involve some kind of multiplication of differentials and then linear combination of these products. Thus M. Furthermore. A Grassmann algebra over V is a set G such that (i) G is an associative algebra with identity e over F. v E V ..i. = e. i} .. that is. . while by (iii) v2 = 0 for all v E V .. and the ail.ip dyi.. (ii) G contains V . with i.3 Grassmann Algebras Let F be a field and V a finitedimensional vector space over F of dimension d . 4. . 1 ... (iii) Every element v E V satisfies v2 = 0.. Notice that e is not in V because e2 = e # 0. T h e elements of this basis of G are in onetoone correspondence with the subsets of {I. . we let e4 = e . will be just the expansion of the same algebraic object in terms of the new basis. . Also.. d } . ed of V there corresponds a basis of G .. let ....y d )is a second coordinate system at m then the expression C bil.. DIFFERENTIAL FORMS is over all ordered subsets (il. T h e required algebraic system for this is a Grassmann algebra. ) real numbers.. (b) If the subset is s = {il .obtained from the other by the usual rules for change of variable in multiple integrals..eig* < < ip. this shall be done so that if (yl..
.'s in increasing order and then by (iii) all except the e. v1v2 v3v4 is indecomposible. + Problem 2 . or. I n general. then every homogeneous element is decomposible.. If dim V = 4 and the characteristic of F is not 2 then g is decomposible if and only if g 2 = 0 and g is homogeneous. We say that g has rank 2k. then g is decomposible. An element g E G is homogeneous of degree p if it can be written as the sum of products of exactly p elements of V . T h e set of all such g E G form a linear subspace Gp of G which is of dimension Clearly. GpGQC GP+'J.4.. If dim V > 3.g there is h E G such that g = xh. then k is the largest integer such that g k # 0.. d } which have exactly p elements... P = subsets of (1.. g = CssPases. I n general.. v p E V such that g = vl . T h e e. by anticommutativity it is easily seen that if g E GP. + + + Problem 3 .'s are a basis it is enough to prove the: Lemma 1. E F .. .. equivalently. By (v) above we have for any g g = a. An element g of G which is homogeneous of degree p is decomposible if there exist v l . Moreover. the decomposible elements form an (nonlinear) algebraic variety in GP. (g). Prove xg = 0 if and only if . Let x # 0.3. Problem 1. Grassmann Algebras 55 Note that there are exactly 2d subsets. E Problem 4. then if o l .v 2 . where a . if dim V =4 and g E Gdl . . so that in order to show that the e. and in this case g k is decomposible.1)pqhg. h E G'Jthen g h = (.'s are 0.'s).'s span G ..eC But by using the fact that elements of V anticommute we can write any product of e. If dim V 6 3.eb G + 2 (products of elements of V ) + 2 (coefficients in F ) (products of e. G . v4 are linearly independent. x E V . Prove that for g E G2 there exist linearly independent vl .. v 3 . v2klv2k. vZk V such that g = vlo2 v3v4 . v p . E Proof. Otherwise g is called indecomnposible.. = a. E that if the characteristic of F is not a prime 6 i d . .
(g) h + gT. If ul . h E G(V ) then T.) . . respectively... Proof. If T . If u1 . If S is the transformation then we denote this scalar by k ( S ) . DIFFERENTIAL FORMS ul (1) If vl . that is. Th can be extended to all of G( V ) after defining T. T. Uniqueness follows immediately from the facts that T(e) must equal e. . vl = C:=.(h)..t W . .. G ( W ) are the Grassmann algebras over V . (3) If T is a linear transformation of a vector space V into a vector space W .. and that G( V ) is generated by e and V . A linear transformation of Gd into itself is simply scalar multiplication by an element of F.T.... say.. s = (1. so that u1 .56 Remarks.. . ( S T ) .(gh) = T. T(v.TdSd. If T : V + V is a linear transformation.’s for G into the corresponding ones for H . If V is a ddimensional vector space and G its Grassmann algebra. . If T : V . is not always a derivation. * * v p )= T(v. = S.. . = S.. that is.. . if G and H are two such then there is an isomorphism of G onto H which leaves each element of V fixed. up are linearly dependent..) for v1 .(q . up # 0 if and only if E . then ul . and such a Th is clearly a homomorphism. up = e . u p + ..T. S : W+ X are linear transformations of vector spaces..( T S ) . show that ( S T ) . and Th satisfies T. Problem 7.. .. p } ... 4. Problem 5..(G(V)P)C G( W)p.. up are linearly independent. denoted by Th . . then there is a unique extension of T to a homomorphism of G ( V ) into G ( W ) . S : V + V .T. . v p are linearly independent. T J . then by the distributive law and anticommutativity we have (2) Any two Grassmann algebras over V are essentially the same. Proof.that is. W . then it admits a unique extension to a derivation of G( V ) into G( V ) . such that if g.. TId = [ S . Problem 6 .] is a derivation and that [ S . . v p E V . then Gd is one dimensional. then we may take them as part of a basis for V . # 0. show that [S.. Give an example to show that S. and G ( V ) . In fact we need only choose a basis of V and map the e. a map T. vup V .. By linearity.
In particular.. and that T E GI(V ) if and only if det T # 0.Existence of Grassmann Algebras 57 Now let T be a linear transformation of V into itself. i f f E GP.’.... S E gl( V ) . G1 is then canonically isomorphic to V in the usual way: v E V corresponds to the unique f E G1 such thatf(w) = w ( u ) for all w E W .. . . + + 4. (Use problem 7 to do this without using coordinates. By (3) and problem 6 there are extensions Th and Td of T to G which are a homomorphism and a derivation. I t is easily checked that the mapping T + det T of gI( V ) into F is a homomorphism on GI(V )c g1( V ) . Prove that f = tr and that [g1( V ) .) Problem 8.w p ) + bf(w1 7 * * a . It is also easy to show that this definition of determinant coincides with the more usual ones. aw. wp). w D )= uf(wl . = k(T..4 Existence of Grassmann Algebras Alternating Functions..*. More explicitely.. G1 = linear functions on W into F... then (i) f(wl . This isomorphism will be our imbedding of V in G. T ) = tr(S) tr(T) Show (a) tr(S (b) tr(ST) = tr(TS).. We define determinant of T trace of T = = det T tr T = k(T.4. . . w ...4.). the field of V . + bw. . T h e particular Grassmann algebra over V which we wish to consider will consist of the space of multilinear alternating functions on the dual W of V . w’. Gp = the linear space of plinear alternating functions from W x .. Problem 9. (b) f(identity) = d = dimension V . Let f be in the dual space of gI(V) and satisfy: (a) ( f(ST) = f T S ) for every T.. respectively. Th and Td are linear transformations of Gd. x W ( p factors) into F . . gl( V ) ]has codimension 1 in gI(V) with a complementary space consisting of multiples of I = identity. .). Thus we will have Go = F .
. DIFFERENTIAL FORMS that is. x W ( pfactors) p } into W.. z E W x . f(z o T) = sgn ( ~ ) f ( z ) for Multiplicotion. then the resulting permutation on the deck is a p . (ii) f(Wl .. and then we would rewrite (ii)" as as functions from { 1. then we can use the standard polarization method to show that (i) and (ii) are equivalent to (i) and (ii)' f(wl . A particular cross section which is often used is the set of shufle permutations... . w. . r It will sometimes be convenient to regard W x ..)wj . f is linear in each variable when the others are fixed. . 15. By a cross section of S. I nl < n2 < ... + + K = {nE S.I w...)w. + T h e name is derived from the fact that if a deck of p q cards is cut into two stacks of p and q cards and then shuffled together with the usual technique. . .p q} pointwise fixed.. S.. . . ' . w i... If the characteristic of F is not 2. . having one and only one element from each left coset of S... x W...'.*.) for every 7 E S.. p } pointwise fixed. . be the permutation group on {l.S...) = 0 whenever two of the wi's are equal.. < ~p n(P and + 1) < n ( p + 2) < . Wno) = sgn (4f(w1. we mean a subset K of S. . w. Moreover. ... * a * .). the subgroup leaving { p 1.) = f(wl . q shuffle permutation. . .58 4... w ) .S. < n(p + q))... Even for characteristic 2... (ii)' is equivalent to (ii)" f(wn1.. Let S. FIG. (i) and (ii) imply (ii)'..' the subgroup leaving {I... .)wi .. p + q}... namely..' in S.. since transpositions generate the symmetric group S.. a .. .. S.
.) = g('uIT(p+1) wncp+g)). and S.. we let A. that if K is a cross section of S.+. and since the cardinality of this set is right. ...S. Let f E G".+..4.j f... Proof. .. Proof. ( p + q)linearity of fg is obvious. . . then K'K and L'L and are both cross sections of SpSy'Sr'' S.'. as a subgroup of S. L' of SpSqfr'in S. Using (ii)" it is easy to show that this multiplication is independent of K . (un)l(un') = nln' which is not in S.+. and then for x E W p + q we define the product fg by fS(") = sgn ( 4 f k a 4 g(" 0 0 4). be the operation of adding p .. Notice that we have only shown that (ii)' holds forfg.. %) . Proposition 1. g E Gq.'. This multiplication is associative.. n. neK 2 T o clarify notation.. Proposition 2. T h e proposition is true for characteristic 2. but we do not prove it. Existence of Grassmann Algebras 59 Iff E GP. of S. K a cross section of S.4. (Outline). if x(i) = w inote that . fg E Gp+q.h E G'. ..S. Suppose K a cross section as above.S.) = sgn (0) peoK 2 sgn ( P ) f ( Z 0 P) g b 0 P 0 4. We have if K . it must be a cross section. o n)g(z o 0 o n o A." the permutations on { p q 1. . We consider S.' in S.. and Sq+. Then jg(z o u) = Z s g n ( .n E ' Then it suffices to show that a K is a cross section also. r ) f ( zc ne K u E S.+. ( 0 n) = f(%l d"0 n 0 A. Then we show K' .."in SQ+. g E GQ..*.' in Si..'' in Spfq+? L of Sy'S.+...Si unless n = T'.. Thus if we write out the in products associated in both ways we see that we need only show that a sum + + + + . Thus the elements of uK are all in different cosets. p q Y} and similar conventions for S..
T h e e. Let w l . Proposition 4. where {I.. v p E V we have . We have already shown that G = CGi satisfies axioms (i)(iii) for a Grassmann algebra.) = I .. T h e e. Corollary. scalar multiplication. addition..(wt) = 0 if s # 2." we sum. This again is trivial by (ii)".. .'s. Then by proposition 3 above e . Then e..S.. then aso= since e. D Lemma 2. . e.60 4.. by the lemma 2. = Let e l . T h e proof is just an extension of the arguments for the proof of proposition 2. Proof. V } . w d ) = 1 f 0.. wd be a dual basis to el ... d}.. Let w l . ip}. < ip . so dim G 2 2d.. . ed be the dual basis for V .'s span G... For . e.. It remains to prove (iv) and (v). = 0 and the ei anticommute.. Dimension and Generation by { e . < i2 < . Then by proposition 3. For q ...'s are linearly independent. are independent. . over which is independent of the cross section of S... = (wi. . ed be a basis for V . and the identity are defined in the obvious ways. Finally. with s all of cardinality p .. Proposition 3..'S. Let el . Proof. If ZI E V . ...... Now if we have CsePuses = 0 and if so E P. so dim G = 2d. .. QED Proposition 5. DIFFERENTIAL FORMS in S.. Proof. Hence..(w. i. ed. Let P be the set of all such s. win).. w. # 0. then v 2 = 0. . 0... let s = {il . .. ( w l .. wd be a basis for W.. Since the sum C Giis direct we need only show that the e. .
. q 2 1. .4. where a. Problem 10. ascending order. fg is the old product. Our formula has the fewest possible terms. p . . . Prove that the shuffle permutations are a cross section and use them to write out all possible products for p .. gives ....4. to express up* in terms of a. . I n order that G = CGi be a Grassmann algebra over V with * as multiplication we must have upq = a and a condi?*. ip in Hence f = Xsspf(ws) e. is a nonzero element of F . < Problem 11. 0 n)g(z0 0 4). but it does not work when the characteristic of F is a d.... .. .. f E Gd(W ) the unique element of G d ( W )such that f(e. e.. q 2. ed) = 1 (f is an alternating dlinear Prove that det = f 3 J : 2’+F. then f*g = apqfg.. Let e = {el. i) is the permutation needed to put i. tion equivalent to the associative law. prime < Problem 12.. Suppose we define another product on the collection of multilinear alternating functions on W by: if f E Gp. . .).. function on V d ) .... This formula may be used to define multiplication instead of the one we have given. q 2 . . g E G*.. u ~ .. ( Tel ..Existence of Grassmann Algebras Now for f E 61 G p we have where ~ ( i . .. Applying this formula with f = e.} be a basis of V .~Conversely. sgn (4fb neS!J+. 9 = gI(V).. Te. show that aij may be assigned arbitrarily.. and that when we let ulj = j 1 the formula for f*g is + f*g(4 = c. . Derive this condition and use it . J : 9+ V d the isomorphism of 9 onto the dfold Cartesian product of V given by J( T) =.
. V ....P. xd . A Oform is simply a real valued function on M . a. Vp(m)) is C". Thus if (xl. ***. Prove that function on f is the usual determinant of matrices. by O(V1 9 ***. Describe a natural isomorphism of G(V*) and G(V)*.. .. xd) is a coordinate system at m. denotes the value of 0 at m. G...5 Differential Forms Henceforth we will be concerned with the case V = M.. Problem 14. the function 0( V . ...... DIFFERENTIAL FORMS Problem 13.caY where V is a coordinate neighborhood in M G. . 3 rr . We now relate our definition of forms to the brief discussion of tensors given in 3. . V. . a..Also work out the expressions for the inner product on G( V ) in terms of a basis. .. and has coordinates x.. . 4.3. T h e differentiable structure is given by taking as coordinate neighborhoods sets of the form = ul.*.since an inner product leads to an isomorphism of V and V* which extends uniquely to an algebra isomorphism of G( V ) and G( V*). mEM. for each set of C" vector fields V . xd o T v v . . dx.*). so that every element f of Gp is uniquely expressible as f = C. First form the following tensor bundles over M : Gp = v G. E C". When there is no confusion the "m" will be dropped.= G(M...p+m.0 is a C" pform if. on M .*. T : G.62 4. Here 8. . dxd at m form a basis of M.. whose value at each m E E is an element of Gmd.. xd) and (unique) expression 0 = C. with coordinates x1 .(m). Let f E Gd(Fd*) be the unique alternating dlinear = d x d matrices such that f ( 1 ) = 1. dx. dx. a manifold. mcM The projection is the natural one. W = M. Alternative Approach. we have a..) defined on the intersection of the domains of 0 and of the Vl 9 *.. V ... We notice that 0 is C" if and only if for each coordinate system (x.*. VD)(m) = em(V. .. A diflerential pform of M is a function 0 defined on some subset E of M . .p. Use this to show that an inner product on V extends naturally to an inner product on G( V ) .
E.Since Grid is one= dimensional for each n E M . Alternatively. is connected.. Q E D + + . Proof. A dzflerential pform 0 on B C M is then a cross section of Gp over E. .} of GnLP each at point of V . Orientation. Then for any connected coordinate neighborhood U with associated coordinates xl. with values in the chosen orientation and 0 = C fi+i defines the desired nonzero C" dform. 0~ C" if 0 is a C" map. nonvanishing. Differential Forms 63 plus the functions w. A paracompact manifold M is orientable if and only if M admits a continuous. Lemma 3. we may write y ( t ) = a ( t ) O(T o y ( t ) ) . = the set of nonzero vectors of E. Let {Ui} a locally be finite covering of M by connected coordinate neighborhoods...R ) acts on Rd* by taking the transpose of the inverse and hence also on G(Rd*)p by extending t o homomorphisms. R ) on Rd we see that GZ(d.. This follows easily from the facts that any path in M can be lifted to a path in Gd.5.d. is either connected or has exactly two components.. is a continuous cross section of U in Gag.1 is orientable. where a is a continuous realvalued function. globally defined dform. so either or 4 is in the chosen orientation. Now a ( t ) is never zero.t Gp such that T O 0 = identity. suppose that 11. the initial and final points of y are in the same component of G. Thus we get +i defined on U . If M is connected then Gd. (g) If E is a vector bundle over M we let E. is an open submanifold of E. M is nonorientable if Gd.3(3)]. has exactly two components (d = dimension of M ) .4. Gd. Let y be any curve in Gd. dual to the basis {dx. {fi} an associated C" partition of unity. is in this case called an orientation of M .. which begins and ends in the same fibre GmdO nonzero elements of Grnd. a map 0 : E . xd. = dx. Choose an orientation of M . Thus there is no curve connecting so the two components of Grndo. Hence. is not connected and M is orientable. that is. Conversely. s E P . so a ( t ) is of constant sign. Suppose 0 is a continuous. M is orientable if Gdohas two components. and each fibre of Gd.. if Rd* is the dual of Euclidean dspace Rd. everywhere defined dform with values in Gd.. then by dualizing the action of Gl(d. Each component of Gd. Gp is then the bundle associated to the bundle of bases B ( M ) by this action [see 3.
Problem 15. Lie groups. There are other conditions equivalent to orientability which are sometimes used as the definition. B ( M ) will then have just two components. If we write 8 = C.l)W(d+). (v) d(d8) = 0 for all 8. (2) (When M is connected. + Theorem 1. (iii) d is Rlinear.) T h e bundle of bases B ( M ) is not connected.64 4. a.6 Exterior Derivative T h e exterior derivative d is a map which assigns to each C" pform 8 a C" (p + 1)form d8 such that (i) if p = 0.1). They are (1) M is covered by coordinate neighborhoods in such a way that any two systems are related by a system of equations having positive Jacobian determinant.. hence. (c) Complex manifolds and almost complex manifolds. and an orientation of M is a choice of orientations for every component. (ii) domain of 8 = domain of d8. There is at most one map d satisfying (i)(v) above.. Proof. (iv) if 8 is a pform. then we say that M is orientable if every component of M is orientable. each representing an orientation of M . 4. on the intersection of the domains of 8 and the xi . we must have . DIFFERENTIAL FORMS For an orientable M such a 8 is called a volume element of M . Prove that the following manifolds are orientable: (a) T h e tangent bundle of any manifold. (b) A parallelizable manifold. If M is not connected. d8 agrees with the definition of the differential of a C" function (see 4. then d ( @ ) = (do)(b (. dx. 4 a qform.
4. . v. .1)il v. Thus we still must show that if 0 and C$ agree on an open set U .... then d0 and dC$ also agree on U . T o do this we let f be the function with domain U and value 1 at every point of U. In order to show that d exists we would have to show consistency in overlapping coordinate systems. axip i=l 0. as desired. Now we develop an intrinsic formulation of d which will be used extensively later. d(dXij) .) = 2 (. T h u s we have demonstrated the form which d must take in a coordinate system. namely. as the unique expression for do... .. we should actually have put for the lefthand side 46 I(domaln o n domain { z i j ) )! and what we claim is that this coincides with do I(domaln 8 n domaln {xi)) * A similar remark holds for the righthand side of (1). Then we define an R(p + I)linear function 0 of ( p + 1)tuples of Cm vector fields into C” functions on M by B(vl .6. vil . There is one point that has been passed over.. This concludes the proof of the theorem.e(v. Let 0 be a C“ pform.) = = 65 2 (9 1)j1 dXi.d x j dx..) . v. ... By (i) df = 0.. Thus we get d0 = XEp Cj”=l DZja. so by (iv) de lu = f d e = d ( f e ) = q+) + = d+ =fd iU. v9+.+~.. a . since we can verify (i)(v) for a coordinate neighborhood. and then the uniqueness and consistency under restriction to smaller domain will give the consistency on the intersections of coordinate neighborhoods. Intrinsic Formula for d . . Then f 0 and f + are equal and have the same domain U. when we wrote (l).. This is actually quite easy.. Exterior Derivative Now by (iv) and (v) d(dx.
QED Theorem 2. satisfies properties (i)(v). But e ( V ) = (I)llVf.j. Proof. V...)(m).... By (c) of lemma 5 . . vz . i (c) B(V1 . are chosen. Proof.. (c) then follows from (a) and (b).. DIFFERENTIAL FORMS If t .. namely.... m E domain of 8. If Vi and W icoincide in a neighborhood of m for Proof. choose vector fields V . such that Vi(m)= t i ...)(m) indeis pendent of the choice of Visuch that ti = Vi(m). .. . (a) follows from problem 1.... By lemma 4 we need only to consider 8 in this coordinate system.. V.....+.. Define dO(t. (a) B(fV. tp+l)= 8(Vl... Let xl.... d8 is well defined. Lemma 6. VP+. ..). vP+~)... t. Hence. V. .. Vp+. .. ... . V. then W i CibiiDxj and aij(rn) = bij(m)for all i. vj . .)(m)= 8(W.14 and the definition of 8. p + 1.fvi ... = f 8 ( ~ . v . Then Vi= CiaiiDx.. WP+... . in a = neighborhood of m. Lemma 4.. . = B(w1 . (b) follows immediately from the definition of 8.... and we show d8 = 4f... . . ... If Wi(m)= Vi(m). . .. V. xd be coordinates at m. that is. This will be proved in a series of lemmas.)vD+l). Let EM. . i = 1....)(m). ..+. Properties (ii) and (iii) are obvious from the definition....... at m &(t) = 8(V)(m)= V ( m ) f = t f = df(t).66 4. ... that is. V . V. V a vector field such that V(m) = t... 8( v.. Lemma 5.. E M . .. 8(Vl... We must show that this definition is independent of the way in which V l . This is clear from the definition of 8. .. as desired. then 8(V1 .) (b) 8 is alternating. vj .. .. . let 8 = f~ C". We verify property (i) directly. . a'. . .) ) = B(V. .. Proof.. .. . . the other terms being vacuous. The map 8 + d8 defined via 8 above is the exterior derivative. Vp+l) = fQ( V .. . wp+l)(m).. that is.
SEP d0 = SEP 2 D.. Now the assignments 0 + d%and 0 + & are both Rlinear.S. Write out in full the intrinsic expression for d0 when 0 is a 1form and a 2form.6. since [ V i. . V. V.. and by linearity of forms it is enough to show that d0 and 2 0 agree when applied to ( V .4. Vp+l).#. V?. then for % =zasdx.. dxs(V1 . if 0 and q5 agree on a neighborhood then d0 and dq5 also agree on this neighborhood. Exterior Derivative 67 T o show the other properties we establish that d coincides with the operation defined locally in the proof of theorem 1..). if xl. in S..+l) = = 2 D....f dx.. . .) . In the latter case use skewsymmetry to put it in the form of a sum over the cyclic permutations of 1... .. and since dx. . Problem 16.+. . xd are coordinates... Further. Using shuffle permutations < n ( p 1) we get 7r2 < + On the other hand. Hence it is sufficient to show they are the same for 0 = f dx.. dxj dx.(Vl .. 3.. = constant. i a .. k RGK where K is a cross section of S. V j ]= 0. V9+1) 2 D. . Vm. .. .l)dxs(Vnv. 'i av1 . where Vi = 0 : . that is.. 2..f 2 s g n b ) dxk(T/.. a*.. Let d denote this operation. 9 > k > * * a 9 V37n(p+1.
@(&t l . DIFFERENTIAL FORMS Problem 17. 4. . V x W ) + V(X . U x V) (These formulas could be used to define grad. that is. If U . V . We now define a map +* of forms on N into forms on M . V ) .. curl Y + + + from axiom (v) for d: curl gradf = 0. +* is just the usual 4* is a Grassmann algebra homomorphism and it commutes with the exterior derivative. Proof. V x W = U ( X .) from axiom (iv) for d: grad cfg) = g gradf fgrad g curl (fX) (gradf) x X fcurl X = div (fX) (gradf) .V ( X . namely. U = Uf.. 4 : M 4N a C" map..68 4. curl. if 8 is a pform on N . +* : 8+ 8 o d+. X f div X = div(X x Y ) = (curl X ) . then we have seen that 4 carries functions on N into functions on M by composition and carries tangents on M into tangents on N. div curl X = 0. U x I/ = U ( X . then +*(W. N are manifolds. .X .7 Action of Maps If M . W are constant vector fields (brackets all 0) on R3 and X is a C" vector field. Theorem 3. Y . That 4* is a Grassmann algebra homomorphism is automatic from the definition of multiplication. W x U) + W(X .*. set up correspondences between the various parts of the calculus of differential forms and ordinary vector analysis to obtain the following formulas: from the intrinsic formula for d: gradf ..4 tn).. and div. U ) (div X ) U . b) = Notice that on the space of 1forms at a point dual linear transformation to dd. . curl X .
p 3 1. i ( X ) ( X o ) 0. Example. X p ( M )the collection of C” pforms. (c) If 8 E X1.. du. X . where O E X p . restricted to X is a derivation. = i ( X )d d i ( X ) + + by showing that it holds for functions and differentials of functions. that is. XP. . . and (sin u1 cos u 2 . Problem 18. then ’ i(X)(04)= ( i ( X > 4 (. But we have for any function f on N and $* df = 4f o d+ = d ( f o 4) = d($*f) QED d(+* df) = d ( d ( f 0 4) = 0 = +*(O) = +*(d(df))..” Let X be a vector field and define a linear function i ( X ) : X +3? satisfying the following conditions: = (a) i ( X ) : 3 ? p + X p ... . . Let G be a Lie group. cos u. u.7. Problem 19.) = 8(X. Action of Maps 69 T o prove that 4* commutes with d we notice first that both 4* and da r e Rlinear and that it is a local problem.l)”O(i(X) 8) 4). namely.sin2 u1 cos u2)du. sin u 2 . X. are vector fields. du. X . sin2 u2 + sin u1 cos u1 cos u2)du. u. sin u. Problem 20. if 6 E Z p . X. ciik the constants (structural constants) .. a basis for the left invariant vector fields on G. Locally forms are generated by functions and differentials of functions.. Show that i ( X ) d d i ( X ) is a derivation....l . then + + rj : R2 + R3 by +*O = sin u1 sin up d(sin u.then i ( X ) 8 = 8 ( X ) . ( b ) i ( X ) is an antiderivation. . and verify the formula i ( X )8(X. cos i d 2 ) + sin u. Denote by X ( M ) the collection of all C“ forms defined on open subsets of M .. .. .). Hence prove the formula L . 4 E 33. 4 = If 8 = u2 du. + Show that there is a unique function satisfying (a)(c)... to functions and differentials of functions.).4. X .. and X . Using the fact that +* is a homomorphism and d is an antiderivation the problem is reduced to consideration of individual factors of terms... + cos2 u1 sin u2 . cos u pd cos u1 = + cos u1 d(sin u1 sin u2) (sin u1 cos u. Show that L.. sin u2 cos u2 + (sin2 u.. the Lie derivative of X . sometimes we shall omit “(M).
w = If 8. t.. c j k i w j w= C j < k c j k i w k w j . Ok is a basis for E m ..*wi = wi..1...~ C j .. Lemma 7. where I : N +M is the injection map. . L.then if o E W. ...... = annihilator of En&.Pl. . tj+l .) = 0 for every t . Od be a completion of e l ..+iW. if and only if for every t . . . tjl . Ci+i8i...) 4... tP) = 2 (. .. t P )ei(tj) =o since t j E D.8. for every g E G.. t . Define dual lforms w1 . ED.. wE Let W . Conversely.... t. we have tv) = C.. ed span D... . t. 8.). E is a C" codistribution if for each m E M there is a neighborhood on which are defined k C" 1forms which span E a t each point of the neighborhood.cijkX. .. let 8k+l. and if we write w = CsEpa. A submanifold N of M is an integral submanifold of E if for each n E N .. .we have. (This is called the k equation of MaurerCartan. DIFFERENTIAL FORMS such that [Xi. if k < j. and let e l . (b) dwi = .. Prove (a) wi is left invariant.. Proof. * * a . wd to Xj the Xiby w i ( X j ) = Sij (constant function). En = annihilator of dI(N. .. ED.. if w ( t l . ..) = 0. to a basis of G. Then W. ... .. ... Thus 4 1 .... . The distribution associated with E is the ( d . A Kdimensional codistribution E on a manifold M is a map which of assigns to each m E M a kdimensional subspace E9n Gml.. +i E G.70 4.8 Frobenius' Theorem.. Then e k + l . we have w ( t l . E is completely integrable if there is an integral submanifold of E through each point m E M.k)distribution D defined by D. ..1 a * * ..i ) q q t l .... . . be the ideal generated by Em in G.. < <j . ed be a basis dual to 0.. i i. .. that is. ed. ] = C. = annihilator of Ent.
. 8. . k (lemma 7). i = 1. an element w ( t l ... . j = 1. then w is always in the ideal generated by 8. < 4. generated by Em in G. Let w be a pform with p d . t P )of V such that iff is any element of the dual space of V then f o w is a (realvalued) pform on M ... i = 1.... . which says that a C" distribution is completely integrable if and only if it is involutive. k...]) = 0.. Then E is completely integrable if and only if W is invariant under the exterior derivative operator. Frobenius' Theorem [29]... k.. Examples. that is. Ok = 0. + + Problem 22. ..k.. then a Vvalued pform is just a matrix of pforms (wii).. .) Derive the integrability condition given in problem Q du.. ... . $ k . . . Prove that w is in the ideal generated by linearly independent 1forms e l . QED w> Problem 21. .. j = 1. if p > d . 2 implies Oi([V.... d( W )C W .. so this shows: W is the space annihilated by multiplication by 8..29 for the 1codistribution spanned by the 1form P du... 1.. First notice that the condition d( C Wis equivalent to the assertion that for each m E M there is a local basis of 1forms 8..) = 0. the Lie algebra of d x d matrices.6. We have E is completely integrable if and only if the associated ( d . k if and only if Oi(Vj)= 0. (2) If V = gl(Rd). i = 1. A Vvalued pform on M is a map w which assigns to each t . . Let W be the function which assigns to each rn E M the ideal W. .. R du.. t p E M ... . ...k)distribution D is completely integrable if and only if D is involutive if and only if Oi(Vj) = 0. 8k if and only if we1 . VectorValued Forms and Operations Hence each term of w 71 must have a Oi with i < k.. (1) If V = Rd. . . We shall show that this theorem is equivalent to theorem 1. then a Vvalued pform is simply a dtuple of pforms ( w . i = 1. i = 1. u d o w ) .9 VectorValued Forms and Operations Let V be a vector space over R. that is...k. On the other hand... V.. V. E W .(V. M a manifold. w E W. k.4. (theorem 2) if and only if do. (Hint: Use problem 4... 2 implies dO. E W..9. Let E be a C" kdimensional codistribution on M .. w d ) = (ul o w . in E such that do.. $k.
then we may write w(x) = Ciwi(x) X i . (a) Prove that w is left invariant. If is a pform with values in a space of linear transformations on a vector space V . Problem 24. is a basis for g. (a) 4. w ] = (.+(Y)I = 2#+(X..3 [w.10) on the real tangent spaces induces a bigradation of the forms. Let G be a Lie group. ) Problem 23. Y ) = 2[+(X). (b) Show that [+. (b) Prove that dw = . w a gvalued qform. then #w is defined as a Vvalued ( p q)form by + + where K is again a cross section as above. then [+. 50.. DIFFERENTIAL FORMS If is a gvalued pform.. where g is a Lie algebra. .. +w + If +. define the product using matrix multiplication instead of bracket multiplication as above. R)valued forms. w ] . besides the factor (. and the operation J (problem 3. and w is a Vvalued qform. w . X... 921 If M is a complex manifold. .Sq‘ in S. if x = X ( g ) .72 4.10 Forms on Complex Manifolds [23.l)pq resulting fromreversing the order of the forms.. w are gl(d.. we have the various . g its Lie algebra. . +] since we get an additional factor of . Define gvalued 1form w on G by w ( X ) = X for every X E Q that is.. defining realvalued 1forms w . then ~ ( x = X .10. Y ) when is a 1form.. Prove that w . w ] is the gvalued ( p q)form given by + + where K is a cross section of S.. As in problem 3.l)”ql[w. 30.1 when we change the order of bracketing.. +l(X. are the same as in problem 20. Note that [+. . w. . then the differential forms are defined in terms of Grassmann algebras over the complex field.. so that (b) is a coordinatefree form of the equations of MaurerCartan. (c) If X . .
w E G P + Q ( F m * ) is called an element of type ( p . We denote the set of these objects byXP.1 + d 0 . Show that d = d' + d".Express a form of type ( p . generate G (F m * ) . q) in terms of these generators.. 2 . define df and show that it is a complex differential Iform... where d' : X P ~ q + X p + l . For any almost complex structure. . where d p .1 = d"0 + d1. Elements of %'pq0 are called holomorphic pforms. Forms on Complex Manifolds 73 tangent spaces A. show that the dzi .4. . F m. .Q . dZi at m...Q(M). For a complex coordinate system (z.) is equivalent to d2Yo = 0. . .+ X P . Problem 30.d'ld'. By allowing m to move over M .E 2. be extended to be a complex linear endomorphism of F m . Show that whenever X. Find dim Gp*Q(Y. Problem 26. For f a complexvalued C" function on M ..1 1 et al. w EX~PO if and only if w ( X .n*).. .. dlyO.*). . Q : X o J . we define complex differential forms of type ( p .still satisfying J z = 1. a n d z . q and d" : X P . Problem 25. Since F m = d m i A n L J may .10. Q + l .q) if J*w = ( p . Show that the condition for the almost complex structure to be a complex structure (see problem 3. q).) = 0 Problem 28. X. Also verify that (d')2 = 0 = (d")2 and d'd" . and show that + G'(Fm*) = C p+q=r GP'q(Fm*)..+ X P . Show that the algebras X P v Q may be defined for a manifold with an almost complex structure.Q . and hence to the assertion of problem 28 above. Problem 27.. zd). Problem 29. T h e dual of J extends to a derivation J* of the complex Grassmann algebra G(F. with 1.q ) iw. .
and structural equations for horizontal forms are discussed.p E P. 50. which in a special case. connexions on associated bundles. Connexions are associated with principal bundles over a manifold.then ( h X ) ( p )= dp(X(e)). Existence of connexions. then Then the elements of g are vertical. and for the most part we shall be considering only connexions on the bundle of bases. action of G on P (3. Let P be the bundle space of a principal bundle over M with structural group G and projection map T : P + M . 831. = { t E P. and holonomy groups are introduced via a sequence of problems [49.CHAPTER 5 Connexions T h e definition of a connexion on a principal bundle is given and the horizontal lift of a curve and parallel translation are established. is equivalent to the formulations in terms of the more usual notion of parallel translation. V.1 Definitions and First Properties T h e appropriate vehicle for certain differential geometric structure on a manifold appears to be a connexion. Let V be the dim(G)dimensional distribution on P of vertical vectors. and these we develop in this chapter. for if d ~ ( X ( p ) ) d ~ d p ( X ( e )= O = ) 14 . T h e curvature form is defined and the structural equation is proved. 5. that is.1): if X E 9. for p E P. Recall that there is a homomorphismh : 9 + g defined by the right . treated in the next chapter. ~ d7r t = O}. 66. However. = AX.where p is here regarded as the injection of G into P given by p(g) = p g . many fundamental properties of connexions hold on a general principal bundle.
that is. by dimensionality. Since dn lx. are called horizontal. with the properties that for everyp E P. (iii) for every p E P . the associated map into G. w Mn(p. which shows that V is indeed a distribution with dimension equal to dim(g) = dim(G). then there exists an E fi such that x(p)= t . where V t E V . 16. and drr T ( p ) = X(rr(p)). from which follow the desired properties.2). A connexion on the principal bundle (P. If X is a vector field. if t E V. (See remark near the beginning of 3. H is a linear com. G.)).1. if Uis a distinguished neighborhood of ~ ( p ) . . H t E H. + M FIG. then we write also (VX)(p) = V(X(p)). M ) is a ddimensional distribution H on P such that (i) H EC". . V E C". . since p maps G onto rrl ( ~ ( p ) ) Hence.5. x ( p ) E H. . drr: H . Prove that X E + C" if and only if V X and HX E C". From problem . plement to V . we write t = V t H t . called the (horizontal) lift of X. LFU(. Hence. V .. If t E P.)l(m. then the map F p: G + nl(m) may be factored as follows: p = (n x F. Problem 1. is onetoone. and further. Further. H. Indeed. . . Elements of H . dRgHp = HPg. Definitions and First Properties 75 since rr o p is the constant map G 4rr(p). (ii) for every p E P. (HX)(p) = H(X(p)). = P. the elements of fi span the vertical space at every point. to every vector field X on M there corresponds a unique vector field 2 on P. g E G.
If w has values in g. 1 . Lemma 1. E 8. T h e 1form 4 of a connexion H has the following properties: (i) C$ is vertical. We now give the dual formulation of a connexion. then (ii) If X E g. xi If 4 is a 1form on P with values in g satisfying properties (ii)(iv). = Ad gl o w. T h e properties (ii)(iv) characterize 1forms of connexions in the following sense. We also have gEG. whereas the horizontality of a form is a notion that is independent of a connexion. All these properties are trivial to verify. s o $ ( X ) = Cif. x +(x(p)) X . then there exists a unique connexion H on P such that . p. Notice that the definition of a vertical form depends on the existence of a connexion. Theorem 1. then + ( t ) = that X E g such that x(p)= Vt. Let X be a C" vector field on P. w o dR. then it is called equivariant if. (iii) 4 is equivariant. X. (i) and (ii) are trivial. (iv) 4 E C". for every g E G.Y]. 72 rJ R+P=(X+Y) H [ X . CONNEXIONS C".Xi E C". then dRJ= E C". that is. all p E P. proving (iv). = Proof. t E P. prop. A pform w on P is called vertical (horizontal) if it vanishes when one or more of its entries is horizontal (vertical). PI = [ X . Then the f i E C" [25. a notion of horizontal tangents. 881. (iii) follows immediately from 3. T h e 1form of a connexion H is the Lie algebra valued 1form 4 on P defined by: if p E P.76 1 it follows that if X E 5 . so there exist functionsfi such that where E g. .l(b).
this shows that the connexions of P form an affine space. Parallel Translation 77 4 is its Proof. for any g E G. Hence.t E HPg. if X is a C" vector field on P.5.f o T ) $. 11 + M . Let y be a broken C" curve in M . which establishes that H is a connexion. t = ' t . . [Hint: +('tl) = $(tl). N = { ( r . Then by problem 3. when we take f = constant. q ) E I P I y ( r ) = n(q)} is the bundle space of a x principal bundle ( N .] In particular. 1 + 6 ) = I into M . 7* is horizontal. Because of this theorem we shall sometimes speak of q5 as being the connexion. ' t . Hence. Let 4 and I be two connexion forms on P and f a C" function on M . = 1form. which C proves (iii).2 Parallel Translation If y is a broken C" curve in M .. . Theorem 2.so t  ) Problem 2 . Let H p = 7b(t)(p). I +(t) = O}. 4(dR. (b) If t E Pp and t = t . which proves property (ii) in the definition of a connexion. From this it follows trivially that H E C". The map 0 : N + P by B(r. then a (horizontal) lift of y is a broken C" curve 7 in P such that (i) 7 is horizontal. Then for t E P. that is. y : [0. + + + 5.. Show that: (a) ( f o T ) + + ( l . so dR. in only one way. {t E P. so H X E C". in fact.. q ) = q may . are the horizontal and vertical decompositions of t with respect to the connexions of 4 and $.. then V X = + ( X )E C".2. Further. there is a onetoone correspondence between such 1forms on P and connexions on P. Further.t) = Adgl4(t) = 0 if t E H . Then there exists a unique lift 7 of y such that Proof.f o T ) $ i s a c o n n e x i o n f o r m o n P. We may assume that y is C" since we may chain the lifts of pieces together. nl(y(0)). I ) . Let p E Y(O> = P. dRgHp H. let Vt Vt E H. T ' . find the decomposition with respect to the connexion of (fo T ) 4 (1 . Extend y to a C" map of ( E. G.6. . By broken we mean y is continuous and piecewise C". and (ii) T o 7 = y. t .
the 1form of this connexion is = 8*+ (see problem 3 below). 17. is a diffeomorphism: if po is any fixed element of nl(r(O))..(Po). if y and a are two such curves with o(0) = y(l). o R. of nl(y(0)) onto rl(y( l)). T h e domain of u" is all of I since it could be extended about a neighborhood of the upper limit otherwise. and define T. Let p E nl(y(O)). p ) . QED Corollary 1. so T . to prove T.(Pog) = T. but the latter is obviously unique. o pop1: n'(y(O)) + G + rl(y( 1)). E C" and T. and let u" be the integral curve of X starting at (0.(p) = 7(1).78 5.f be the lift of y with P(0) = p . We define 7 = 8 o u". is independent of the parametrization of y and satisfies T.. Further. o T. which is trivial. called parallel trailslution from y(0) to y( 1) along y. . M ) . all g E G. Let X be the unique horizontal lift of D on I to N . If H is a connexion on (P. Pl = T. T. 7 is horizontal. then T. We use the right invariance property. CONNEXIONS be used to get a connexion on N . and since +(f*) = +(do o u"*) = +(X) 0. . G. then T. = That 7 is unique follows easily from the fact that any lift can be factored through N via 0 and a lift of u. 6 FIG. Proof. o T. = p . It is obvious that 9 is a lift of y . y a curve in M as in the theorem. then there is defined a diffeomorphism T.(Po)g. = T.. = R.
(O). and let T be any other lift (not necessarily horizontal). Define 01 : I+ G by: a(r) is the unique element of G such that 7(r) = T ( ~ ) O I ( T ) . I .2.5. 7 be as in theorem2. 18. p E rl(y(O)). T h e following result provides an interesting interpretation of the connexion form. o L. with * ) g by left translation. By theorem 1. tangent curves give coincident infinitesimal transformationsthen the connexion may be recovered by differentiating as follows: let y be an appropriate curve in M . = ~ ( rg): G + P.: G f P by I.(p) as the curve t 4 parallel translate of p from y(0) to y ( t ) along y. Proof. Let I. namely.) P FIG. We remark that a concept of parallel translation is equivalent to a connexion. if we have parallel translation in P given and satisfying right invariance and certain smoothness conditionsspecifically. we have ?*(r) == dIra*(r) + dKa(r) (1) . such where we view that d r t = y*(O).(p). Then define Ht = T. (We are identifying G.(g) = ~ ( r ) It is trivial to verify that g. Parallel Translation 79 T h e other properties are immediate. where the map P x G + P is right action. Let y. Corollary 2. T. and let t E P. Then d R ( a ( r ) .~ ) ~=( r $ ( ~ * ( r ) ) .2.
then for Note that t . We need the following lemma for the proof of Cartan’s structural equation.. Dw(tl . then horizontal.recalling our identification )) of G. if f:M + M’ and ( B .. ~ $ ( d I ~ a * ( r= dLa(.. then this will be the case.f M ) : ( B . In particular.. and g.7*(r))= Ad a(r)l d ( ~ * ( r ) by the ). M)+(B’. If X E g.. for a form w on P. .. T h e curvature form @ of a connexion H with lform4 is the horizontal gvalued 2form D+. . since is horizontal. G. equivariance of 4. More precisely. where H is a connexion. O n the other hand. tptl E P. Let ( f B .f . .. the form Dw by Dw = dw o H . Show that any connexion on B’ induces in a natural way a connexion on B. . 5. .+. G’. applying 4 to (1) gives ~L. t...It is easy to verify that @ is equivariant..t+*(r)) =  Ad ‘Y(r)l +b*(r)) Problem 3 . [x. Hence. .tl(a*(r)). V a horizontal vector field on P.80 Now 5.3 Curvature Form and the Structural Equation Define. G’. CONNEXIONS Therefore. Lemma 2.) = dw(Ht. M’) be a bundle map with df.c. M ) is the bundle induced by f over M . : g + g’ an isomorphism onto. Dw is always horizontal. Ht. .. ]is V . 4(dRacr. if w is a pform.).
Y either belong to fi or are horizontal. Then V ] = X i ( z f i ) V . I = 0.14. [x. Since forms are linear. .N X . (ii) X E g. x i(x) Theorem 3 (structural equation).41 + 0 Notice that if G is a matrix group and 9 is identified with a space of linear transformations. Y Eg. Y on P agree. in all comProof. we have V. However. Y horizontal. a horizontal lift of a vector field on M . Then.1 directly. show that +( VJ) 0. that is. where the Vi are horizontal and right invariant and the fi are C“ functions on P . Y ) = X + ( Y ).Y ) Q [+.Y+(W . (i) X . Let V. be a right invariant horizontal vector field. we may derive the result indirectly as follows. Problem 4. = [Hint: Notice that the oneparameter group of transformations associated with is right action by e“.5. Curvature Form and the Structural Equation 81 Proof.&[+.] = 0. If on P. Hence LR(+) is vertical.2 = +(Y) W X . thus giving an alternate proof of the lemma. and Y ( X ’ )= 0 similarly. binations. Note that X ( Y ’ ) = X(constant gvalued function on P ) = 0. and hence +(X) X’. Y ) + @ ( X . which is certainly horizontal.Y+V) +([X.+] = +. Now locally we may write V = Z i f i V i . @ its curvature form. Applying the formula L8 = d + di(x) to the connexion form and evaluating on the horizontal vector field V . Y’ E g such that = X. we need only consider the cases for which the X.3. [x.Y ( X ’ ).[X’. since the horizontal vector fields do not form a finitedimensional vector space.1. P’ = Y . then .] + [x. then d+ =  4 is the 1form of a connexion Q [+. = Y’.+ l W . Y) . We show that the above 2forms applied to vector fields X .9) as desired. Y ) = X + ( Y ) . (4. since @ is horizontal. Let X‘ E g be as in (i): & (X.YI) = = = X ( Y ’ ) . by problem 1.Y ) . Y’]  H+>+l(X. so there are elements X’. taking 9 = {Vi> in theorem 3. Now by theorem 4. We cannot apply theorem 3.
yl is horizontal if and only if @ ( X .. ] is horizontal by the Y lemma.6. Proof. +( Y ) = 0. T h e restriction of the structural equation to vertical vectors is essentially the equation of MaurerCartan. D[+. Let H be a connexion on P.#I is a vertical 2form. D@ = D db.Y ) = d4(HX.+ ( [ X . means that P admits local horizontal cross sections. @ is horizontal.Y 4 V ) . and @ ( X . In particular. then @ Z = 4 ( X . Another interpretation is that it says that d+ has only a horizontal and a vertical part with no mixed part. On the other hand. . X . Theorem 5.D[+.) = 0. = 0. From the structural equation.) = ddcj(HX.Y ) = 0 since Y is horizontal.Y both horizontal. Hence. Let H be a closed subgroup of a Lie group G and consider the principal bundle (G.82 5. and so vanishes = when one of its entries is horizontal. @ its curvature form.N X . GIH). H . Then @ = 0 if and only if H is an involutive distribution. Problem 5. Yl) ( Y) = MX. since [+. as asserted. since d2=0. Y ) = X W ) . then D@ Proof. X. which in view of theorem 1. H Y ) = d&Y. Also. Y ) = 0 as X is vertical. H X . which implies @ = 0. (iii) X. Yl). CONNEXIONS since + ( Y )= 0. If X . HX. so H is involutive if and only if [ X . and [X. which is the structural equation in this case. Let C$ be a connexion and show . then by a standard monodromy argument P must be the trivial bundle. 43. .+] 0. A connexion with @ = 0 is called p a t .+ ] ( X . Theorem 4 (the Bianchi identity). + ( X ) = constant. If @ is the curvature form of a connexion on a principal bundle P. Y). Now Dd+(X.. if M is simply connected. yl) = 0. + ( X ) = 0. and [+. Y ) = . D@ = 0. so @ ( X . QED Remark. . Y are horizontal vector fields on P.
2. Show that (a) 4 defines a projection$: g + @ of the corresponding Lie algebras. (c) conversely. there is a onetoone correspondence between invariant connexions on (G. Verify that 4 is a connexion form.4. Here we show that any principal bundle (P. with M paracompact. If (P. Let (P. A necessary condition in a special case is given in [3]. G. and derive a formula for it. G. $1 C m. Remark. although the proof is much more difficult. (b) if m = ker$. Now assume 4 is invariant under dL. G. Hence. See the remark following theorem 7. C" connexions exist in abundance. Let be {fi}be a C" partition of unity subordinate to the covering { Ui}. at least if H i s connected). + 5. show that the curvature form may be considered as defined on g x g. Let {Ui} a covering of M such that nl(Ui) is trivial. F . M ) be an associated bundle with fibre . then [m. I n Chapter 7 we shall establish the existence of Riemannian connexions on B ( M ) . M ) . Let +i be a flat connexion on n'( Ui) and define 4 = X(fio n) bi. it of course admits C" connexions. G. GIH) and reductive complements m of $. = dR. realanalytic manifolds admit analytic connexions. However. An H admitting such an invariant complement m is called reductive in G (the name arises from the fact that the adjoint representation of G restricted to H is reducible to the adjoint representation of H plus the representation of H on m via Ad. if g = m ij (direct sum) with [m.5. for every g E G. H . (d) For the connexion 4. Problem 6 . Associated Bundles. M ) is a complex analytic principal bundle over a complex manifold M . then the projection of g onto $ gives rise to an invariant connexion in the above sense. o 4. and let ( B .4 Existence of Connexions and Connexions in Associated Bundles Existence of Connexions..4 is a not necessarily flat connexion form on P. Existence of Connexions 83 that 4 o dR. n. but in general it will not admit a complex analytic connexion. has a connexion. $1 C m. M ) be a principal bundle with a connexion H .
pf = b. K’ the corresponding distributions on B. . which derives as before from the horizontal lifts of curves. Let A : P x F + B be the natural map (3.). while it is clear that the lift defined above is horizontal with respect to H ’ . Determine all connexions on T ( R ) . The Distribution H’. Now define 7 by p(t) = y ( t )f . b E ~ ’ . f . H’.l ( r ( ~ ) ) is recalled. We define a lifting 7 of y into B which will turn out to be horizontal ) in the sense below. G x M . Let f E F and p E P be such that ~ ( p= y(0) and pf = 6 .r ) t is in the distribution on B of the connexion belonging to r+ (1 . Further. CONNEXIONS F (see 3. Then in some sense H induces a “connexion” on B.‘ parallel translation is a diffeomorphism. [Hint: Take T(R) w R2 and define a distribution with slope eu.3. then rs (1 .l ( y ( O ) ) .] 5. K’t = t . + + Problem 8. Take b E B .r ) y5. and define H i = dA(H. Parallel Translation. Problem 9 . there is a distribution H‘ on B which at each point complements the vertical tangent space. y5 be connexion forms. H’s = s. Let 4. p E P such that ~ ’ ( b= ~ ( p ) We ) . there is a notion of parallel translation of the fibres of B . wherep is here the map defined in 3. Let y be a broken C“ curve in M . Show that there exist horizontal distributions on associated bundles which are not connexions.(p) o p . K their connexions.3). and dn’(s)= dr’(t). Show that if s.5 Structural Equations for Horizontal Forms We first prove a basic lemma.the tangent bundle to R. .l . so . This definition is independent of p in view of the right invariance of H . where f E F is such that . may view Pp as a subspace of ( P x F ) ( p .t M . t E B. Problem 7. Let G be a Lie group of diffeomorphisms of M . along y from n’l(y(O>)to ~’l(y(1)) as in P. if the definition of the map p :F + r ’ . We then define parallel translation T.84 5. H . To be precise. Hence we have ? = T. By theorem 2 there is a horizontal lifting y of y into P with y(0) = p .3).
X E g. Structural Equations for Horizontal Forms 85 and let 4 be a representation of G as nonsingular linear transformations on a vector space V . (i) If w satisfies w o dg = +(g) w for all g E G. be invariant vector fields on M . We shall prove (ii).) = (AX) 4 Y l . . Y... and so is mapped into a vector by the tangent X ( e ) (see 1. This makes sense since v is a vectorvalued function on G.(gf). 4 Lemma 3.(f)) W1) ( Y l ( f ) ) W = 4 Y l ( f ) . . Therefore we have ... *. .* YD(f)) #(P)l where +(g) = gl.)of(g) = w(Y.Cf)... and in fact 4Y1.Cf)) Y. Then there is an associated representation of g as linear transformations on V . Y. *. namely. I f f € M . Y. . Y ...".) = (AX) w(Y1 ) ..). v(g) = +(g) v .2.... and 2. and let ~ Yl .4.5. Y.. Y. then ( 8 X ) w(Y1 9 .5.. *'. since the Yiare invariant and w is equivariant with respect to the representation 4. dgY.. . . where AX is the vector field on M defined in 3.1..a*.). Y. (ii) If w satisfies w o dg = + g ' w for all g E G. then set $(X) = X ( e ) v . then () @X) w ( Y . then w ( Y l . Y.. Let X E and w be a Vvalued pform.. 2. Proof. v If v E V . which may be defined as follows.(gf) = = w(dgY.6). T h e proof of (i) is similar.) o f is a Vvalued function on G.
....+l) ) i = = since w is horizontal ( .. Yp+.... p 1 vector fields Y ...w(Y.. = I using 4. Then the partial derivatives with respect to the variables coming from M suffice. T h e remaining vector fields we choose in various ways. span the Proof.)= 0 since $ is vertical.)= d w ( Y l . .. (ii) One Yi is vertical. Let 4 be the 1form of a connexion on P and let w be a Qvalued. T o do this in the neighborhood of a point f E P. W ( Y.... since AX depends only on the other coordinates.. = AX. u](Y1. We prove this by applying both sides to + vertical tangent space..~ (l)P(hX) W(Yl .I ) ~ Y .86 5.. Yp+.. Also. .y .) .. .. for they are clearly right invariant and they bracket correctly with AX.. . w is horizontal. horizontal. . We consider several cases..)l = .. since w is equivariant.. Yp+. and so [$. = (l)P+"X.. Then we have the structural equation for w : dw = [+ . which proves the result in this case.. is (i) No Yi vertical. W ( Y l .. H Y ... Y. Y. . + .>. .)= 0. Y&+Y.. W(Y.. are all horizontal. This is what we wanted to . Y... equivariant pform on P. .6. . = Yi .. .*. so D w ( Y i . YV+I). Yptl chosen from a set which locally spans the tangent space to P .. . We may then assume the Y .+l. Y.. We may choose Y . X E ~to. . Now H(AX) = 0 implies that D w ( Y 1 . For this set we choose vector fields (AX}.+.) by the lemma with 4 = Ad and 2.14. Yp+...2 dw(Y1 . Assume Y.. WI(Y1. Y.9 and fact that prove. .. CONNEXIONS Theorem 6.) = (l)p+l ad X w ( Y l . .. Y.. We also have from theorem 4...Y. .+l) = 2 (.1)i1 Y. Y p so that they are right invariant and so that [YiAX] = 0. we choose a coordinate system at f which derives from the local product structure of P. wl + DfJJ.)] (l)P++"X).
5.6 Holonomy
(iii) Two or more Yivertical. From the fact that clear that everything vanishes. QED
Corollary.
w
87
is horizontal it is
If
Q, is the
curvature form associated with 4, then we have
d@ = [+,
@I.
Proof. @ is horizontal and equivariant, and so the result follows from the theorem and Bianchi’s identity. We shall have several more occasions for employing the above lemma in the ensuing chapters.
5.6 Holonomy [2,5, 51, 66, 77, 821
We develop the material in this section as a series of problems. Let ( P , G, rr, M ) be a principal bundle with connexion 4. Let P E P and define K, C G by K , = {g E Glpg is a parallel translate of p}.
K, is a subgroup of G,the holonomy subgroup of rp at p. Problem 11. If p’ E P is a parallel translate of p, then K p = K,’. Problem 12. If p’ = pg, g E G,K p <= K P g = glK,g. (Hence, the holonomy group of 4 is defined up to isomorphism.) Problem 13. Let K , = {g E K , I pg is a parallel translate of p along ,
Problem 10.
a null homotopic curve}. Show that K,, is an arcwise connected normal subgroup of K p and hence an arcwise connected subgroup of G, called the restricted holonomy group of 4 at p. It then follows from a theorem of Yamabe [95] that K,, is a Lie subgroup of G.
Problem 14. There is a natural homomorphism of the fundamental group of M based at ~ ( ponto the quotient group K p / K p 0 . ) Problem 15. If M is simply connected, then Kpo= K,. For example, if M = R, then K, = (1) since every connexion is integrable. It is known that K , is the component of the identity of K, [66]so , that K, is a Lie group. Let P‘ = {p’ E P I p’ is a parallel translate , of PIProblem 16. (P,’, K,, M , T) ; 1 is a principal bundle, and the inclusion ip: P,’+ P gives a reduction of G to K p . Furthermore, i,*(+) is a connexion form on P,’.
88
5 . CONNEXIONS
Problem 17. If G can be reduced to a subgroup K via a bundle map i : P' + P such that i*(+) is a connexion on (P', K , M ) , then for any p E P', K , C K .
Problem 18. If @ is the curvature form of +, then for every p E P, @(Pp, P,) C f, , the Lie algebra of K p . (AmbroseSinger [2] prove even more, namely, if V = {@(P,, P,)lp is a parallel translate of a single p , E P}, then the Lie algebra generated by V is f,,. A later result [ 701 shows that V spans fpo.) Problem 19. Any discrete subgroup of the positive real numbers can be realized as the holonomy group of a connexion on the bundle of bases B(S1)of the circle, and no other subgroup can arise as a holonomy group.
S1, then the holonomy Problem 20. If is a connexion on (S2d+1, CPd), group at any point is S1.
Problem 21. omy group is either S3or S1. I n the above problems it will be found necessary to show that any two broken C" loops which are homotopic are homotopic via a homotopy which is broken C" at every stage, and that any homotopy class of loops has a broken C" member.
+ If + is a connexion on (S4d+3, QPd),then the holonS3,
CHAPTER 6
Afine Connexions
T h e additional structure available for a connexion on the bundle of bases is defined, including the torsion form, basic vector fields, the torsion and curvature transformations, and geodesics. T h e additional structural equation is proved and difference forms are considered, particularly in their relation to torsion and the configuration of geodesics. T h e exponential map, completeness, and normal coordinates are defined. The chapter concludes with a treatment of covariant differentiation and the classical definitions of the above [33, 49, 50, 66, 831.
6.1 Definitions
Let M be a manifold, B ( M ) its bundle of bases. Then a connexion on B ( M ) is called an a@ne connexion. Since any connexion on a subbundle of B ( M ) can be extended to an affine connexion by the right action of the group GL(d, R), such a connexion is also called an affine connexion. From the notion of parallel translation in the bundle B ( M ) given by an a 6 n e connexion we obtain a notion of parallel translation in the tangent bundle, or parallel translation of tangents along curves. Since the tangent bundle T ( M ) is an associated bundle of B ( M ) , we can derive this property from 5.4, but it is simple enough to give an explicit definition in this case. If y is a curve in M and t E M,,, , m = y(O), then we obtain the parallel translate of t along y to n = y ( u ) as follows: choose any b E B ( M )with ~ ( b= m,and let 7 be the unique horizontal lifting of ) y to b. Then if y(s) = (y(s), e,(s), ..., ed(s)) and t = C,a,e,(O), we define the parallel translate of t to be Caiei(u). I t is easy to check,
a9
90
6. AFFINECONNEXIONP
using the invariance of the connexion under right action, that this transformation is independent of the choice of b over m.
6.1.1 The Solder Forms
B ( M ) always has defined on it certain horizontal lforms, which are independent of any connexion on the bundle. T h e solder lforms wi are defined as follows. Let t E B ( M ) , , where b = (m, , ..., ed). Then e,
dx t =
w i ( t )e,.
w,
Or these w ican be considered as a single Rdvalued lform by 4) ( w & ) , ..*,W d ( t ) ) . =
Lemma 1.
defined
T h e solder form satisfies the following properties: (i) w E C", (ii) w is horizontal, (iii) w is equivarient, that is, for every g E GZ(d, R),
R,*(w) = w o dR,
= gl
o w,
where on the righthand side g is viewed as acting to the left in Rd.
6.1. Definitions
Proof.
91
(ii) is immediate. T o prove (iii), let
t E B ( M ) , ,b
=
(m, el , ..., e d ) , drr t
=
2 aiei.
Then dR,t
E
B(M),, , bg = (m, Cigilei , ..., &gidei). Now
dn
=
i?i,k
2
(g;luj)(gkiek),
so
wi(dRst)=
Z<&zj.
Hence, w(dR,t) = glw(t), as asserted. T h e proof of (i) is direct. Let yi , y j k be product coordinates on a coordinate neighborhood of B ( M ) (3.2), and we have to show that w(Dzl,,) and w(Dy,) are C". By (ii), W ( D ~ , ~ ) so we need only = 0, consider w(Dy,). But
d7r D J b )
=
z y > ' ( b ) ej
j
(problem 3.4)
where b
=
(m, e l , ..., ed). Hence,
w(D,J = (i, ...,yy:) y:
E
Cm.
QED
6.1.2 Fundamental and Basic Vector Fields
A vector field 8 on B ( M ) is called fundamental if E X(gI(d, R ) ) , that is, if there is an X E gI(d, R ) such that 8 = AX, (3.1). I n particular, the fundamental vector field corresponding to X i j E gl(d, R), where X i j is the matrix with 1 in the (i, j)th entry and 0 elsewhere, is denoted by Eij. T h e following lemma summarizes the properties of a fundamental vector field.
Lemma 2. If X is a fundamental vector field on B ( M ) , then we have (i) X E Cm, (ii) X is vertical, (iii) if 8 = AX, then
dR,8
=
h(Adgl X )
[3.l(b)]
for g E Gl(d, R).
.. then we have basic vector fields Ei = E(Si) which give a basis of the horizontal tangent space at every point of B ( M ) . AFFINECONNEXIONS Let H be a connexion on B ( M ) . 20. Further.. the 1form of the connexion. +jk . Then there is a unique horizontal tangent E(x)(b) at b such that w(E(x)(b)) = x. Notice that the vector fields Ei . In particular. T h e vector field on B ( M ) whose value at b is E(x)(b) is called a basic vector Jield and denoted BfMl p = fm. Let E(x) be a basic vector field on B ( M ) . Ej. For the +ik we saw this in theorem 5.Ei(b). that is. they are dual to the 1forms wi . E j k and w i do not depend on the connexion but are intrinsic on the bundle of bases. adi) E Rd.asinlemmal.. Ejk give a parallelization of B ( M ) . Parts (i) and (iii) follow from lemma 1 and the (defining) fact that w(E(x)) = X. R). since d n is an isomorphism on Hh. Ei and +jk on the other hand do depend on the connexion... if St = (ali. (iii) dR.e. and in fact the connexion H may be given by specifying either the {Ei} the {&}.(b) are a basis of B(M). k)th entry of +(t). . Then we have (i) E(x) E C". or . not being right invariant by (iii) of this lemma. These E ( x ) are not the horizontal lifts of any vector fields on the base space M .E(x) = E(glx). (ii) E ( x ) is horizontal (by definition). by E(x). Lemma 3..1.92 6. where +jk is the 1form defined by &(t) = (i. for every b E B ( M ) . and let X E Rd.. forgE Gl(d.. edl FIG. wheregisviewedasactingonRd totheleft. b E B ( M ) .
by defining This corresponds to the fact that T ( M ) .1. if Ei are d linearly independent nonvanishing vector fields on B ( M ) satisfying u(E.J = ai then the distribution H defined by setting Hb = span of the {Ei(b)) is clearly a connexion on B ( M )with basic vector fields Ei. R) on Rd. For example. ed). Definitions 93 Moreover. then E(x)(b) = ( d n I H s ) . e l . . b might be proved as follows. . w(t) = and this formula may be used to define Further. and the advantage of using these formulas as definitions is that they tend to put these concepts and subsequent manipulations of them on a more intrinsic and subscriptfree footing. T h e proofs of these statements are immediate.t) = (bg)'(dr t ) = gl(bl(dn t ) ) = g'w(t).1.3 Alternate Definition of the Solder Form Sometimes it is convenient to regard each bER(M)as an isomorphism of Rd onto M.. if x E Rd.. 6.l ( W .6. .n +R b1 g1 Rd. Let b E B ( M ) .the tangent bundle to M . t E B ( M ) . property (iii) of lemma 1 LRd'M.. . I. w.3).. where b = ( m .4 Torsion T h e torsion form Q of an affine connexion H on B ( M ) is the Rdvalued 2form S2 = Dw = dw o H. and hence. 6. T h e mapping bg : Rd has an inverse (bp)' = glbl : M. Lemma 4. so that we have b(gx) = bg(x) for g E G (see 3. then b'(dn t ) . w(dR. is an associated bundle to B ( M ) under the left action of Gl(d.
Let x. = h@(E(x). E(Y)).+ ( [ E ( x ) . the curvature and torsion give the vertical and horizontal components of the bracket of two basic vector fields. (left . T o apply 4 and w to the lefthand side we use the intrinsic formulas for the exterior derivatives d$. E(y w(E(Q(E(x). E ( y ) ) ) w(right side) = = Qn(E(x). [W. E(Y)). E ( y ) ) ) @(W.dw (see 4.2. and this will be sufficient since these forms are parallelizing.2 o dR. Proof. W ) ) d+(HE(x).W ) ) .94 6. horizontal. T h e righthand side is easy to calculate since AX is vertical and E ( x ) is horizontal: +(right side) = = +(A@(E(x).W ) . We now relate torsion and curvature forms to the basic vector fields of the connexion.E(J91) 4 @(W. We show that w and 4 applied to each side yield the same function. W ) W E(Y)l  that is. +(left side) = = = = = = +([E(x).) It is easy to verify that Sz is C". E(y)]) E ( x )+(E(y)). AFFINECONNEXIONS (Compare the curvature form. are dual to a set of parallelizing vector fields.HE(?)) W E W E(Y)) ) ( J W . Similarly. y E Rd. = g' o 1.E ( y ) ) = Q ( W .W ~ + ( E ( x E. side) = dw(E(x). and equivariant.6). 1. ) ) . that is. Then we have W x ) . that is. Lemma 5.
[Ei E j ] = 0.I DXd(4). which implies that curva.*. . xd) at m. w(E(y))= y = constant. by the above lemma. so that their derivatives in the directions E ( y ) and E(x)are 0..&l(n). we have by theorem 1.1. and hence everywhere by equivariance. then by theorem 5. with domain U . Let 4 be a connexion form on B ( M ) .. if these forms vanish. Hence. which may be considered in the context of the tensor calculus on M . Conversely. and E l . Let m E M . Pulling them down to M . T h e property of having torsion zero is invariant under combinations of connexions. xd on M such that Dxi = d r E i IN This coordinate system will then have the required property. . Definitions 95 We have used the facts that d ( E ( y ) )= d(E(x))= 0 = constant and w ( E ( x ) ) = x = constant. There exists a coordinate system (xl. but we prefer to approach these concepts directly in terms of linear transformations on tangent spaces. ture and torsion are zero. Proof. . defined by x ( 4 = (n....5 there is a horizontal manifold N . if the image is horizontal we shall have on the image. Then the curvature and torsion forms of 4 vanish on B ( M ) if and only if the following condition on M is satisfied. . 6. Q E D Theorem 1. ..1. Problem 1. Using the existence proof in Chapter 5 show that every paracompact manifold has affine connexions with torsion zero...6.5 Curvature and Torsion Transformations T h e curvature and torsion forms give rise to tensors on M . Ed are vector fields with trivial brackets.5 that there is a coordinate system xl.t B ( M ) . Notice first that f v X DXi(4)= Ei(X(4).. is horizontal. such that the image of the cross section x : U .
. . S. Z are vector fields on M . is parallel along y . dT(S) = s.. S. .1. f) ei... we define R. Also. And the only reparametrization of a geodesic which will again give a geodesic is a linear change in the parameter. the choices of b.ed is @(S.. t E M . S. Y(nL)z(4.(u) = b@(S. whose matrix with respect to the basis e l ... T o each m E M and pair s. f).6 Geodesics y in Let y be C" curve in M . we make correspond a linear transformation R. ed). and i. Then define T S t= bQ(S..4) this says that X defines a horizontal curve in T ( M ) . may be rephrased in terms of matrices as follows. If X . . f be as before.3. . be as in the above definition of the curvature transformation. For example. A C" curve y in M is called a geodesic if its tangent vector field.. f E B ( M ) .. is well defined is similar to the proof for R. Then R.the tangent bundle of M . is the linear transformation of M. Let b = (m.1... for any u. E M . Notice that a geodesic is a parametrized curve and not just a point set. y* . In terms of the connexion on the associated bundle T ( M ) (see 5. called the curvature transformation.. for vector fields X and Y we have a vector field T x y . + M . t) bl(u) for any u E MwL. X ( u ) is the parallel translate of X ( v ) along y from y ( u ) to y ( v ) . Then using the notation of 6. : M.. A vector field X along y is said to be a parallel vector field along y if.. Rs.96 6. AFFINECONNEXIONS T o every m E M and pair s. . t E M . v . . A vectorfield along y is a cross section of T ( M ) . we make correspond a tangent T.f. Let b E B ( M ) . e. then we denote by RxyZ the vector field satisfying R X Y Z ( 4 = Rxcn. Using the horizontality and equivariance of rP it is easy to verify that the above definition is independent of the various choices made. Let b E B ( M )be such that ~ ( b = m. t). namely. S E B(M)bsuch that ) d T ( f ) = t . as follows. y* defines a vector field along y .el = ZirPij(f. 6. For example. as follows... called the torsion translation. T h e proof that T. T h e definition of R. Y ..
I n this section we relate R.. T h e second order tangent (see problem 1. T h e pieces of the curve are then in turn. ’ T h e first order tangents of u and A are 0.. y For every m E M . u is not necessarily the constant curve. to parallel translation around an infinitesimal parallelogram with sides s and t.20) of u is 2T. 97 If y is a C“ curve in M . Proof.. then y is a geodesic if and only if there exists ) c E Rd such that 7 is an integral curve of E ( c ) if and only if ~ ( 7 . Theorem 3. T h e end point of this broken curve we call u(u). except that we use geodesics instead of integral curves of vector fields. If we lift the broken geodesic horizontally to B ( M ) starting at b then we get integral curves of a pair of basic vector fields X and Y . and T. where A is viewed as a curve in the vector space gI(A4. generating vector fields S and T along the curve. t E M m there exists a unique geodesic such that y ( 0 ) = m and y*(O) = t. Since the “parallelograms” are not generally closed. when we express the fiare constant. that is. We generate a family of “parallelograms” in a manner similar to the construction in theorem 1. . Applying the theorem that vector fields have unique integral curves we obtain: Corollary. and the second order parts are given by torsion and curvature.). Definitions Theorem 2.6.1.1. I n other words. and A”(0) = 2R. and .. Let A(u) be the linear transformation of M ..4. respectively. 6.we carry s and t along by parallel translation. As we go around the broken geodesic starting at m. 7 its horizontal lift through b E ~ l ( y ( 0 )in B ( M ) .7 Geometric interpretation of R. T .. and T. .T and each is followed parameter distance u. given by parallel translation along the broken curve and then backward along u. T he proof of this is trivial. ) is constant. so (J is a C“ curve starting at m. the geodesic with tangent vector field S . the first order parts of the displacement given by traversing a parallelogram and parallel translation around such a parallelogram both vanish. 23.
. Development of curves in M into M. e l . AFFINECONNEXIONS in the way that we did in theorem 1. where f = up1 y* is a curve in Rd.98 6. ed) a basis at m. / ' Y \ ' FIG..Then we may t write y* = uf.\ . the vertical component of 2 [ X ... by lemma 5 the horizontal component will be a lift of 2 T s t . so A has second derivative equal to the corresponding transformation on Mm . with the first order tangent 0.4. Y ] ( b ) . . which we call the development of y into M. which is 2R.. by lemma 5 . 21. by a process known as development.which proves the first assertion. Thus. Then g ( t ) = j. This is done by making the tangent vectors in each case have the same relation to the parallel translates of a particular basis.. Similarly. So by that theorem the curve y generated by the end of these lifts. and bg is a curve in M . will have second order tangent 2 [ X . Let y be a broken C" curve starting at m.. b = (m.. Y ] ( b )measures the second order deviation of y from parallel translation. We compare curves in M and in flat afine space M. f defines a curve in Rd which we call the development of y into Rd with respect to b. w'= Y* Rd +r . which is above u. Let u be the horizontal lift of y to b in B ( M ) . bg is independent of the choice of basis b at m. .
the solder form. I] x R into M such that A(. t. T parametrized on [0.. + Problem 2. z)). and the torsion form. for every broken C" curve T in Mm starting at 0. T h e Structural Equations of an Affine Connexion 99 T h e process can be reversed. + the area enclosed by T relative to s. To show this we get the horizontal lift cr of y first. S'(0) = 0 and S"(0) = 2AR. n') = &(t) E(f(t))(n'). what we know is that a.Let +. Let E be a linear map from R d into a linear space of C" vector fields on a manifold N . there is a corresponding curve y in M starting at m such that T is the development of y . Lets. 11.. by X ( t . SZ be the 1form of the connexion.2. Note that geodesics are developed into straight lines. @.. n) is the graph of u.... Let y ( v ) = h(1. W .2 The Structural Equations of an Affine Connexion Let H be an affine connexion on B ( M ) . Then for every broken C" curve f in Rd and n E N there is a unique broken C" curve u in N such that Proof. Prove the following generalization of theorem 3: y*(O) = 0 and the second order tangent is 2AT. v ) develops into ZIT. and let S(v) be the linear transformation of M.z)) and a piece of yl.6.. Let h be the map of [0. the curvature form.(t) = E(bb'(t))(u(t))so the existence then follows from: Lemma 6. respectively. given by parallel translation around the closed curve consisting of h ( . For every z) E R let 07 be the curve in ) Mnl defined by (ZIT)(. Then the integral curve of X starting at (0. Let T(U) = p ( u ) s q(u) t.. 6. t E Mm and let T be a broken C" closed curve in the plane of s. Define vector field X on U x N . . so u exists.) = v ( T ( u ) ) . U a neighborhood of 0 in R. t such that ~ ( 0 = 0.
...3). . T h e second structural equation is simply the structural equation for a connexion on a principal bundle (see theorem 5.. We proceed by evaluating each side on vector fields Yl . since Dd is horizontal. + Proof.. .we have (l)pAX8(Y1 4 = matrix ..) = (i)p+lxe(yl.3 with the representation operation on Rd. Y . Dd( Y .. . But then the 46 term is 0...6.. = On the other hand.AX) so the righthand side gives Y+l 0.+l which are drawn from a collection of vector fields which locally span the tangent space to B ( M ) . AFFINECONNEXIONS We have dw = . 48( Yl .9 for definitions of the forms &J. Then d8 = 48 D8.+l) = (. Now applying the lemma 5. . Y. . Y . (See 4. R ) . . Let 6 be an Rdvalued equivariant horizontal pform on B ( M ) . (i) No Yiis vertical.4 w 4 = .. . . T o prove the first structural equation we prove the following more general result. We consider the same cases as before.. X E aI(d.. . ... .). Y. .) Proof. .. (l)’+(AX) 8(Y1 . ..I)”(AX)O( Y . AX) = = 2 (i=l l)i14( Yl.. (ii) One Yi is vertical. Y..41 + @ These are called the first and second structural equations of the connexion. + Q. 1. Y..). Y. 6 ..) = (i)p+l xqy.100 Theorem 4.)... 43... . Y. do( Yl .. Then by theorem 4. [+. Y... . Assume Up+..... = AX. Yp+l) Yi)8( Yi.p. . Yil. T h e proof is almost identical to that of theorem 5. .. i = 1. As before we choose right invariant horizontal Yi’s such that [YiAX] = 0.2.. Hence we may assume all Yiare horizontal.. Theorem 5. .4[4. and the remainder is merely the definition of Dd..
R) or Rd by bracketing or matrix multiplication. Theorem 7. and d(+ no) 0 H = d+O H 040 H DB =@me. Then Theorem 6.2 says. . Combining this with the Bianchi identity (theorem 5. R ) . Then [AX. (iii) Two of the Yiare vertical. as desired. where X is the action of the matrix X on the vector x. Thus we need only show that W([AX.2. R ) or Rd. and this gives the result. 020 = a e.4) gives the afine Bianchi indentities: D@ = 0. 6. DSZ = @u. Proof. x Proof. Applying D to both sides yields d20 o H = d(+ n 0) o H + D28. respectively. But d 2 = 0. We can prove that [AX.2.E ( x ) ] is horizontal by means of the second structural equation or notice that this is precisely what the lemma 5. T h e Structural Equations of an Affine Connexion 101 We have therefore reduced both sides to the same function. R) on either gI(d.6 or theorem 5 above. and the equality holds automatically. either by theorem 5. E ( x ) ] = E(Xx). QED Let 8 be an equivariant horizontal pform with values in either gr(d.6. 8 satisfies the structural equation d8 = 4 nB + DO.1 Dual Formulation of the Structural Equations The first structural equation has a dual in terms of the bracket of a fundamental and a basic vector field. Let X E gI(d.E ( x ) ] ) = xx. In this case everything is 0. x E Rd. Let denote the operation of gI(d.
A difference form T gives rise to a linear transformation T. then 4 + T is again the 1form of a connexion. (iii) T is equivariant. : Mm+Mm for each s E M.) E(x)) X )w ( E ( x ) ) QED =XX. R)valued 1form satisfying (i)(iii). =W (4.4. where f E B(M). if ~ ( b = m we define ) T. be two connexion 1forms on B (M).Ejk this theorem gives the formula = 8ikEj.102 6.E ( x ) ] )= +XXW(E(X)). T h e difference form T has the following properties: (i) T E C”.d ~ ( h XE.R)and action the adjoint representa . We remark that this formula also follows directly from theorem 3. Ei] Problem 3.2 Difference Forms Let 4. For the vector fields E i .. which is the bundle with fibre gI(d.: M m + M n t such that T is linear in s and “differentiable” in m and s [that is. s EM. namely. is such that dn S = s. AFFINECONNEXIONS But by the first structural equation w([AX.6.1 and hence can in turn be used to prove the first structural equation.4. Give an alternate proof of theorem 7 by applying the formula LA. [Ejk. ( x ) ) = &(AX. given a function T which assigns to each m E M . These facts are immediate. Conversely. = i(hX) d &(AX) to the solder form w and evaluating on the vector field E ( x ) . if 4is a connexion form and T is a gI(d.2.E ( x ) w(XX). Conversely.t = h(S) blt. Lemma 7. Then we define the $ diflerence form T by T = i+h . (ii) T is horizontal. (Compare with problem 5. as a function from T ( M ) to the bundle of linear transformations of the tangent spaces to M .) + 6. a linear transformation T.
s E B ( M ) .. T h e Structural Equations of an Affine Connexion 103 tion of Gl(d. T T h e last part of the theorem is now immediate. (6.. for b E B ( M ) . . as desired.. T o show that such a exists.sb for any iE B(M).6. R ) associated to B ( M ) ] . So (c$ I. s) 4 8 w. Also T. we simply define. T(S)(X) = 8 G(S. where T. E(w(t))(b)) t ) . if T' also has this property. . Further. . Theorem 8. for b E B ( M ) . since I. problem 1). We assume T exists and see what conditions it must satisfy.5). horizontal 1form. E(X)(b)). we have dw = J + + s2 = dw = #w. which shows there is a ) onetoone correspondence between difference forms and certain functions which we shall call linear transformation j?elds. equivariant. Notice that the linear transformation field T associated with T is T. = 4 I T is the 1form of a connexion whose torsion 2form is identically zero (cf. and hence T must satisfy = s.Q(t. + Proof. then TW = T'W (see 4. Let 4 be a connexion on B ( M ) .then we can define a gI(d. TU(s.1.I) the equation TW Q. x E Rd. t). Further. Writing down the first structural equations for 4 and $. is the torsion translation corresponding to s. s.(t) = 8 T.2.Then there is a difference form T such that I.9 for notation). . & Q(s. t E B ( M ) . has torsion zero. E(w(s))(b)) = Q(s.t = b ~ ( iblt holds. w I .. t E M . R)valued 1form satisfying (i)(iii) by T ( S ) = b'T. I t is not hard to verify that T is a C". t)= = = T(S) U(t) + T(t) W(s) 8 Q(s.
) = 0. and u* ) extends to a right invariant C“ vector field X on P. which by applying a becomes Y w ’ ( Y ) = 0. Let p be any C” curve in M .Y w ’ ( X ) = +‘(X)CO’(Y). 4’ = a*+. . If we do the same thing using a horizontal lift /3 of y instead of 7. Then the +parallel translate of t along p to p ( u ) is /3(u)b’t. Then the map a : P+B(M). Y ) = X w ’ ( Y ). since w ‘ ( X ) = w’(Y). X and Y both project = to D = djdu on U . Moreover.. Let P be the principal bundle induced by y over the domain U of y from B ( M ) . Now the first structural equation gives dw’(X. so we may pull back the solder and connexion forms. t E M. Lemma 8. so [ X . Let 4 be a connexion form on B ( M ) and /I the ) +horizontal lifting of p through b. Proof. we get a C“ vector field Y on P such that +’(Y) 0. P*w(/I. Thus P = ((24. or. By theorem 2. y is a geodesic if and only if w(/3*) is constant.. b E B ( M ) such that ~ ( b = p(0). Then y is a geodesic if and only if (7* + $(?*)I 47*) = 0. AFFINECONNEXIONS Before proceeding we give a convenient formulation of parallel translation. T h e proof is immediate in view of the action of any C E B ( M ) in mapping Rd isomorphically onto T h e following is a useful characterization of geodesics. Lemma 9. Y ] is vertical and w’(X) = w’(Y).104 6. SZ‘ = a*SZ = 0 since the horizontal space of P is onedimensional.t P given by ~ ( u = (u. w’ = a * w .Tb = y(u)}. b ) I u E u. 7 a not necessarily horizontal lift of y to B ( M ) . ? /(u ))is a C“ curve in P.. . u : U . Let y be a curve in M . or.b) = b is a C” map. a(u. Xw‘(X) + + ‘ ( X )w ’ ( X ) = Yw’( Y ) .
there is a geodesic y such that a lift 7 of y satisfies 7. B(M). Conversely. ~ = +(7*)(?*I = #(f*) (7*). sE If the two connexions have the same geodesics. and this becomes. Let and! . then given = s. I be two connexion forms on B ( M ) . but has interesting consequences for the theory of connexions. T h e following theorem is not relevant to Riemannian geometry. .2.W’(U*) d du + +yo*) w ’ ( u * ) = 0. T(S) W(S) + 0. along points of cr. .s E . T o go the other way we only need reverse the implication XW’(X) d =* ‘(a*) du + +’(X) = 0 W’(X) + +’(u*) w ’ ( o * ) = 0. then if Y*W(Y*) 7 is a lift of a +geodesic y .(0) Y*(O) 47*) = +w 4) W(S) = #(s) as desired. we have Inserting the meaning of w ‘ . if T ( S ) w(s) = 0 for all s. Theorem 9. ~ ( 7 * )( 7 * ) 0. T their J difference form. Then these two connexions have the same geodesics in M if and only if for every b E B ( M ) . = since so y is a #geodesic. T h e Structural Equations of an Affine Connexion 105 Thus the condition for y to be a geodesic is that the left side of this equation is 0.6.) Then by lemma 9 Proof. this is possible by the right invariance of X . (If s is vertical y = constant. +‘ This is the conclusion desired in one direction.
T(S) W ( t ) . the condition for equality of geodesics becomes ~ ( t+ ~ ( tw(s) = 0. Corollary. t ) .T ( t ) W(S) By polarization. T h e torsion zero connexion is the one with the same geodesics as the direct connexion but with torsion zero. Let C$ be a connexion and 0 an equivariant horizontal Rdvalued 2form on B ( M ) . that is. T h e proof of uniqueness will give a formula for T = C$ . are parallel along every curve. Show that if two connexions have the same geodesics then so does any combination of them in the sense of problem 5. hence existence will follow from the trivial verification that T is horizontal and equivariant. Adding the last two equations gives a ) ) formula for T .I06 6.2. for a fixed x E Rd. since w ( t ) is arbitrary: T(S) T(S) w(t) = i q ( ~t ) . if the geodesics and torsion forms of two connexions coincide.. Connexions on parallelizable manifolds. T h e direct connexion is the one for which the vector fields p'(x).4 ) w a. T h e opposite connexion is the one with connexion . = 7(S. Then there is a unique connexion $ having 0 as its torsion form and the same geodesics as 4. = Subtracting these gives Tw = (4 . QED Problem 4. Proof. We define three connexions associated with p as follows. Let p be an Rdvalued Iform on M which gives a parallelization of M . AFFINE CONNEXIONS T h e following is a generalization of theorem 8 and a comparison of the proofs shows that the two connexions occurring there have the same geodesics.e = 7. In particular. . for s. t E B(M). Problem 5 . so do the connexions.$. So let us suppose that C$ and $ have the same geodesics and that the first structural equations are dw = r+ dw = #w +a + 0.
(c) T h e geodesics of all three connexions are the same and consist of the integral curves of the vector fields p'(x). RxvZ T x y = [X. T h e Structural Equations of an Affine Connexion 107 form 4 + 27. Hence express P in terms of the structural constants c z . where P is the torsion form pulled down. where 4 is the connexion form of the direct connexion and 4 + 7 is the form of the torsion zero connexion. YJ. as in problem 5(a). RXY Tx = 0 .4.Y l J I 0.6. (d) If p is constant on vector fields X . New Jersey. . (b) Two parallelizations are related by a C" function from the manifold into Gl(d. Y ] then it is well known that a local Lie group structure can be given M such that the constant fields are the left invariant vector fields." PrenticeHall. "Lectures on Differential Geometry. A Lie group has a parallelization by means of left invariant vector fields and also by right invariant vector fields. Prove the following facts about these connexions: (a) T h e parallelization p leads naturally to a cross section of M in B ( M ) . 2. R ) and the two corresponding direct connexions are the same if and only if the function is a constant ( M connected). Y . so the two torsion free connexions coincide. Rxy . W e call the corresponding direct connexions the left connexion and the right connexion. then the torsion and curvature of these connexions are given by the table: direct connexion torsion zero connexion opposite connexion T x r = [X. UJ. Englewood Cliffs.20. the problem of local equivalence of direct connexions has been studied in the larger context of Gstructures. 1964. Connexions on Lie groups. Inc. More generally.. A lucid account of this matter may be found in a book by Shlomo Sternberg. = = = 0 i"x.2. The first structural equation of the left connexion pulls down. Y1.23). Show that they are opposite connexions of each other. to the equation of MaurerCartan (problems 4. Problem 6. = 0 if and only if p is constant on rX. I i p is constant on all such [ X . (e) For the opposite connexion R x . This cross section is horizontal with respect to the direct connexion and by means of it the structural equations pull down to one equation on M : dp = P.
For those t E M . AFFINECONNEXIONS T h e three connexions coincide if and only if the group is Abelian. T h e domain of exp. ) where 7 is the unique horizontal lift of y through b..(ut) = y(u). it is given as follows. u a real number. which is starshaped with respect to 0 E M . where bx = y*(O) = t (theorem 2). Let y be the unique geodesic in M such that y(0) = m and y*(O) = t.(t) is defined. Note that exp. Since y is a geodesic.108 6 . 6. .Prn(t) = ~(1).. Besides this exponential map we also shall consider a certain lifting to B ( M ) . we define W . with ~ ( b = m. so the various products of Euclidean space and tori have flat affine connexions with torsion zero. 22. into M . ( t ) = y(l). in the sense that if t is in the domain then so is the line segment from 0 to t. For 6 E B ( M ) . : U + M .3 The Exponential Maps T h e exponential map at m of 0 E M . FIG. if y ( u ) exists.. 7 is an integral curve of E ( x ) . is an open set in M . Then define e. for which exp. E M is a mapping of a neighborhood U exp.
t ) into { u } x B ( M ) x A ( M ) is C". = rr o Fbc". Theorem 10. Consider the afine bundle A ( M ) over M . . differentiable structure. t ) + ( b ) This is a manifold under the obvious definition of the ~ .. then d exp. Exp(m. and M are the same. t E h f n ( b ) . Proof.  expb E C". We proceed in a slightly more general fashion.6.. there is a C" mapping G of a neighborhood of {0} x B ( M ) x A ( M ) into B ( M ) given by G(u... defined by exp. u l . b E B ( M ) . t ) = is defined on a neighborhood of the trivial cross section of T ( M ) and is C" there. the bundle with bundle space consisting of pairs (b.. and projection map (b. t ) = E(c't) (b). Then e G b t = G ( l . By the theorems on differential equations in the appendix.D. t. if el . . is a diffeomorphism onto a neighborhood of m. c . Then on this neighborhood the mapping J : (mt )  (1. t ) ..T(B(M)) by F(b.x(m).in fact.. t ) .. c.b. The Exponential Maps 109 We will show that e x p b E c".(O) = ei . t ) = y(u). We define a mapping F : B(M) x A(M). For m E M choose a C" cross section x of a neighborhood of m into B ( M ) .3. maps onto Mn. For each (c. . b. E I t will immediately follow that exp. where y is the integral curve of E(clt) with y(0) = b. since d exp. Corollary.and hence also exp. F is clearly a C" mapping. and we have Exp =n J G c J.. t ) E A ( M ) we have a vector field E(clt) on B ( M ) . and the dimensions of M. ed is a basis for M .. QED T h e map Exp: T ( M ) f M . Proof. that is. b . x(m). QED . u d the dual base.
theorem 9. if each exponential map is defined on the whole tangent space. the domain of a normal coordinate map 4. AFFINECONNEXIONS Problem 7. Show that the exponential map at the identity of a Lie group. so these connexions are all complete. where a ray is a straight line of the form u +ux. Combining this with exp. in view of problem 2.3). is called a normal coordinate map at m = &l(O) if the preimages of rays through O E Rd are geodesics. then exp.2 Normal Coordinates A coordinate map : U+ Rd. We remark that if the curvature and torsion of our connexion both vanish.3. Hence. o b is the inverse of a normal coordinate system at m.3. that is. U C M . (b) Every bundle over Rd is trivial. the exponential map of a complete affine connexion need not be onto even though the manifold be connected.2. may be factored through P. # J Problem 8. A normal coordinate neighborhood N . x E Rd.has the property that every n E N can be joined to #J'(O) by a unique geodesic in N . the coordinate system is normal with respect to each of its points. 6. that is. If we choose a basis b e B ( M ) with n(b) = m.. . M having an affine connexion.1 Completeness An afine connexion is called complete if all geodesics can be infinitely extended. This is the affine version of the local isometry of a flat Riemannian manifold with Euclidean space (see corollary.110 6.We shall see in Chapter 8 that completeness of a Riemannian connexion is equivalent to the completeness of the Riemannian metric. for any of the connexions of problem 6. 6. m E M . is the same as the exponential map of the Lie group when we identify the Lie algebra with the tangent space at the identity. then we have an identification of lid with M. and applying the theorem we see that the function exp. This is equivalent to saying that the local group of transformations of B ( M ) generated by any basic vector field E ( x ) can be extended to a global oneparameter group of transformation of B ( M ) . (a) If P is a principal bundle over manifold M . then by theorem 1 there are coordinate systems whose inverses send any lines in U C Rd into geodesics.
X will denote the cross section over U given by V. T h e notation D. If G = 5’3. If Y is a vector field on U .4 Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms 6.1 Covariant Derivatives We can use parallel translation in T ( M )to give a notion of directional derivatives of vector fields. ek(u) be a basis of the fibre of F over y(u) such that each ei is a horizontal lift of y .(u).. let e. Finally take t E M.5). 3 ) .x = V(dX t ) = dX t y  H’(dX t ) . X will be an element of the fibre of W over m. X is differentiation with respect to parallel translation. so that each representation of GZ(d. . (i) V . G. Let be a curve with y*(O) = t . X .namely dX t . M ) be a vector bundle. (ii) V . ) g E G we have b ( g f ) = ( b g ) f ( 3 . and the horizontal lifting oft. F . show that the geodesics of S3are great circles.X(n) = V Y ( n X .. Let U C M be a neighborhood of m E M and let X : U + W be a cross section of U. V .6.. Thus it is a comparsion between the lifting of t given by X. Then each b E B ( M ) gives an isomorphism of F onto the fibre of W over ~ ( bsuch that forf E F . ei(u) . as a subgroup of the multiplicative quaternions. We shall give several definitions of V . More generally. We give several definitions of this notion. and group G = Gl(d. ignoring the problems of equivalence and independence of the choice of curve. We fix an afine connexion H with form 4. Let ( W. 6. the covariant derivative of X with respect to t. H’(dX t ) .X is also commonly used. Using this identification we define v.4. this can be done in any vector bundle associated with B ( M ) .where H’ is the connexion on W arising from the affine connexion on B ( M ) (5. Since the fibres of W are vector spaces we may identify the vertical tangents with elements of the fibre. R ) on a vector space F gives rise to the concept of covariant differentiation of cross sections of the bundle with fibre F. then V. X gives a measure of how much X fails to be horizontal in the direction t. with fibre F . Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms 111 Problem 9. R).4). the covariant derivative of X in the ) direction Y(n). in the usual way in which a vector space is identified with its tangent space at any point (2. associated with B ( M ) . In the first place..4. that is.
H Y .(u). (i) If F = Rd.8 a lift of X. where 2 is any lift of X to B ( M ) . I n this case it is just as easy to define V.*X = 0. namely.Then [Y . For each b E B ( M )n nl( U ) we define 2 ( h ) = b'X(. so that P(b) is the unique horizontal tangent such that d n y(b) = Y(rr(b)).4). XI) +(Y  H Y ) w ( X ) + +(X) ( Y . Then we have V.X = the cross section associated with the function px. AFFINE CONNEXIONS is obtained by parallel translation of ei(0) along y to y(u) (5.X. Mm . We give some examples. so dw(Y  H Y . 2 is vertical.H Y ) w +(Y) w ( X ) . being rrrelated to [0. Define realvalued. Let X be a vector field on M .X corresponds to the derivative in a horizontal direction of a function on B ( M ) associated to X . Problem 10. the 2 of (iii) above is just w ( x ) .w ( [ Y . Note that in this case. C" functions fi by X ( y ( u ) ) = Cifi(u) e. n(b) + b X ( b ) .rrb). t a lift of t to Then V.X = ei(0). Z~. Using this and the structural equations allows us to get a convenient formulation for V. . t E b E B ( M ) . Show that the definitions of covariant derivative given are all the same. Let 7 be the unique horizontal lift of Y to W . If X is parallel along y then V. 3 is a function from B ( M ) n +(U) into F. any C" function .H Y )w(X) = = ~ H Y ) .(O) a (iii) V. XI. then X is just a vector field. Conversely. and conversely. Theorem 11.Then we have so that V.W = T ( M ) . Proof.X as VJ.X = b(h(2) + +(t)w ( x ( b ) ) ) .H Y )w ( X ).H Y . : B ( M )+F such that X(bg) = g'X(b) gives rise to a cross section $ x : M +W .X w ( Y = (Y . X ) = ( Y . Note that X ( b g ) = glblX(rr(b)) = gIX(b). Let Y be an extension of f to a right invariant vector field 1 on B ( M ) .112 6.
X by (iii). . By the third definition of covariant derivative. v E Rd. g E G. s). Comparing with the result of lemma 9 easily yields: Corollary. equivariant. + (tf) X ( m ) . If there are r copies of Rd and s copies of Rd*. y is a geodesic if and only if V . Example (ii) above is actually the case of tensors of type (1. we get an action on tensor products of copies of Rd and Rd*. (ii) If F = gr(d. then the tensor fields are said to be of type (r. T h e action of G on Rd* can be extended uniquely to a group of homomorphisms of the Grassmann algebra over Rd*. = 0. J . (v) If X is a cross section into W andf a realvalued function on M . 2). This action leads to covariant differentiation of differential forms. 1). Ramvalued 1forms on B ( M ) . T h e cross sections of the corresponding associated vector bundles are tensor fields. (iv) By combining the actions of G on Rd and Rd*. Applying b to H i w ( x ) gives V . 3). into itself. and cross sections are 1forms. Its covariant derivative is related to that of X as follows. I f f € Rd*. then V t ( f .4. then fX is again a crosssection over M . Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms Evaluating at b we get H L ( X ) = L(X) 113 + +(t)w(X(6)). For example.5). then W is the bundle which has fibre above m equal to the set of all linear transformations of M .rrb) X ( n b ) ) = f(7Tb) blX(nb) =f(n6) X(b). the torsion translation is a tensor field of type (1. we have that fi(6) = bl(f(. which proves the formula. T h e cross sections correspond to horizontal. R) and the action of G on F is simply the adjoint representation. while the curvature transformation is a tensor of type (1. Let t E M . (iii) G acts on Rd* as follows (4.v =f ( m ) V J Proof. . then (&Y)(V) = f(g'v)* T h e corresponding bundle W is just the Grassmann bundle G1.6.
and applying b to both sides yields V. For parallelizable M show that cross sections of a tensor bundle are in onetoone correspondence with functions of M into the fibre F and that covariant differentiation for the direct connexion corresponds to differentiation of these vectorvalued functions..rrb) iX. pl. and let Xl . VJ Problem 11..Y = [X. Prove the following formula for the exterior derivative of 6' in U : (Hint: Show that the operator on the right is an antiderivation and that it agrees with d on functions and 1forms. ] Y V. Problem 13.. Show that Generalize this. x be a parallelkation of a d neighborhood U of M .) Problem 14.. . .114 That is Hence 6 . Let 6' be a differential form on M . For parallelizable M and vector fields X.) Hence conclude that a differential form is closed if there exists a torsion zero affine connexion with respect to which covariant derivatives of the form are zero.. (A differential form 6' is closed if d6' = 0. Problem 12. p d the dual 1forms on U. Let M be a ddimensional manifold and let V be the covariant derivative of a torsion zero affine connexion over M .(fX) = (tf)X ( 4 +f(4. as in problem Y 5(d) derive the following formulas for covariant derivatives: direct connexion torsion zero connexion opposite connexion VXY = 0 VXY = i[X. 2 vector fields.. Let 6' be a 2form and X. the form is parallel along every curve. that is. AFFINECONNEXIONS fi it@) = (fon)X = = i ( f 0 n) X ( 6 ) + f 0 n ( b ) ix (tf)X ( 6 ) + f(. .Y . Y].
. A connexion is then given by hypothest izing the existence of such T(X)'S satisfy the following condition.. fixiand 2 1 Then the relation between the covariant derivative of Y in the direction of X and the connexion form q5 is (iii) V X ( r n )y = x(m) W X a m ) )x h . . which corresponding to (ii): ~(fx) f ( m ) T(X) ( t f )X(m) t = t (see [65]).  .an element V.2 Covariant Derivative Definition of a Connexion 115 Covariant differentiation in the tangent bundle is sufficient to determine the connexion. such that (i) V. Thus an affine connexion is specified as soon as we give for each m E M .. Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms 6.4. J a m ) . since by the first example above it gives a differential equation V.. defined on an open set U C M such that + x :m  (m.v E R and t.. X . then V. C" function on M . for u. This differential equation is linear and hence has a unique solution for any initial condition.. t E M T n .and vector field X.l Y ( m ) +L(XY)(m). s E M.(fX) (tf)X ( m ) + f ( m ) vtx. We now give a direct relation between covariant differentiation of vector fields and the connexion form on B ( M ) . where x ( m ) is now considered as a mapping of Rd to Mnl.. C. defined on each Mm with m E U . It will depend on a local cross section of M in B ( M ) ...6.4.*X = 0 for parallel translation along y . Let X.XE M.I X&)) = is a cross section U + B ( M ) . by the formula 7(X) = V . = Sometimes it is convenient to turn the covariant derivative around. Vut+vsX = 4VtX) + 4vm. be vector fields . For any vector fields Y X on U we define L(XY)= (XfJ xi. X. (ii) iff is a realvalued. for each C" vector field X defined on an open set U of M we consider linear transformation T(X). that is.Xis linear in t .
is covariant derivative for connexion K .116 6. T h e way in which these coefficients change when the coordinate system on M is changed can be found by using the chain rule for partial derivatives and the properties of the covariant derivative. Y ] . Other functions give the coefficients of the torsion translation.. We define these classical coefficient functions. These functions are called the coeficients of the connexion. . 6.YVyX fails to be [ X . and put X i = Dz.. enough to define 4 on all of B ( M ) x ( n land then by equivariance. f a C" functiononM. r + + 6.4.. and their covariant derivatives. . T h e formulas are: T h e first formula informs us that torsion tells how much V.4. Let x1 .3 The Structural Equations [66] T h e structural equations correspond to formulas for the torsion and curvature transformations in terms of covariant derivatives. Show that covariant derivatives of connexions combine in the same way as the connexions. which are indexed so as to make manipulations easier.f o T ) K is f V (1 . Problem 15. AFFINECONNEXIONS Since 4 is known on vertical tangents and the vertical tangents formula (iii) is along with those of the form dxt span B ( M ) x ( m ) . and the second that curvature tells how much V fails to be a Lie algebra homomorphism. Prove (i) and (ii).. Problem 16. that is. then the covariant derivative for (fo T ) H (1 . if V is covariant derivative for connexion H . on all of w l (U ) . ).4 Coordinates I n any given coordinate system the connexion in terms of covariant derivatives can be expressed in terms of sufficiently many realvalued functions on M . the curvature transformation.f ) T . xd be the coordinate system on M .
Then R i w i i k = @irn(dx Xj . k=l As a consequence of the equations of the last section we have and T h e condition for zero torsion then becomes ri. R)valued forms.X. T h e notation used is that given by Nomizu [66]. except for a change in the sign of T and R.k = rjtk.. where and QinL are the components of these gI(d.4.. . Consider the coordinate cross section x of B ( M ) defined by x(n) = (n.6. . dx X k ) . Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms Then we have d 117 vx. and rijk= + k j ( d x Xi). we define the functions T : and Rimik directly in terms of i the connexion.(n)>. Finally.xi= 2 rijkxk. For this reason connexions with torsion zero are referred to as symmetric connexions.X1(n).
i. then Problem 20. Let G also act on B ( M )by gb = I&). SZ o dx.. Then the action is by bundle maps. 5..k k Rmnjk.5) to get the coordinate form of the Bianchi identity Rrnnij. Pull down the formula d@ = [4. and @ o dx.k Thus derive the equation given for Rimikin terms of the rijk using by the pulleddown structural equation d. .+$L 2 [ A *I + YJ. . Connexions and action of groups. riik(m) + r j i k ( m )= 0. 4 o dg = 4... dg el . 4 o dx. Problem 17.(g) = (gm. Prove that torsion is zero if and only if for every m there is a coordinate system at m such that Tijk(m)= 0. @] (corollary. .4. Choose b E B ( M ) .. An affine connexion on M is invariant under G if the connexion form 4 is invariant. Let G act on M to the left in such a way that if g E G and dg is the identity on some M .21. for every g E G.. dxd) yirn = 2 Rirnjk dXk. b = ( m . then g is the identity of G. AFFINECONNEXIONS A knowledge of the rijk each coordinate system of a family for whose coordinate neighborhoods cover M determines the connexion. dx. since 4 is determined on the cross sections [compare the remark following (iii) in 6... Prove that if xi are normal coordinates at m. Y be the pulled down forms w o dx.Z. Show that z b is an imbedding. Let x be the cross section as above and let p. Problem 21. P .i Rmnki. .118 6.. . . dg e d ) . 0. Problem 18. Obtain the following formulas for these forms in the coordinate neighborhood: p = (dx. +. ed) and define Ib : G + B ( M ) . el .j = Problem 19.
.. restricted to I b ( G ) ..t. M ” ) = {((m’. M“ be manifolds with affine connexions having connexion forms +’. eCtl . = + T“sp... a parallel vector field on M has this form.6. M with this affine connexion is called the afine product of affinely connected manifolds M’ and M“.5) induces an invariant affine connexion on M . T’s. + + (4 Ts..... etc. show that an invariant connexion on ( G . B(M’. Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms 119 If M is a homogeneous space of G. conversely. . + Problem 22.. MI’) may be identified with B(M’) x B(M”)..+s. and.t... = R’sf.t.t. then the imbedding takes into fundamental vector fields.. M“) and extend by equivariance to a +” FIG..+p.. Show that the product connexion has the following properties: (a) If y’ and y” are curves in M’ and M”. (b) T h e geodesics are products of geodesics on M‘ and M”. (4 R. . . I n this case. Let M’. Hence the affine product of complete connexions is complete.. . H ) (see problem 5. then X‘ X” is parallel along y’ x y”. w ” . connexion on B(M). as before.) E R(M’) m”).. e. if we write g = m 5. M”) is Gl(d’) x G l ( d ” ) and it is clear that B(M’. ed. Let M = M’ x M“ and define the bundle of adapted bases over M to be the submanifold of B ( M ) : +It.p. and (m”... f .4. Define a connexion +‘ @ on B(M‘.23. e . m into all basic vector fields..+t. solder forms w ’ . ed) E B(M”)}... T h e group of B(M’. e d ) I (m‘.t.tf R”. X‘ and X” are parallel vector fields along y‘ and y ” . M ... Product connexions.
R ) acts to the left on Rd: X I)y = Ay + x. then A ( d .R). Problem 24. T h e Lie algebra of A ( d . R ) by q(b) = (b. If i : i + M is a covering map. (See proof of theorem 10. Hence there is an associated bundle S ( M ) which has fibres homeomorphic to the tangent spaces of M .R ) + A ( d . R ) = + 1. Connexions on the afine bundle. AFFINECONNEXIONS Problem 23.Describe this connexion in terms of parallel translation. with @ and 1. qc(A)= (t :).) Show that this defines A ( M ) as a principal bundle over M . R ) may be considered to be . (The prolongation of i. and show that this gives a bundle ) map of B ( M ) into A ( M ) which induces the identity map on the base space M .2 as the curvature and torsion forms. R ) I A E Gf(d. 0 .x E Rd I. Let A x 1) E GZ(d A(d. Make this correspondence explicit. then i*$ is a connexion form on B ( N ) . Define maps 7] : B ( M )+ A ( M ) T~ : GZ(d. then there is an induced V natural covering map i : B(N)+ B ( M ) . for y E Rd.) If M has an afine connexion and if y4 is the connexion form.120 6. ( x is viewed as a column matrix. Let w be the solder form on B ( M ) and consider a connexion c j on B ( M ) .) If we view Rd as the hyperplane of Rd+l which has final coordinate I .
since gI(d.. Then R. R)valued form on ? ( B ( M ) )with the property that (8 :). and in general all the connexions on A ( M ) whose distributions are disjoint from T ( q ( B ( M ) )arise in this way. more general Cartan connexions may be defined. y .show that Rr. 2. show that 6 6 A connexion on A ( M ) arising in this way from a connexion on B ( M ) is a special case of a Cartan connexion (see [35.also denoted by+. and show that may be extended by right translation to a connexion form on A ( M ) .4. z = (b. R ) is reductive in a(d. t). Covariant Differentiation and Classical Forms y*$ = 121 Define an a(d. If 3 is the corresponding curvature form. y to (b. note that the parallel translation induced in the associated bundle S ( M ) gives rise to affine transformations of the tangent spaces to M which depend on both the curvature and torsion of the connexion 4 on B ( M ) . 491). R). = R. we Returning to the connexion 6. where we are identifying the fibre of S ( M ) at rn with Mm. x E Mm . t ) @@. By choosing (b. Infinitesimally. t ) E A ( M ) such that ~ ( b t. z + Tzyz . t)'z. ( b . Let x.48.) = m.. j q b . jj lifts of x. @valued equivariant forms in place of w . t ) E q ( B ( M ) ) . a curvature transformation R may be defined in a way analogous to the curvature transformation of an afine connexion as follows.6. By considering other horizontal.
T h e bundle of (orthonormal) frames is defined and the existence and uniqueness of the Riemannian connexion is established.. s ) ~ . that is.An isometry is a diffeomorphism. and this assignment is C" in the sense that for any coordinate system (xl . . % is called the Riemannian volume element of the oriented Riemannian manifold. N be Riemannian manifolds with metrics ( . If M is an oriented Riemannian manifold then there is a unique dform % which determines the orientation and such that % ( e l . D..1. for t . s E M .. O). .... Let M . dfs)N = ( t .. ) on M . 122 . )M and ( .CHAPTER 7 Ri ern a n n i an M an i fo Ids T h e definition of a Riemannian structure on a manifold is given and the corresponding topological metric is shown to induce the same topology. 831. then a more elegant version of the above definition is that a Riemannian manifold is one with a preferred C" cross section of this bundle Sy(M).. ed of M m . f is called a ZocaZ isometry if we relax the requirement that it be onetoone.1 Riemannian Metrics and Associated Topological Metrics A Riemannian manifold is a manifold M for which is given at each m E M a positive definite symmetric bilinear form ( . Such an assignment 2... ) N . Then a C" map f : M + N is an isometry if it is a homeomorphism and preserves the metrics. ed) = h l for every orthonormal basis e.)E C".3 is called a Riemannian metrzc on M . (dft.= ( D Z i. T h e chapter concludes with a large selection of examples [33. . 7... xd) the functions g. .50. . If we let S y ( M ) be the bundle of symmetric positive definite tensors of type (2.1 Definitions and First Properties 7.
b]. If y is a broken C" curve in M . t)1/2. and in fact for ai E C". A manifold with index 1 or d . the Euclidean inner product (D.(x) exists and is nonzero.y) be a coordinate system on a twodimensional manifold and define C" curve y on an interval with 0 as an interior point by the equations . then M is called a semiRiemannian manifold.1 1 E C" at each point at which not all the aivanish.. Definitions and First Properties 123 We defer examples in this chapter to the last section. We denote by 1 1 11' the Euclidean norm. If we require ( .. For nonconnected manifolds we also require that the index be constant for a semiRiemannian metric. . namely. 1 1 = (gii)lI2E C". Let y be a broken C" curve defined on [a. We also let ( 1 I ( be the Riemannian norm. (b) Show that Y o fl : [0. t E T ( M ) .1. ) to be only nondegenerate instead of positive definite. and that it is C" at every f ( x ) for which y.(x) # 0. T h e main result of this chapter.1 is called a Lorentz manifold. (a) Show that f is C" at every x such that y. then there is a natural inner product on the tangent spaces to 0. . T h e fourdimensional timespace universe of Einstein is a Lorentz manifold. Define nondecreasing continuous function f on [a. 1 1 t 1 1 = ( t . namely. 1 1 ZiaiDZ. Prove that for a connected semiRiemannian manifold the index of the metric is the same on every tangent space. b] is the interval of definition of y . 1 y I] + M is a continuous welldefined function even though f1 may not be a function. Problem 2. the existence and uniqueness of a Riemannian connexion.. b] by f(4= j1/ I Y* II. Problem 1. that is.7.)= aij. T h e index of a symmetric quadratic form on a real vector space is the dimension of a maximal subspace on which the form is negative definite. x d ) is a coordinate system on any manifold M with domain 0. holds in the semiRiemannian case.. so that we have 1 1 Dz. (c) Let (x. D. then its arc length is defined by I Y I = f l la * I I l Y where [a. If (xl.
. 24. a d . The function p is a metric on M . so the only thing remaining to be proved is that p(m. a d . Now let y be any broken C" curve from FIG.l x z < k.<f I s d . . Show that for this curve y o f' is not a broken C" curve so that y cannot be reparametrized with respect to arc length so as to remain broken C"..'*> a d 4 = aPl. y ( y ( t ) )= ' 0 1'' exp (. and hence we have for (a. m) E Sdl x 0...(m) ? 7 (1 x I/ Then f I S d .. Assume that m # n.. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS st 0 [exp (l/sz) sin 1/sI2ds. and therefore there exists a k > Osuchthat 1 . Lemma 1. . n) = 0 implies that m = n. xd) be a coordinate system at m with domain U . Then by the fact that the expressions in (1) are homogeneous in the q ' s ..124 x(y(t)) = 7. m) E Rd x 0..Define a function f : Rd x U + R by f ( a ... Let 0 be a ball with respect to the xi such that 0 C U and n $ 0 . Proof. . k Now I I Z aiDZi(m)I I' = 1 on Sdl x 0.l X L I is continuous and positive.. and let (xl .. We define a function p : M x M + R v {+ a} by where r = set of all broken C" curves from m to n. we have that (1) holds for ( a l . .l/s2) sin l / s ds. It is trivial that p is symmetric and satisfies the triangle inequality.
. m E 0. similarly. we wish to find a neighborhood P of m. Finally. C 0. u** tangent to the ray from the origin. p is a continuous function on M x M . ./(2c2 1). . Proof. . we have that there exists c > 0 such that < < for t E M . we have (I/c) 1 y I’ ( y I c 1 y 1’. let a be the radius of 0. . Hence. I n the proof of the lemma we have assumed the theorem about Euclidean space that says 1 u I’ 2 o( for every curve u which goes from the origin to a point on the sphere of radius a.inf 1 y’ 1’ 2 ... Show that I d(r o u)/dt I = 11 u*= (I.1 Theorem 1. This we do by cutting down again. 1 p(m. Prove this result. From Eq. so that p‘ defines the topology on 0. and take /I S. and a number c > 0 such that P C 0 and (l/c) p’ p cp‘ on P x P. Let 6. 0.. n) = inf I y I 2 inf I y’ I 2 . We then have 1.1. it is clear that in order to show < < < + . 0 be an open ball with respect to the xi with center at m.7.Split u*(t) into two components. xd be a coordinate system at m. with 0. It is sufficient to find for each m. and let y’ be the part of y from m to the first place where y intersects the boundary of 0. Hence. Let P be the open ball of radius /I with respect to the xi about m. Hence for any broken C” curve in 0. ( 1 ) above. Let x1 . k k which completes the proof of the lemma. Now from the above remark. Compare the similar theorem for geodesics in a Riemannian manifold in Section 8. . = p’radius of 0. [Hint: Let r be the function ( Z xi2)1/2. Definitions and First Properties 125 m to n. .a > 0. Let p’ be the Euclidean metric on 0 defined via the x i . and apply the fundamental theorem of calculus.1.. Problem 3 . and also that equality occurs only if u is a broken C” reparametrization of a straight line. T h e topology given by p is equivalent to the topology of M as a manifold. the other normal to that ray. . E M a neighborhood P whose topology is given by p. So we need only worry about curves which leave 0. one.
561. > 1 1 QED FIG. 7.25.. we need only prove that in the calculation of p on P x P we can restrict ourselves to curves in 0. )i. I y [ . and let p = the straight line from m to n with respect to the xi .. = part of y from m to the first intersection point of y with the boundary of 0. . If M is a paracompact manifold. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS on P x P. n) E P x P and y is a curve from m to n. )i the Euclidean inner product defined on Ui via the xji. then there exists a curve 7 such that 1 7 I Iy I and 7 is in 0. with B the bundle space and Rn the fibre.) 3 2 c 1 9 3 c I y j ' > .3(4)). R". Let { Ui} be a covering of M by coordinate systems. we shall show that a large class of manifolds admits Riemannian structures. That is. . There is a similar result for realanalytic manifolds arising from the solution of the analytic imbedding problem [31. A Riemannian metric on the . We then have < I Y I AYII.. We then define an inner product on M by ( . ..1. . xdi) be the coordinate system associated with U . and denote by ( . Theorem 2. if (m. ( 6 . Before discussing further properties of Riemannian manifolds.126 7. c I y i I f 3 . M ) be an ndimensional vector bundle over M (3. Now let y.2 Vector Bundles Let ( B . then M admits a Riemannian metric. ) = E fi( . Remark. and let { f i } be a C" locally finite partition of unity subordinate to this covering. . . Let (xli. Proof.
which represents a reduction of the group of B ( M )to the orthogonal group.. Now using a covering of M by open ( sets over which B is trivial and an associated partition of unity. Vl(n)... We have discussed the bundle of bases B ( M ) over M. xd) be a coordinate system at m with domain U.' : T ' U )+ GZ(d. ..2.. and let n' : F ( M ) +M be the obvious projection. ( : ~'l( U ) f O(d). T h e Bundle of Frames 127 vector bundle B is a C" assignment of a symmetric. Let Vl . . Then h. DXd(n).... (n).. (xl. V .. We shall put a local product structure on F ( M ) so that it becomes a manifold.R ) ... positive definite bilinear form to each fibre.. let U C M be an open set such that nl( U ) is diffeomorphic to Rn x U. el . xj) = aij . xn of U into nl(U). F ( M ) C B (M). . By C" we mean the following.ed) I m el E M ..(n) is defined by vi(n) = 2 (Au(fi))ijDzj(n)j=1 i Now we define the following maps. and a principal bundle over M . ed an orthonormal basis of Mm}. Then the function f : U + R given by f ( m ) = ( x l ( m ) . I n fact.. . 7. We therefore can define a Riemannian metric on r' U ) by setting (xi .. By a proof similar to the above it can be shown that an ndimensional vector bundle B over a paracompact base M admits a Riemannian metric..7.. Let m E M .. x1 and x z be C" cross sections of U in B..R). a submanifold of B ( M ) ... 4. : U + Gl(d. . We define a function A. . Let F ( M ) = {(m. Then by considering a basis of Rn it is easy to see that there exist n linearly independent C" cross sections x1 . 4. Let U C M . Vd(n)is the GramSchmidt orthonormalization of D. called the bundle of frames. be vector fields defined on U with the property that for all n E U . .2 The Bundle of Frames Let M be a Riemannian manifold.x z ( m ) ) is C".. the proof goes through in the same way.
V. In particular.Eii 1 i < j } .. Hence.Wf)I i < j } . M Since o(d) may be viewed as the set of all d x d skewsymmetric real matrices. If H' is a connexion on F ( M ) . . (n.. is the vertical tangent space to B ( M ) . f * > . H gives rise to a parallel translation of tangents to M along curves in M . R) of B ( M ) to O(d). = E a3. f = 2 ( Q / ( n . Pro z ( 4 U h el I *... show that the bundle structure defined on B ( M ) is the same as that introduced previously. Ao(d) = Z(d) admits as a basis ...4 that F ( M ) represents a reduction of the group GZ(d. where V. ~ E F ( M )the a$ . . . f d ) ) i f v M i (n... we see that we have defined principal bundle structures on B ( M ) and F ( M ) . 26. n F ( M ) .128 as follows: 7. then it can clearly be extended to a connexion H on B ( M ) by right action. namely. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS ei = i = 1. F ( M ) is a manifold and has structural group O(d).. vertical tangent space to F ( M ) . being clearly C". and the local product representations are compatible with the differential structure.. . where Xii is defined as in 6.Xii I i <j} as a basis. Further.. {F. it clearly admits {Xii .while the A .2. is spanned by the tangents Fdf)= Wf). Hence. . it is clear that this parallel translation preserves scalar products. and F ( M ) is a submanifold of B(M). e l .2. for it is defined via F ( M ) by sending one orthonormal base into another.1.fl .. d. .fd) E F ( M ) .. ed) E B ( M ) . Further. I n other words.' = V . we have immediately from 3.ed))ijvj(n) M = FIG.. where ceeding similarly for a covering of M by coordinate neighborhoods and defining right action exactly as in 3. at each .
We note that in view of the above remarks. Problem 4. fd) E F ( M ) and let y be a horizontal curve in B ( M ) passing through (m. Therefore Hb C F ( M ) ..If H' is a connexion onF(M).4 ' w + i*Q. we have that H is a Riemannian connexion if and only if it comes from a connexion on F ( M ) . .fd into orthonormal bases.. then H comes from a connexion H' on F ( M ) in the above manner. let b = ( m . . Then every point on y must belong to F ( M ) . We defined the solder form w on B ( M ) in the last chapter. since parallel translation along T 3 y takes fi . then the first structural equation (theorem 6.fd).. respectively. so we may define H' by H'b = Hb .3 Riemannian Connexions Let M be a Riemannian manifold. Remark. and conversely. a connexion on B ( M ) is a Riemannian connexion if and only if it is the extension of a connexion of F ( M ) whose torsion form is zero..3. dw = . Hence. also called a Riemannian connexion. A connexion on B ( M ) is called a Riemannian connexion if it satisfies the following properties: (i) parallel translation preserves inner products.. and if we denote the corresponding lforms by $ and $'. . H its extension to B ( M ) . if H is a connexion on B ( M ) such that parallel translation preserves scalar products..7. . . fl . then we again denote by w the horizontal 1form i*w defined on F ( M ) .. a semiRiemannian structure on M gives a reduction of B ( M ) to a subgroup of GZ(d. Prove that a reduction of the group of B ( M ) to O(d) gives a unique Riemannian metric such that the reduced bundle is F(M)* Problem 5. R ) which leaves invariant a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form. Indeed. Riemannian Connexions 129 Conversely. If i : F ( M ) 5 B ( M ) is the inclusion map. (ii) the torsion form is zero. by assumption. whose 1form 4' satisfies the relation dw = +'w. Extend the results of this section to apply to a Riemannian metric on an arbitrary vector bundle.fl .4) pulls back to F ( M ) . 7. In a similar way... namely.
z ) = (. while the first term changes sign. there is a unique T ( X ) E gr(d. ( z )is given as above ) in terms of K . z. Fixing we get a onetoone correspondence between connexion forms $I on F(M) and the difference forms T = $I .y . T h e 2form may be taken to be the torsion form of the connexion. We first show that for a horizontal 2form l2 there is a unique horizontal 1form T such that SZ = T W . . R). because if we alter y and x by vertical vectors. then the right) ) hand side will not change either. y .)>.(+) w(x). . y ) .y . RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS Lemma 2. Let K(x. horizontal. T h e lemma shows that T is determined + .130 7.x) . When T is not horizontal then using TW in place of SZ in defining K . we must have T ( X ) E o(d). y). Let 4 be a connexion form on F ( M ) .y . first two variables. ~ ( x ) ) so that K is 3linear.4. Lemma 2 may be proved by showing the map T + TW is onetoone and then applying a dimensionality argument. in such a way that the 2form associated with T is T W . There is a onetoone correspondence between horizontal o(d)valued 1forms T on F ( M ) and horizontal Rdvalued 2forms. Proof. Since w is onto Rd. which is an arbitrary o(d)valued horizontal equivariant 1form. QED Remark. so two connexions are equal if and only if they have the same torsion. so TW determines T. such that for every y . 2 <+) 4 Y ) . This is true because the second plus the third term of the righthand side above is invariant under interchange of x and y . and skewsymmetric in the . Proof.q x . 42)) = K(x. x E F ( M ) . z E F ( M ) .+.(X) 4 Y ) . When T is not horizontal it is still determined by T W . z ) = (Q(x. T is obviously horizontal. This does not overdetermine T ( x ) . T h e lemma also holds if the forms T are taking values in a subalgebra consisting of all linear transformations which are skewsymmetric with respect to some nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form in Rd. There is a onetoone correspondence between connexions on F ( M ) and horizontal equivariant 2forms on F ( M ) . it is an automatic verification that 2(T(X) ~ ( y )~. Theorem 3. so that ~ ( yand ~ ( x do not change. Since interchanging y and z on the righthand side changes its sign. z ) + K(z. T o show that TW = SZ. 44). it suffices to show that K(x.
thus there exists a unique Riemannian connexion on B(M). Proposition.] Problem 7. T h e connexions on F ( M ) having the same geodesics as a given connexion are in onetoone correspondence with horizontal equivariant 3forms on F ( M ) . This establishes a onetoone correspondence between connexions on F ( M ) and horizontal equivariant 2forms T W . Riemannian Connexions 131 by T W . . (This follows immediately from the previous proof. Finally.3. the correspondence would then be between connexions and torsion forms. = T W . T h e condition on the difference form T in order that two connexions have the same geodesics is T ( X ) w ( y ) = . T h e 3linear function ( T ( x ) w ( y ) . By the previous remark it is clear that by the same method we may prove the existence and uniqueness of Riemannian connexions (same definition) for semiRiemannian structures. and furthermore it is trivial to verify that T is equivariant if and only if TW is equivariant. w ( z ) ) is a 3form if and only if T satisfies this condition and is o(d)valued.7.T ( Y ) W ( X ) (theorem 6.9).) Remark. w and dw using the Theorem 4. Proof. Thus by choosing r w = Q we get a connexion +o with torsion 0. [Equivariance here means invariance under right action of O(d). That it is horizontal and equivariant is easily checked. that is. Find a formula for +o in terms of above lemma and the fact that +ow = dw. QED + + Problem 6 . There exists a unique connexion on F ( M ) having torsion 0. If we started with +o instead of we would have Q. Ql = TW Q. Prove that an isometry of a connected Riemannian manifold is determined by its value and differential at one point as follows: Problem 8. by the first structural equation we have that is. On a twodimensional Riemannian manifold two different connexions on F ( M ) have different geodesics.
thus defining the jlat Riemannian metric on Rd. (Immersions are defined and discussed in Chapter 10. and if it is compact. Unless otherwise stated. dimension d(3d ll)/2. an immersion) and M is a Riemannian manifold. For every m E Rd we define (Di(m).4 Examples and Problems 1.since S1may be imbedded in R2 as a circle of that radius (see example 3). divided by 27r it is the radius of S1. Problem 9. Imbeddings. (c) Show that an isometry which leaves a point and tangent space at the point fixed leaves a neighborhood of the point fixed. D j ( m ) )= &. so the Riemannian connexion is indeed flat. and an integral curve of such a vector field provides an isometry with an interval of R (as in example I ) or a covering map of S by R which is locally an isometry and periodic as a function on 1 R. so the underlying manifold of a connected onedimensional Riemannian manifold must be either R or S1. either case there are only two vector fields having In norm constantly 1. If i : N + M is a C" imbedding (or. Since Riemannian manifolds are metrizable they must be paracompact. then there is a unique Riemannian metric on N such that di preserves inner products. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS (a) First reduce to the problem of showing that an isometry which leaves a point and the tangent space at that point fixed is the identity. more generally. 3. What are the geodesics ? 2.132 7. (b) An isometry takes geodesics into geodesics. (d) T h e collection of all fixed points of a continuous map is a closed set. a metric on Rd will be assumed to be the flat one. Euclidean space. when N has this metric i is said to be an isometric imbedding (immersion). One of the harder outstanding problems is to what extent this theorem can be improved in the allowable gap in dimensions and in the amount of uniqueness possible.) + + + . Show that the connexion on Rd given by its group structure as in problem 6.6 is the Riemannian connexion. Onedimensional Riemannian manifolds. I n the latter case the smallest period is the circumference of S1. A very difficult theorem of Nash [63] says that every Riemannian manifold has an isometric imbedding in an arbitrarily small neighborhood of Euclidean space of dimension d(d 1) (3d 11)/2. 7.
0). tangents to one manifold are regarded as being perpendicular to those of the other manifold. (d) If m. so S d has O ( d 1) as a transitive group of isometries. . to show that X ( p ) = a tangent to S 1 ( t )at p . t")''... on any other by an element of S O ( d + Problem 12. . n. then a!jmX== .the 2torus.. 133 Take a circle of radius r and center (s. 5 .X . that is. 0. Rd is the dfold Riemannian product of R . .. Show that the Riemannian connexion of the Riemannian product of Riemannian manifolds is the affine product of the Riemannian connexions of the manifolds. x is obtained by giving it the induced Riemannian metric from Rd+l.1. Prove the following facts about Sd: (a) For any m E S d . p are equally spaced along S 1 ( t )and X ( m ) = t . 4. in Sd whose range contains xo . t')' + (S''.. The Riemannian dsphere of radius r .. use j . leaving m fixed and such that dj. (b) For each nonzero t E Sd. r < s. T h e Riemannian product of S1with itself d times is called the $at ddimensional torus T d . Rotations are all isornetries. Examples and Problems Problem 10. there is a unique great circle F ( t ) tangent to t . (See problem 6. This gives a chain S1 c S2 C .there is a unique isometry j . then M = M f x M" becomes a Riemannian manifold when the inner products are defined as (s' + s". d . M is then called the Riemannian product of M' and M". S1(t)= j .4.7. xk . and hence S 1 ( t )is a geodesic. + Problem 11.. and lying in the plane uz = 0 and rotate it about the u. and S1(t)is invariant under j .Show that there exists a unique isometric imbedding of Sk. ( S 1 ( t ) ) = Sl(t).. No distinction is usually made . (c) If X is a parallel vector field along S1(t).identity on Sdlll.22. that is. Riemannian products.. C Sdl C Sd. Prove that any such chain can be mapped 1). For example. If M' and M" are Riemannian manifolds. xdPl be linearly independent points of Rd+l all of which lie on S d . .the ksphere with radius r. Realize this surface as the range of an imbedding of T 2 . = .) 6. Sd = { E Rd+' I I I x j 1 = r } . Flat tori.. . Problem 13.. t' + t " ) = (s'. Compute the Riemannian metric. k = 1. Let xo .axis.
real projective space P a is covered by S d and can be given a structure from that on the Sd of example 4. are Riemannian coverings.> <Xj [Xi > Xkl) I + 7 = 0 for every i . Show that the Riemannian connexion of this metric is the same as the direct or opposite connexions if and only if [Xi . RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS between S1of different radii. x. and when N is given the induced Riemannian metric. 8. i“ : N” Prove the last remark. namely. X. (i. Problem 14. Problem 15. more generally. . since this is true for d = 1. are parallelizing vector fields on a manifold M .9). Show that the flat ddimensional torus T dis flat. Xi] = 0 for every i . then the Riemannian product N’ x N” is the Riemannian covering of M‘ x M ‘ with covering ma pi’ x i”. T h e Riemannian connexion of a parallelization is the torsion free connexion (problem 6. and in a given torus all of the radii need not be the same. = (constant functions) defines a corresponding Riemannian metric on M .. N ) is called a Riemannian covering of M . and the relation is preserved under products. For example. Parallelixable manifolds. .. j . k . Rd and T d are special cases. Prove this by piecing together the following: (a) T h e Riemannian and torsion free connexions are the same if and only if the geodesics of the Riemannian connexion are the same as those of the direct connexion (corollary to theorem 6. X) = 0. If i : N + M is a covering map and if N has a Riemannian structure for which the deck transformations are isometries.Y of the parallelizing fields ([X. that if i’ : N‘ + M ’ . then i may be considered as an immersion. If i : N + M is a covering map. then ( X iXi) . the simply connected Riemannian covering space of a flat torus is R d . which is equivalent to the condition ([Xi Xjl. Covering manifolds. also. For example. then there is a natural induced Riemannian structure on M which makes (i. 7. Problem 18. M a Riemannian manifold. There is a reverse process. Problem 17.. Y]. any Lie group has such a metric.5) if and only if for all constant linear combinations X. j . + m’ Problem 16. If X I . N ) into a Riemannian covering of M .134 7.
) If M has infinite volume it may well have selfhomometries. for then a homometry would have to multiply volume by the factor ad. of 0 to show the desired result. If N = M as a Riemannian manifold. multiplication of a metric by a positive scalar does not alter the Riemannian connexion. Indeed. Iff is the identity map on a manifold.. Show that in the latter case. a * * . Problem 19. ) Notice that an affine connexion gives a parallelization of B ( M ) and hence a Riemannian structure. el . . on Rd multiplication by a is a homometry.. and p the parallelizing form. called the prolongation of f to B ( M ) . and the skewsymmetry .Y ] ) p ( X ) ) = ( [ X .))). 9. (df(s). t ) .7. the horizontal geodesics in F ( M ) are precisely the lifts of geodesics in M . Show that a homometry f : M+ N . ed) = ( f ( m ) . I n particular. However.). Iff : N + M is a diffeomorphism of Riemannian manifolds.) (c) Use the structural equation dp = 0. then for a given Riemannian metric on M (or N ) this formula defines another metric so that f is a homometry. then there may be no homometries which are not isometries ( a = 1). Examples and Problems 135 (b) Let 0 be the O(d)valued form on M obtained by pulling down the Riemannian connexion form via the natural cross section of the parallelization. then f is called a homometry (with expansion factor a ) if for every s. df(t)) = a2(s. this is the case when M is compact (more generally. (Note ( p ( [ X . df(e. Y ] . (We have not defined volume. when extended to a map J : B ( M ) B ( N ) ( J h . Show that the two connexions are the same if and only if O ( t ) p ( t ) = 0 for every t E T ( M ) . while the vertical geodesics are integral curves of the fundamental vector fields F i j . We have already noted that S1 may have different radii. has finite volume).X ) .4. and the same holds for a Riemannian connexion on F ( M ) . but it can be done along fairly usual measure theoretic lines. Homometries. . integral curves of constant linear combinations of fundamental and basic vector fields are not in general geodesics. (Use theorem 6.9. as can be seen by considering a Riemannian product. For example.  9 . noting that 0 is a difference form pulled down to M. two metrics with the same connexions need not differ by a scalar. and this amounts to changes of S1by homometries. t E N . any n. However. df(e. preserves the Riemannian connexions of the homometrically related metrics on M and N .
136
7. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS
10. Conformal maps. If we allow a to be a positive C" function of n in example 9, we get a conformal map
f : Iv+ M ,
(df(s),W))(.(W (s, t>, =
s, t
E
N n
T h e linear fractional transformations of the Riemann sphere of complex analysis are conformal maps of the Riemannian 2sphere, and the homometries of Rd combined with stereographic projection give conformal maps of the Riemannian dsphere.
Problem 20. Prove that stereographic projection is a conformal map of Sd  {pt} onto Rd. 11. Action by compact groups. If G is a compact Lie group then G has a unique (Haar) measure which is invariant under left and right translations and assigns 1 to all of G. If G acts differentiably on M , then we can obtain a metric on M so that G acts as a group of isometries. For let { , ) be any Riemannian metric on M , and for s, t E M , , define
Problem 21. Show that G acts as isometries on ( M , ( , )'). Iff is any selfisometry of ( M , ( , )) which commutes with the action of G, that is, fg = gf for every g E G, show that f is an isometry of ( M , ( , )'). Problem 22. Show that the orthogonal complements of the vertical tangents with respect to a right invariant metric on a principal bundle form a connexion distribution. Hence, give an alternate proof that a paracompact principal bundle admits a connexion (compare 5.4). Problem 23. (a) Show that a left invariant metric on a Lie group G corresponds to an inner product on the Lie algebra g. (b) A left invariant metric on G is also right invariant (and so adjoint invariant) if and only if the corresponding inner product ( , ) on is invariant, that is, if X , Y , 2 E g, then
that is, a d X is skewsymmetric. (This is simply a restatement of the fact that the function (Ad elxY, Ad e"2) is constant if and only if its derivative is zero. Compare with problem 2.5.) (c) If G is compact, it always admits such a metric.
7.4. Examples and Problems
137
(d) T h e Riemannian connexions of such invariant metrics on G are all equal to the torsion free connexion of problem 6.6, and hence are complete (see problem 18). (e) T h e Killing f o r m of a Lie group G is a bilinear form k( , ) on g defined by: if X , Y Eg, then
R(X, Y ) = tr(ad X o ad Y ) .
K ( , ) satisfies the invariance property of (b), but is not in general
definite or even nondegenerate, for example, if g has a nontrivial center. 12. Riemannian homogeneous spaces. If M is acted upon by a transitive Lie group of isometries, then M is a Riemannian homogeneous space. By example 11, a homogeneous space of a compact Lie group may be given a homogeneous metric.
Problem 24. Let H be a closed reductive subgroup of a Lie group G (see problem 5.5), so that g = b + m, where [b, m] C m. Assume m admits an inner product which is invariant under A d H . Then show that G / H is a Riemannian homogeneous space. V d , ? the Stiefel manifold of ordered sets of r orthonormal vectors , in Rd, a Riemannian homogeneous space of both O ( d ) and SO(d), is namely, Vd,T= O(d)/O’(d r ) = SO(d)/SO’(d r ) ,
where O’(d  r ) and SO’(d  r ) are viewed as acting on the last d  r components in Rd. If we make the definition O(0) = SO(0) = {I}, then O ( d ) = V d , d S O ( d ) = V d , d  l ,and Sd’ = Vd , l are , special cases. 13. Flag manifolds. If d , , ..., d, is a partition of d , then we define flag manifold Fl(d ; d, , ..., d,) as the set of ntuples ( V , , ..., V,), where Vi is a subspace of Rd of dimension di and these subspaces are mutually orthogonal. Alternatively, Fl(d ; dl , ..., d,) may be considered to be the set of increasing sequences
(0)
=
W , C W , C W , C ... C Wnl C W,
=
Rd
of subspaces of Rd with di = dim
Problem 25.
W i dim Wil .
(a) Establish a natural onetoone correspondence between these two sets. (b) T h e orthogonal group O ( d ) acts on ntuples ( V , , ..., V,) and the general linear goup Gl(d, R ) acts on increasing sequences
138
7. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS
W, c W, c c Wn, c W , = R d . Find the isotropy group in each case, thus giving FZ(d ; d, , ..., d,) the structure of a homogeneous space in two ways.
FIG. 27.
(c) Since O ( d ) is compact, there is a Riemannian metric on Fl(d ; d, , ..., d,) on which O(d) acts transitively as isometries. For p = ( V , , ..., V J E F Z (; d, , ..., dn) and 1 i < j ~ n, define mij to be the subspace of FZ(d; d,, ..., d& spanned by tangents to curves on which only Viand V j are varied. Show that these mij must be mutually orthogonal by using the invariance of the adjoint action of the isotropy algebra. 14. Riemannian symmetric spaces [13, 18, 331. If a Riemannian manifold M has an isometry fm for every m E M which leaves m fixed and such that d , l M m =  identity (fm is called the symmetry at m ) f, then M is a Riemannian symmetric space. Since an isometry must take geodesics into geodesics, it is easy to see by a stepbystep use of symmetries at points along a geodesic that geodesics are infinitely extendable, so M is complete. If M is connected, then any two points of M may be joined by a broken geodesic (see problem 8), and hence the composition of the symmetries about the midpoints of the geodesic segments is an isometry sending one of the points into the other. Thus the group of isornetries is transitive; and since this group is always a Lie group, M is a Riemannian homogeneous space [50]. Sd is a symmetric space.
<
<
Problem 26. Prove that for a Riemannian symmetric space any C" curve invariant under the symmetry about each of its points is a reparametrization of a geodesic. (Compare problem 12.) Problem 27. A Riemannian homogeneous space with a symmetry fm at one point is Riemannian symmetric.
Alternate de$nition of Riemannian symmetric spaces. Let M be a Riemannian homogeneous space, M = G / H . Then M is a
Problem 28.
7.4.Examples and Problems
139
homogeneous Riemannian symmetric space if G admits an automorphism f with the properties (i) f 2 = identity, (ii) H is pointwise fixed under f and contains the greatest connected subgroup pointwise fixed under f . (a) Let T : G + M be the canonical projection, and define fo : M + M by: f o ( n ( g ) )= T ( f ( g ) ) . Show that fo is welldefined and df, =  identity on Mo , where 0 = x ( e ) . (b) Use the formulaf, o L, = Lfcg.,f o , where L denotes the lefto action of G on M , and the fact that L, is an isometry to show that f o is an isometry. Hence, prove that every homogeneous Riemannian symmetric space is a Riemannian symmetric space. (c) Let M be a connected Riemannian symmetric space. We have already seen that M is Riemannian homogeneous, M = G/ H, where H = { g E G I g ( m ) = m}, m fixed E M . Define f : G t G by: f(g) = f,gf,’. Show that f satisfies properties (i) and (ii) of a homogeneous Riemannian symmetric space. (See problem 8.)
Problem 29. Let G be a Lie group with a twosided invariant metric. Show that the inverse map ~,!t : G + G, defined by # ( g ) = gl, is an isometry, and hence prove that G is a Riemannian symmetric space. G may also be exhibited as a homogeneous Riemannian space of the group G x G, with the automorphismfdefined byf(g, h) = (h,g ) . Find the isotropy group and make the identification of G with the homogeneous space. In particular, describe the action of G x G on G. Problem 30. Grassmann manifolds. G d , r , the Grassmann manifold of rplanes in Rd, is a Riemannian homogeneous space of O(d),namely,
Gd,r =
O ( d)
O(Y)x O’(d  Y)’
where O(r) is viewed as acting on the first r components in Rd and O’(d  r ) on the last d  r . Let g E O ( d ) , so that
where A is r x r , D is ( d

r ) x ( d  r ) , and define f by
140
7. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS
Prove that f defines Ga,ras a homogeneous Riemannian symmetric space.
G , r = SO(Y)
SO(4
x SO'(d  r ) '
the Grassmann manifold of oriented rplanes in Rd, is a twofold covering of Gd,rand is also symmetric.
Problem 31. Let M and N be Riemannian symmetric spaces, i : P  t M a covering map. Show that M x N and P with the
induced Riemannian structures are Riemannian symmetric spaces.
Problem 32.
Lens spaces. Consider the map
(z1
, z2)
on

(z1
exp 2 4 P , z2 exp 2 7 4 P )
E
S3= {(zl , ~
2 )zi
I
C , I z1 I'
+ I z2 1'
z=
I},
where p and q are relatively prime integers. This map generates a discrete group of isometries of S3, and this group may be used as the deck transformations of a manifold M covered by S3. M is called a lens space and has a metric induced from S3. Prove that M is not Riemannian symmetric, even though its covering is.
Remark. Notice that if, instead of connectedness, one assumes that the components of a Riemannian symmetric space M are isometric, then M is still a homogeneous Riemannian symmetric space, so the two notions are now equivalent. I t is not hard to think of examples of Riemannian manifolds for which this does not hold but which still admit symmetries f m , but they are rather artificial and will not be missed. 15. Complex projective spaces. Let S2d+1 a Riemannian sphere of be radius r . Then we have the principal fibre bundle (S2d+1, C P d ) S1, (problem 3.12), and S1acts as isometries, so the normal subspace to the vertical space at a point defines a connexion H in this principal bundle (problem 22). If we define dn I x , to be an isometry between CP,d,,, and H , , this defines a Riemannian metric on CPd. T h e bundle maps which are isometries on S2d+1 (this includes all of the unitary transformations of Cd+l restricted to S 2 d f 1 ) form a transitive group of isometries on CPd, so CPd is a Riemannian homogeneous space. A closer examination of the available bundle maps show that CPd is also symmetric.
M is called an Hermitian manifold if for each m E M there is given a positive definite Hermitian bilinear form ( .7.. where B = s . t E=@. Complex manifolds [23. f = t . ) be holomorphic. Establish that ( . It ~ d .. I t ) = 0 and Show hence show that the map + + i : CE'(M)+F ( M ) . Since F m = AnL i d n . >. t). C). then .. with Rt. ) on Znt and this assignment is C" in . we shall consider the F ( M ) defined by the metric ( >' = 2( . t € A r n . the sense that if zl.7 and 3. any t € Z nmay be decomX posed as t = Rt iIt. Since M is complex.. the functions gij = (ajaz... Let M be a complex manifold of complex dimension d (see problems 1. cannot demand that ( . Problem 34. zd is a complex coordinate system at m. t)  if s. t ) = 2R ( P s . a/azj) are complexvalued C" functions.10).. s.. ) can be uniquely extended to a positive definite Hermitian form on Y Vin such a way that n (s.. that is. This then defines a Riemannian structure on the underlying real manifold of M . Hence or otherwise show that a Hermitian structure always exists. and so F ( M ) is defined and has a Riemannian connexion. 9 Problem 36. = Problem 35. . P t ) = Q R (S. 30.iJt and R = " real part of ". 921. Actually..4. Examples and Problems 141 16. and C B ( M ) may be viewed as the bundle of holomorphic bases of the holomorphic tangent to spaces Z m M . then (s. = g3% . that ( R t . its bundle of bases B ( M ) is reduced to a bundle C B ( M )with group GL(d.. .*. gij E 9. since We g23.. Show that J is an orthogonal transformation field with respect to this symmetric inner product.iJs.)0. Show that C F ( M ) may be taken to consist of holomorphic bases which are orthonormal with respect to the Hermitian forms.. . Problem 33. and (. C). Show that if s. Show that the existence of a Hermitian structure on M is equivalent to the reduction of C B ( M ) to a bundle CF(M) with group U(d)C GL(d. t ) = (s. .
We shall write C F ( M ) for i(CF(M)). w!. Problem 38. be the components of the connexion and solder forms on F ( M ) ..(JY) = JV.13.(JY) = JV.. Let & . .. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS given by i(m. Show that Q A$ is a differential 2form on M and that Q(S. Recall problems 6. t). For s.. It.) (d) Parallel translation commutes with J . . t. then V. (b) T h e parallel translate of a holomorphic tangent is holomorphic. td) = (m. t ) = ( Js. Problem 37.(Y). Let J? Q o d r .. Y any vector fields. T h e following problems show that the Riemannian connexion on F ( M ) does not in general reduce to a connexion on CF(M). (c) V. (e) Covariant derivatives of J vanish..142 7. . (b) All covariant derivatives of Q are zero. . = M is said to be a Kahler manifold if dQ = 0. [Hint: prove the following implications: (4 (4 =. defined imbedding of the real manifold C F ( M ) and is consistent with the previously defined inclusion of C B ( M ) in B ( M) .(Y).. t ) . define Q(s. (See p.Itd) is a wellRt. Rtd . Prove that the following assertions are equivalent: (a) T h e Riemannian connexion on F ( M ) reduces to a connexion on CF(M). 6. t) 21(PS.] A direct proof that M is Kahler if and only if the Riemannian connexion on F ( M ) reduces to C F ( M ) is outlined in this problem. p . X . . 51.. (c) Parallel translation commutes with the projection P. .that is. (f) If X . Define a linear transformation field on = Problem 39.14 and the vector field formula for the exterior derivative.. Y are vector fields on M . Prove that the following assertions are equivalent: (a) dQ = 0. if b E CF(M). t E .then Hb is tangent to CF(M). . .(b)  (4. P t ) = *I(?.
p. 3 1 . = ( d r IHb)l G J d r . 1) and that Qa # 0. ) is a Riemannian form on a complex manifold with respect to which J is orthogonal. then construct a Hermitian form on M from which the Riemannian form is derived as in problem 35. Problem 40. .) Problem 41. Show that Q is a form of type (1..i+d and Fi. Complex projective space.. Let t o . : U .. = t. (f) t tangent to CF(M)implies Vt tangent to CF(M) 0 dsZ  = 0. + Cd by z! 3 = x3. (A form 6 is exact if there is a form i+h such that d$ = 6. Problem 48.i . Prove the following: (a) d c = 0 if and only if dQ = 0. . then define a complex structure on CPd. Then a basis of coordinate systems may be described as follows. be homogeneous complexvalued coordinate functions on CPd..0 4 z. Show that a submanifold (complex) of a Kahler manifold is again Kahler. and define coordinate functions 4. Problem 42.d . E+d 7 Wi+d j = Wi (1 < < d). Let lJi = { p E CPd I ti@) # 0}. T h e 4.7.Fi+d.. . then show also that SZP is not exact for a n y p < d. t. Notice that on ui n u k xy=o fk =fix:.4.$. If M is compact and Kahler.U . If ( . (b) T h e vertical tangent space to C F ( M ) is spanned by the vector fields Fij + Fi+d.i+d . On CF(M) we have (c) ~i G = .. i = 0. On each U iconsider the function fi = z$$ . Examples and Problems 143 G F(M) by: I y b = identity and 9 IHI.
and hence show that CPd is a Kahler manifold with respect to the corresponding Hermitian structure. (Problem 4.144 7.2 is positive definite and admits J as an orthogonal transformation. .' Show that the symmetric form associated with 1. A result of the preceding two problems is that every nonsingular projective variety admits a Kahler structure. RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS Use this to show that there exists a real closed form 1.2 of type (1. 1) on CPd such that on Ui Q = z d'd''jj.28.) .
to F ( M ) . they were C" on this neighborhood. I n order for them to be globally defined we must assume that geodesics from m are infinitely extendible.I n particular. was a diffeomorphism of a possibly smaller neighborhood of the origin. 33.Let be the Riemannian connexion on F ( M ) . the image of M . 8. + M .3 we defined for any m E M .. 831. . .. and let p = C p i f i E M . Then we define G . In particular.fd) E F ( M ) .. We now assume M is a Riemannian manifold and we obtain Z p .. it is shown that in the complete case geodesics realize global distances. T h e arc length of continuous curves is also discussed [24. exp. b = (m.1 Geodesics In 6. +b : M .2) to F ( M ) . and let 6 be the unique integral curve of CpiEi with G(0) = b. depending on a connexion on B ( M ) and such that was a rather natural lifting of exp. maps e. as follows: Let b = (m. under eWb is inF(M). We noticed that these maps in general were only defined on a neighborhood of the origin of M . . is C" and is in fact the radially horizontal lifting of exp. + B ( M ) .. If @ is the curvature form of the Riemannian connexion. . ed) E B ( M ) . while in the second the HopfRinow theorem on complete Riemannian manifolds is proved. Ei is the restriction of the vector field Ei on B ( M ) (6. . 50. w the + 145 .CHAPTER 8 Geodesics and Complete Rie m a n n ia n M Q n if0 Ids In the first section the local minimizing properties of geodesics are established with the help of the Gauss lemma.1.fi .. exp. and exp. : M . .. ( p ) = c?( 1).
s = Zs. 0..3. fit. s = c ZppiD. 01 + 0. xd is the dual base to the f i . [(b) is an immediate consequence of (a).. the structural equations become d#i = 2 k=l  d eki$k d doij = OikOkj k=l + @ij. . . . to the ray p above. fdt) (so fit is the parallel translate of fi along a . O i i . . yh on M . s is tangent . yhi are defined accordingly.((p). q b p = (m.1 Thus...146 8. u = exp. (In terms of components.c = = j ( d e ~ ~ rdexprnt) = <#(s).si is a measure of the difference between parallel translation in M and M . = .. which in turn follows easily from the definition of 4. GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS solder formonF(M) as defined in 1. . as follows: 0 = exp. then we define forms 0. #(t)> 2 #i(s) +i(t) I I d expms I l2 I I #(s) I l2 = 2 #N. If p = Zpifi E M . then &(s) . n~. ) t E (W7')P 9 (4 (b) d expms = 2 #?(4. and the realvalued forms Oii. then if s.D.. then (c) = CPi (4 qS) 0. p = ray from m to p .* W.) If P E M .*+  @=E$+@ ~ $ = exp.o p.(p)E ( M m ) p that is.. if xl. T h e structural equations become d# = 0# de =  3 P.
Theorem 1 (Gauss' lemma). the longitudinal curves of Q are horizontal. then for every f~ nI(Q(a. b]. that is. = Q o j .* . curve T defined by Q o j c . and differentiability of the canonical lifting of a C" rectangle. the function (T. d ] + M .d) FIG. whose longitudinal curves are geodesics and the tangents to these geodesics are all of the same length. If Q is a C" rectangle in M . then if V is the associated vector field.8. b] x [c. Prove the existence. while the base of Q is the (a.1. Q is a lifting of Q . t ) ) are transversal. c)) there exists a unique C" rectangle in F ( M ) with initial corner f such that (a) Q = n o Q. and = (c) +(Qo 'ja*) 0. d ] in R2 into M which can be extended to a C" map of a neighborhood of the rectangle. that is. ('jz(t)= (x.*) = 0. Geodesics 147 This says that the lengths of radial vectors are preserved under d exp. Canonical lifting. T h e "vector field" V j defined along the base T by V(s) = r S * ( c )is the associated vectorjeld of Q (it is actually a curve in the tangent bundle of M ) . b] x [c. More generally. ( t ) . Problem 1. d ) /b. uniqueness. are called longitudinal. while the curves = Q o '. 28. Q(a. If Q is a C" rectangle in a Riemannian manifold M .. A C" rectangle in M is a map Q of a rectangle [a. then ~ ~ * 1 V ( t ) for all t E [a. (b) +(Qo j. and that tangents to horizontal curves in F ( M ) are horizontal tangents. In particular. where j c ( t ) = ( t . Q : [a. c). the initial transversal curve is horizontal. the curves T . and Q is an associated rectangle of V . V ) is a constant.that is. and if F ( M ) has the Riemannian connexion 4. c) is the initial corner of Q . if TC*(a)1 V ( a ) .
wQ(Dl)) = ( V . QED Corollary. .). Also. are horizontal. GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS Let Q be the canonical lifting to f E F ( M ) of Q.( w Q ( 4 ) . w Q ( W = (D also.. along the base curve (wQ(D2).) . wQ(Dl)> = 0. and s E (M& . T. (D1wQ(D2). since we assumed the tangents to the longitudinal curves all had the same length. wQ = & * w . PQm. . wQ(D1)> = w (CQ(D2) Q ( D l ) > w Q ( W W =o since dQ(D2)is skewsymmetric. 8.)oj. But (wQ(Dl). T h e first structural equation becomes C$Q = dwQ = 4QwQ. write Q*$. wQ(D1)) = 2 (D2wQ(D1). is a geodesic. which when applied to (Dl D.(DzwQ(D1). wQ(Dl))is constant.]= 0. Let p E M . the above equation becomes Dl(wQ(D2).). so Dz(wQ(D1). Now wQ(D. so we have. Q Now [DlD. wQ(D1)>. is constant since the curve T.*). and C$O(Dl)= 0 since the longitudinal curves of . cr = exp.148 Proof.). Q ( W . taking inner products with wQ(D.s 1a. w Q ( W = 0. gives QwQ(D2) .D. Hence. so Dl (wQ(D. Then s Ip (in the Euclidean inner product) implies that d exp. o p.UQ(D1).) wQ(Dz) + $Q(Dz)wQ(D.wQ([D1 9 Del) = +Q(D. wQ(D1)>. D. But clearly. p = ray from 0 to p .
Proof.fa on M .. and let c E [a.T o expml. T h e exact construction is left to the reader. Then I T 1 3 I a 1. Now define a curve 7 on [a.. d exp. (i) d exp..{m}. Geodesics 149 This follows by applying Gauss’ lemma to a rectangle Q whose initial transversal is the degenerate curve m E M and the longitudinal curves are the images under exp. Theorem 2.(0). (ii) I I d expnis. Let B C M .. I I = I I S T I I .B: f = r o expi] Xi%. p = ray from 0 to p.. . . s E (M. we write similarly t = tT t N .where t T is a multiple of T ( b ) and t N _L T(b). Let xl. a = exp. c] by 7)=ao7 IIPII Or. xa be dual to f l .. of the rays from 0 in M. If q E M . We have d exp. be a ball about 0 on which exp.sT = (d exp. the base is u. and from the corollary above. .”) T h e following result expresses the fact that locally geodesics minimize arc length among broken C“ curves. . Also.. b] be the interval on which T is defined. Let [a. 146.b] be the smallest number such that P ( T ( c ) ) = r(p) = I a I. b E B‘. let p E B . T = = 2 . from (b). o p.Jq.. defined on B’ . (This rectangle may be described briefly as “a piece of pie. Hence.sT .. and let T be any broken C“ curve from m to exp. .p in M .s). then we write s = sT sN where sT is a multiple of T(q) and sN 1T(q).1.... the radial unit vector field defined on B .s = d expmsT d explnsN. + + + . d expl.8. and equality holds only if T is a broken C“ reparametrization of a.sN 1d exp. is a diffeomorphism. p. and define the following objects on either B or B‘ = exp. I n particular.For t E M.
'(T*) 1 II P II hence. 30. Corollary 1.cl .__ d a o dr o d exp. as asserted. (Z is the identity map on M. is a C" function on B'. this is true on [a. then we clearly must have T * ( u ) = 0 for u > c and T*. from which it follows that T and u have the same image.1)2.150 8. = 0. If I T I = I u 1.. Z)z. p(m. if T' = T jLa. we have ~ ~ ~ > ~ ~ ' ~ > ~ ~ l > l ~ l . Therefore.) . GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS Noting that 1 1 u* jj = / I p 11. FIG. It equals Z ( x i o exp. c]. QED T h e square of the distance to m. we have . Proof.
y ) has an argument t such that r'(t) = 0. T h e tubular neighborhood. Theorem 4. of N with radius r in I ( N ) is the open set of I ( N ) which intersects each fibre in the open ball of radius r about the origin of the fibre. c ) denotes the ball of radius c about m. y : (a. b) + U a C" curve in U. then is a broken C" curve from m to n such that T is a broken C" reparametrization of a geodesic. This is enough. let I ( N ) .3(4)]. 0 a ball C M. is a diffeomorphism : 0 + U . be defined by I ( N ) = {(n.8. Let m E M . L r ( N ) . If N is a compact submanifold of the Riemannian manifold M . Show that I ( N ) is a submanifold of T ( M ) and that Exp I I . Q E D If N is a submanifold of a Riemannian manifold M . T minimizes arc length from m to n. Problem 2 . and P. the normal bundle to N .and the comparable fact for Euclidean space. so T locally minimizes arc length and. exp. Then u is perpendicular to both N and P. . Let N. P be submanifolds of M . c)) = B ( m . Proof. respectively. Then the geodesic in U from m to y ( t ) is perpendicular to y J t ) at y ( t ) . If T Corollary 3. N ) . such that exp.} [cf. n ) . then there exists an r > 0 such that exp maps I . Proof. Theorem 3. Geodesics Corollary 2. It is obvious that a piece of u minimizes arc length from N o r P to any point on u.t ) E T ( M ) 1 t E M . Proof. N ) is nonsingular on the trivial cross section of I ( N ) . c). by the theorem. 1TI = p(m. 3. and hence u is perpendicular to N.. Q E D Lemma 1. then of B. This is an immediate consequence of Gauss' lemma applied to the lifting of the curves to M7.1. for some n E N and t 1N. . is locally a broken C" reparametrization of a geodesic. u a geodesic from n E N to p E P such that I u I = p(P. 151 for c < radius If B ( m . Suppose that r = p(m..(B(O. ( N ) . For such points which are sufficiently close to N or P lemma 1 then shows that u is perpendicular to curves in N or P which pass through n or p .
8. has the property that all its points are joined to N by unique geodesics which minimize arc length to N .152 8. exp. Problem 4. E is defined on a neighborhood of the zero cross section of T ( M )and is in fact C" there. 0) . Show that a Riemannian covering map is distance decreasing. For each m E M . define a normal bundle of the immersion and tubular neighborhoods in it.ol . some r . GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS diffeomorphically. Let n E N . 0) to (1/4.t). Sketch the locus of points at distance 2/3 from the corner point.called a tubular neighborhood r of N in M . A local version of this gives us the existence of normal coordinates for N in the following sense. 1). A coordinate system at n in M is normal for N if the points of N correspond to part of a linear subspace of dimension equal to that of N and the straight lines perpendicular to this subspace correspond to geodesics perpendicular to N . We also have Lemma 2. For E to be defined on all of T ( M ) we must assume that all geodesics are infinitely extendible. T h e proof is left as an exercise.2 Complete Riemannian Manifolds Assume M is a Riemannian manifold. ( N )into M . E is a diffeomorphism of a neighborhood of (m. how does this change the locus ? Problem 5. t ) = (m. T h e image of 1 ( N ) . onto a neighborhood of (m. so by the inverse function theorem. If i : N +M is an immersion (diis an isomorphism into for every point). m). Give an example to show that the property of having unique minimizing geodesics to i ( N )need not hold for points of the immersion of L r ( N ) . 1/2). But in any case. If we obtain a noncomplete (see below) manifold from this torus by removing the closed line segment from (1/4. Consider the flat 2dimensional torus obtained by identifying opposite sides of the unit square in R2 having opposite corners (0. When N is compact show that Exp : T ( M )+ M gives rise to an immersion of l . given by: E(m. Problem 3 . dE is an isomorphism on T(M)cm. 0) and (1. We have a map E : T ( M )+ M x M .
in the Riemannian metric is contained in P. and dD is onto the tangent space to the diagonal.cl) for every m E C. t ) = (m . of (m.l(m) at (m.. is a diffeomorphism on the set {t E M .2. ac > 0 such that. there exists a neighborhood P. is a diffeomorphism on B(O(m). = {(% t ) I n E u I r n II t II < C . by the theory of differential equations. We conclude by m). for each m E C.. showing that dE maps the tangents to the zero cross section of T ( M ) onto the tangent space to the diagonal of M x M . By corollary 2 to theorem 2... for every n E n (Pm). is defined on a ball whose radius is a continuous function of m. m).cm). for all n E n(P. exp.n. Complete Riemannian Manifolds 153 Proof. D(m) = (m . that the Riemannian and Euclidean metrics are equivalent on each tangent space (see lemma 7. m).n is defined on B (O (m ).8. .. we need only show that there exists c > 0 such that. However. which is given by E I n . > 0 such that the ball. 0) which is mapped diffeomorphically onto a neighborhood of (m. It is sufficient to prove that dE maps T(M). B(O(n). n ) ( m ..c) and maps it diffeomorphically onto B( m .t)..exp.. onto M x M(. Let D : M + M x M be the diagonal map.. may only be defined in a neighborhood of O(m). and hence we may take a c1 such that exp. contains a neighborhood of the form Lemma 3. is regular (that is..1).. J . We first note that if all geodesics are not infinitely extendible. . we must first translate lemma 2. Using the facts that T ( M ) has a local product structure with the topology of the fibre being given by the Euclidean metric. 2.. and that the Riemannian metric is continuous... t ) E PnL} PnL.. where O(m ) is the origin in Mm . QED Let C be any compact subset of M ... since the dimensions are the same. one finds that P. Lemma 2 essentially says this locally. is clearly spanned by tangents to ncl(m) and tangents to the diagonal.). exp. which suffices since M x M(. and hence by c). I ( n . exp. Then we have E I(zero cross section) = D 0 I(zero cross section) . exp. 1 . Then there exists is defined on B(O(m). However. . dn is onto.~ ( . c). = so we wish to show there is a c... Now we know that E . it is clear that for each m E M exp. Let ni : M x M + M be the projection onto the ith factor i = 1. Proof.. maps (MvJo onto the tangent space to n. for each m E C. Therefore. compactness the result follows. which says precisely that for every m E C.1 onto) and hence d exp.
to each of which corresponds a c . Consider the following conditions on a connected Riemannian manifold M : (a) M is complete. (c) For some point m of M . We therefore have only to prove the implications from (c) to (b) and from (b) to (e). for any real Y > 0. which is (b).. cm).  E.)). 77. gives the desired result. Notice that (c) can be stated “exp. r ) . T h e conditions (a)(d) are equivalent. and define.. E M . I t suffices.111) < r } = B(m. exp. That (d) implies (c) is trivial. In any metric space it is true that (b) implies (a).. then since (b) implies (d). m. ern) diffeomorphically onto B(n. m) in M x M . (e) Any m. by a geodesic of length p(m.Letting c = min c. and that (a) implies (d) follows from extendibility theorems in differential equations (see appendix). We now fix m. there may be infinitely many. (HopfRinow [40. p2. so that (2) implies (e). and they imply (e). is compact and (2) E. (b) All bounded closed subsets of M are compact. .. = {m E &I I p(m. 931). so by (1) and (2) a for closed bounded subset is compact. any bounded subset is in a 8. 8. . ~ . I m can be joined to m. QED It now follows that the square of the distance function. = 8. > 0. in fact. n). Find an example to show that (e) does not imply (a). Also find an example to show that a minimizing geodesic between two points need not be unique. By compactness. . we can use any m for m.154 8.3). and (d) can be stated “ T h e Riemannian connexion is complete’’ (6. . C is covered by a finite number of U r n . . Proof. n E M can be joined by a geodesic whose arc length equals p(m.. . GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS where Urn is a neighborhood of m and c. assuming (c) for m. = {m E B.. Problem 6. all geodesics from m are infinitely extendible. maps B(O(n). is C“ on a neighborhood of (m. to prove (1) E. Theorem 5. (d) All geodesics are infinitely extendible. is defined on all of Mm”. Hence for n E U.
= 8. implies E. r' < r .! = 8. which has limit r p(m. . Complete Riemannian Manifolds I55 which is clearly compact.l / k r p(m. . a broken C" curve from mo to n with I a. (iii) E.l/k = I part of ak from m.. > + + On the other hand.2. Let mk be the last point on a. m k have a limit point m.. so equality holds. n) l/k (this is possible by the definition of p). (ii) E . Compactness of E . for some r . . n). n). we show: + + (i) E. . 4. . so p(m.8. . Y p(m.. . If E .} converges to m. n) = r p(m. 31. n). to m k I I part of ak from mk to n I . + Proof.t for all r' < r implies E . then there exists m such that p(m. Now p(m0 7 n ) < dm0 9 m) + f(H4 n) = r + p(m.l/k. = 8 . I < p(m. QED For the proof of (2) we need the following: Lemma 4.f .. . I . . n ) >.) = r .. . m. n) > r. . pactness of E . choose a. m) = r and p(m. . so p(m. in B . and if p(m.! = 8. n) > 1 a . By com + FIG.and by passing to a the subsequence we may assume {m. = exptnOEr the continuity and of expm... a) . We now prove (2) using the connectedness of the nonnegative real numbers. since it is closed and bounded. = 8. . For K = 1. = 8.. that is. = B . 2. p(m. This proves lemma 4. then follows from the fact that E .
Let n E B. is well known. so there exists a geodesic y from m to n with I y j = p(m. Then u y is a broken C" curve from m. exp. p " the Riemannian distance on N . If m E B. Proof of (iv). . Problem 9.n) = p(m0. n ) = r p(m. . we assume p(m. m) = r . Show that the Riemannian product M x N is complete. which proves (iii). = 8. . n).156 8. so m E E . to n with I 0 y I = I 0 I I y I = r p(m. GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS (iv) E . It has been shown by K. so by corollary 3 to theorem 2. . where p(m. Let p be the Riemannian distance on M . Let i : N + M be an isometric imbedding.+. n). then by hypothesis m E E. to m with I u 1 = p(m. We show n E E. . n) c. Let M and N be complete Riemannian manifolds. since E. . By lemma 4 there exists m E 8.+. . T h e converse. Construct a noncomplete connected Riemannian manifold of infinite diameter such that no two points at distance greater than 1 from each other may be connected by a curve which minimizes arc length. Show that for a connected Lie group which admits a left and a right invariant metric the exponential map is onto.} which has limit m. By lemma 3. Hence. u y can be reparametrized as a geodesic. . Ozeki [67] that every connected paracompact manifold admits a complete Riemannian metric.. . Problem 8. Let u be a geodesic from m. where mk E 8 . implies there exists c Er+c = > 0 such that Bwc (i) and (ii) are trivially true. Give examples to show that all eight possibilities for these metrics to be complete or not may occur. Nomizu and H. maps B(O(m). Proof o f (iii). p' = p o i. choose a sequence (m. n). p(m.2c) diffeomorphically onto B(m. . < + + ++ + + Problem 7.) C E . they show that if every Riemannian metric is complete then the manifold is compact. m) = r . r k < r . . Let m E B . Hence. that a compact metric space is complete. Problem 10. . 2c). . n E E. Therefore. Then by hypothesis. m) = r . there exists c > 0 such that for each m E 8. This completes the proof of the theorem. is compact. by compactness of E . By lemma 4 we may .such that p(m. mk E ErkC E.. furthermore.t for r' < r. Completeness of affine connexions is also a property preserved under products.
A force field on M is a 1form 9.8. 157 Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold. the configuration space of a rigid body constrained .2. Complete Riemannian Manifolds Problem 11. (a) Then any Riemannian covering of M is complete. Consider a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom and no elements which dissipate energy. where V is the potential energy. If D is the covariant derivative symbol of the metric and X is the vector field defined by 2 ( X . A curve in M is generally thought of as occurring in time. T h e kinetic energy given by an assignment of velocities is a positive definite quadratic form on each Mm . Problem 12. More specifically. Y ) = O( Y ) for every Y . and thus gives a Riemannian metric on M . Example. when the motion is free the path of the motion is a geodesic and the time is proportional to the length of the geodesic. Give examples to show that the result in problem 1 l(b) may or may not hold if M is not complete. Then the conjiguration space is a manifold M which is a mathematical model of the totality of all positions of the system. Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold which is not cannot be a C" function on all simply connected. then Newton's laws of motion for the system become where y is a curve parametrized by time. If it is a conservative force field then 9 = . Problem 13. I n particular. I n this case the system may be started in any one configuration with kinetic energy 1 in such a way that it attains another given configuration by free motion with an elapse of time equal to the distance between the two points on M . Show that p(m. the integral of this 1form on a curve is the amount of work done in traversing the curve. so that a tangent vector is an assignment of velocities to the elements of the system consistent with the constraints of the system.d V . of M . T h e Riemannian manifold is thus complete if the system will coast indefinitely when given an arbitrary push. (b) For every m E M there is a geodesic segment starting and ending at m in every homotopy class of loops at m. T h e phase space of the system is T ( M ) .
If y is a broken C" curve.). y ( t ) ) p(y(t). y(t. easily. so in particular it is a reparametrization of a broken C" curve. r(t1) to y(t). u from . y(t. and let a = to < t . < b such that p(y(tl). GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS to rotate about its center of gravity is homeomorphic to P3 = SO(3). Then we define the arc length of y by I y I = sup { p(y(ti). n). with I 0 1 I = p(y(t.) I I y from y ( t ) to y(t2) I = p(y(t. Then since y clearly locally minimizes arc length. be a sequence of numbers between a and b.)). + + + + Proposition 2. respectively. For choose geodesics u1 . If y : [a. Proposition 1. < t . y is locally a continuous reparametrization of a geodesic. then the two definitions of arc length agree. we have 1 0 1 0 2 1 = p(y(t1). T h e kinetic energy metric is invariant if and only if the ellipsoid of inertia is spherical. y(ti+. y(t. b] + M .+.)) < c/2. I u. Proof. so by the theorem 2. < t.)) = I y from r(t1) to y(t. We claim that for every t E (tl . Let { y } be the length of y as a continuous curve. I r + u l = IrlS 101. < .) with I u 1 = p(y(tl). Then it 1 y I. then y is a continuous reparametrization of a geodesic.y(t. t J .). y : [a.). that both definitions are additive: {r+d={r)S{4.3 Continuous Curves Let y be a continuous curve. u.)). Hence. This implies that geodesics locally minimize arc length among continuous curves. . Pick a c > 0 by lemma 3 with respect to the image of y . y ( t ) ) and 1 u. y ( t ) lies on u. y(tz)). so there exists a geodesic u from y ( t l ) to y(t. 1 = p(y(t). which proves y ( t ) lies on the image of u. b] + M is a continuous curve from m to n with I y I = p(m. Take a < t. < b = t. T h e result then follows from corollary 3 to theorem 2.)) I all such sequences ti}. < t . retaining I y 1 as the notation for the integral of tangent lengths. I is a broken C" reparametrization of u. We follows trivially from the definition of distance that { y } < also have. y ( t ) to y(t. 8.'.158 8. Proof.
getting = 0. this shows II Y*(O> II 2 K i C + II Y*(O) 11. and u. Let t be the common limit of s. By repeatedly halving we get a nested sequence of parameter values s ..8.+(O) 1 1 . b] + M be a continuous curve with finite length in a Riemannian manifold. = by the mean value theorem. r(O))/l I s and d u n ) un . Thus if we write g(4 = P ( Y ( 4 .] is at least k/2". u.] such that s + < which exists by the mean value theorem. Continuous Curves 159 Now suppose y is a curve for which { y } 12 = I y I. u. . Let y : [a. Then by splitting y in half. Then we have p(y(s)..3. and u. . multiply this inequality by Let xi be normal coordinates at y(O). Show that y can be uniformly approximated by broken geodesics. 12 > 0. . such that the discrepancy of y restricted to [s. Then Now reparametrize y so that t 2"/c. and let t . u.s = c/2.s n ) + ( d u n ) . . [a. b] is the interval of definition of y. we get Since limn+mg(u. QED Problem 14. . be a number in [. and take limits.) = 1 1 y.) sn = g(Un)(un .a. which contradicts 12 > 0. where c = b .As. where 0 < Bi < 1. and fi = xi o y . y(0)) = ( Zfi(s)2)1/2 ( Xfi(Ois)2)1/2 I s I. we must have that the discrepancy on one of the halves is at least k / 2 .d4)sn.
of a geodesic is a geodesic. and H.160 8. . GEODESICS COMPLETE AND RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS Problem 15. V and H C" distributions.. Let 4 : M + N be a C" map of complete Riemannian manifold M onto Riemannian manifold N such that for every m E M .Show that: (a) If y is a C" curve in N and +(m) = y(O). Prove that 4 is an isometry..) This says that the topological metric of a Riemannian manifold determines both the Riemannian structure and the differential structure. where V .. (See [50]. (b) T h e lift.) and dr$. restricts to an isometry from H . Problem 16. and I y I = I 7 I. decomposes orthogonally into subspaces V . = ker(d4. 169. as in (a)..p.y = 4 o 7. Let 4 : M t N be a map between Riemannian manifolds which is onto and preserves distances. onto NbC. then there is a unique lift 7 o f y to M s u c h that Y(0) = m. M.
t ) = ( 1 1 s l l a 1 1 t I j a . the Jacobi equation is established for vector fields associated with rectangles with geodesic longitudinals and a number of local and global consequences are derived. the exponential is a covering map [24.33. t ) 2 ) 1 / z the area of the parallelois gram spanned by s and t. t E M . Simultaneously.) and curvature transformation R. it will be proved that K ( P ) determines R.. Following a selection of examples. In particular.. 9. is defined by where A ( s . t tangents to M . but for the most part impractical. s. method of computing curvature. it is shown that for a complete Riemannian manifold with nonpositive curvature. K ( P ) .CHAPTER 9 Riemannian Curvature T h e main properties of the Riemannian curvature are established. and let s. be two vectors spanning P. Let P be a plane section at m. T h e first aim is to prove that K ( P ) depends on P alone and not on the particular choice of s and t spanning P. . including a direct. T h e Riemannian (or sectional) curvature of P.(s.1 Riemannian Curvature Let M be a ddimensional Riemannian manifold with metric ( .. A plane section P at m E M is a 2dimensional subspace of M.50.831. and so nothing is lost by considering the Riemannian curvature instead of the curvature form on F(M). 161 .. . .
so that xy + R.. 1 .w ) for all decomposible bivectors xw. called the Gaussian curvature. T o do this we define R. namely: (a’) (c’) Rtjkl R.Xk 7 Xl> where X . is a welldefined bivector. RXoz b@(n.l‘. then the classical object Riikl is given by Ri3kl = <HXt.L that is. T h e above formulas then correspond to the classical ones. can be extended linearly to an endomorphism of all bivectors. and so K is a realvalued function on M . so the corresponding quadratic form determines the transformation.jkl = R.w E Adrn.Z f R. y E MnL b E F ( M ) .xy + I (b) (RXYZ.) If xl. z w ) = (Rryx.. Show thatfpreserves curvature. . Letf : M + N be a local isometry. Y ) . and hence also the ddimensional real projective space. y. (c) says that the quadratic form is determined by its values on the decomposible elements alone.such that . (See corollary 2 below. One way of interpreting these properties is to view R as a linear transformation of the second Grassmann space G2. there is only one plane section at each m E M . RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE Note that. Lemma 1. the curvature tensor R satisfies the following properties: (4 Rx.k?l O. Let x..l ~ . to be the bivector which satisfies ( R z . = Rim (c) Hxvz + R. . .. Problem 1. of bivectors. Prove that the ddimensional Riemannian sphere has constant curvature.z/cZ 1 (b’) = Rwkl = Rt3kl Rzm * I f Rkz. 5 . x d r r x = x.. (a) says that it depends only on the bivector xy and not on x and y individually. xd is a coordinate system at m. y E F ( M ) . For x.. if dim M = 2. Furthermore. .drrjj=y. . . i f z ~ M .w > = <% Rgzx RZYWh = 0. 9)b .162 9. (d) says that R is a symmetric transformation of bivectors. the space . = where b is regarded as a map Rd + Mn. (d’) = Rklz~ Proof of lemma 1. = Dxt . Then (b) says that R. (4 (RxyZ.w > = ( R Z W X . T h e n b y 6 . z.
we first notice that for a.j j above in a particular way. o(d) consisting of skewsymmetric transformations of Rd. (ii). (c) by taking inner products of equation (c) with w. y ) ~ . T h e four equations thus obtained are then added. Riemannian Curvature 163 (a) then follows from the fact that 0 is a 2form. ad . y ) to (x'. since E and b are onetoone.bc # 0. b. out that (i) (ii) (iii) K(x t. K(P)is well defined.y ) . by) = K ( x. and (iii). and hence is alternating.4. by. since it is well known that the transformation from (x. x .y) = K ( x . y ' ) can be obtained by a sequence of the types indicated in (i). y ) / A ( ~ . while (b) follows since @ is o(d)valued. In order to prove (c). y ) = ( R . (d) follows from (a). y ) . y' = cx dy. let K ( x . x. if ab # 0. K(ax. . (b). w .y ' ) = K ( x . E For x.cy. Details are left to the reader.9. + + . y . Corollary 1. c E Rd. and proper use of (a) and (b) will yield (d). I t then follows that if x' = ax then K(x'. we have But then the Jacobi identity gives which proves (c). y Mm .1. Proof. y ) .Y ) = q y . Choosing 2. point We q x . then cyclicly permuting x.
y ) = f ’ ( x . More precisely. x. we get sog(. y E M . But the sum over such permutations is 0 by (c). Proof. Letting g = f . . g(. y . (3) It is not correct to say that the curvature determines the curvature transformation. . let f: S2 + S2be any diffeomorphism of the Riemannian 2sphere. y ) Replacing y by y + w and following the same procedure gives g(x. z. . w ) is the only 4linear function satisfying the properties of lemma 1 which restricts to ( R Z g x ... Y ) +. which satisfy the conditions corresponding to (a)(d) and such that f ( x . RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE T h e ( R z y x . ( g y . By (d). ( g y . 9.So we assume that we have two 4linear functions. y ) + g(... y . y ) . Y . z. Y) . ( g +.. Replacing x by x z in g(x. x. see we that g satisfies these same conditions corresponding to (a)(d). ( g + y . Viewing f as an isometry gives two Riemannian structures on S2 with different curvature transformations but the same (constant) curvature. . x. . x. then (a). g y . QED Remarks. all x. for two different Riemannian structures. . y . . . then the curvature transformations are the same. For example. (2) If M has two Riemannian structures such that at a single point the inner product and curvature are the same.164 Corollary 2. may give rise to the same curvature. . z. + . (1) Sometimes it is more convenient to deal with curvature instead of curvature transformations and this corollary assures us that this will not lose information. z. x. w ) is invariant under cyclic permutation of the three entries. w ) = 0. Y ) = 0 and hence. y . Y ) 4( .f’. f and f on M . z. with different curvature transformations. y . ( R Z y z .y ) determine the curvature transfor mations. x. y ) = 0 we get I. Y) = 0. w . y ) . so g = 0.
[Hint: Use the Bianchi identity D@(E(x). In particular. ( 4 ) = E ( x ) @(E(Y)Y E ( 4 ) E and the fact that + E(y)@(E(z). E(x)A + E(Ax) = AE(x).E(y)) = 0 for every x. Computation of the Riemannian Curvature 165 Problem 3. [A. x E Rd. for (a) This hypothesis is equivalent to: for every x.2(M). K constant on G d . K is constant on then Gd. ( 4 ) E + E ( 4 @(E(x).Q). then . and hence @ ( E ( x ) . y E Rd. Yare vector fields.2(M).E(x)] = A E ( x ) . we show the connection between the curvature transformation and the metric. y . E ( y ) ) = 0 for every vertical F .] 9.4. w ) . y E Rd.2 Computation o the Riemannian Curvature f We indicate briefly how the Riemannian curvature can be computed in terms of the metric coefficients g i j . y in (a) determine the functions ( @ ( E ( x ) . By 6.E ( x ) A so = E(Ax) for A E o(d).E(y))z . x. 2 ( M ) .E ( y ) ) is constant on F ( M ) .E(y)) = 0.2. ( c ) If F@(E(x). d > 2.E(y)) is constant on fibres of F ( M ) . ( @ ( E ( x ) . Use the following outline to prove Schur's theorem [ I 71: If K is constant on every fibre of Gd.E ( y ) )x.9. if X . (b) Since the functions depending on x. y ) is constant on fibres of F ( M ) . then E(z) @(E(x). the hypothesis is equivalent to @(E(x).3.
the Riemannian manifold. Z ) + Y ( X . These two formulas give the desired connection..166 9.3.. Y .(M).XI. the equivalence class of (b. The above formula depends on the following facts: (1) Torsion zero if and only if [ X .Y .(M).(M) over m.z the space (F(&') x Gd*. z>+ w. P)} = ( b . we write G. P)in G.. [Z. and the resulting identification of G.(See problem 7.(m) by : P + { ( b . Y any C" vector fields.(&') = F ( M ) x O ( d ) G d . Prove these statements and the formula. y >+ ( X . Let Gd.Y .. YI.3 G. be the Grassmann manifold of plane sections (twodimensional subspaces) of Rd.Z)= X ( Y .Y.. 771 if X . Hence.18. is the covariant derivative in the direction of X. V. but it is a function on the Grassmann bundle of 2planes of M [3. If b E F ( M ) such that ~ ( b = m. Thus Gas.30. s o b : Gd. Use this formula to obtain an alternate proof for problem 7.X. by [66.(m) for the 2 ) fibre of G. Z are vector fields. RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE where V .)lO(4 of 3. From this it will follow that the curvature on a compact subset of M is bounded.2 {plane sections at m}.However. Problem 4.(m) with {plane sections at m} is independent of b.Z ( X .V. Z ) = (V.. Derive an explicit formula for K ( D x t . 2 ) ( Y ..and in fact a continuous function. the Riemannian curvature K can be viewed as a realvalued function defined on Gd. Z ) . Y ] = V. + 9.2 = O(d)/O(2)x O'(d  2). If..(M) the bundle with fibre Gd.) So Gd. then b : Gd..3(5)]... where M is a Riemannian manifold. p..D x j )in terms of the gii * Problem 5. But we know that b : RdZMm. associated to the frame bundle F ( M ) .. Y ) + ax. We denote by G. m E M .3 Continuity of the Riemannian Curvature K is not a function on M . 2 < V .. P ) O ( d ) . YI>. (2) Parallel translation preserves the inner product if and only if X ( Y ...) . for (We are here using the notation F ( M ) x O(d)Gd. X .Z).
3. though.  which is clearly C" in b and g . not much is known about this problem [ZI. continuous. For example. while the imbedded torus (doughnut) has points of both positive and negative curvature. b(gy)) = (b@. However. which we do not study [19.(E(gx)(b). and hence. T h e function K : G d .2 compact. say P o . Moreover. Let Po be spanned by orthonormal + vectors x. T h e curvature of a Riemannian manifold clearly depends on the particular Riemannian structure which the manifold is given. there is a relationship between the curvature and the topological invariants of the manifold given by the GaussBonnet theorem. gPo). 4 identification maps It is only necessary to show that K o q o p is C". Proof.Then p(b. theorem 4). m ) ( 4 ) g x . Then K(bgpO) = (Rb(g%)b(gyl b(gx). it will be proved that a simply connected compact manifold cannot have everywhere nonpositive curvature (see corollary 2. K o q o p ( b . g y ) . I n general. of G d . Consider the diagram F(M) x O(4 p . . If C C M is compact. H K ( P ) L. g ) = K(b(gPo)). Continuity of the Riemannian Curvature 167 Proposition 1. a given manifold cannot admit arbitrary curvature. then there exist H . ) in particular. Thus. QED Since Gd. Hence. T o define the map p we must first choose an element. 2 .22]. g ) = (b. the flat torus has zero curvature everywhere. remembering that b : Gd. while a noncompact complete manifold cannot have positive curvature bounded away from zero (Chapter 11).9.2 {plane sections at m}. 121. < < Remark. 2 ( M+ R is C". we have the: is Corollary. L E R such that for any plane section P at any point m E C . y E Rd.
[m.11) which is invariant under df and with respect to b. show that M is locally symmetric.x 0 is a geodesic in M . the curve f l ( t ) = f0f&) in G satisfies ( I ) fl is a oneparameter subgroup (of transvections) (2) fl corresponds to an element of m. Problem 8.] Show that there is hence an isomorphism between m and M .I68 9. Problem 11. (A form satisfying this relation is called invariant with respect to b. let 0 = eH E M . ) on m. using that it may be viewed as a closed subset of an orthogonal group. Hence. T h e Killing form k( . ) on g is also invariant under df. From previous results (7. f' show that m and b are orthogonal with respect to each of these forms. Prove that for X E ~e f.4. 2 e m . [Hint: Show that if a is a geodesic. Show that the symmetry fm of M . Y . m] C m. Prove the relations [b. Show that this is equivalent to the vanishing of the covariant derivatives of the curvature transformation.X } . Let M be a Riemannian symmetric space as above. Let M be a Riemannian symmetric space. m] C 8. Conversely. since ad(d!X) c ad(df Y ) = df c ad X o ad Y c d. that is. RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE Problem 6. then show that it satisfies ([XI. ) + (Y.4. then b is the Lie algebra of H . Further. Hence. Show that H is compact. problem 7. where G admits an involution f. Cf. Problem 9 . M is said to be an irreducible symmetric space if .(problem 7. ) on all of g (see 7.) Problem 10. show that the form ( .4) = 0.23). Y 2 [ where X E b.X .14) we know that M is a homogeneous symmetric space. is pulled back via this isomorphism to an inner product ( . . m = { X Eg I d f ( X ) = . [Ij. ) on M . if the inner product ( . b = { X E g I d f ( X ) = X } . Problem 7. $1 C b. M = G / H . Hence. carries a tangent into the negative of its parallel translate along the geodesic through m.23. it follows from a monodromy argument that a locally symmetric simply connected manifold is Riemannian symmetric. A complete Riemannian manifold is locally symmetric if the curvature of a plane section is invariant under parallel translation of the plane section along geodesics. Further. ) may be extended to an inner product ( .
ZI. I n particular. and that these subspaces are invariant under ad b. From problem 7.Show that Y is the restriction to G of a fundamental vector field. Problem 14. Problem 12. Y . I t can be shown that if k( . Continuity of the Riemannian Curvature 169 ad b I m is real irreducible. Problem 15. then ad X . 1.Z).and. show that k( . g is semisimple.3. where is viewed as a subalgebra of o(d). Let X . Using this and the X I fact that ad X is skewsymmetric with respect to ( . # 0. 122). ) on g. Show that G is a subbundle of F ( M ) with group H . x E Rd. there is a linear transformation S . that is. # 0. Y E b. hence. T h e converse is also true [28]. .21). of m such that for Y . and hence that H may be viewed as a subgroup of O(d). p. G acts on F ( M ) and so it makes sense to speak of invariant vector fields on F ( M ) .9. Show that the curvature RXJ = “ X . Problem 13. Show that m decomposes into the characteristic subspaces of S. Z E m transformation is given by M M. When M is irreducible with h # 0 this shows that K ( . Show that basic and fundamental vector fields are invariant. . ) is nondegenerate on g. Let X E m. k(Y. from which it easily follows that g has no proper Abelian ideals. Z ) = (sky. and hence that the Riemannian connexion on F ( M ) reduces to a connexion on G. Show that X is the restriction to G of a basic vector field. if X E ~ . if M is irreducible there is a real number h such that on m 4 1= 7 . YI.show that ad Y ( X )= E ( Y x ) IG. ) is negative definite on 5. Z E m. I n general. Pick f E F ( M ) such that ~ ( f ) 0. and in fact Y = hY. or h < 0 in this case. then G is compact (see [33]. ) is negative definite.8 it follows that only the identity in H acts trivially on m. and consider the = corresponding imbedding of G as a closed submanifold of F ( M ) (see problem 6. If X = E ( x ) Ic . This proves that the holonomy group of M with respect to f is contained in the isotropy group H .
d and G. space. Thus Gd+e. Grassmann Manifolds Real case. Show that if X = 0. ) is a positive X) definite form on o(d e ) which is invariant under o(d e ) and df. T h e Grassmann manifold Gd+e.d only one has nontrivial isometry which corresponds to the identity on Gdte. Problem 16.+e. RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE Use this to derive a formula for the curvature of a plane section of M. When split into corresponding sized blocks. Verify the unproved statements above.d dplanes in Rd+e may be realized as the homogeneous space O(d e ) / O ( d ) x O(e). If A is a matrix with real entries we let A* denote the of transpose of A.d What are the ? isotropy groups of a point ? Complex and quaternion cases.. (X. where A* = A.in this case X E o(d e). ) to be the sum of the squares of entries of X.170 9. then ( . This then serves to determine the curvature everywhere on M . ). Calculate the curvature (constant) of the ddimensional Riemannian sphere of radius r . the Lie algebra of O(d e ) may be considered to be the matrices of the form (fee" i). What are the groups of isometries of Gd+e. dso it is also a Riemannian symmetric . B* = B. in terms of the Lie algebra structure of g and the inner product ( .d= SO(d + e)/SO(d)x SO(e) is a twofold covering of G d + e .d. Show that GA+e. and extends to an .. curvature is nonnegative or nonpositive according as h is negative or positive. Examples. X If we define (X. T h e same formula for df is an involution of the real Lie algebras. then curvature is 0 . We proceed as in the real case except that we let A* be the transpose conjugate of A.d becomes a Riemannian symmetric space. otherwise. Problem 18. It is easily checked that df(!c*$) = ($. respectively. = tr X 2 . Find an explicit matrix formula for the involution f.c) defines a Lie algebra involution with fixed algebra o(d) o(e) which generates an involution of O(d e ) with fixed group O(d) x O(e). T h e oriented Grassmann manifold + + + + + + + Gi+. Assume that M is irreducible. Problem 17.
so that it may be induced on every other tangent space invariantly by using the action of U(d e). Kd+e. Continuity of the Riemannian Curvature 171 involution of the unitary or symplectic group to give the representations Hd+e.d irreducible with negative h (see problem 11). X . Show that the symmetric spaces Gd+e. then K ( X .) We call those plane sections consisting of complex multiples of a single vector holomorphic. Thus each of these homogeneous spaces becomes a Riemannian symmetric space. I n particular. Furthermore. 201. only the holomorphic sections attain the maximal curvature of 4. where the entries of C are in the appropriate field. see [25.3. using problem 15: All sections have the same curvature. but not all positive curvature unless d o r e = 1.d. d . When d = 1 the Grassmann manifolds become projective spaces or spheres. + + + Problem 19. Problem 20. Real field: If X 1 Y . + + T h e tangent space at the basic point in each of these symmetric spaces may be identified with matrices of the form (”* :. I t is not true that the quaternion structure is invariant under ad(ep(d) 5 p ( e ) ) .d.9.and the socalled holomorphic curvature is constant. thus Hd+e. I n the complex case this structure is invariant under the action of ad(u(d) u(e)). so that the quaternion structure cannot be induced invariantly on any tangent space of K d f e .Hd+e.d subspaces of dimension d in Qd+e = = Sp(d + e)/SP(d) x W e ) . + .dhas the structure of an almost complex manifold. show that the curvature may be described as follows. (It is true that “almost” may be dropped. (For the definition of the symplectic group Sp(d).) T h e sum of norms of entries is again a positive definite quadratic form on the Lie algebra which is invariant under the whole Lie algebra (u(d e) or 5 4 d e)) and df. are they have nonnegative curvature.d subspaces of dimension d in Cd+e = = U(d + e ) / U ( d ) x U(e). Kd+e. Y ) = 1 3 cos2 8. p. Y E m and 8 is the angle between Complex field: the holomorphic sections of X and Y . As such it has the structure of a complex or quaternion vector space. and then ) with C itself.
172 9. has an involution given by Opposite spaces. Moreover. + Problem 21.1 and the proof of therem 8. 0") into (& 0") gives an isometry from the tangent space of the corresponding Grassmann space such that the curvature of corresponding plane sections under this isometry is the same in magnitude but opposite in sign. Those matrices { X } with A= B=O may be identified with the tangents to M at 0 = eH. Re provided with a metric of constant negative curvature. RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE If X 1 Y . I n the case of the real field and d = 1 we obtain in this way hyperbolic espace. I n this case the inner product on m is invariant under only ad b. and the sum of norms quadratic form. . then K ( X . and the fixed subgroup H may be divided by to give a homogeneous space M . B* = A 4 C * C B) A C = ( B) * 4 " This involution extends to an involution of the connected subgroup G of Gl(d e. with entries in one of the abovementioned fields. + A* T h e Lie algebra of matrices of the form ($* g). Y ) = 1 3 cos2 9. in this case tr X 2 . the map which takes (OC. and 9 is the angle Quaternion field: between the 4dimensional subspaces X Q and YQ. F ) corresponding to the Lie algebra. not under all of ad g as with the Grassmann spaces. Show that these symmetric spaces are irreducible with positive A. Y E m. may be used to give M the structure of a Riemannian symmetric space.1. X .1). 9. Let Q be a C" rectangle in a Riemannian manifold M . Show that the map exp : Re + M given by exp(X) = exp (x* 0 1 H is onetoone. and hence the natural setting for their study is a rectangle (8. Generally it is sufficient to consider a oneparameter family of such geodesics. = A.4 Rectangles and Jacobi Fields Most of the theorems of this chapter as well as those of Chapter I 1 are connected with the behavior of nearby geodesics or the infinitesimal analog thereof. We use the notation of 8. where B.
gives: DAQ(D2).2) = W D l . D. 0. (c) now follows by substituting (b) into #.*u* . They are certain vector fields defined along a geodesic. Q*Q. [QQ was not used in 8. But c # ~ ( D=)0 and [DlD. (a) has already been proved and used in theorem 8. = .] V is a Jacobifield if V. .] ~ .So the Jacobi equation becomes V" = R. where Q is the canonical lifting of Q to f E F ( M ) .Dz+Q(Dl).to both sides of (a).1. .) wQ(D1). QED Jacobi fields provide the connection between the behavior of nearby curves and curvature.D. (c) is a version of the Jacobi equation.2wQ(D2)= W ( D . D12wQ(Dz) DID. T h e second structural equation. but is. 4Q(D1)1) aQ(D1 + Y 4). If the longitudinal curves of Q are geodesics. then we have the following formulas: (a) (b) (4 D.] = 0.wQ(Dz). Now apply D. D. Since V is defined only on 0. gives d+Q = [+Q.wQ(D.DzwQ(D1) = +Q(Dz>w Q ( W Dd"(D. which is (b).4.1. . and so also D.*(VU*(V)) = %.9.4. D.+Q([Q D21) =  4([+Q(Dl>l Q ( 4 ) l # =  [+Q(&).) = 0 since = [ D .) wQ(D1). Rectangles and Jacobi Fields 173 Lemma 2.) = D.wQ(D. theorem 6.wQ(D1)= (WQ(Dz)) Q ( D 2 ) w ++Q(mDlwQ(m)* # But DlwQ(Dl) 0. [Actually V is a curve in T ( M ) over u.D. ] Proof. of course. Hence this becomes D12. D .we shall often write V' for Vu*V. so we have DAQ(D?) aQ(4a).vo*. Let u be a geodesic and let V be a vector field along u.Q(D2) = (~. D ) Z.+Q(Dz. +Q]+ W . . Applying this to D .
Let 6 ( t ) = ( u ( t ) . If t is sufficiently small. Define functions Riikl on F ( M ) by: Rijkl = Q i j ( E k . for (c) is the Jacobi equation.. e d c t . In any case. and write V ( t ) = Z v i ( t ) ei(t).. Choose b = ( ~ ( 0 e. Thus if V is perpendicular to u* at two points. ) el(t). In particular vd”(t) = 0. the behavior of the other vi does not depend on vd since Ridad= 0.. where K is the Gaussian curvature. P and Fa be the horizontal lifts of u. In the twodimensional case we have vl” = R 1 2 1 2 ( ~ qt()t)) . ( or v“ K = 0. e.. y E M. and V’(0)= y . ed) E F ( M ) such that ed = u. all longitudinal curves geodesics. and V its associated vector field. Theorem 1. . T h e following theorem characterizes Jacobi fields in a more geometric manner.174 9. only .(O). G ( t ) )e i w (6. e d ( t ) =  2 @id(Q). ct. V”(t) = C vi”(t) ei(t).(t)). E l ) . RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE We shall reduce this to the classical equation.. . it is perpendicular everywhere.. for there is a unique Jacobi field V such that every x E Mu.. ..and y E Mu(. V(0)= x and V ( t )= y . then the fact that V is a Jacobi field is really a corollary to lemma 2. so the Jacobi equation becomes V i “ ( t ) = . T h e Jacobi fields along u form a linear space of dimension 2d over R .5) On the other hand..Z k vk(t)Ridkd(6(t)).....1. and ed respectively. V ... Proof.. v Since the Jacobi equation is a linear second order equation we immediately obtain from the theory of differential equations: + Proposition 2. there is a unique Jacobi field V such that V(0)= x. If Q is such a rectangle. so the component of V in the direction of u* is a linear function of t. For every x. T h e Jacobi fields which vanish at u(0) form a linear subspace of dimension d whose values for sufficiently small t consist of all of Mu..o*(t) = R V c t . A vector field V along a geodesic u is a Jacobi field if and only if there is a rectangle Q having base curve u. Then R V ( t ) U .
c)). Also f ( t ) wa(Dl(O. the ray for t = 0 is the one belonging to u. Now Q satisfies the condition of lemma 2. then by proposition 2 it will be sufficient to find a rectangle with longitudinal curves geodesics and associated vector field (along u) W such that W(0) = V(0)and W’(0) = V’(O). For s = 0 we get y . = V’(0). Thus for t = 0 we get + w‘(0) = f ( 4 W Q ( W O ? 0 ) ) = f(&JQ(Dl)(0. Q = exp.. so u is the base curve of Q. that is we take y to be the constant curve.4. since U ( 0 ) = u. . o S.(t)f. But 7 is horizontal. u*(t) = dQ(D.(t.)@ j c [ j c ( t ) = ( t .fl . t ) )is the tangent to the t longitudinal curve at height t . Let y be a curve such that y J 0 ) = V(O). I t is clear that the longitudinal curves of Q are geodesics since for fixed t we just get the exponential map applied to a ray. O*)O’(o..fd(t))* .. which from the definition of Q is U(t). c)] [(c). = = = = O@( P.(t. Thus in this case Q will be factored through Mr.) 1 (6. so In regarding .9. so the associated vector field Wsatisfies W(0)= y*(O) = V(0). lemma 21 V’.and let 7 be the lift of y starting a t f = (‘(o).) ) = +(y*(t))= 0. Rectangles and Jacobi Fields 175 formulated in RZ. QED (h@)= (hl(t).(.so y(t) = ( y ( t ) .wQ(Dl) +Q(Dz) uQ(Dl). U ( t ) = Ch...fd) E F ( M ) . where = . ) 01) OD12wQ(D.Now we define the rectangle Q by a s . Let U be a curve above y in T ( M ) . if V is a Jacobi field.for then Wwill be a Jacobi field by what we have just proved and so will agree with V everywhere by uniqueness.. so we have by (a) : DlwQ(D2) = D. V ( t )= dQ(D.(t)..W Q ( D .5) 0i c o@Q(R. fact. such that U(0) = u. 0 ) ) = = f(h’(0)) V(0).Thus it only remains to show W’(0)= V’(0)..a. f l ( t ) *.we have Rvo. that is. so (bQ(D2(0.(O) and C h.su(t).(t) as a map : Rd + Mo.1. hd(t))) We now apply this to the case where V(0)= 0 and Q is degenerate at s = 0.(O).t) = exP.’(O)f. . * * . Furthermore.L(m u(O)). c)). On the other hand.
o p which vanishes at m and X is the linear homogeneous vector field along p such that V’(0) = d exp. and the growth of V in M . is a linear space). t ) = sa*(O) A linear homogeneous vector field along a ray p in M.X. and this corresponds to S(S. . which goes into u under exp. is a curve X above p in T(M. Corollary. This comparison will involve curvature. so . RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE S is a rectangle in M. applied to a vector field along the ray p in M .176 9. If V is a Jacobi field along u = exp. Hence our Jacobi field will arise as d exp.) such that X(0) = 0 and X ” = 0 (differentiation is possible since M.X’(O). + stV‘(0). then V = d exp.. I n the remainder of this chapter we obtain results by making comparisons between the growth of X in the “flat” space M .. ... From the above definition of the rectangle S we thus have: FIG. .. We may taken U to be linear in t : U ( t ) = u*(O) + tV’(O). For every x E ( it is . 32. there is a unique linear homogeneous vector field such that X(0) = x. & clear that I ) .
9). for example. f E F ( M ) .n is the one induced by the inner product.y) is the area of the parallelogram spanned by x and y.(R. for convenience. then 1 I V 11’ ’ is positive. V ) = 0 and Problem 22. V ) l l (w.U. of course. .K ( V ) A ( U . We remark in passing that X is a Jacobi field along geodesic p in M.3 Notice that if K( V ) is negative. we assume for the remainder of the chapter that ( U .v’)(v. OII V1ll 111 .( V ’ .(V is a Jacobi field) 1l = A(V’.(v’. V)*II VII1. . Because the behavior of the Ucomponent of V has been completely determined (it is a linear function of U ) and because the part of V perpendicular to U is independent of the Ucomponent.V’>)Il ~ l l . we can base our comparison of growth on the second derivative.l . Since 1 1 V Il’(0) = 1 1 V’ Il(0) = / I X 1 1 ’ (see (a) in the proof of Theorem 2. K ( V )= K ( U .. A(V’. We assume also.A(x. u = u* . II V II‘ = = = = = (Q)(K V>””<V’. V ) = 1 1 V / / by the assumptions ( U .. V ) / I V 1 . which is given by the: [As in the definition of K(P). T h e metric on M. V ) z11 V II v 113 + w. We are here.4. that I / U I / = 1.9.V >+ ( V . V ) = 0.>I1 VII’ V 02) II VII” ((V”. QED Determine the Jacobi fields on Rd (see problem 7. 0) <v. assuming that V(0)= 0). so M . V>+(V’. Rectangles and Jacobi Fields 177 according to theorem 1 we shall have a relation between curvature and the behavior of nearby geodesics. I I v 1 ) ’ VII2(IT’. 1 1 U / I = 1. Proof. We introduce the notation: w = p* . V ) y Vl13. is isometric to Rd under.v) . V )= curvature of the section spanned by V and U when they are linearly independent. But A( U .
so Y = dexp. it by suffices to show that the limit of A(V’. strict inequality is preserved in this implication. V’ = Y V” = 2Y’ uY“ = R.4. Y ) is quadratic in each variable. = II I I ( t ) = II dexp. do this we let Y = Vju. + + + . Then since 1 1 X 1 1 ( t ) = t 1 1 X‘ 1 1 for t 3 0. V)Z = A(uY. T o uY‘.X / I 3 I I X I / along p . (i) If K ( V ) 0 along p . (b) is immediate from lemma 3. and the same implication for strict inequality. is an isometry on (M?J0 Since 1 1 X 11‘’ = 0.U (u is the coordinate on R). < Proof. then I1 VII = I I dexp. since exp. Theorem 2..178 9. (c) If K(V‘)(O)> 0. Let p be a ray through 0 in &Ir.X’. Y)Z. (ii) If K ( V ’ ) > 0 at 0. Thus it will suffice to show (a) g has righthand derivative 0 at 0. we ~ have A( v‘. Y’)Z<Y. then 1 1 d exp.5 Theorems Involving Curvature We use the notation of 9. uY’)Z (UY. it is clear that g‘ exists on the positive real numbers whenever 1 1 V 1 1 # 0.. uY)Z V)Z = A(Y.*..X 1 1 < 1 1 X I / at points of p near 0. Let g = 1 1 V 1 1 . Further. then g” 2 0.tX’(t) II t Dividing by t and taking the limit to 0 + we get I I dexprnX’(t) II. ( V . then g“ < 0 in a neighborhood of 0 in the positive reals.. RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE 9. T o show (c) we write the formula for j 1 V I I” as Since lim K( V ) = lim K( Vjt) = K ( V’(0)) the continuity of K . < For (a) we have: since X(t) = tX’(t).. By the uY’ span a parallelogram of the same area as fact that u Y and Y uY and uY’ and because A ( x .1 1 X 11. V)z is zero. / I V II’P +) = II dexprnX’(0 +) II = I I X’(0 +) II . V ) z( V . (b) If K ( V ) 0.
Y ) .z is 0. Define a C” rectangle Q by Q(s. whereas the limit of Y’. Then the geodesics exp. Y’)2 Y . . Let x. K ( x . Proof. .. Theorems Involving Curvature 179 Now the limit of Y at 0 is d exp. T h e corollary then follows from theorem 2. Let p.y ) .y unit orthogonal. . V the transverse vector field of Q. 33. If K( V ) 0 for all Jacobi fields along u. and let y be the shorter segment of the great circle in S intersecting p and T . o T pull together if I y I >..5. I exp. o y I and pull apart if I y 1 I exp. so exp. cannot decrease lengths of curves. through 0. Plane curvature can be used as follows to give a comparison between the lengths and areas of “circles” in M and those in R2. 0 < t < 2 ~ Let K . T be rays in M . cannot decrease lengths of vectors perpendicular to p. m 6 K>O If K ( V ) > 0 along u near m . But 1 1 d exp. t ) = exp. then exp.9. y E M . U I I = 1 1 U 11. < Problem 23. If M has everywhere nonpositive curvature. Proof. . then geodesics from m near u pull away from u as compared to the corresponding rays in M . Thus the limit of A( Y . since we can take u to be any geodesic from m and X any linear homogeneous vector field perpendicular to p. Corollary 2. We need only make precise the words. cannot decrease the length of any vector. By (i). o p and exp. x. c) y 1.. is 0. it follows that exp.. = 0 < s. QED ( Corollary 1. then geodesics from m near u pull towards u as compared to the corresponding rays in M .. < m & Ks 0 FIG. Let S be a sphere about 0.X’(O) = V’(0) # 0. from the equation for V”. (s(x cos t = + y sin t ) ) ..
1 8 = = expJ*+ expf*@ ’8 = exp. p. hence K = ( 3 / ~ ) ( ~ T S.Ks3/6) s4f(s). etc.f d ) E F ( M ) . f i ..’f = (’m.we may write Y = 2 b. 2521.. Show that the formula for the Jacobi field X along y with X ( 0 ) = x.. [ I 7. ’fi .A(S))/S4. Then identifying tangents to S d with tangents to Rd+l. )  Let M .(y(O)). where f is a continuous function of s.12 show that the “circles” of “radius s in Sd” are circles of radius r sin sir in Rdfl.. Using problem 7.. Let M = Sd of radius r .8 K.(. X(0) = y is X ( S )= cos S/Y 2 a i ~ . calculate L(s) and prove that K = l/r2 for all plane sections.” and obtain the formula K = (12/T) lz ( T S 2 . continuous at s = 0. j Remark..*‘q5 0 I#= expJ*w  ‘0 = exp.~.. ’ f d ) EF(’M). + !s (c) Define A(s) = J i L ( u )du. Use the above to calculate explicitely the Jacobi fields on Sd as follows: let y(s) be a geodesic with s arc length.and define as in 8.s3+ . the “area” of the “circle.t ) .. Problem 25. where h is C“ for s > 0. .. RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE (a) Show that the length of V may be expressed as I I V I I = s . Hence.@h(s. . volume of small 3spheres. Show that L(s) = 2 4 s .*’@ = expef*’w. f = ( m .. m E M . ( y ( s )+ sin s/r 2 ~JI~(~(s)).. ’m E ’ M . Let x. (b) Let L(s) be the length of the “circle” Q. Cartan gives a generalization which tells the area of small spheres. . y E Sd.180 9. be tangents perpendicular to y*(O). ‘ M be ddimensional Riemannian manifolds.L ( s ) ) / s ~ . Problem 24. I?.
9. further (3 p)'(O) = d exp.. Let L be the linear map ..u and define J by J = exp. . . is a diffeomorphism and which is contained in f ( N ) .. x 'x FIG. Let T be the radial vector field defined on all of Mrn except 0 which satisfies T o p = U whenever p and U are as before. is then clear that J ( m ) = ' m and It d J == L on Mnl ... . T h e vector field is linear homogeneous along and perpendicular to every ray p in Mn. then f o (exp uX) f' is a oneparameter group of rotations of M . 34. Theorem 3 (fi. Let 0 be a neighborhood of 0 in Mr. Similarly we define ' T on ' M . Theorems Involving Curvature 181 3 Let X E o(d).S ) ( f X ) = 'O('T.'X)(yX). so it only remains to show that J is an isometry.Then we set U = exp. I D)l. then there is a neighborhood U of m and an isometry J : U + ' M such that J(m) = ' m and d J o f = 'f. o L e (exp.. Cartan).a neighborhood of 0 in Rd. .nl( fXf'(p( o 1)).. Using 'f instead off we likewise get a vector field on . Proof.. on which exp.ff' : M . and thus induces a vector field 3 on M .5.. and for every X E o(d) we have O(T. If for every X E N . . + 'M.
(a’) (b’) T#(X) = X + ( T ) + e ( X ) # ( T ) . and hence it will be sufficient to prove 1 #(X) ’#(’X)o L = for every X . by the choice of U. X ) #( T ) = P. that is.‘T.X(p) = t .’X(Lp). Except for an obvious substitution of symbols.. 0L = Xflp(1) by (a) and the remark before the statement of the theorem describing along any ray. II. It therefore suffices to show that d] preserves lengths of vectors normal to the radial ones. (b) # ( T ) = ’#(’ T ) 0 L (c) #(X)(O) = ’#(’X)(L(O)) = 0. p... Deferring the proof o that T 2 # ( 2 ) @(T . d](dexp. 146. are the same on ( M . For every ray p in M . so we must show that T 2 + ( X )and T*(’#(’X) L) coincide. ) o . X ) 0 L)(’#(’T) L ) ’ 0 by hypothesis and by (b) = @( T . we have (x P)’(O). I1 t I I = I I #(x)(p) It d](t) I / = 1 1 ’+(’X)(Lp)1 . RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE It is clear that dJ preserves lengths of radial vectors. T2#(X) = @ (T .’X)’#(’T)) L 0 = (’@(IT. by formula (b). .. (d) #(x) ’+(’x) satisfy the same initial conditions By (c) and and oL x) TZ(’#(’X) L ) = ( ’ P ’ # ( ’ X ) ) L 0 n = (’O(’T. Now if t is such a tangent to U . (c’) Proof. The following lemma will complete the proof: Lemma 4. Therefore.T) = d exp. then there is p E M . and similarly for ‘#. .2)# ( T ) . dJ(t) = d exp. = #( T ) . Also.182 9. But rays are integral curves of T . I/( X). and X ~ o ( d ) such that d exp. Now we make the observations: (a) # and f’ o d exp. T h e only fact we need to establish is .. They will be the same if we can show that the second derivatives are the same. TO(X) = @ ( TX). (4 (#(XI0 P)’(O) 0 = = #(W P)’(O)) (’#(’X)0 p)’(O). the proof is the same as that of lemma 2.
is an isometry. Proof of (2). o dFui = F o expUiwe have that U. Then exp. This follows easily from the geometric interpretation of bracket. Therefore. If M is a flat ddimensional Riemannian manifold. T o show that this is an even covering we must prove that (1) F I ui is 11. Fix m E M . . [that is.. and let dFui map Nu< isometrically onto M. Proof of (1).We want to show that there exists an i such that u’ E Ui. and let u be the geodesic segment ... theorem 1.5. . that is.. that is. on T(M. then F is a covering map. First define a new Riemannian metric on M . is complete in this metric. Proof. is 1. Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold. o dFUil( F I U . Let 0 be a ball about m which is diffeomorphic to a ball 0’of radius r about O(m) in M . and let m E M . there is a neighborhood U of m which is evenly covered by F .1. (3) ui f uj implies Uiand Uiare disjoint.4. each of which is diffeomorphic to U under F. = exp. are straight lines with linear parametrization it follows from theorem 8. Since geodesics from 0 E M . X] = 0. Then from the relation U’) and exp. Corollary. I n the following. Let m‘ = F(u’). let Fl(m) = {ui}. Theorem 4. Let U be the ball of radius r / 2 about m. . . (2) Fl( U ) is the union of the U . and let Ui be the ball of radius r / 2 about ui . to prove the theorem it is sufficient to prove that if F : N + M is a local diffeomorphism with dF everywhere an isometry. Let u’ E Fl( U ) . Let U‘ be the ball of radius r / 2 about O(m) in M . K ( P ) = 0 for all plane sections P on M . for the same result is obtained from either order of the operations moving a given distance along a ray (following an integral curve of T) rotating about the origin (following an integral curve of x). Theorems Involving Curvature 183 [ T . is a covering map.. then M is locally isometric to Rd. . Fl( U ) is the disjoint union of sets U..9. N complete. For this we need to show that for any m E M .5 that M. Assume that dexp. we assume our manifolds are connected. .. since dF.)] by pulling back the metric on M by means of d exp. is everywhere nonsingular.
184 C? 9. RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE of length k < ~ j from m' to m. Construct a Riemannian covering map from the sphere Sd of radius l/u to M . N complete. This proves (3) and the theorem. and exp. there exists an i such that u. Problem 27.A say. and so u' E U. F o C? is a geodesic and hence is u again. is regular within that sphere. = A. Then p(ui .. for any rn E M . (HadamardCartan). p(u'. that is. Locally. is mapped to a point by exp. This proves (2). < r/2 so <r. F(A) = m. Hence. exp. so that if M is simply connected it is isometric to Sd. goes into the end point of u. then the sphere of radius rr/ain M . 0 can be extended to length k. is (b) Show that M and N are locally isometric. which contradicts F(ui) = F(uj). Problem 26. # uj and u' zij) E Ui n Ui. where o1 the transpose of o. (d) If k = u2 > 0. Show that q5 is a covering map if dim N = dim M . Assume that u. ui)< r / 2 . Since N is complete. Then M is isometric to Rd. cr can be lifted to a geodesic 2 from u'. Corollary 1. . then they are isometric ( M and N connected). and since F is a local isometry. F is 11 on a ball of radius Y about ui . (Such manifolds are called space forms. M are Riemannian manifolds. By the corollary to theorem 3. Assume N .) (a) Show that the curvature form may be written CP = kwwl. . Proof. Then M is diffeomorphic to Rd. But by reasoning similar to that of (l). Proof. which is 11 since M is simply connected. Let M and N be complete and have the same constant curvature. I+) p(u'. . Let M be a complete simply connected ddimensional flat Riemannian manifold. (c) If M and N are simply connected and R 5 0. Proof of (3). + M is a local isometry. Corollary 2.. and hence by theorem 4 is a covering map. Let M be a complete simply connected ddimensional Riemannian manifold with nonpositive curvature at all plane sections. This follows immediately from theorems 2 and 4. : M . q5 : N + M regular and locally distancenondecreasing. But then the end point of 6.
50. they have associated frame bundles F ( N ) and F ( M ) . The induced Riemannian metric (or first fundamental form of the immersion) is ( . ) and M a ddimensional manifold with e we shall suppress the I ( m ) in b ( m .C H A P T E R 10 Immersions and the Second Fundamental Form I n this chapter we consider the immersion of a manifold in a Riemannian manifold and the resulting induced Riemannian connexion on the immersed manifold. )' = ( d l . which makes M a Riemannian manifold. 831. d l ) . and the chapter concludes with a section on hypersurfaces [20.(N) be the principal bundle on M induced by I and F ( N ) . T h e problem of the existence of immersions is formulated.. ( . 38.d > 0. and so also the connexion. b) = ( m . and Synge's theorem is proved. We consider two more bundles. = ( I ( m ) . Recall that I is an imbedding if it is onetoone (1. let F. Thus.1 Definitions Let N be an fdimensional Riemannian manifold with metric = f .. We assume from now that I is an immersion and that M has the induced Riemannian structure. el). . el .e l . An immersion of M into N is a C" map I : M +N such that dI is onetoone on every M. er) and write instead 185 . . 10.5). T h e second fundamental form is defined and related to curvature and parallel translation... N and M being Riemannian manifolds. First. * * a .
that is. X E S . . respectively.(N) to O ( d ) x O(e). We now have the commutative diagram: where s is the projection onto the first d tangents. so that o(f) = o(d) o(e) f.) E F M W )I el . . E JfmL}. M ) = { b EF. .. el F(N. Now define F(N. It realizes a reduction of the group O( f ) of the bundleF. + + Notice that O ( d ) x O(e) C O ( f ) is a subgroup. ed E M. and Ad (O(d) x O(e)) f C f. . e. . . gRe C Re}.. T ( M ) be the normal and tangent bundles of M .. and consider the following subgroups of O( f ) : O(d) = {g E O ( j )I gRd C Rd. m = n(b)} (3. ed+l . Let S be the vector space of symmetric d x d matrices over R. . q e ) = {g E O(f) I g I R d = identity. F ( N . + Let o(f).. Ad T ( X ) = TXTl..(N).. e. o(d). g I R e = identity}. M ) is called the bundle of adapted frames over M .. where f = { X E o(f) lXRd C Re and XRe C Rd}..186 10. Problem 1. Then O ( d ) acts on S by the restriction of the adjoint representation of GZ(d. be the r x r identity matrix. Let I . IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM O ( f ) acts on Rf and is the group of the bundles F ( N ) and F.3). D(e) be the corresponding Lie algebras.(N) I b(Rd)= d Z M . Let I ( M ) . M ) = {(m. .. R ) : for T E O(d).. with fibres MmL and M . Decompose Rf into Rd Re.
b. In general. ) on S defined by ( X . M ) . . show that the orbit is the flag manifold FZ(d. However. + + + Problem 3 . f by o(f). using the dual formulation for connexion. T h e Connexions 187 (a) Let M be the orbit of X.. (See problem 7. and dw = +w is the first structural equation.2. so is a connexion form on F.r ) . with this metric.. M ) . and hence it will have to be “projected” onto F ( N . Let be the Riemannian connexion form on F( N ) . that is. . D = d(d 1)/2. is a Riemannian symmetric space. G. f in the above. and so we may consider + + + + .2 The Connexions We shall shortly wish to induce from a connexion on F. G. and X E S has n distinct characteristic values with multiplicities dl .. so M is diffeomorphic to Gd. then the projection of i*# into b under this decomposition of g is a connexion form on B (see problem 5. with the obvious meanings..(N) by I’. i : B C P. M ) be a subbundle of ( P . d. We describe a procedure for carrying this out. the projection of i*+ into b is a connexion form. + Problem 2. T h e metric induced on M is thus invariant under O(d). Then i*+ is a Iform on B taking values in g.. M ) .(N). d. Let (P. (b) If we introduce the metric ( . denoted by #d + e . Let ( B . if f is a vector complement of b in g invariant under Ad H . M ) . Verify that under the condition stated. by equivariance. If we let O(d) act on S as in problem 1. we see that the projection of r*# onto o(d) + o(e) is a connexion form on F (N. representing a reduction of G to H . w the solder form. M ) be a principal bundle over a manifold M and let be a connexion form : T ( P )+ g. This again gives a connexion form on F.). X ’ ) = tr XX‘. so M .25. g = f 9.5). 10. and O(d) acts as isometries.under O(d). fixed is O(r) x O(d . the horizontal distribution on F.(M) one on the subbundle F(N.. Show that the isotropy group which leaves X . M ) in some sense. and hence is not in general a connexion form on B. . Ad H(f) C f .10. H C G..(N) will not be tangent to F(N.(N). then S is isometric to flat RD space. H . o(d) o(e)..) Establish the relation between the inner products on the blocks mij and the characteristic values of X . and denote by the same symbols these forms pulled back to F.. Replacing g. d. .
since w’ = s * w o . IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM the difference form .q b ) c MY(*) and Therefore. T is essentially the second fundamental form of the immersion. where wo is the solder form of F ( M ) . has zero torsion.M ) . Notice that satisfies + + (1) +a(dsl(O)) = 0 (2) = . It is easy to verify that +o is a connexion form on F(M). since = +dw’ = 0.+. Further. Hence. although the formal definition will be in terms of a related object. Thus T = r*+ +J is also horizontal and equivariant. dw’ and +do’ are Rdvalued.188 10. So the structural equation for onF. d(r*w) = Y * dw also takes values in Rd. if we let w’ = r*w. the connexion 4. and 4. de TW’ w’ .(N) gives w dw‘ = + dW’ = r * d w = =  *+w = ($d + + ). while w’ is Rdvalued.(N).w’ = 0. First notice that if b E F ( N . We now use 4. Hence.$dW‘ . + . M ) b ) ) Rd. dW‘ TW‘ is Revalued.for g E Id O(e). From (1) and (2) it follows that there exists a unique form +o on F ( M )such that +d = +o 0 ds. to define a connexion on F(M). C where is the solder form on F ( N ) pulled back to F. then dT’(F(N.TW’. Now. the structural equation of +o is duo = +orno. In particular. w’(F(N.M)b) = bl(dT’(F(N. which is horizontal and equivariant. We now study the structural equations of these various connexions.
connexion on F ( M ) .I is o(e)valued ( 5 ) [ T . + [T..(N). Now let @ be the curvature form of 4 onF.. Problem 4. These facts are all trivial. r + gives the equations d+d =  + dde =  3 [+d [+e ! ddl deI 9 dT = . . If we define a Riemannian metric on F ( N ) by letting the basic and fundamental vector fields.3. Therefore.T] is fvalued ( 3 ) [bd . T] is O ( d ) $.T] = [ T . T]d f [T. that is.. + 10. E. Curvature so that b0 has zero torsion. this induces a metric on F. Fij . it is orthogonal to hf. (b) Show that the horizontal space of theb. Then the structural equation d + = . Note that ( l ) [bd 7 be1 = (2) [+d be. (a) Show that the subspace dl’(F(N.+. TI.[ d d + 9 de T] + r 3 fr .[+>dl @ + + r.bd] is o(d)valued (4) [be. M).10..). and write @‘ = r*@ = @d Qe where takes values in f.Id [T. be orthonormal. 189 the unique Riemannian 4o is Prove that w’ = s*wo . M).o(e)valued.(N).(N) is the orthogonal projection of the horizontal space of the 4 connexion onto dl’(F(N. . I e + + @d @e .) C F M ( N ) bis orthogonal to the part of the vertical space which corresponds to f. Problem 5.z connexion at b EF. This result provides a more geometric description of the )I connexion: it is the closest connexion to the connexion which paralleltranslates adapted frames into adapted frames.[ .3 Curvature We now employ the other structural equation of 4 to relate the curvature of the induced structure on M to the curvature of N .
y to b. .l ~= [ ~ ( f~ ( y )~’(2). y ) .(s(b) @o(x”. ) 9 = ds(jj) are do horizontal lifts of x. Therefore. then Q0 0 dS = @d  [T. 7 )6 .Y) = .(jj)l.b E F(N.(z. 9 )blx. ) and K(x. let x. respectively. on M . y ) is clearly independent of the choices involved and is symmetric since . T h e second fundamental form of z is a bilinear form H . are lifts to b. ff. TI(*.W) @o(ds(f). y to s(b) E F ( M ) . since 3)) y).Y) = (RorvX.(x. 4 [T.y ) = K(x. H. j j ) + T(Z. Thus. 9 )blx. y ) = . TI(% j j ) = 2[7(*). Thus.y ) + 4( b b . (Rd. 9 ) blx. y ) = K(x. = 0.T I ( * .y be orthonormal tangents in M . . defined by H z ( x . Then KO(X. y ) = ( b W ( f . More precisely. ). r) $. P )blx.T ] d .blx. y E M . the curvatures are related by means of the difference form T. r>. T I ( $ . . where [7.Y horizontal liftings of x. b E (r’)l(m). 9)(@))% r> = . jj) Ko(x.190 10. so that x” = ds(n). ] This last term will be given geometrical significance via the second fundamental form. blx E Re. M ) with ~ ‘ ( b= m.y) the curvatures of the section spanned by x and y y in M and N . if Qo is the curvature form of 4oonF(M). Wf) 4 9 h where x. dW)(s(b))’x. since blx E Rd. Denote by Ko(x.4 The Second Fundamental Form Let x E MmL. and 2. Re) so But (Qe(Z. (bod($.(bad(*. r> = . IMMERSIONS THE SECOND AND FUNDAMENTAL FORM In particular. 10.8 ( b [ T .
(Z. given by Hz(x. ( E x Y ) ( m )= w3*)(~))* ( D x Y ) ( m )= w a Y ) ( b ) ) > . T h e Second Fundamental Form TW’ 191 = 0.Z.(M. We have the following interpretation of T.) C T. then T.10. of X to F. I n particular. for x E M .Y) = = (T.y = b ~ ( 3b’(y). there is a corresponding symmetric transformation S .Y) since ~ ( 2is skewsymmetric.(N). T. Y(m’)E NIc. ) where b E (n’)l(m) C F(N. .X = . Finally. Y ) = (SAY). I n fact. M ) and 2 is a lift of x to b. x E M. in terms of parallel translation. of NIc. then T Z y = b ~ ( Z ) ~ ’ ( j j ) . TxY(m) = (D.4..l(iii). define a function f Y : F.. T is an infinitesimal measure of the difference.*. Then from 6. . T.. m E M.4. If y E M .l(iii). on M . ) S.Y)(m).(MmL) C M . that is. . Let Y be a vector field of tangents to N defined on M . that is. Y ) = .z.4. .(N) +Rf by: f y ( b ) = blY(n(b)).. . . Now let T be the linear transformation field associated with the difference form T. if x E M . Let 8 and 2 be the 4 and $ horizontal lifts. that is. Then we have Proposition 1.(Z. covariant differentiation with respect to the connexions 4 and y!I.Y  E.y E NIc. respectively. . Let x E M . respectively. X a vector field on M defined in a neighborhood of m and such that X ( m ) = x. Thus. &(a) W’(y)) T. Y > = H A x . Proof.. Hence.(N) give rise to distinct parallel translations of the fibre. the connexions 4 and y!I in F. As in 6. Now (SP. let D and E denote ..
*y* is in l ( M ) . yo is a geodesic in M if and only if D. Y = dI( Yo)is the corresponding vector field along y 10. Problem 6 .. let Z(t) be the I parallel translate of y along y to y(t). we have ExZ = 0. Let y be a curve with y(0) = m and y*(O) = x.*Y is in the normal bundle I ( M ) . But ) THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM so We give another interpretation of the transformation Txy. For fixed t. y ) to draw some immediate conclusions.Let x E M . Proposition 2. (a) If Yo is a vector field along curve yo in M and = I o yo in N . ) Z(t)E and then let Y ( t )be the # parallel translate of Z ( t ) back along I o y to I(m).(. y E Mm .5 Curvature and the Second Fundamental Form We now apply this interpretation of the second fundamental form to our previous expression for curvature K o ( x . so t + Y ( t )is a curve in N. .). then Yo is parallel (with respect to #o) if and only if D. 1 DxZ = Since Z is I parallel along y . Recall that for orthonormal x. y E MmL. (b) Hence. But ) Y’(O). IMMERSIONS AND where ~ ( b= m.192 10. Y’(0) = Tzy [(’) denotes differentiation in the vector space NICd Proof. .so the result follows from proposition 1.
y ) T x z z .. y to b EF(N. Txx... T. Thus. (TxT.y> = 2 Hz(x. za> = Ha(x. TxT.5.10.X ) ~ i . Now I T ( % ) . a Now (Txzz Y ) ? = Hz(x.(a) W ’ ( 2 ) = + b’(TXTyx ~ TYTxx). . .) . be an orthonormal basis of M. M . x. Let x. so ~ y = x  2 ~ z ( xY. (TyZa Y > = H ~ ( Y . Note that similar arguments give where P is the orthogonal projection NJ(nL. Y ) 2  HZk Y)2).Y 1.T(7). ) za* 1 Hence. M). x ) HdY .y be an orthonormal pair in M .(x. 7 are (+d ) +J horizontal lifts of x.x 9 = 2 H*(X. T ( j j ) ] U’(a) = T ( f ) ‘ T ( j j ) W ’ ( f ) .Y ) r) Lemma 1..x. Let xl.Y > = 2 a K ( X . the induced curvature is the curvature of N plus the sum of the “squares of areas” with respect to the second fundamental form. Proof. 2 Similarly. (Tyx. Y so  ( T .  Therefore. .x =  2 H.I and let + c (HZb 4 HdY. Y ) . Y ) . . Then KO(X> = K(x. Curvature and the Second Fundamental Form 193 where ~ ( b = rn and 2. . f Hi= Hs.Y Y .
We may assume that Y and u* have been normalized. let u be a curve of M such that I o u is a geodesic of N .*u* = 0 by proposition 1.(N). Let P be any plane section of M tangent to u. so this is equivalent to Tzy = 0. It also shows that Ko(P)= K (P ) if and only if Hi(y. then parallel translation with respect to N and M coincide. If this is true. Then M is called a totally geodesic submanifold if every geodesic of M is a geodesic of N . M ) is situated “horizontally” in the bundle F. 0. x) = 0 for every i.. Let zi. Let M be immersed in N by I .(O) and y = Y(O). respectively.dI( Y ) = 0.(P) and K ( P ) if and only if D. This proves the first assertion. IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM Theorem 1.(Xi > TXY). 4 = . (u* . Then Ko(P) K(P). be as above. KO( . u*) = 0 Hi for every i.then equality holds between K. T h e local arc length minimizing properties of geodesics (or problem 6) imply that u is a geodesic in M . u* and dI(u*) are parallel in M and N .r) Hi(Y.*)Z z < 0. Theorem 2. Remark. . so < (Y. u*) = 0. u*) . . by proposition 1. u*) if and only if dI( Y ) is parallel in N . which proves that geodesics in M are also geodesics in N . and hence every parallel vector field in M is parallel in N .194 10. and K. M is totally geodesic in N . In particular. so Hi(u. u*) Y = K( Y .Y = since Y is parallel in M along u. Let M be a submanifold of a Riemannian manifold N with the induced Riemannian structure.which means that the bundle F ( N . Y ) = T. If we let Y be the c $ ~ parallel vector field along u such that P is spanned by x = u. T h e vanishing of the second fundamental form H is clearly equivalent to the vanishing of the difference form 7.(Y.Y = E. Hence. Proof. M is a totally geodesic submanifold of N if and only if its second fundamental form vanishes identically. u*) = . ( Y .K ( Y . But Hi(Y. u*) = 1. or. D. Hence. T h e case of the above theorem for dim M = 2 is known as Synge’s theorem [ 731. Proof.
.. G 2 . t G2.3. Thus by the same argument as in the proof of theorem 1. (b) Conversely. Then a map G.R(XY) R. Hence.(xy) = (Ax) (AY). is tangent to a curve u which is a geodesic in both M and N . if every submanifold which is geodesic at a point is totally geodesic. all i. A submanifold M of N is geodesic at m if every geodesic of M through m is also a geodesic of N .6 The Local Gauss Map Let U be a Riemannian normal coordinate neighborhood in M at a point m E M (see 6. (a) If N has constant curvature show that every submanifold which is geodesic at a point is totally geodesic.(XY) = P. then N satisfies the hypothesis of Schur’s theorem. . all x. since Hiis symmetric. G . pp. that is. . . QED Problem 7.y ) = (Six.3. problem 9. + 2 (SiX)(SiY).2). 10. so has constant curvature (dim N > 2) [17.. Problem 8. + .6.(z) = parallel translate in N of z back along ( the geodesic ray in U from m to the base point of z. T h e Local Gauss Map 195 Conversely. Hi(x. Sithe symmetric linear transformation such that Hi(x. Hi= 0. . is the extension to bivectors given by A. Let zi. this becomes (b) R. P is the projection NIcm. M . : I U ) + Mm MmL is defined ( by: if z E i U ) . 2322331. Prove the following formula for the curvature transformations of an immersed manifold. Hibe as above. then every x E M. x. Then If we view R. R as maps of bivectors into bivectors. y E M .10. if M is totally geodesic. Here. H = 0. x) = 0 for all i. A. is called the Gauss map with respect to U . i i or = P. and if A is a linear transt formation. then G. y ) .R + 2 Si. Let I U ) be the restriction of the normal ( bundle of M to U.
(N). where again we make an identification. x" any lift of x to z in I U ) . then the curve t + 6 ( t )6(0)1z in I U ) is tangent to 2. where 0 is the horizontal lift of (J to F.(x" . If x" is a horizontal lift.x') is tangent to Mnti. z E MmL. has a con& (5. If 6 is the horizontal lift of (T toF(N.(x") = y . 35. with this curve gives us the ( curve t f G(0) G(t)16(t)6(0)~x. Then dG. but by proposition 2.y ) . ) = (dG.4). then this follows from the proposition above. THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM If N = R f .(x") may be identified with an element U ( y of M . If x" is not horizontal. on I ( U ) .196 10. and let x" be a horizontal lift of x to z in I) . FIG. . M ) . so that G may be defined globally on 1 ( M ) . Composing G. as a bundle associated to F(N. ( then HZ(x. QED Corollary 1.(x"). then parallel translation in N is independent of path. Let (J be the ray in U with tangent x at m. z E Mmi. y = Txz. More generally. this works whenever N has a trivial holonomy group. y Proof. and notice that dG. and it will agree with G. Let x E M. Mmi.. then let x' be the horizontal lift. Notice that i ( M ) . + Proof. and y = Txz. so that its inner product . the tangent to this curve is dG. M ) . If x. By construction. nexion corresponding to y5d + Proposition 3. y E M . IMMERSIONS AND Remark.
x) for all x E M . X a C" vector field such that X(m) = x. But so Ifu(%.I. defined as follows. that is. then H f ( X . wherey = Y(n).y) does not depend on the choice of X and further that H .(O) = x.(n) = (a/&. Since df. Let X be an extension of u* to a neighborhood of m. = yg.(x. Let u be the geodesic with a. vUf be normal coordinate functions on V so that V. and we shall use u* in the definition of H. 0 I ) = dZ(x)g. We now return to an immersion I : M + N.7 Hessians of Normal Coordinates of N Let M be any manifold. H f . f has a criticalpoint at n if df. .(x. hence determining H . Let the coordinate expression for Y be Y = XigiVi . is a bilinear function on M . is symmetric.10. m E M .. and let Y be an extension of dI X to a neighborhood of n. . y E Mm . If x. Let V be a normal coordinate neighborhood in N at n = I ( m ) . If m is a critical point off.7. . Hessians of Normal Coordinates of N with y is zero. This follows since x" is the identity on M. For simplicity we shall assume that u = u1 has a critical point at m. T h e second fundamental form will be related to the Hessians of certain functions on M (see theorem 3 below). then the Hessian o f f at m. = x x u x) = x(g. x). f a realvalued C" function on M . = 0. Then a linear combination u = Xi aiui has a critical point at m if and only if Problem 9. . du = Xiai dui annihilates Mnt . Verify these facts about H f without using coordinates. Let ui= vi o 1.)(. . it is easy to verify that H f ( x .. 10..) are an orthonormal basis of N . We shall calculate H. . and let v . . QED  197 x' is tangent to MTaL and G. = 0. Y ) = r(xf).
may be considered as a map of I ( M ) into N . Vdn)> H. If N = R f . Thus fux. and G is independent of n. If I : M + Rf is an immersion. u = Z u . We have proved: Let I : M + N be an immersion.(n’) = (n’. IMMERSIONS AND By proposition 1 we have T. . If G(z) = n.then the normal coordinate combination corresponding to z is just a constant plus u. = = D. we get a corresponding linear function u. identifying N . Assume z = Z aiVi(n) E Mn:. on R f . .G(z) = n. the second fundamental form of z. V a normal coordinate neighborhood of N around n = I(m). z = V. defined on all of J J M ) . Z.E. For any n E R f .n). m E M . .(n). z then the following three forms are equivalent: (a) H . T h e Gauss map.198 10. Hence we have: Corollary 2. .g.X since 0 is a geodesic in M. u.Y This last step. z E MmL. with N . .(x.X . where ui = vi o I are the normal coordinates pulled back to M . . D. Theorem 3.(n) Vi= 0. x). E Mnbi. 4 = YE1 = = (Txx. u . and u is a linear function plus a constant pulled back to M . Then u has a critical point at m and its Hessian form is the negative of the second fundamental form H . is true because the vi are normal coordinates in N so that Zi gi(n) Viis the tangent field to the geodesic in the direction of y.X = D. then the normal coordinates may be taken on all of N .x THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM D.
H . 199 Problem 10. both being defined on M. 1. 0).). . x. .Find the curvature of this submanifold at the point (1.3. Problem 11.If M is not so trivial. Let zli be normal coordinates at n as above. e. If M is diffeomorphic to Rd this is no problem because all bundles over M will then be trivial. .. (c) the form (x. i > d . + + 10. Then the intersection of fl(l) ngl(O) with a neighborhood of (1. where f is a lift of x to I ( M ) . and the bundle of adapted frames will be equivalent to the product bundle M x O ( d ) x O(e).. A Formulation of the Immersion Problem (b) the negative of the Hessian of u.g = u1u3 uzu4:R4t R. S. Show that H. of the normal space (only at this one point). of Rd. where exp. o I .(n) are linearly independent. i and basis Di(0). then the bundle of adapted frames will not necessarily be unique as a bundle. are symmetric d x d matrices.' . . Since we wish to give conditions which depend mainly on the intrinsic structures of M and N . fundamental form with respect to the basis D@). Let g = 2 qg. Let f = uluz u 3 u 4 . 0. = .. are the matrices of the second d. and also giving sufficient structures from which such maps can be obtained. that Rd+ Rf given by x + (x. 0..y ) + (dG(Z). however. (S..10. u = z i bpi . if there .. i = 1. 1. = f = g lM! M.2 and 10. then show ...8 A Formulation of the Immersion Problem In what follows we shall be concerned with giving sufficient conditions that a map of M into N be an isometric immersion. . < Problem 12. . .. and let M' = V n exp.. (Sex.(M. 0) is a 2dimensional submanifold of R4. d l y ) . where the gi are realvalued C" functions on N such that gi(n) = 0 and dg.8... we must somehow construct the bundle of adapted frames a priori. Suppose that M is a submanifold in the neighborhood of n E N which is given as the locus of equations gi = 0. These sufficient conditions are also some of the necessary conditions from Sections 10. S..x.. If S . is the exponential function of N . which involve the bundle of adapted frames.x) is an ) ) imbedding such that S. a dg(n) = z i ba dVi(?2).
then the formula for I' is I' = p. We assume henceforth that we have this bundle B. T h e solder forms of F ( M ) and F ( N ) can be pulled back to forms on P. respectively. Let n. then we would also have the corresponding immersion I' : B + F ( N ) . If we are given 1'. are the projections of P onto B and F ( N ) . IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM is to be a solution to our problem we must certainly be able to immerse M differentiably into N . is defined. A submanifold Q of P is the graph of a bundle map I' : B + F ( N ) if and only if Q is invariant under the action of G and the projection of Q onto B is a diffeomorphism. Since by hypothesis p .+N be the bundle projections. : B + M and 7 ~ . and p .I' is a bundle map. lo)'. j the inclusion map. . . II d7hdPdt) II Theorem 4. the former through the intermediate bundle B.200 10. which is a submanifold of P = B x F ( N ) . Proof. w = w' $. w decomposes into its Rd valued and Re valued parts. If p .(p. Proposition 4. We shall denote them by 0 and w . T h e approach to the problem of finding a suitable I' will be stated in terms of its graph. has an isometric immersion for the induced map I : M + N if and only ifj*(O .w ' ) = 0 and j*w" = 0. = II e ( t ) I I and II d7r2 dP&) II = II 4)I I * A submanifold j : Q + P. Proof. The properties of 0. the latter directly by p .: F ( N ) . T h e proposition is a simple verification. If we had the isometric immersion I : M + N . w we shall need are that for t E P . we can recover I by projecting into M and N . which is the graph of a bundle map 1'.w " . If we combine the normal frames of such an immersion with the frames of M from the given Riemannian metric (not the metric induced by the immersion) we get a bundle B with group G = O ( d ) x O(e) which can serve as a model for our bundle of adapted frames. in that it takes fibres into fibres and commutes with the action of elements of G. IQ is a diffeomorphism. We note that G acts on P by means of the diagonal imbedding of G in G x O(f).
by the .10. T h a t j * ( 8 .2.27). with the corresponding pullbacks to P having the subscript removed.w ’ ) = 0 andj*w” = 0 follow from I being isometric has already been proved in Section 10. Then = 0. Thus we assume that N has constant curvature K and hence that the curvature form of F ( N ) pulls back by p . Let x E Mm . dp2 4 d J ( f ) I I = I I W ’ dj d J ( f ) I I I I W” = I1 d d j d J ( f ) I1 0 = I I dnl 4 d J ( f ) II = II dr1(f) I I + + dj dl(f) I I = IIXII. Since these conditions will depend on having what is to be the second fundamental form and we wish to make our statement depend as much as possible on the intrinsic properties of M and N . We shall now give conditions under which such a submanifold Q can be constructed. j * w ” lift of x to B : d7r1(2)= x. to @ = Kwwt on P. Thus 8 = pl*OO. We adopt the convention that forms on B have a subscript 0. dZ’(f) I I = I I d r . But the curvature form of F ( N ) enters the formula for that of F ( M ) . so @$j = kwiwj (see problem 9. A Formulation of the Immersion Problem Consider the following commutative diagram: 0P 201 i Suppose that j*(O . it is desirable to make the hypothesized properties of the second fundamental form depend only on the curvature form of F ( M ) and not also on that of F ( N ) . where w 1 is the transpose of the column vector w . T h e connexion form onF(M) pulls back to B .so the only way is to make N have curvature which is independent of position and direction. let 2 be a I I d 4 x ) I I = I I d r .w ’ ) = 0.8.
IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM + projection q : B +F ( M ) . +” + . Then the codistribution on P spanned by 0 . N complete. T h e connexion form on F ( N ) pulls back by 9.. Theorem 5.202 10. €.~ ~ $ 0 ” d$o” = u ~ u ~ .Vo = 0 + (1) (2) (3) (4) u . w ” . Thus we let = P. I t decomposes into several blocks: + + 4‘ 7 o(d)valued d x e matrix. Similarly for curvature. Let uo and be 1forms on B such that +o is a connexion form with the o(e)valued part.7. Let M be connected and simply connected.w ’ . uo is horizontal.eOt u. to an o(d)valued form + o . equivariant €. so the structural equation on P becomes d+ = +2 Y. and so gives an isometric immersion of M into N . to a form on P.valued.+’.4’’ is involutive and every maximal connected integral manifold is a component of a manifold Q satisfying the hypothesis of theorem 4.*+~. T h e structural equations on F ( N ) then give dw’ = dwtt= d+’ d7 = = 4‘w’ Ttw’ + +  TW” + +l‘wf‘ T T ~ 4’2 +’T &” = .valued e x d matrix d and 4” o(e)valued. and satisfying the conditions Yo = uouOt+ k8. and duo = I//OU~ . .+”2 +k w ’ ~ ’ ~ 74’’ + K w ’ ~ ’ ’ ~ + kw ” w ” ~ . .
but the justification for using the whole forms in this way is trivial.4”) is a linear map of each tangent space P. a maximal integral submanifold Qo will contain a component of such an orbit whenever it contains a point. and these are a parallelization of that subspace. so dp.8.T.TTt . is 1. the kernel of dp. +o(Yo*) = 0.10. 4”. Thus Q = Q0G will be an integral manifold invariant under G.) the five forms become . onto Rf o ( f ) (more or less).4’) (+ .kwtw’t ( 0 .4’) # . (Actually it is the components of these vectorvalued forms that should be considered. the equivariance of the forms in the distribution guarantees that an element of G takes an integral manifold into an integral manifold. $” .T t ) w’~).4“ annihilate the tangents to the orbits of the diagonal action of G . For example. I$’.+’) = = = +z + ?’ + ! +’2  ~d . CI . T o show that r = p . Since . . A Formulation of the Immersion Problem 203 Proof. d(+ .w ’ . w ” .I$‘ and +‘‘ . except for trivial duplications (I$ij’ = I$ji’). . T h e other four exterior derivatives are found to be in the ideal generated by the five Iforms in much the same way. This follows from the fact that on the subspace of tangents to the factor F ( N ) of P (that is.) We first show that the dimension of the codistribution is constant and complementary to the dimension of B. Moreover. w”. so the kernel has constant dimension the same as B.4’) + k(O +  +‘(+   w’) Ot + kw’(et + 4’) +  uut + met . Thus the 5tuple (6 . 7. By this same argument the kernel of the linear map is complementary to the kernel of dp. That this codistribution is involutive follows from the conditions (1)(4) and the structural equations.T ) Ut + T(Ut .w ’ . +o”(ro*) = 0. Hence the integral submanifolds will be mapped locally diffeomorphically into B.1 and onto on the distribution in question.k ~ ’ w ’ ~ (+ . If yo is the horizontal lift of a geodesic of M we will have + $ J Bo(yo*) = x = constant. $ I$’. IQ is a map onto B it suffices to prove that the horizontal lifts of geodesic segments in M can be lifted to Q: starting with a single point in B we can get all other points by moving along such curves and by the action of G.+’(# .
i>d x Integral curves of such an X clearly exist by the condition of completeness of N . It remains to show that r is 11.k<d. Equation (4) says that the o(e)valued part of the curvature on B is uoluo. must satisfy Since it is only thecomponent of y which isin F ( N ) whoseexistence is in question. IMMERSIONS AND and if uOij THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM = z k SOijkeOk Y then the functions sOijk yo are continuous and hence bounded. because they can then be extended by equivariance to the remaining part of the fibre.and we find that d$%Y* = E ( x ) + 2 xk(sijk y pZ)Fij = i. Then (:otp) has values in that Gmodule. is horizontal.204 10. and satisfies an . (b) Equations (3) and (4) are the structural equations for uo and I. To this end we note that Q is a principal bundle with group G and some base manifold M‘ and that r : Q + B is a bundle map. on a cross section of M into B. M’ connected. we project y* onto F ( N ) . QED Remarks. T h e lift of yo to P. (a) T o find local imbeddings of M into N it suffices to construct forms such as uo . T o interpret (3) as a structural equation we consider the adjoint action of G on its orthogonal complement in o ( f ) . Thus the induced map M’ + M is a covering map. is 11 because M is simply connected. which we shall call y. instead of a cross section we can also use M itself. since the o domain of yo is a closed interval.!I~’’. Since curves can be lifted from B t o Q they can also be lifted from M to M‘. This implies that r is also 11. so the lift y exists.
z. but withf larger by d than Cartan's solution.y ) . E = D d = dimension V . . w . 431 in our context. which only depends on the curvature identities. (3') where D is as in 5. Let D = d(d . x. Cartan [I61 has shown that they possess many solutions provided f 3 d(d l). (Hint: let k = 0 consider the imbedding of problem 1 1 . and for analytic Riemannian manifolds this regularity implies the existence of local solutions of (3) and (4) also. such that the curvature K ( x . Thus (3) may be restated as Duo = 0. show that if R is a tensor (not a tensor field) satisfying those identities then there is a Riemannian manifold having R as curvature tensor at one point. + . When we speak of t E T being positive definite we mean it as a symmetric bilinear form on V . so that (1) and (2) are solvable locally.3 for the connexion 40 + 40". x .1)/2. 4 + Problem 13. P is a subspace of T . 431. A Formulation of the Immersion Problem 205 invariance of the type in lemma 5.) T h e following problem gives an outline of the solution of (1) and (2).. T may be considered to be the space of symmetric bilinear forms on V = the symmetric part of Rd @ Rd. x> (siyt Y > . p. this is the statement of the CartanKahler theorem [15. w ) = t ( z . t ( x . part (ii). z .8. > ~ ) A. Problem 15. Assuming Cartan's solution of (1) and (2). 81. i=l ((sex... y .3. y ) of orthonormal vectors x. Let U = 4linear functions on Rd satisfying the curvature identities. P = symmetric 4linear functions on Rd. and T = 4linear functions on Rd satisfying the identities: for t E T . which is true only in the analytic case [34. w E Rd. Analyticity is definitely required because the CartanKahler theorem leans on the CauchyKowalevsky theorem. y .10. Y + Problem 14. x. (c) Equations (1) and (2) are algebraic at each point.e. is given by e ~ ( x )= y. z. y E M .(Six. T h e solutions which Cartan obtained are of a sort which he calls regular. w ) = t ( y . S = symmetric d x d matrices. i = 1. T h e algebraic problem (1) and (2) is equivalent to finding second fundamental form matrices Si.
. = the identity matrix of order r. dim P = d(d3 2d2 3d 2)/24. p . then an integral = i .where sI = sii is the i.1)/12 = dim T . are given on M such that p. and let I . 4. hence G is onto U. then R = XiG(F(si)) is the formula which expresses the curvature tensor R in terms of second fundamental forms si for an imbedding in Rd+k..f i s integrable and the graph of F is an integral submanifold. dim U = d2(d2. (c) A symmetric bilinear form is nonnegative semidefinite and of rank one if and only if its matrix may be written X X . w .f. y Verify the following: (a) If sl. j entry of the d x d matrix s. w)= t ( x . where X is a column matrix. z. (b) dim T = E ( E 1)/2. k E. i = 1. ID (g) Every coset t P contains a positivedefinite element. Then the codistribution spanned by pl*F*wi . + + + + < + < < (f) If we order the double indices I so that the repeated ones come first. y . Conversely.*Bi . K = the d x d matrix with all entries 1. IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM Let F : S t T be defined by andG: T  Uby G(t)(x. 4 . 1. i j .... then the matrix of F(s) is (sIsJ).dim P. be the projections of the product Let M x N .. y . . i = 1. Thus the set of sums Xi F(si) is exactly the nonnegative semidefinite part of T ..206 10.f. where N is parallelized by 1forms wi . (d) If we take as basis of V elements of the form i(e$ @ ej ei @ ei).. + Problem 16. Let F : M t N be a differentiable map. .p .. .t ( x . j ) . if forms B i . sk E S. * w i . . .p2*wi span an integrable codistribution. (e) Every nonnegative semidefinite symmetric bilinear form t on V may be written as a sum of k = rank t of those of rank 1. and index these basis elements by pairs I = (i.. z.. p .. and G is linear with kernel P. i j .. T h e following abstracts part of the proof of theorem 5 . then the bilinear form on V with matrix (IdfK ) is positivedefinite and in P .
Let Id : M + N be isometric imbeddings as hyper . i = 1. 2.9 Hypersurfaces A hypersurface is an immersed manifold in a space of one dimension higher. T h e possibilities for the bundle of adapted frames is also limited in the hypersurface case. which implies that each R. is either 0 or of rank 2. Theorem 7 holds without the restriction that M be simply connected because we are given the existence of the immersions and thus know that the integral manifolds give the graphs of their prolongations uniquely.9.. dI. so the curvature transformations of a hypersurface in Rf are very special. In fact. ooBol= 0. + T h e immersion I is uniquely determined by the specification of the second fundamental form uo . When M is simply connected only the two copycase is possible. Hypersurfaces 207 submanifold is locally the graph of maps of neighborhoods of M into N . then there is an isometry J of N such that ]I1 = I . . are isometric immersions of M If as a hypersurface such that the second fundamental forms coincide. Problem 17. This makes the specialization of theorem 5 much simpler. since +’’ = 0 is determined. Theorem 6. N = Sd+l or N = Rd+l). This yields the uniqueness theorem: Theorem 7. the unit normal bundle must be either a connected double covering of M or two copies of M . . then M may be immersed in N . Ii : M + N . in the notation above e = 1. When the immersion is into Rf the curvature may be expressed in terms of one second fundamental form. thus B is either a double covering of F ( M ) or two copies of F ( M ) .g. for one m E M . If N is a ( d + 1)dimensional complete manifold with constant curvature k. Let N be of constant curvature k and such that the group of isometries of N is transitive on F ( N ) (e. 10.10. ] is produced by forcing it to satisfy the condition at some single point: d ] dIlm = dIZTn dJ(zl) = z. where ziis the chosen and unit normal at m for Ii.. Let M be a simply connected Riemannian manifold with curvature form Yo = ooool KBoBot. where uo is an Rdvalued equivariant 1form on F ( M ) such that Duo = 0. and a choice of unit normal at M.
S. where g = X ui2 . Sd = gl(O). B are + . such that the second fundamental forms agree and for some m E M there is an isometry J : N + N such that d J d I . parametrized by arc length. if y is a curve in M starting at m.( 4 Y g ) Y I Problem 20. Prove that ]Il = I . is constant and equal to l/r2. Show: (a) At any m E M there is a unique unit normal z1 such that dg(z.) = a > 0. I2 . # 0. Y = X b.D. Alternately. show that the development of Il o y into N . Problem 21.. (b) If M' is the linear hypersurface of Rf through m E M which is l z . = Z biDi(m). show that the second fundamental form Hl of M at m is given by H. giving the M of problem 18 the induced metric. z' = d ] ( x ) . Show that = g'(O) n {n I dg(n) f 0) is a hypersurface in N . 2. then the curvature in M of the plane of x and y is KOb.r2 : Rd+l+ R. x. are the second fundamental forms of = I . and consider Rj provided with the Euclidean metric. Problem 22. These normal vectors form a differentiable field in I & ) M is orientable. Let g : R f + R be differentiable. and if z is a normal at m. Y ) = (l/a2) { x ( X g )Y ( W . n = l l ( m ) . ( 'so .208 10. = d I Z m . y ) = (lia) H&. Problem 19.(x. (a) Use the fact that the associated vector field V is a Jacobi field in R3 to show that it may be written V = U A B. IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM surfaces. i = 1.Di(m). . [Hint: Use problem 16. . . . A ruled surface is a surface in R3 such that through every point there is a line (a ruling) in R3 which is contained in the surface. and assume that y is the base curve of a C" rectangle having rulings as longitudinal curves. where A. then SzS. and we let X = X a i D i . S . . Show that the curvature of a ruled surface is nonpositive. Let g : N M + R be differentiable. .L . where S. depends only on the second fundamental forms along y and the development of y into Mr. Y ) . Let y be a ruling in a ruled surface. Y E Ml * 7 L y (c) If x = Xaa. where g' = g IM' . Use the formula for KOgiven in problem 19(c) to show that the curvature of the sphere of radius r.] Problem 18.
where K = curvature along y . M x Se the metric induced by I. B. Let I' denote the first d . & E l / ) onto the tangent plane to the surface (proposition 1) to find E2V explicitly in terms of ( A . d @ ) V 4. Y ) in the cases: (i) X .9. B ) and thus find the formula for K along y. then J gives us an imbedding of S d x Se as a hypersurface.10. Problem 25. vd). Considering Rd as the subspace of Rd+ehaving the last e coordinates 0. (c) J is an imbedding if and only if I is also. Moreover.4 = ("(m). We give M the metric induced by I . Y both tangent t o S d . Products of spheres as hypersurfaces. by defining m. M imbedded in Rdfl as a translate of the usual Sd so as to have v d > 0. If M is a curve in R2 we say ] ( M x S e ) is a hypersurface of rotation. Let M be immersed in Rd. E is covariant derivative in the surface with respect to y* . if the initial transverse curve is chosen at the right point then we may have A . (a) Show that M x {x} C M x Se is a totally geodesic submanifold for every x E Se and is isometric to M . Prove that a doubly ruled flat surface ( K = 0) must be a plane. .I : M + Rd. (b) Use the fact that V is also a Jacobi field in the surface to conclude E2V = KV. E2V are the projections of DV. so I = (I'. in such a way that the last coordinate vd = ud o I is always positive on M . and y * mutually perpendicular. and in that case {m}x Se is isometric to an esphere of radius vd(m). A ) and ( B . If we let M = Sd in problem 24. Problem 23. we get an immersion ] of M x Se. (c) Use the fact that EV. (b) Show that { m } x Se C M x Seis a totally geodesic submanifold if and only if m is a critical point of vd . (a) Find the curvature K ( X . Hypersurfaces 209 parallel along y in R3. We say that M x Se is immersed as a manifold of partial rotation.I coordinates of I . A surface in R3 is doubly ruled if it contains two lines in independent directions through every point. Problem 24.
s' E M . By considering Rd+1 c Rd+e+l we get a normal bundle to M which has fibres of dimension e 1. t' E N . Problem 26. where Xi are the characteristic values of the second fundamental form. T h e hi are classically the principal curvatures. (c) If M is compact show that r may be taken constant and hence the imbedding of M x N constructed in such a way as to have induced metric with formula (s + 4 s' + t'> = (s. If M is a hypersurface in Rd+l show that the curvature transformation. o n + c (4 f > z . is diagonal with respect to a basis of decomposible bivectors and has characteristic values hihi. when viewed as a symmetric linear transformation of bivectors. . . Problem 27. (a) Show that there is a C" positive function r on M such that the exponential map of Rd+e+l a diffeomorphism on is + + I. IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM (ii) X tangent to S d . )2 is the metric on N induced from Re+l.and c is constant. differentiable function of n E N . where s. and by taking r nonconstant we get an imbedding of M x N . then the procedure given will yield an immersion of M x N .210 10. However. and find what can be said about totally geodesic submanifolds and curvature. Remark When M is Sd the procedure in part (c) gives N x Sd as a manifold of partial rotation. Let M be an orientable hypersurface in Rd+l. t . Y both tangent to Se. A special case is the usual imbedding of a torus as the surface of a bagel. (d) If M .(W = {(m E I W II x II < r(m)>* 4 (I (b) Show that M x N may be imbedded in Rdfe+l. find an example where M is not imbedded. N is imbedded. (b) Generalize this to an imbedding of a product of any number of spheres as a hypersurface. ( . and because M is orientable this normal bundle has e 1 independent global cross sections. . N a submanifold contained in a bounded region of Re+l.i < j . ) is a metric on M which is a . Y tangent to Se. (iii) X . N are only immersed. ( .
I n particular. N having constant curvature. i = 1. Problem 30. Show that the curvature transformations at a point of a 3dimensional Riemannian manifold may be realized as the curvature transformations at a point of a hypersurface in R4. but is only defined with respect to an immersion at points where M has constant curvature k . by problem 28. If M is a hypersurface of N . Hypersurfaces 21 1 Problem 28. is the second fundamental form transformation for a normal z at m. where S . if t ( m ) 3 2 then t ( m ) is determined by the curvature independently of the immersion. 2 be immersions of M as a hypersurface. . then the curvature determines the second fundamental form. Prove that if t ( m ) > 2 for every m. then there is an isometry J of N such that ]I1 = I . T h e type number t(m) of m E M is the rank of the second fundamental form at m . (a) Show that k is well defined when d is even but only up to sign when d is odd. d. Problem 29. k coincides with the curvature. and let It : M + N . If M is a hypersurface in R d f l . (b) Show that k(m) depends only on the metric on A4 and find a formula for it in terms of curvature. Problem 32. then we define the Gaussian curvature of M to be the realvalued function k on M given by k(m) = det S . (b) T h e difference between the curvature transformations of M and N (restricted to M. there is a distribution V on M of dimension e. (c) If neither (a) nor (b). when d = 2.) has its range in a single twodimensional subspace of Mm if and only if the second fundamental form has rank 2.9. . show the following relations between the second fundamental form and curvature at a point m: (a) T h e curvature at m is constant and the same as that of N if and only if the second fundamental form has rank 0 or 1. that is. Let M be a complete hypersurface of Rd+lsuch that the holonomy group of M is reducible. . Problem 31. T h e orthogonal complement V1 is then another such distribution. Let N be homogeneous of constant curvature k .10. Classical rigidity theorem. e # 0. which is invariant under parallel translation on any curve.
. (c) the linear submanifold in Rd+l of dimension e with tangent space V . IMMERSIONS AND THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORM Assume that the set of points at which there is some nonzero curvature is dense in M . (b) the parallel translate of elements of V in M coincides with their parallel translate in Rd+l. let us say V. at any m E M . then M n Rde+l= N is a hypersurface of Rde+l and M is imbedded in Rd+l as a Riemannian product N x Re C Rde+l x Re. Show that: (a) the second fundamental form is 0 on V or VL.212 10. is contained in M and the straight lines in this linear submanifold are geodesics in M . . (d) if Rde+l is the linear subspace of Rd+l perpendicular to V .
. T h e index form for general end points is defined.I First and Second Variation o Arc Length f We now take u p the study of the relation between the lengths of the longitudinal curves of a rectangle and the associated vector field. T h e chapter closes with a version of Rauch's comparison theorem and a number of consequences.. If the base curve is a geodesic and the initial and final angles of the associated vector field satisfy certain reasonable conditions. n. b] x [c. in this case it is the second derivative which determines how nearby curves compare in length with the base curve.~ < u. d ] + M such that there is a finite partition u. = b of [a. 831. In general. A broken C" rectangle Q is a map [a. Minimum points and closed geodesics are discussed as well as various formulations of convexity. 213 .. 50. = a < u1 < . i = 1.. these first and second derivatives of the lengths of longitudinal curves are given by differentiating the length integral under the integral sign with respect to the transverse parameter. b] for which the restriction of Q to ui] x [c. Hence. d ] is a C" rectangle.. and after a treatment of the elementary properties of focal and conjugate points. < u. including relations between curvature and volume [38. 11 .. Thus we get what are called the Jirst and second variations of arc length along the curve of a rectangle in the form of integrals.CHAPTER 11 Second Variation of Arc Length T h e first and second variations of arc length are considered and Synge's formula for the unintegrated second variation and its specializations are proved. . the Morse index theorem for one fixed endpoint is proved. then the derivative of the length with respect to the transverse parameter is zero.
j I dQ(Dl) I I (u. 11. +"(Ill) 0 because the longitudinal curves = of 8 are horizontal. respectively. V is the vector field associated to Q. in R2 and values in Rd or o(d).). (d) If M has a Riemannian structure.bQ(Dl). Using the notation of Let c. y E [0. (c) On the other hand.0 ) ) for u E [a. (f) If Q is a broken C" rectangle. although Q*w(D2) may be defined continuously while Q*w(D1) will have right and left limits.wQ(D2).(ui . etc. 0) and DZ2 I dQ(D. . that is. (e) If T is a broken C" curve in M and V is a broken C" lift of T to T ( M ) . v ) )need not be well defined. Q*w(D. while uQ(D. b] x [0.then there exists a broken C" rectangle Q having T as base curve and V(u) = dQ(Dz(u.. (b) If Q is a broken C" rectangle show that dQ(D.) I I (u. but in any case has left and right limits and derivatives at these points. b].bQ(Dz) are defined and broken C" on all of [a. w a form on M . T h e integrands D. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF (a) Show that a broken C" rectangle is continuous. 11. Now let Q be a broken C" rectangle in M defined on [a. v). are functions with domains Section 8.)(ui. 11 with associated vector field V and longitudinal curves T~ . be a canonical lifting of Q to F ( M ) .214 Problem 1.1. wQ(DZ) and c. v ) and Q*w(D. Then the length of T~ is so and are the first and second variations. uQ(D.(u. then Q * u is not defined on the vertical lines u = u i .1.)may be discontinuous on vertical lines u = ui . then a broken C" rectangle has a canonical lifting to F ( M ) as defined in Section 8. 0) are called the unintegrated jirst and second I variations of arc length. dQ(D.)(ui+. b] x [0. v ) ) is well defined for every (u. 11. v ) in the domain of Q and defines a broken C" rectangle in T ( M ) .
0 wQ(D1)>(.wQ(D1)>(. 0) w 0)). ).D2wQ(D1)= 4"(D1) = wQ(02) 215 + d Q P 2 ) WQ(Dl) 4Q(WwQ(D1). Q ( 4 ) > ( a . ) du 0 C a J 1 + c(wQ(D2).)and wQ(D2).. C ja According to the last remark above.1. DlwQ(Dl)>(u. (wQ(D2). ) du 0 1 + c{<wQ(D2). we have used (1) and the fact that +O(D. D.4Q(D2)l @Q(D. . Therefore.0 ) 1 cD. .(wQ(D2).c (wQ(D2). (2) DAQ(D2). GwQ(D1)>(u. [CQ(D1).D24Q(Dl)= DAQ(D2) = = + OQ(D1 D2) 9 T h e inner products of the longitudinal and transverse fields of Q are given by the corresponding inner products of wQ(D. 0) = ~ 2 < w Q ( D 1 ) .wQ(Dl)>""% ) 2 0 1 = <D2WQ(D1). 0 ) 1 c <D1wQ(D2). wQ(D1)>(u.(wQ(D2). and assume that the tangent to the base curve has constant length C. . D2).. wQ(D1)>(u... Lemma 1 .) is skewsymmetric.give (1) D1wQ(D2).1 1. Let Q be a C" rectangle. Then 1 b l'(0) = . 1 b Z'(0) = . Proof. wQ(D1)>(b.0 ) =  = = c 1 c<DPJQ(D2) 4Q(D2)WQ(Dl)> wQ(D1)>(u.(wQ(D2). D1wQ(D1))(u. D I I d W 1 ) I I (u.0)li 9 which is the desired formula. First and Second Variation of Arc Length T h e structural equations applied to D.. 0) 1 .
T h e idea is that we are able to get rectangles with sufficiently arbitrary wQ(D.(W0(D2). and then that T is smooth at the breaks. If the base curve of broken C" rectangle Q is a geodesic wQ(Dl))(b. wQ(Dl))(a. Corollary 3.). P be submanifolds of M . SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF If Q is a broken C" rectangle having the tangent to the base curve a constant C in length. . and let us consider only broken C" rectangles whose initial and final transversals are in FIG. w Q ( 4 ) > ( a . per0) pendicular to N a n d P at the ends. then Corollary 2. = 0.216 Corollary 1. Under the hypothesis given the integrand in corollary 1 is 0 and the sum telescopes to give (wQ(U.0) = 0 for every u. Proof.). 11. 0) = 0 .) that the formula for Z'(0) = 0 will yield DlwQ(Dl)(u. Proof. N and P. 0) (unbroken) and (wQ(D2). 0) . then 1'(0) = 0. l'(0) = 0 if the transverse curves are all perpendicular to the base geodesic. T h e base curve is a geodesic if and only if wQ(D.)is C" and DlwQ(Dl)(u. Z'(0) = 0 if and only if T is a geodesic from N to P which is perpendicular to both N a n d P. Let N. WQ(Dl))(b. Then a curve T has the property that for all such rectangles with base curve T. = (wQ(D. 36.0). I n particular.
wheref(u) is a nonnegative C" function which is positive at r and 0 at every ui . T h e terms in the sum are treated similarly. parallel translating t along T . b l . unless the base geodesic is allowed broken linear reparametrizations. v ) for this Q. Then V = f y is a lift of T to T ( M ) . by . and that the terms in the sum of corollary 1 are all 0.T * ( z L .the other end is treated likewise. 0) du = 0.. we shall only be using rectangles having a geodesic as base curve and the associated vector fields perpendicular to the base.. (Classically. It is easy to see that = 4 w Q ( W ( u .y* = 0 following as a consequence. where y is a curve in N with y(0) = T(u). and defining Q as above. If Q is a C" rectangle having a geodesic base curve and with the initial and final transversals perpendicular to the base curve.. + Problem 2.0) = 0. T h e remark is not true for broken C" rectangles. however.0 ) = f(4I D I W Q ( D 1 ) I l P I (% 01.wQ(D.) ) = 0 for every t E M T ( u i )0 < i < n. a geodesic was defined as a solution of the calculus of variations problem of finding minimal curves. First and Second Variation of Arc Length Let T 217 Rdby y(u) = f ( u ) Dw(?*)(u). Thus I'(0) = 0 gives S:f(u) / I DIWQ(D1)1 1 2 ( u .). <W"(D. T h e rectangles to show normality at the ends of T may be taken to be those having longitudinal curves consisting of a short geodesic segment from y(v) to T ( U e ) and the segment T I r a + r .) Our applications of variational theory will only involve variation of a geodesic in a direction perpendicular t o the geodesic at every point.so we may define Q(u.)(r. multiplying the field so generated by a nonnegative function positive near ui but 0 outside a neighborhood of ui . Remark. with selfparallel condition Vv.1. '*(ui+) . As further justification for this assumption we prove the following remark which shows that for C" rectangles satisfying the end conditions the assumption entails no loss at all. define a curve y in exp. We show that ( t . be a horizontal lift to F ( M ) . If r # ui .11.vV(u). that is. which implies D. . Show (independently of the arguments in Chapter 8) that a curve which minimizes distance between two points is a geodesic.
d ] . b]. The proof is by direct computation. For convenience we also assume that the base curve is normalized so as to have unit tangent vectors. Define map F : [a. D . wQ(D1)>(u. Complete the proof that the vector field associated to Q o F is perpendicular to T . b] x [c. . wQ(4) >. + wQ(4)>. b] x [c. D '. w Q ( 4 ) > .(wQ(D1)7 w Q ( 4 ) > ? ' l = (D. DzwQ(Dz)>+ <wQ(D1).. initial parameter value a = 0. 71) = u i  . 0): Dz2 I I w Q ( W I I = D. b] Proof. T h e unintegrated second &%?(Dl). / I w Q ( W II = <4wQ(4). T the base curve of ' ( V . d ] by Proof. By hypothesis f ( a ) =f(b) = 0. 1 k where E >0 = (T* is such that the range of F is in [a. Now using the first structural equation ( I ) and the fact that dQ(D2) is skewsymmetric gives (a) 0) = 1. and k Then Q o F is the desired rectangle. ) I l2 where all these functions are restricted to [0.wQ(D.21 8 11.1 dQ(D2)) I I W Q ( D .). SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF then there is a partial reparametrization of Q for which the longitudinal curves are reparametrizations of those of Q and the associated vector field is perpendicular to the base.wf(u). b] x [c. Lemma 2 (Synge's variation is given by formula [86]).wQ(m. c E] + [a. Let I be the associated vector field of Q. Problem 3. and hence length b = b .(~.a. Q. Henceforth we shall assume that all broken C" rectangles have geodesic base and associated vector field perpendicular to the base.T * ) . wQ(DIY f D2(D. always recalling that we are dropping the argument (u. since the factors appearing in the denominators are powers of <wQ(D1). f = + F(u. (DzwQ(D1). = I I D1wQ(Dz) I. a). s o f is a realvalued function on [a. DZ2 I I w Q P 1 ) I I + W ( w Q ( D 1 ) . T * ) .+Q(Dz)wQ(Dz)>h x (0). .
<DPQ(D2).K ( V ) 11 /I2( . so DlwQ(D.v = Q(D2 +"(D2))wo(D2) (cf. and let 7 be the transverse vector field of Q.)= 0. Cf. ( K (v) = K( V. I"(()) = s" ( 1 1 0 V' Il'(U) .T*). T.11.) This follows from the observation V ( u ) = ? ( D 1 ~ Q ( D 2 )0)) .wQ(Dl)>z= (Dl<UQ(~2).b.11). Let N and P be submanifolds.p>]. Q a rectangle with base geodesic T perpendicular to N and P and with initial and final transversals in N and P.4. hence. wQ(Dl)>)2 = 219 0. 9. (u and 0. Let V be the associated vector field along base geodesic V' the covariant derivative with respect to T* .1. + Corollary 2. theorem 6. because the associated field is perpendicular to T. Then . First and Second Variation of Arc Length T h e base curve T is a geodesic.) du + (T* 9 v. Then Corollary 1.
T*(O).E ” ( 0 . 11. the above formula for the second variation reduces to This follows from the Jacobi equation and integration by parts.(O). W ( 0 ) ) &Yo.w9. nb . Note that when N a n d P a r e points. if T V o . By proposition 10. D Y(01 P) = <T*(O).1. Let 9 be the linear space of broken C“ vector fields along T which are perpendicular to T and have their initial and final vectors tangent to N and P.. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF where S is the second fundamental form of the appropriate manifold and V is the associated vector field as before. T h e integral is the same as in corollary 1. W E 9. = But E V o . Similarly for the other term. W)) W)). T h e index form at T is a bilinear form on 9 defined by: if V .w. given by N as a submanifold of M . then for vector field W on N TVO. W . = <~r*(o.. and let T be a geodesic segment perpendicular to N and P at its ends ~ ( 0 ) and T(b). P.2 The Index Form Let N a n d P be submanifolds of M . W perpendicular to T. so for W = is <T*(O). Proof.(o. T”(01V(0D = <T.is the difference transformation of MT.220 11.
 Show that the NJacobi fields form a linear space of 1. U. W ) . W ) = 0 for all W E9. if we consider the length function defined on curves from N to P. A Jacobi field V is an N . .)= ( I f ’ . (i) I/ is perpendicular to the geodesic (ii) V(0)E NTc0. dimension d Theorem 1.(0). (V’.. then (i).T h e index form may be viewed as a natural generalization of the Hessian of a function at a critical point. From this formula and application of techniques similar to that used in the proof of corollary 3 to lemma 1 it is clear what the null space of I is..Jacobijeld if it satisfies T. N = 1(0).Jacobi fields and P. V’(0)is perpendicular to 1. Problem 4.. except for points where V is not differentiable (u0 = 0.. Morse theory is concerned with this generalization. that is. T h e null space of I consists of the intersection of the spaces of N. Definition. W ) .V(0) V’(0)is perpendicular to N. where d = dimension M . then corollary 3 of lemma 1 says that the critical points of this function are geodesics such as I. . We single out the properties satisfied at each end.2. then we get another formula for I( V .*(o..(V”.. since it is the symmetric bilinear form associated with the quadratic form Z”(0) of V in corollary 2 to lemma 2. == b).Jacobi fields. (ii). If N is a single point. W)’ .11. If we observe that. T h e Index Form 22 1 Roughly speaking. .. what conditions V must satisfy in order that I( V . (iii) S. and (iii) reduce to V ( 0 )= 0. w.
V is an N . 37. in I 1 ( N ) . Moreover. (ii) is satisfied. so the derivative of normal field X(0. the unit normal bundle. Theorem 2. by the first structural equation (1). which shows (iii).(O. In fact the longitudinal vector field dQ(Dl) = X to such a rectangle Q gives a curve y .222 11. T h e next theorem gives a similar characterization of N . Proof. and Q may be expressed as Q(u. * ) is again a normal vector. By problem 4 it is sufficient to show that the Jacobi fields associated to such rectangles are NJacobi fields and have values at some E > 0 which equal the space normal to T * ( E ) .Jacobi fields. = exp ~ ( v ) . 0)) is the tangent to the projection of y into N . But E is covariant derivative on N and the normal bundle.Jacobi field if and only if V is associated to a rectangle Q such that all of the longitudinal curves of Q are geodesics starting perpendicularly from N and parametrized by arc length. FIG. Since V(0)= dQ(D. y(v) = X(0. T h e rectangles in question can be factored through I ( N ) by means of the exponential map l ( N ) + M . SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF We have already seen that a Jacobi field is characterized by the fact that it is the field associated to a rectangle having geodesics for longitudinal curves. to show (i) we . v ) .
V ( E )fill up the space normal to T * ( E ) . Any tangent at x may be decomposed into a vector tangent to I .( X . still obtaining a curve from N to P. Corollary. P ) = broken C" curves from N to P. If V E 2 is such that I( V ) < 0 then every neighborhood ' of T contains shorter curves from a neighborhood of ~ ( 0 in N to a ) neighborhood of ~ ( bin P. the tangents at x to rectangles in l ( N ) of the form (u.. Consequently. ( N ) maps by d exp to the value of an N . ( N ) = { Y E I ( N )I / I Y I / = u } . the tangents at T ( E ) of rectangles Q fill up the tangent space M T ( (. for V E 9. they all have domain [Q. T h e component tangent to l . +M .*o. We make .Thus it suffices to show E.hence for S.. fill up the tangent space l ( N ) . V ) . ) More generally. = T(u). is the T h e range of d exp. ( l . the component along the ray maps to a multiple of T*(u). y as above. Let K ( N . However. thus writing I(V ) = I( V . T h e Index Form 223 need only show that V and V' are perpendicular to T * at one point. It is shown below that the index is finite.X is perpendicular to T. Problem 5.Jacobi field. Theorem 3. second variation the Z"(0) of a rectangle attached to V . . which we have already for V(O). But D. tells in how many independent directions T can be pushed so as to shorten length. : l ( N ) .X. X ) = 1. the index of I. .) and the normal parts. I] and constantlength tangents. Suppose that these curves are parametrized by reduced arc length. XXO. P ) = straight lines from N to P. that is. the dimension of a maximal subspace of 9on which I is negative definite. where p = exp x space spanned by T * ( u ) and the values at u of N . X ( 0 ) ) = 0 since ( X . v ) P uy(v). ) We shall denote the quadratic form associated with I by I also.2.V(0). u # 0.(O) for some E > 0. .Jacobi fields. Since I( V )is. 0 ) = 2 (Evco.. ( N ) and a vector tangent to the ray through x.11. We know that exp : I ( N ) + M is nonsingular on the 0 cross section and thus also at x = ET. H ( N . we have immediately: Proof. Let M = Rd with the Euclidean metric and suppose that submanifolds N and P do not intersect.(O) = X(0).
P) is topologically the same as N x P and the length function L is differentiable when viewed as a function on N x P. which we have already seen to be a diffeomorphism in a neighborhood of the zero cross section. Show that (a) 4 is homotopic to the identity via a homotopy which leaves H ( N . P ) and they have the same ordinary topological invariants. I ( N ) the normal bundle. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF K ( N . then a focal . Thus H ( N . (d) T h e critical points of L as a differentiable function on N x P are the line segments which are perpendicular to N and P at the ends.224 11.. P ) fixed. say m. so I ( N ) = M. 731 Let N be a submanifold of M . P ) are Jacobi fields in Rd and may be identified with tangents to N x P.(u). P ) is a deformation retract of K ( N .then exp(t) is called a focal point of N along exp o p . P ) into a metric space by defining the distance between curves u. 38. (c) Vector fields V which are associated to rectangles with range in H ( N .3 Focal Points and Conjugate Points [37. which is. a geodesic perpendicular to N .. P ) be the map which assigns to u the line segment with the same end points as u. (e) T h e Hessian of L is essentially the index form restricted to Jacobi fields in 9. 11. (b) H(N. over n. P ) + H(N. of course. let I ( N ) ( n )be the fibre of l ( N ) FIG.. T to be p(. . For n E N . 59. Then t E I ( N ) ( n ) a focal point of N if d exp is singular at t.57. 7 Let 4 : K ( N . 7) = max p(. When N is a single point. is If p is the ray from 0 to t in l ( N ) ( n ) .60. +)) + !I I  1 I I. 61. T h e exponential map of M by restriction gives a map exp : I ( N ) t M .
3. Show that if M is complete and contains a point which has no conjugate points. T h e order of a focal point is the dimension of the linear space annihilated by d exp. then there is a neighborhood U of 7 in M and a neighborhood V of ~ ( 0in N such that 7 minimizes ) distance among curves in U which go from a point of V to ~ ( 6 ) (cf. then there are no conjugate points. Focal Points and Conjugate Points 225 point is called a conjugate point to m.then n is conjugate to m along 7. for which the formulation given by Morse is clearly the right one. Such theorems have been formulated by both Morse [57] and Ambrose [ I ] for the two endmanifold case. By theorem 1.Jacobi field which vanishes at b. but the difficulties in statement and proof are far greater than for the case we give. Problem 9. where 7 is the geodesic with initial tangent T.11.’’ as we shall below for the case of one endmanifold and a point. Let CPd = SZd+l/S1 the metric induced by the have metric on SZd+l having curvature 1. then M is covered by lid. If 7 is a geodesic which starts perpendicular to N . that is. Problem 6. Problem 11. Theorem 2 and its corollary show that it is equivalent to define focal points in terms of Jacobi fields as follows. The purpose of such a theorem is to express the index of the index form in terms of orders of focal points (or focal submanifolds) in between the end manifolds.(O).2). Show that if 7 is a geodesic segment perpendicular to N on which there are no focal points of N . for the two endmanifold case. Problem 7. theorem 8. Show that conjugacy is a symmetric relation. then ~ ( 6 ) a focal point of N along 7 is if and only if there is an N. the order is also the nullity of the index form at 7 with end manifolds N and the single point ~ ( 6 ) . with point in CPd occur at distances (2n + . n an integer. if m is conjugate to n along geodesic 7.” Presumably one would then aim to prove an “index theorem. T h e order O f T ( b ) is the dimension of the space of such Jacobi fields. Show that if M has nonpositive curvature. Problem 10. Problem 8. T h e last statement seems to indicate how to generalize the concept of focal point to something which might be called a “focal submanifold. Determine the conjugate points and their orders for a point on a dsphere of constant curvature. Show that the conjugate points to a 1) n/2 and nn.
. Chaining these geodesic segments together gives a broken geodesic y having breaks only on the intermediate manifolds T i . to the neighborhood of T(b)in P..kl. bl . The map 4 : CJ + y is a lengthnonincreasing deformation of curves nearby T into the much smaller collection of broken geodesics.l). show that the conjugate points to a point in QPd = S4df3/S3.1 normal to T . . In a way similar to that of problem 11.1. and I . domain of I ( N . . i = 1. V If we choose the intermediate manifolds close enough together then any curve in some neighborhood of T [by neighborhood of T we shall mean curves which go from a neighborhood of ~ ( 0in N to a neigh) borhood of ~ ( bin P.1... . a unique shortest geodesic segment from pi to pi..). respectively.) to mean the index form with end manifolds T .1. n .. = I ( T . . . are normal to T the at T ( u ~and T(u. Since we will be dealing with several index forms. S4d+3 unit sphere. ui < u ~ + then the requirement is that there be no focal point of N ~ . u i + l ) . there will be a unique shortest geodesic segment fromp.226 11.A curve CJ sufficiently close to T will intersect each T i .u. and we let the first intersection be pi. the range of 4 may be viewed as the product manifold .requiring u to be even closer if necessary. We shall also omit restriction symbols. respectively. that is. P). = occur at distances (2n 1) n12 and n7r with orders 3 and 4d . as well as lying in some open set containing T ] ) can be replaced by a unique shorter broken geodesic with breaks only at the intermediate manifolds.4 The Infinitesimal Deformations A useful technique for analyzing the index form is to break it into the sum of several index forms obtained by inserting intermediate manifolds of dimension d . but all along segments of the same geodesic T . SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF orders 1 and 2d . T . and T . T. to the neighborhood of ~ ( 0in N . n. Use the fact that a Jacobi field attached to a family of horizontal geodesics in S2d+1 must project to a Jacobi field on CPd. then we shall write Il(V) ) instead of 11( ~[ul.). that there be no conjugate point of T ( u ~on T I u i . ) and a unique shortest geodesic segment from p . + 11. Problem 12. on T I l o . u l . if V E 3. and that there be no focal point of P on T I[u. we introduce the notation I( Tl . T. in fact. If Ti is placed at T ( u ~ ) i = 1. and T .
Detailed proofs of these facts are more proper to an exposition of Morse theory. T h e Infinitesimal Deformations 227 T. . T h e linear transformation which assigns to an N. bl . Thus Y l[o.ut+Il . is a linear isomorphism.(u.u(+Il b Y the uniqueness of Vi .. V(u. and the length function on curves as a differentiable function on T .+l ’ = is a Jacobi field.. which shows uniqueness of Y I r u . x T..l .u.ul exists and is unique. T h e composition ’ .11. Wi(ui)= yi . By evaluation of V E 2 at u1 . for every choice of vectors yi E T * ( U ~ )there is a unique vector ~ field Y E2 such that Y(ui) yi . similarly for Y Iru. and Y Ilo. + We denote the range of G by X . so we content ourselves here with their infinitesimal versions.. we get a linear transformation ’ E : 2 + C7*(ui)l. For the same reason there is a unique 7(ui)Jacobi field Vi and a unique 7(ui+JJacobi field Wi such that V. Then Vi Wi is a Jacobi field having values yi at ui . yn) = Y .) is not a focal point of N . .. y I[u*. Y I[u.. G(y. . Proof.+J = yi+. Lemma 3. T is a critical point of the length function and the index form is the Hessian at T. T h e linearity and onetooneness of G follow easily from the uniqueness of Y and the linearity of the Jacobi equation.. T h e map G : E:=l 7 * ( u i ) l + 9. u.. if Y is given. + l .. which shows existence of Y ~ I U t .4.)). l L t + l l . Under the conditions prescribed on the choice of the ui . respectively. FIG.. u. yi+l at ui+.Wi = Vi IruI. Moreover. b l are Nand PJacobi fields. 39.. x x T . Y I [ u . E ( V ) = ( V ( u l ) . u .Jacobi field V its value V(ul)is 11 onto 7*(ul)l because T(u.1) n. Thus dim X = ( d . = T . .
X. T Show that there is a submanifold N normal to the space of N.2))' = ( Y . Then I( V ) I( Y )and equality occurs if and only if V = Y . Corresponding to the fact that 4 is lengthnonincreasing is the fact that F does not increase the index form I .2')  ( Y ' . so we call F an injinitesimal deformation.by lemma 3 . 2 E ... Let Y .228 F = 11. (b) <&*(")Z(O). Proof. 2 ) = 0. If Q is a broken C" rectangle with the transverse curves lying in Ti . If Y and 2 are Jacobi fields. ( Y . show that F( V )is the field associated to +(Q).V O ) . Rr*zT*) 0. then we get another rectangle +(Q)by applying 4 to the longitudinal curves of Q.Jacobi fields the constant is 0. Ydp1 a basis of N . For V E 9there is a unique N . 2') .1 and such that for every Y . Y(0))= 0. Then there is a be = unique expression V Zi"r.Jacobi field Y such that . Problem 14. If Y and 2 are N. Theorem 4.2 ) <y.. 2 ) is constant.Jacobi fields. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF 4 : u + G o E : 9 + Y is the infinitesimal version of the deformation y .Jacobi fields.( Y ' . Problem 13. which is proved below.*. + (R.2 ) by a curvature identity. Lemma 4. 2") = =  ( Y " . 2') . b]. . so subtracting (a) and (b) and using the symmetry of ST*(o) gives <Y'(O). ( ( Y . at ~ ( 0such that ) 9 is The basic inequality. Proof. then ( Y . Y(0))= 0. .( Y ' . Let # be a subspace of the Jacobi fields along T having dimension d .. Y ( b ) = V(b). If V is the vector field associated to Q.y7*. where the fi are . q o ) ) + (Z'(O). Suppose there is no focal point of N on ~ ( ( 0b ] ) .'fiYi valid on (0.
We leave as an exercise the fact that such an expression exists and is unique on [0.) At points where V‘ exists we let W = Xifi’Yi and 2 = XifiYi’. b] as well. (See problem 15.11. T h e Infinitesimal Deformations 229 continuous broken C“ €unctions. Then + ) . so that V’ = W 2.4.
( b ) v ( b ) . Proof. b]). V . which follow.Y. V. W. . Y . and.I( Y ) = J: ( W . letting V . Hence by corollary 1. Then Y is an N. Let T . be ( d . by lemma 3.Y. If V(b)= 0. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF T h e NJacobi field which coincides with V at b is Y = Ci ciYi . = Ci ci‘Yi = 0. E there is a unique Jacobi field Y such that ~ Y(0) = V(O).’ = 2. V.(b). and equality occurs if and only if V = 0. where ci = fi(b). (e) in the above proof gives. I ( Y ) and equality occurs if and only if V = Y . Y  Y l ) = 0. Hence I( V ) . Y(b) = V(b).V b ) ) . V . = V gives W . for V . 2. For V . then I( V ) 2 0. Corollary 1. Then I ( Y . V ) = 0.>du. = Y .) = 0 by hypothesis. ( b) sr . Y(b) = V(b).Jacobi field if and only if I( V . Then I ( V ) >. . Suppose that there is no conjugate point of ~ ( 0 on ) ~ ( ( 0 b]).1)dimensional transverse manifolds at ~ ( 0and ~ ( b ) . the same computation (a)(e) gives. I ( . Letting W . but not corollary 3. Y . W ) du 0. = 0. Conversely. / .‘ = 0 for all i . = 0. E 9. Corollaries 1 and 2.Y l .230 11. Corollary 2. Corollary 3.Y1)= Z(Y. Proof.) = 0 as just proved. etc. 2. finally. V. ..(b) = 0. ( b ) vl(b). . = Xi ciYi’. Y ) = 0 for all V E 3 such that V(b)= 0.’ = By polarization. f i are constant for all i. + + ( I ~ 1~ > 2 = ) < ~ . which in turn is equivalent tof. (f) I ( Y ) = <Z(b).S r .) = I( Y . such that their second fundamental forms . V. suppose I( V . Y ) = 0 for all V E 9such that V(b)= 0. be the NJacobi field such that Y(b) = Y. so I( V . If Y is an NJacobi field and V(b) = 0. ) respectively. have the same hypothesis on N and ~ ( ( 0 . since Z.(b) = Z(b). Wl . Y  Yl) + Z(Y1. Equality occurs if and only if W = 0. and T. Y  Y . Let Y . so Z(Y . Let Y E 9. Y = V . ( b )+ jb < ~ ~ ) 1 w.
Y . by corollary 2 applied to I . show by an example that the fi need not have continuous extensions to [0. But by corollary 1. Il(V . Y.(V .). Y . b). Problem 16. .11. T. and let Y be a nonzero N . that I . Let V E 2z be given by . Adding these two equations gives + 11(v .( Y ) . instead of I.( V ) .(V  Y .(O) = V(0).Jacobi field which vanishes at c. An infinitesimal deformation F is Inonincreasing. are C" vector fields along T and are independent except at T(O). If V . V . I .I( V) = I. I ( V ) 2 I ( F ( V ) ) . Suppose T ( C ) is a focal point of N . Y. and I3 .(V . Y) = 0.. b] even if V(0) = ZuiVi(0). if the Viare Jacobi fields then there are unique continuous extensions of the fi .  and equality occurs if and only if V Y = 0. . Yl + Y. c E (0. or. Let I2 = I(T(O). . with V = ZfiVi the expression for V in terms of the Vivalid on (0. .) = 13( . T Corollary 1.Y .. . .) = 0. Moreover. From lemma 3. and V is a broken C" vector field along T . ~ ( b ) ) . so it suffices to prove the result for I .. I3 = I ( T . Since V . Y. does not Proof. Y) = Il(Y. Il(V. However. Y = Y . T h e Infinitesimal Deformations 23 1 and hence I. that is. (For N = point this is due to Jacobi. = Il(K V ) .Y .) = I. equality is obtained only if V = F( V ) . Y). where Yl is the T(O)Jacobi field such that Y. and I3 are the so same except for their domains.Y .Zl(K Y). respectively. Problem 15.) = I.4. Theorem 5.) = 0 and I.Y is 0 at both ~ ( 0 ) and ~ ( b ) . b ] . Prove theorem 5 by applying theorem 4 and corollary 3.) minimize distance to N beyond the first focal point.Y .I(Y ) . Y.
” < Now let N have focal points at distances c.bl = 0.. but T([O. hence F( V ) # V and I(F( V ) ) < I( V ) = 0. I2 = ~ ( T ( c ) ~ ( b ) ) . T([O. V = F( V ) = 0. where ci ci+l < b and each ci is included a number of times equal to the multiplicity of T ( c ~ ) a focal point. FIG. . I(F( V ) )= 0 I( V ) = 0. hence are finite. Let 8 be a subspace of 2 on which I is negative semidefinite.(O) = 0 by V Y corollary 2 to theorem 4. I = ‘ 1 T(C)). T h e augmented index of a quadratic form is the dimension of a maximal subspace on which the form is negative semidefinite. For if V € 2 in the kernel of F. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF V l [ O . Then F IJy is an isomorphism. ) + + w. Then I( V ) = 11( ) I..b’]) minimizes arc length to N among curves in a neighborhood of T([O. Since I is negative semidefinite on F ( X ) this proves the desired inequality for the augmented index. Corollary 3. 40. then is F( V ) = 0.( V ) = 11( ) I. Then F( V ) is smooth at c. T h e first focal point of N is that point T(C) such that Since it is obvious that the index of I is not less than that of of I Ix it suffices to prove the inequality the other way. For the index the argument is the same except for using “definite” in place of “semidefinite.b ] ) fails to minimize arc length to N for b > c. b ) . T ( b ) ) . . i = 1.Cl .. Proof. and similarly for the augmented index. h. Let I = I ( N . while V has a break at c. C l = y I[O. Now choose intermediate manifolds for an infinitesimal deformation F so that c is not one of the ui . < .232 11. T h e index and augmented index of I are the same as the index and augmented index of I Ix . b‘]) for b’ < c. Corollary 2. so from equality. By theorem 3 there are shorter curves from ~ ( bto N .. we do not exclude the posas sibility that (ci} is a proper subset of the set of focal values in (0. I I[C. along 7 .
T h e Morse Index Theorem 233 and we do not know a priori that the number of focal points is finite. Let %. {Yi c = ci} are 1 independent. is direct. 4 6 ) ) . + Theorem 6. respectively. Let I = Z(N. such that Yil i o . = Proof. let X = 2. . 11. Yj) = 0 since Y j is in the null space of I . I .. Henceforth. b]). ) ) is finite b and is a lower bound for i ( I ) . P). c . or I(Yi . Yj) = I .< i(Z).P is identically 0. and n(Z) denote the augmented index. Morse index theorem says that the inequality of theorem 6 is an equation.is h. T h e restriction of I to . Since I(%. Let a ( I ) . . = Z(7(cj). The number of focal points of N on ~ ((0. so the dimension of 3. By problem 17 and lemma 5 and the fact that a(Z) is finite. 831 In this section we restrict to the case where P = ~ ( b ) Then the .5. Proof.be the linear space spanned by these Yi and . Yj) = I.i ( I ) . ( Y i . . and the nullity of I . the sum%%. Problem 17..5 The Morse Index Theorem [57. = I ( N . 7(ci)).. Yj) + 12(Yf.. Let = 0. Y j ) = 0 for every i. where Z ois the null space of I . the index. I t is well known that on a finitedimensional space the sum of the index and nullity of a quadratic form equals the augmented index. h_ . when we speak of the number of focal points we shall mean the sum of their orders. Z 0 ) 0 it suffices to show Z(%. h + n ( I ) = dim% < a ( I ) = i ( I ) + n ( I ) . Moreover.(Yi . We may assume ci I . so a(I) = i ( I ) n(Z). + Lemma 5.3. Thus there are fields YiE 9 i = 1. Theorem 7..11. Then a ( I ) is the number of focal points of N on ~ ( ( 0 . . b l = 0. this result is also true for I . + Prove that the Yiare independent. b). Because we have been able to reduce I to a finitedimensional subspace X without altering the index and augmented index. j . by theorem 1. l is an NJacobi field.so h. %) that I ( Y i . Then < c j . and for each c E (0.. YiIl c .
This infinitesimal deformation is given by the + + + . and that n(t) = 0 except for a finite number of t. a neighborhood of t. Because the domain of I . On the other hand. n drops to 0. a(t+) = a(t). may be regarded as an increasing function of t . i(t+) = i(t) n(t).(I. i is continuous from the left. a. a(t+) = a ( t ) and i(t) = i(t). This causes the jumps of a and i to occur separately. having intermediate i manifolds at T(u~). when u E U . for small t. Let F . Then the same intermediate manifolds will serve to give an infinitesimal deformation F.. We have already noted that a = i n. where n(t) is the order of the focal point.. and i must take up the slack in the equation a = i n. is positivedefinite. formally. for every t . + I FIG. and with magnitude n(t).So what we need to establish in detail is. so a and i are initially 0.). in order for some of the positive definite part to go into the negative definite part it must pass through the null part. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF Proof. is continuous in t. on opposite sides of the focal values. a ( t ) = a(t) n(t). . ~ ( t and the integervalued )) and n(t) = . The idea is to examine I . I . because I .) as t passes from 0 functions a ( t ) = a(Il).234 11. i(t) = i(l. = I ( N . to b. n. When we pass on from t a is continuous from the right. Thus a must have jumps which at least add up to the sum of the n(t) (theorem 6 ) . the theorem then follows by a simple computation. i(t) = i(t). As a value t is entered from the left the jump of a is n(t).. 41. for I . = 1. and i are nondecreasing. be an infinitesimal deformation for I .
But a is nondecreasing. and even here Y(u. denote by F.(X+) spanned by H. there is a unique solution for x of A. and it alters only that part of Y E X t defined on (urL. x) + Y.(z).) y and Y.Y(u. u. Thus i(t) = i(t). fM are continuous.Z(un) z .the t part defined on [0. T h e value of I . Now let .p. = H.’A. Since S+ is compact.. are continuous in u since YY.z is linear i n y and x. In order to prove continuity of Iu(Yu)as a is function of u it is sufficient to prove that Yu’(un+) continuous in u.5. Thus for u E U‘. = G.) is a continuous function on U x S+ which is positive on {t} x S+. so that Bil exists and is continuous.(S+)..(Y.(u. where 9 = Z l ( u i ) is the direct sum of the tangent spaces of the intermediate manifolds..G. is the Jacobi field which satisfies Y. to show that i(u) 2 i(t) for u in some neighborhood of t . on X . = = the map ( y . By its definition Y .] is unchanged. ] . . so we may write Yy. Let f be a continuous realvalued function on a fibre bundle B with compact fibre F and base M . However.) = Y(uYL) y . Define fr.( Y.fM : M + R by fm(P) = min W max )I b EF.g(u. on Y is a sum of terms of which only one.Then f : ( u ..) a(t). u ] . A .(y) is continuous in u.s(u) = A. + < Lemma 6.11. For y . ) let = Y. is positivedefinite on the space H.). and B.and so is evaluation at u. Y ) +I. and .(u) = 0 and Y. T h e map H . . there is a neighborhood U‘ of t such that f is positive on U‘ x S+ (see lemma 6 below).+).)). ( Y’(u. is altered by H . Z E l ( u .(y) B.(x) = 0. restricted to [un . and a(. is positive definite and let S+ be the unit sphere of X + with respect to I! .(y) B.) EFD). + X . Let Y . and finally so = is I. Then a(t) = codim X+. Thus the solution Yu’(un+) x = B.(Y). so a(t+) = a(t)..z be the unique Jacobi field such that Yu. where + 4 > Bu :I ( U J  I(u) are linear transformations. I . fM@) = {f(b)I T h e n f. is an isomorphism. T h e same argument applies to a maximal negative definite subspace of I .: 9 + X u . the fibre over p E M . on which I .#is continuous.) remains fixed.l : X . T h e Morse Index Theorem 235 evaluation map E and an isomorphism G.X+ be a maximal subspace of X .
Show that: (a) For X sufficiently negative I . For E > 0 we can find a finite covering W i Vi x W o f F x {p}. P ) . starting with the least. Now if b. x not in the 0 cross section. The Problem 18. counting multiplicities.X J .p ) is a point where f(b. i(Iz. associate the index form I . If(x.) = i(Iz).Y’ perpendicular to N . = (x2.) = 0. p’) . fM . Show that: (a) If n(I. = I ( N . so as to obtain a sequence of functions {hi} o f t . 2 ) du. we may assume that B = F x M .*A* + X = 0. . I ( N .fM(p) 1 < E. W a = neighborhood of p .. = (xl. Y (c) T h e augmented index of I . (d) Let P = r(b) and let Jibe the restriction of J to the domain of I . exp x) at the geodesic exp ux ILo. b’ E W i . Then the Xi are continuous and nonincreasing on (0. (b) Y is a characteristic vector of I if and only if Y satisfies the end conditions at N and P (S. Number the characteristic values of I . 11. 2) : Y). a characteristic vector of I belonging to X is a vector field in the null space of I .l follows by considering f. such that I f ( b ) f(b’) I < E for every 6. then fM(P’) 6 = f(% . SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF Since this is a local theorem. A characteristic value of I with respect to J is a number X such that n(I . = J ( Y . < Problem 19. the set {m I n(Iz) = 0 for every nonzero x E exp’ m} is everywhere dense in M (see problem 1.*Y . . given by J( Y. With each X E I ( N ) .) = f& .f(x.) and b. l .)is the number of i such that Xi(t) = 0. there is a neighborhood U of x such that for every x’E U .XJ is positivedefinite. Then for x E F and p‘ E W .X J ) # 0. which concludes the proof for proof forf.236 Proof. (b) If M is complete and N is closed in M . . p ) I < E. b] and n(I.11).p’) is a similar point for fM(p’). Also let J( Y ) = J( Y. Let J be the inner product on 9 the domain of . P ) and is a is solution of the second order equation Y” R.P’)  <f(% P ) <f(x1 P) ? ! so IfM(p’) .X J is finite and is equal to the + number of independent characteristic vectors belonging to values A.
I t follows immediately from the fact that geodesics do not minimize arc length beyond the first conjugate point that if m is the first conjugate point of p along y . 931 A minimal segment is a geodesic segment which minimizes arc length between its ends.e).11. because if y and u were both minimal segments letting uf = u for all i would give limui = u = y . 71. then there is at most one minimal segment y fro m p to m. Theorem 8. If t E M p is such that exp. then the corresponding curves would eventually all form a corner with the extension of y beyond m .6. then ui converges to y (if properly parametrized).6 The Minimum Locus [46. (b) If there is a minimal segment from p to m on which m is a conjugate point of p . then we also say that t is a minimum point of p in M p .ut. If one of these subsequences did not converge to y ( L . We suppose that y and each ui are parametrized by arc length. then m is a minimum point of p . but there may be none. 57. If {ui}is a sequence of curves from p to m such that lim I ui I = p(p. 11. corner we would get shorter curves from p to y ( L + E) than L + . m). (a) If m is not a minimum point of p. Proof. 60. where L = p(p. T h e Minimum Locus 237 Those interested in studying Morse theory and its applications are referred to [37. then there is a minimum point of p along y which is not beyond m. then either there are two minimal segments or m is a conjugate point of p along the unique one. will be convergent subsequences of {ui(Li E} where Li = I ui j .38. By compactness of a normal coordinate ball of some radius E at m there ). 62. A geodesic ray from p has at most one minimum point of p. A minimum point m of p along a geodesic y is a point on y such that the segment of y f r o m p to m is minimal but no larger segment from p is minimal. 811. T h e set of all minimum points of p is called the minimum (or cut) locus of p.t is the minimum point of p along the geodesic exp. m ) . By cutting across this E. 54. (a) T h e first statement follows from the second. (c) If M is complete the converse is true: if m is a minimum point of p.
m. Problem 21. 4). (b) follows immediately from the fact that geodesics do not minimize arc length beyond the first conjugate point. but the geodesic in the direction of such a limit point would give a minimal segment from p to m. q) = p(p. q ] . n ] . m. Problem 22. Then we must show that m is a conjugate point along y. By using triangle inequalities and local minimizing of geodesics only. Define m to be between p and q if all three points are distinct and p(p. But then + exp. Then + . SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF contradicting the minimality of y beyond m. By “regular” we mean that every two points in the neighborhood can be joined by a unique minimal segment.(0) = lim (L + so exp. By covering y with a finite number of regular neighborhoods the convergence can be shown inductively down y from m top. n. Then {ui*(0)} must have limit points. m ) p(m. (c) Suppose M is complete. I n case y exists let u be the largest (open) geodesic extension of y which does not include p or q. q] and a minimal n. is singular there and m is a conjugate point. Show that the relation “is a minimum point of” is symmetric.238 11. and shows even more. Let L = p(p. Assume M is connected. In (a) show that the convergence of ui to y is uniform. segment y from m to n is unique. is not onetoone in a neighborhood of Ly. lim ui*(0) = y*(O). m ) and let ui be a minimal segment from p to mi = y ( L l/i).(O). and m is a minimum point of p such that there is a unique minimal segment y . this relation is denoted by [p. and [p. the argument can be made precise. then [m. parametrized by arc length. q ] . Show: (a) If [p. T h e details are left as an exercise.(liui*(o)) = mi = exp. hence. that ui converges to y within a regular neighborhood of m . Thus d exp. (L + y1 j y*(o) a and limLiui. m . Thus if y is a minimal segment from p to minimum point m there are shorter curves than y from m to the points on the extension of y from p away from m. and with length Li . Problem 20. [ p .q ] .
11. m. thus we may suppose that lim ci = c’ < c and reach a contradiction.(C + E)) P(P. Let E = (c . if there is one. Let Q ( M ) = {t E T ( M ) I t is a unit vector and c. Suppose limsupci > c. = exp (lim ci lim ti) = exp ct = m.t.we wish to show that limf(ti) = f(1im ti). {ni} of {mi}. so there is a shorter curve T~ from pi to qi. mi= f(ti) = yi(ci). that is. and m = f(t) = y(c).q] if and only if m is in an open minimal segment with ends p and q. Let yi = exp uti . lim + E)) =p = U. Theorem 9.pi = yi(0).6. Proof. so c + E = lim p(qi . Hence I u I p(p. r(c + El). di > c E and y(c E ) is defined. = lirn exp citi = exp lim c. p = y(O). Then p i = yi(ci E ) is beyond the minimum point of pi on yi .ui is a minimal segment from qi to + + “i(C + €1.t. (c) If M is complete then [p. T h e Minimum Locus 239 every point on u is between p and q. By theorem 8(a). + + . I t will be sufficient to show lim ci = c.c’)/2 > 0. which contradicts the fact that y does not minimize arc length beyond y(c) = m. ai(c (lim qi . uiconverges to y . f is continuous. Then there are E > 0.fassigns to a tangent t the minimum point of the base point o f t along the geodesic in the direction oft. and k such that for i > k. q). > O}. a convergent sequence in & ( M ) . Define f : Q ( M ) 4 M by f(t) = exp c. for then by continuity of exp. t = lim ti . and {qi} of {pi}. (b) If M is not complete then for every p E M there is a geodesic ray f r o m p which has no minimum point o f p on it. T o show lim inf ci = c we consider convergent subsequences. < lim m. and hence T~ converges t o y also. a subsequence {di}of {ci}. q) and u has no minimum points of any of its points. Then for the corresponding subsequences {ui} of {yi}.t is a minimum point of n’t for some C. For {ti}.by adding to T~ short segments f r o m p to pi and from qi to q = y(c’ E ) we get a curve ui from p to q such that lim 1 ui I = p(p. y = exp ut.
the projection preserves geodesics and so also conjugate points. But then M is compact. y(u)). then the function g : S + R. If a complete M has a covering space which is not compact. A Riemannian manifold M is compact if and only if for some point p there is a minimum point in every direction from p . (See problem 22(b).t). However.12 there is a neighborhood U on which E is a diffeomorphism. Proof. By corollary 3 there will be a geodesic from a point above p which has no . Hence. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF Let E = T' x exp : T ( M )+ M x M . ~ ( u )will be in V . is continuous by corollary 1. QED < < + + + + Corollary 1. Thus every geodesic ray can be extended indefinitely but cannot minimize arc length beyond the bound on M . Thus the set = { t E M . then for every p E M there is a geodesic ray on which there are no points conjugate top. El(pi. Conversely. (This is immediate from the fact that the distance function is continuous. qi) must T ) have length ci E because qi = exp. so by problem 1. exp c.) Corollary 3. T h e distance from a fixed point p to its minimum point in the direction t E M p is a continuous function of t where defined. Corollary 2. We may assume the covering is a Riemannian covering. hence compact. = exp B If every geodesic ray from a point p has a conjugate point of p .240 11. . where S is the unit sphere in M . Then E is nonsingular on the compact set {ut I 0 u c' E}. which is less than ci E. I I I t I I <&ill t I l l or t = 01 is closed and bounded in M . Corollary 4. If M is compact then M is complete and bounded. then M is compact. so V is a neighborhood of E(ut) = ( p .i(ci E) ti and on the other hand cannot have length any greater than the integral of the radial lengths of r i .) Assume now that M is connected. if p is a point such that every geodesic ray from p has a minimum point. . Proof. For sufficiently large i both (pi. Let V = E( U ) . g(t) = p ( p .yi(u)) and (pi.
it follows from the first part of the proof of theorem 9 that limr+(p. 3.7 Closed Geodesics A closed geodesic is a geodesic segment for which the initial and final points coincide. Extend the results of this section. using which ever the result requires. It suffices to show that g is continuous.11. Corollary 1 shows that the complement of the minimum locus of a point is topologically a cell when M is complete. Let h(p. then the distance to the minimum locus is a continuous function of the point. since if ( p . show by examples that the extensions of corollaries 2. I t is intuitively clear that a homotopy class of loops based at p should have a closed geodesic for its minimallength representative. t ) be the distance from to the minimum point ofp on the geodesic in the direction of t E M p . 11. much of the topological interest of a manifold lies in its minimum locus. t ) is defined otherwise is continuous on all of the unit tangent bundle. d P ) = (0 p )eJ(p) if p has a minimum point otherwise. Proof.l) h(x) = +m. and in fact the exponential map gives the homeomorphism. If M is complete. a smooth closed geodesic is one for which the initial and final tangents coincide. Remark. t ) E T ( M ) is a limit point of Q ( M ) . Hence. Let f ( p ) = distance from p to its minimum locus. except for theorem 9 to the case where p is replaced by a closed or a compact submanifold N . Corollary 5.7. Closed Geodesics 24 1 conjugate points and then the projection of this geodesic will be without conjugate points. Then h is continuous on Q ( M ) and dPl t) = lo eh(p*t) if h(p. I n particular. and 4 require N to be compact. . Problem 23. Since it is clear that g is the maximumonfibres of 1 the result now follows from lemma 6 .
. To get smooth closed geodesics we consider free homotopy classes of loops. to p . It is not necessarily true that such a class will have a minimallength member. even if M is complete. p . is determined only up to an inner automorphism. However. and a sequence of minimal segments yi from pi to qi .242 1 1 . projects to a closed geodesic in the class. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF provided the manifold is complete. For such a class A will be represented by the lifts of its members to the simply connected covering A?. using the compactness of M . where 7r : i + M is the covering projection. a convergent subsequence of the closed geodesics 7r o yi can be extracted. Indeed. or conjugation.42. q) I if u is a curve from p to q then 7r o u E A}. These classes are in onetoone correspondence with the conjugacy classes of the fundamental group. because tightening up a loop might force it to go to “infinity. to p . the isomorphism between the fundamental groups based at different points. and p . which free homotopy ignores. T o make the identity in the fundamental group nonexceptional we must consider the constant curve as being a closed geodesic. where p . qi)} such that lim p(pi .” For example. this is the case for the surface obtained by revolving the curve xx = 1 around the xaxis. A minimal segment from FIG. T h e . and is clearly a minimallength curve in the class. because. By taking a sequence @ {(pi. Let b = inf{p(p. are in the fibre over p . such a class is represented in the simply connected covering by the class of all curves from p . if M is compact there is a minimal member in each free homotopy class. roughly. pi) = b.
7. Problem 24. If M is compact. Let M be compact. and has positive sectional curvatures. Closed Geodesics 243 limit will be a minimal closed geodesic in A . Then u may be approximated uniformly by a broken geodesic loop yo E A . Theorem 11 (Synge’s theorem [87]). Show that yi E A and that a subsequence converges to a smooth closed geodesic in A. orientable. T has determinant 1. Let u be a loop in free homotopy class A.43 Let y be a smooth closed geodesic. Construct a sequence of broken geodesics inductively by letting yi be the broken geodesic loop which has as its segments the minimal segments between the midpoints of the segments of yil. so there is a smooth parallel field V along y . Letting N . and hence must have at least one characteristic value equal to 1. Proof. M is simply connected. (The characteristic values have absolute value 1 and the nonreal ones occur in conjugate pairs. then M is simply connected. from which it follows by theorem 10 that there is only the trivial homotopy class of loops. Then parallel translation once around y is an orthogonal transformation T of the odddimensional normal space to y . then every free homotopy class of loops has a minimallength member which is a smooth closed geodesic. Theorem 10. If M is a compact Riemannian manifold. and it will be smooth because it is a minimal member of the homotopy class based at each of its points. FIG. T h e idea is to use second variation to show that a nontrivial smooth closed geodesic cannot be minimal.11. Since M is orientable. evendimensional.) T h e characteristic vectors for the value 1 are fixed points of T . Then we may assume that the breaks of yo are closer together than the distance from any point to its minimum locus.
QED Problem 25. be any two. If they do not match smoothly at m.] By using properties of the minimum locus it is sometimes possible to show the existence of closed geodesics with a method of Klingenberg 14. Show that M is simply connected. evendimensional. and let m be a point on the minimum locus of p which is closest t o p .244 11. then J ( y * ) is parallel along y and y* . V )( V . N ) . and have positive curvature. Problem 26.51. Theorem 12. V >du. Let M be a compact Kahler manifold which has positive holomorphic curvature. . and have positive sectional curvatures. J ( y * ) span a holomorphic section. y cannot be minimal. Let M be compact. FIG. p E M such that the minimum locus of p is nonempty. . 44. I and V' = 0. Problem 27. We show that there are exactly two and that they match smoothly at m. Let y1 and y. Show that the fundamental group of MisZ. [Hint: if y is a geodesic and J is the complex structure operator. By theorem 8. if m is not a conjugate point. Show that M is orientable. nonorientable.. the be any transverse manifold. odddimensional. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF = I ( N . then there is a unique closed geodesic with ends at p and passing through m such that both segments are minimal. Let M be complete. Let M be compact. then there is a geodesic u starting at m which makes an acute angle with each of y1 and y z . then there are at least two minimal segments from p to m. Since curvature is positive this is negative and there are shorter nearby curves. If m is not a conjugate point of p. so I ( V )=  end terms of I( V ) cancel J'I q y . Proof.
so by corollary 1. but this contradicts the fact that m is the closest minimum point t o p . This can be used to derive lower bounds on diameter from upper bounds on .1 1.7. m are not conjugate. Then p and m are conjugate. Corollary 2. This corollary shows that under these conditions there is a point at which the conjugate locus and cut locus intersect. Then the points on u will be minimum points of p. m) be a pair which realizes the minimum of the distances of points to their minimum locus. This contradicts the fact that there can only be two minimal segments from p to m. y ( 0 ) = p. T h e n the Y FIG. Assume p. similarly. as a function of u. there is a unique smooth closed minimal geodesic loop y through p and m. with positive curvature. By the uniqueness of rn as the minimum point of p on y . m be as in corollary 1. there will be such minimal segments near to y z .and shorter than y l . Proof. Since y1 and y 2 are distinct these minimal segments will also be distinct when the points on u are sufficiently close to m. we have a oneparameter family of smooth loops y u such that yo = y and 1 yu 1 < I y I for u # 0. orientable. Those which form a fixed angle 0 have a convergent subsequence. Then either p and m are conjugate to each other or there is a unique smooth closed geodesic through p and m such that both segments are minimal. and let p.45. evendimensional. unique minimal segments from y J 0 ) to the other points of yu form all possible angles with yu at yu(0). by theorem 8. to a minimal ' segment from p to a point m on y . Closed Geodesics 24 5 There will be minimal segments near to y1 . m' = m. Remark. Let M be compact and let (p. Corollary 1. Let M be compact. f r o m p to points on u near m. Using Synge's trick.
then for sufficiently small u. y o ) c M n l . T h e open ball B(m. If B(m.. For example. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF curvature.8 Convex Neighborhoods [24. T h e relation between the concepts of convexity and local convexity is not as simple as it is in Euclidean spaces. which have two minimal segments. y(u)) < r for small u. on a flat cylinder a normal coordinate ball with diameter greater than half the circumference of the cylinder will be locally convex but will not be convex because it will contain opposite points.46. r ) is not convex. 33. y(u)) 3 r . ~ ( r )< r . since p(m. sphere S(m. there is a unique minimal segment from m to n and this segment is in B. if y were perpendi) cular to a geodesic T from m at a point ~ ( r beyond the minimum ) point. 931 A set B in a Riemannian manifold M is convex if for every m. ro) points on the minimum locus of m . 53. of which only y is tangent to S ( m . if the convexity condition fails for S ( m . T h u s there will be . Then a Jacobi field along y which points outward at p and vanishes at n will have a corresponding rectangle having longitudinal geodesics. On the other hand.for otherwise there would be in B(m. about m satisfies the convexity coildition: if y is a geodesic tangent to S(m. ro) of radius ro about m is locally convex if each FIG. Under the much stronger assumption that M is a simply connected Riemannian symmetric space the minimum and first conjugate locus coincide [28. r ) . then p(m. then B(m. n E B. 761.246 11. p. r ) at n = y(O). T o show this let y be a geodesic tangent to S(m. 11. r ) . r ) of radius r < r. r ) . p(m. must be onetoone on B(0. r ) at n = y(0) and having p = y(u) near n inside S(m. ro) is locally convex then exp.
be the quadratic form on X defined by b. so all of y lies inside B(m. r < 2r. r).. We summarize the result as follows: Let % be the space of m. 2r0) be locally convex. ro). it might happen that B(m. N ) will determine largely whether S(m. contradicting local convexity. If T is a geodesic from m to n = T ( Y ) . y ) does not take on its maximum at an end of y . V ( r ) ) . If p . ro) is entirely within B(m.8. by corollary 3 to lemma 2. ro). is positivedefinite for all such T and for all r E (0. ro) is a normal coordinate ball and b. and one end of y from that point of tangency would be inside S(m. y ) occurs at an end.Jacobi fields along geodesic from m. yo). r ) .(T*(r)’) n U . (b) If B(m. then B(m. I n turn. r ) . where U is a neighborhood of n. y ) is maximum would give a point of tangency of y with a sphere S(m. If p(m. r ) at n. However. parametrized by arc length.For if V is an mJacobi field the end terms in I( V )are 0. 2r0). Proof. r ) at n. q E B(m.(V) = ( V ’ ( r ) . then a minimal segment between them cannot go outside B(m. if I is positivedefinite we need only the requirement that n be before the minimum point of m on T to obtain the convexity condition at n for S(m. whether or not I is positive (semi)definite is determined by the behavior of mJacobi fields along 7. Proposition 2. (a) If B(m. is positivesemidefinite for r E (0. then N = exp. r o ) is locally convex. r ) satisfies the convexity condition at n. V ( r ) ) . Convex Neighborhoods 247 segments which start near p . Thus the maximum of p(m. Then every minimal segment between a pair in B(m.11. r’) is convex for some r’ > r . ro). because the second fundamental form of N at n is 0. If I has nonzero index. Proposition 1. r ) is satisfied I will be positivesemidefinite. is a submanifold containing all small geodesic segments tangent to S(m. ro) is locally convex. then the least parameter value of y for which p(m. and return inside S(m. ro). T h e example of a flat cylinder shows that the following is the best possible result of its kind. so I ( V ) = (V’(r). T . Let b. pass outside S(m. then there will be points on N which are closer to m than n is. then b. Thus the index form I = I(m. Thus if the convexity condition on S(m. r ) . Let B(m.
. a). that: (a) X is the space of S(m. are positive definite we call B(m. Problem 29. b are arbitrary except for the restriction a 6 03. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF When all such b. ZI E V . r o ) .r ) is SLC for sufficiently small r .. Use the following theorem of Otsuki [68. induced metric. Show by continuity considerations that B(m. SLC for Y E (0. locally convex for r E [a. Qh. Let V be a real vector space of dimension n. for every normal z. = 0. of S(m. Let B(m.69] to show that there is a plane section P such that K. < 0 4 4z)  for all u. Find examples to show that B(m. k < n.r ) is locally convex but not SLC. fields { V ( r )I V E X } form the tangent space to S(m. that is. are symmetric bilinear realvalued forms on V such that + 9 (Pi(%4 QkJ. Show that a compact minimal submanifold cannot be immersed in a strongly locally convex ball. b ] . Prove this theorem in the case k = 1..ro) be a strongly locally convex ball and let N be a compact manifold which is immersed in B(m. where a.(P). Then apply the preceding problem to show that a flat . . U E V such that Problem 32.248 11.(P) > K. r ) at ~ ( r )Show .and z = ~ * ( r ) . and not locally convex for r > b. (b) T h e second fundamental form H . r)Jacobi fields along T .r ) can be normal for all r . < < Problem 30. Problem 31.Then the values of mJacobi from m. Y ) of order d . so m is a focal point of S(m. Let B(m.1. r ) is essentially the same as 6 . Suppose Q1. then B(m.ro) be a normal coordinate ball.r. Show that every ball in Euclidean dspace is strongly locally convex. giving N the ro).) strongly locally convex. If B(m. . abbreviated SLC. Suppose 1 2 d i m N > d = dim M .. tr S . A minimal submanifold is one for which the second fundamental forms all have trace zero. 7 a geodesic where r E (0. u ) =: 0 for allj.Qk . Then there is at least one nonzero vector Qi(u.rl) is not S L C for rl > r . Problem 28.
If M is complete. simply connected. b. having radius r then every normal coordinate ball is SLC.the basic inequality on P gives b. Theorem 13. If sectional curvatures are nonpositive.). /3. Problem 35. is positive definite if r Problem 33. and hence we may apply the basic inequality provided that r < n/H1l2 = the distance to the first conjugate points on P. Y < ro .(V) 2 <W‘(. Let M have nonpositive curvature and let B be a convex ball containing a geodesic triangle with lengths of sides a. and has nonpositive curvature. W(4> = H 1 j 2sin ( H 1 % ) cos ( H 1 / 2 r() E . >. y . Show that u2 + b2  2ab cosy < c2 +B +Y < [33. > 0 such that for every m E C. < Proof. c and opposite angles a . B(m. V )( V . Thus b. Show that there is Problem 34. V ) )du. 731 .( V ) = I( V ) = JT = I ( m . Convex Neighborhoods 249 edimensional torus cannot be imbedded isometrically in Ed unless d 3 2e. V ’ ) l(  This last expression looks like the second variation of a vector V on a Riemannian manifold P which has constant curvature H . Let C be a compact subset of M . I b. as desired. Let H be a positive upper bound on sectional curvatures of M and let ro = ~ / 2 H l / ~ . every normal coordinate ball Then ro is SLC. V ) )du H ( V .11. where E is parallel. j( V’. V’) 0  K(T* .P. It is not difficult to see that it may be considered as such.8. E ) . show that every ball in M is convex. (( V‘. Letting E ( r ) = V ( r ) . N ) as above.r ) is convex and SLC. We have for every mJacobi field V . T h e mJacobi fields on P have the form W = sin ( H l k ) E. T o get more specific results on the size of S L C balls the following theorem can be used.
7. given by Is(V’)= <&*(O)V(Oh V(0)). u and geodesic segments parametrized by arc length on [0. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF A generalization of problem 35 for arbitrary curvature is due to Toponogov (see [9]and [90]). b] and starting at m E M and n E N. is typical (cf.X by an arbitrary smooth field S of symmetric linear transformations of the normal spaces to 7. Remark. T h e most important application will be the case where S is derived from the Ricci transformation of some Riemannian manifold. but Morse considered even more general forms [57]. of Rauch’s theorem. The theorey of the index form may be broadened to include the integral encountered without reference to P. the analytic content of Rauch’s theorem is essentially the same as Sturm’s comparison theorem for second order ordinary differential equations. If N and P are end manifolds we retain the end terms.51 We have already considered a special case. I. where S = identity.( S V . Theorem 14. + 11. T h e argument employed above involving the index forms for M and P is one step in the proof of Rauch’s comparison theorem. so we get a quadratic form I . assume that for all plane sections P and Q . Finally. For V E there is a ~ unique NSfield Y such that Y(b) = V(b). theorem 9. 74.<&*WV(Q7 V(4) + s” 0 ((V’.This is general enough for our purposes. : V + R.2. V ) )du.( V ) >.. problem 18).This is done by replacing the Ricci transformation R. T h e above proof. T h e basic inequality is valid and takes the form: Suppose there are no Sfocal points of N on 7. An Sfocal point of N is a point on 7 where a nonzero NSfield vanishes. Suppose that there is no conjugate point of n on 7.9 Rauch’s Comparison Theorem [9. 7 Let M and N be Riemannian manifolds. respectively. V ’ ) .250 11.( Y ) and equality holds only if V = Y . and some of the same ideas are involved in the proof of theorem 13. In the case d = 2.Then I. An NSjield V is a field along 7 which satisfies the end conditions at N and the equation V” SV = 0.
and W = u Y . We wish to show thatf(b) 3 g(b). KM(P) KN(Q). It will be sufficient to prove (a) ( f i g ) ( O + ) = 1.Y]). andg = ( W . suppose first that there is no conjugate point of m on o((0. Let x = bu. < FIG. y = b ~ . (b) f‘/f2 g‘ig on (0. B ( y ) = t . b]. so . such that A ( x ) = s. V ) . . Thenf(r) f 0. ( 0 ) .11.t. X)(O) = ( A .at ~ ( r and ~ ( r )respectively. W ) .Jacobi field such that W(b)= d exp. Then if s and t . X > / ( Y . V = u X . let Y = W/g(r)1/2. Then fig = ( X . J Z t E ( N J U. ) .But ( X . T o prove (a) we note that there are constant vector fields A and B on the rays to x a n d y in Mr. T o prove (b). Rauch’s Comparison Theorem 25 1 tangent to D and i. f = ( V .Then X and Y are Jacobi fields. where X = d expmA. have the same length I / dexprnr I I 2 / I dexpnt II. A ) = (s.s E ( M . so we may let X = V/f(~)l/~. b]. W the n.(O). t ) = ( Y . Y = d exp.9. 47 Proof. because then fig will be nondecreasing.+. Y)(O).B.Land N . similarly. for all r E [O. Let V be the mJacobi field such that V(b) = d expms. s) = ( t . y>.
X ’ ) = (X”. Generalize Rauch’s theorem by replacing the points m and n by totally geodesic submanifolds of equal dimensions. with respect to Fi . L and H constants. Proof.2 52 11. This follows immediately from corollary 1 and by comparison with spheres of constant curvature L and H . . theorem 11. X) = ( X . Y )( Y . Then if s is the distance along y to the first conjugate point of m on y . and using the coefficients of X with respect to Ei as the coefficients of X . we get an X .However.‘) and ( X . Y>’(r) (g‘/g)(r)s It now follows that f ( r ) 3 g ( r ) as long as there is no conjugate point of m on ~ ( ( 0 . 7476. X. Another consequence is that the hypothesis of Synge’s theorem. which coincides with Y at r and for which ( X I . SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF where X . Corollary 1. Corollary 2. Under the above hypothesis. (Bonnet).rr/H112 < s < n/L’iz. By choosing parallel bases Ei and Fi along u and T such that X ( r ) = El(r). the first conjugate point of n must occur before that of m. 4547. ) . b]. 8991]. < < . Rauch’s comparison theorem and Klingenberg’s results on closed geodesics are among techniques used in the study of “pinched” manifolds as well as for the proof of Topogonov’s theorem on geodesic triangles [69. Problem 36. may be weakened to completeness and strictly positive curvature instead of compactness. g ( r ) for r E (0. By the basic inequality for the index form along T we then have (f’if)(7) > 2 f((Y’7 Y’> 0  . Y > ) du = = ( Y . X. Y ( r )= Fl(r). so the inequality and continuity now give that f ( r ) >.). is any nonzero vector field normal to T . this was only needed to enable us to divide r] byf(r)li2. . Remark. Let M have all curvatures of plane sections tangent to a geodesic y starting at m satisfy the inequalities 0 < L K ( P ) H .
c]. sP be independent vectors normal to p at p(t). normal to p at p(t).(t)(bt/sin bt)dl is a nondecreasing function of t.y ) b2.).. in (1) that J. ). Theorem 15.. In particular. is symmetric with respect to ( . Show that K(x. y = exp. namely. K ( y * ( t ) . and in (2) that J. . Let sl..l(t)is the Jacobian determinant of exp. . . Let J p ( t )be the maximum of all the factors by which exp. x be orthonormal vectors and P thepplane spanned by y1 .11... o p... ]dl(t) = jd.. K(x. In case p = d . Curvature and Volume 11.P) 3 Pa2. since R. y p .1 we can assert more. ) (problem 4. T h e pmean curvature of x and P is the inner product K ( x . P ) = (R. Proof. Suppose m has no conjugate point on y((0. .. parametrized by arc length. y1 . x') = tr R.(t) 2 (sin bt/bt)P for t E (0. Problem 37. K ( y * ( t ) . P ) = X K ( x . ZZ. Let y1 . Similarly. s p Ill I1 where si are linearly independent tangents to M. b are real. Let y be a geodesic starting at m.. 321 253 T h e Ricci transformations R... but use the complex extension of sin in case a2 or b2 is negative. dexPm%J11I s1 . yr.(t)(at/sin is a nonincreasing function of t . (1) If (p) then J p ( t ) (sin at/at)P for t E (0. .y. Let ( p ) be the condition: For every t and every pplane P normal to y at y(t). at p(t). and its d ..(O) = 1. (2) Suppose that for every t and every vector y normal to y at y ( t ) . where p is a ray in M . XI). c]). : y + RXvx extend to derivations of the Grassmann algebra. In particular.14). c].10 Curvature and Volume [ l o . if a or b = 0 we replace at/sin at or &/sin bt by 1.10. . Note that J d O ) = i.1plane orthogonal to x. < < We do not assume that a. there is a unique d ... let j p ( t ) be the minimum of such ratios. Moreover. multiplies lengths of decomposible pvectors normal to p at p(t).1 mean curvature is called simply the mean (or Ricci) curvature of x.. that is. J U ( t )is the maximum of the ratios I I dexpms1 .. K(x.. the extensions are symmetric with respect to the natural extension of ( .*y. . Thenj...(yl .). y i ) .. and hence that such sums depend only on the plane the yi span.
A.. = jd.254 11. Let f : [0. I n particular.uAi. Letting Yi= d exp.i > ( r ) = Z r ( Y i ) < IJWi). 1 1 is constant. In particular..’Y which follows from the fact that the basis of #vectors generated by an orthonormal basis of vectors is orthonormal.. t] + R be the function which gives the ratios corresponding to P . Y. Y. y where I . Now suppose Y. Yi>W  p/r. and f(t) is a typical ratio of which J. Y .1 then P i s unique and f = Jd..(r).‘. if Wi is a vector field along y such that Wi(0)= 0 and Wi(r)= Yi(r).. = I(m... I I/u”A. taking W i gEi gives = (yi’. s o f ( 0 ) = I .. . ( r ) < yi> f 0 ((g’)2 . . which project under d exp. SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF T h e si generate linear homogeneous fields along p.then (Yi’. 9 . Thus we have a smooth field of pplanes. t ] . Y .~ ( y >* E i ) g 2 ) du. for each Y E (0... if Ei is the parallel field generated by Yi(r)and g is a broken C” function such that g(0) = 0.(t) the minimum. to p independent mJacobi fields. . where Ai are constant fields along p in M .] Using this to differentiatef2 yields the relation (4 f’(r)if(r) = 2 (Y. By the basic inequality. are mJacobi fields which span P at one value in (0.(r) are orthonormal. Yl . spanned by these mJacobi fields at the points along y. N7) with intermediate submanifold N . * Y ) ( ) . t] there is such a set of Yi. . Y .(r) and expand.. . having null second fundamental form. P. If Y ... g(r) = 1. Adding these inequalities and using the hypothesis (PI: Q* Ez) 2 Pa2.. then they will span P at every value. . if p = d . then f = 1 1 Y .(t) is the maximum and j. [Express Yi’(r)in terms of an orthonormal basis which includes Y l ( r ) . Then ( Y . where A = 1 1 A.
1 this yields the desired monotonicity of Otherwise we take the limit as q t 0. p E ) ( 7 ) = a cos arjsin a7. using J d p l ( t(atlsin ) the fact thatf(0) = 1. This completes the proof of (1). In case p = d . Curvature and Volume it follows from (a) that 255 The integral in this inequality is the second variation of a vector field gE. Yi) b2: 9 < where hE. It follows that the best choice for g is that which will make gE a Jacobi field. and the integral becomes (g’E. in a space of constant curvature a2. obtaining (b) with the inequality reversed and a replaced by b. This is true for all such f(t). obtaining f(t)(at/sin at)” <f(q)(aq/sin aq)”.10. the last step following from the basic inequality. q (0. . by the basic inequality. T o prove (2) we return to the inequality (a) and use the hypothesis W y . hence also for their maximum Jp(t). t ) and take exponentials. Thus we let g = sin au/sin ar. (If a (b) = 0 let g = u/r. so f(t) < (sin atjut)”. Now we proceed as before. where E is parallel and unitary. thus h = sin bu/sin br.11. is a “Jacobi field” for a space of constant curvature b2.) Now we integrate the resulting inequality: f’(7)if(r) E < p ( a cos ar/sin a7  l/r) from q to t . . and so on to the conclusion of (2).
x) is the Jacobian of the restriction of exp. so must also be compact. and hence the fundamental group is finite. . r ) . Corollary 4. x). Thus so the result now follows from the fact that J ( r .] Corollary 2. . and similarly for the other case with b.l a nonis increasing function of r. denote the. with the map r +rx we have a map of S. [ p ( t ) is a conjugate point of m if and only if a nonzero pvector is annihilated by d exp.. so in a compact covering they are finite. which is a result of Gunther [32]. x) denote JdPl(r)from above when x = y*(O). then the first conjugate point of m on y occurs at least within distance 7r/u along y . of radius r in M . then v(m. to the sphere S . SECOND VARIATION ARC LENGTH OF If ( p ) and u2 > 0. Combining exp. b2].1) u2 is a lower bound for mean curvature on M . But the fibres of a covering space are discrete. r ) is the volume of a normal coordinate ball of the same size in the < .1) u2 is a lower bound for mean curvature. r ) contained in a normal coordinate neighborhood. x) (urisin ~ r ) ~ is l monotonic in r . we let J(r. and b2 is an upper bound for curvature. then M is compact. r ) with Jacobian rdlJ(r.l)u2 > 0. Remark. If ( d .256 Corollary 1. J(r. volume of the sphere S(m. (Myers' theorem [62]). r ) (b/sin b7)dl is a nondecreasing function of r . and the fundamental group of M is finite. 11. Let v(m. T h e same conclusion obtains if curvature has range [a2. T h e first two assertions follow from corollary 1. Proof. r ) (u/sin ~ r ) ~ . If M is complete and ( d . v(m. for r sufficiently small. T h e simply connected Riemannian covering of M has the same local properties. Since we want to consider all geodesics from m. onto S(m. Corollary 3. < Proof. If M is a complete Riemannian manifold with mean curvature bounded away from 0 by ( d . then the volume of a normal coordinate ball B(m. the diameter of M is n / a .
but gives the volume of a sphere of radius l/u. r ) is obtained by integrating the Jacobian of exp. But the bound (sin ur/ur)dl is the Jacobian of an exponential map of the space form.. Use the fact that if x = y * ( r ) . the ball of radius T / U .? 04(N)). in particular. (p) implies (p 1) (with the same u ). will be no less.L must be the sphere S of radius r / u .. or hyperbolic space) of constant curvature u2. Curvature and Volume 257 simple spaceform (that is. so M has constant curvature u2 and is locally isometric to a sphere of radius lju. But the minimum locus in M..(S) is a point. T h e integral of the bound for that Jacobian.(N)) < volume (exp.11. (sin ur/ur)dl on as great an open set... Thus by factoring through the exponential maps a global isometry is obtained.. be a linear isometry. within a normal coordinate ball.) If u2 > 0. M a manifold satisfying (p) along all geodesics from m. that is.. (This follows from the proof of theorem 15. sphere. an arbitrary decomposible (p 1)vector may be written (x + y 1 ) y 2. then all of the inequalities in the proof of theorem 15(1) must be equations. Euclidean space. Show that + volume (exp.10. + S. and since d exp. and equality obtains only if M is isometric to such a sphere. since constant curvature gives equality throughout in that proof. Show that the conditions (p) are monotone in strength. + + . annihilates all vectors tangent to S . < Proof. . N either (1) a pdimensional submanifold of Mm such that it is contained in a sphere with center 0 and within a normal coordinate ball. on a ball of radius r in M. * * Y ~ + ~ . the Jacobi fields of M are in the same form as those on a sphere of radius l / u . Problem 38. If the volume of M equals that of a sphere of radius l/u. or (2) a ( p 1)dimensional submanifold of M . + Problem 39. If u2 > 0 the volume of M is the volume of a sphere of radius l/a. on the open set of Mm which is within the minimum locus. Let S be the simple space form of curvature u2. T h e volume of B(m. [Hint: For (2) an extension of theorem 15 to arbitrary (p 1)vectors is needed. exp. then M is compact and the volume is given by integrating the Jacobian of exp. yi are all where normal to x ] .. Let $ : M.
Appendix. and similarly for the other end. u') exists and is outside Un. a system of n first order differential equations in n unknowns. depending in addition on a parameter u' E Urn. (i) Existence and Uniqueness There is a unique C" map 4 : W . is the partial derivative operator corresponding to R and its coordinate u1 in R x Un x Urn.t Rn. 258 . u') E U n x Urn. in classical terminology. (b) +(O. (ii) Continuation of Solutions Suppose that F is bounded in the Euclidean metric on Rn. U . u'). F : Un x Urn+ T(Rn). b) x {u} x {u'} and either b = 03 or limt+b+(t. Theorems on Diferential Equations T h e reader may find it instructive to translate (i) and (ii) below into their coordinate forms and verify that essentially the same theorems are found in standard references [26]. where D. (iii) Extension t o Manifolds T h e above results are true if Un is an open subset of a manifold N . a and b depend on u and u'. where W is a neighborhood {0} x Un x Urn in R x Un x Urn. T(Rn)the tangent bundle to Rn. This says that integral curves can be continued in either direction until either the parameter becomes infinite or the curve runs out of un. u. and such that F(u. u.respectively. u') = U.Thus F gives a C" vector field on Un for every u' E Urn. or. Let F be a C" map. Then the neighborhood W above can be taken so that its intersection with the fibres of the projection R x Un x Urn+ Un x Urnare of the form (a.where Un and Urnare open subsets of Rn and Rm. u') E of w (a) d&(D.(p)) = F($(p). such that for every p = ( t . u') E Runfor every (u.
4. 4. u’ E Urn For each u’ E Urn. (b) rj(&rj(4 u. u . u’) + . F : U“ x UnL T ( N ) . t. s E R such that the following are defined: ~ (a) rj i ( j ) x U n X ~ u is~ a diffeomorphism. + (iv) The Local Group Associated with F . = 4(s t .Theorems on Differential Equations 259 Urnan open subset of a manifold M .
Sup. Lectures on symmetric spaces. 9. 12. Math. 14 (1960). 32. 64 15. Berger. o appear. S. Trans. Sur l’intkgration des systhmes d’kquations aux diffkrentielles totales. 1111. (1957). Bull. Illinois J . Ecole Norm. and MacKenzie. 181207. S. R. On the parallelizability of the spheres.S. Congr. Math. SOC. 241311. 14. (1958). France 54 (1926). 7 3 (1961). The index theorem in Riemannian geometry. SOC. Znternat. 1111. 214264. 7. K. Borel. Sur les groupes d’holonomie homogine des variktks B connexion affine et des variktks Riemanniennes. 428443. Ambrose. A theorem on holonomy. SOC. M. M. Complex analytic connections in fibre bundles. Math.Bibliography 1. Ann. 151159. SOC. Cartan. S. Amer.T. Berger. Amer.” Ann. Amer. mean curvature. Math.” McGrawHill. 8. and Goldberg. 18 (1901). 5. 11.S. Advanced Study lecture notes (1951). 114134. Ann. Les variktks riemanniennes (1/4)pincCes. and Singer. 13. Math. Pisa [Ser. E. R. SOC. 1946. 6 (1962). 3. J.. Sup. S. Math. 447456. Princeton Univ. Chern. of Math. 700712. Paris. Ann.. M. Scuola Norm. 2. 11. 10. 1962. Bott. Sci. Bishop. Bull. Atiyah. 8. A relation between volume. 364. Sur une classe remarquable d’espaces de Riemann.” GauthierVillars. 85 4. 747752. Amer. Cartan. 17. 45 (1944). Math. 16. 18. Proc. I. M. W. o Mathematicians Stockholm. A. lecture notes (1958). 6 (1927). espace euclidien. 14 (1960). L. 8. 1953. SOC. 75 (1953). Not. Cartan. Bull. An extension of Rauch’s metric comparison theorem and some applications. M. Les variktks riemanniennes dont la courbure satisfait B certaines f conditions. Pisa [Ser. Sur la possibilitk de plonger un espace riemannien donnk dans un Polon. and Milnor.. SOC. Pincement riemannien et pincement holomorphe. Berger. 20. Trans. Princeton. 4986. Inst. and diameter.I. Auslander. “Introduction to Differentiable Manifolds. 1963. New Jersey.. Press. France 83 (1955). Studies No. 19. W. 17. Math. New York. Bishop. Scuola Norm. Some implications of the generalized GaussBonnet T Theorem. Amer. Math. M. “Curvature and Betti Numbers. R. of Math. 260 . A simple intuitive proof of the GaussBonnet formula for closed Riemannian manifolds. Berger. I . Sup. Chern. 55 (1927). Cartan. E. Ann. Ann. Trans. 6. Math. 8. Ambrose. R. 10 (1963). Bochner. 8789. Ann. 161170. 279330. SOC. Berger. M.. “Leqons sur la gkometrie des espaces de Riemann. M. Topics in differential geometry. and Yano.
613628. 41. 42. Comment. Academic Press. J. Wetensch. Hermann. 27. 119194.” Academic Press. Contributions to Riemannian Geometry in the large. 654666. 1946 (2nd printing. “Curvature and Homology. Math. Math. of Math. Soc. Ann. S. 1961. W. W. I. M. report (1962). of Chicago lecture notes (1959). 35 (1961). London and New York. E. 1960.S. Nederl. Chern. Uber kompakte Riemannsche Mannigfaltiglteiten. 351361. 24.. 32. 22. Hocking.” Academic Press. Univ. “Dynamical Systems and the Calculus of Variations. Goldberg. Differentiable manifolds. 29. 3 .. Math. 38.S. 43 (1957).” Academic Press. 14 (1962). 8 (1956). 47. P. 46. Publ. 25. M.” Cambridge Univ. Kahler. report (1963). 33. Comment. R. S.” Teubner. R. Uber den Begriff der vollstandigen differentialgeometrischen Flache. j .. 3 (1931). Klingenberg. 16 (1934). Jacobson. Hermann. and Rinow. 23. New York. G. 43.F. 45. T. Kobayashi. Math. Chern. New York. Helv.S. Helv. “Lie Groups.” Princeton Univ. 1962. and Young. Ann.F. Helgason. Uber Riemannsche Mannigfaltigkeiten mit positiver Krummung. Math. 40. Mat. Princeton. New York. in preparation. Einzelschr.S. H. Hu. S. 35 (1961). Canad. “Partielle Differentialgleichungen. Chevalley. 1962. G. . H. Math. New York. “Differential forms”. 114. 37. Cohn. 35. R. 1962. New York. W. Press. of Math. Hermann. C. ’ 49. S. Kobayashi. Chern. Ann. “Theory of Lie Groups. Theory of connections. of California (Berkeley). Helv. Univ. On connections of Cartan. 69 (1959). A 66 (1963). 26. Hamburger Univ.” Academic Press. 1957. Minimum and conjugate points in symmetric spaces. Math. Comment. Amer.” Wiley (Interscience). Ser. Grauert. Abh. Ann. 460472. E. 48. 44. On curvature and characteristic classes of a Riemann manifold. Stuttgart. Pura Appl. 36. Press. Hamburger Math. 4754. Klingenberg. Reading. A manifold which does not admit any differentiable structure. 28.” AddisonWesley. of California (Berkeley) N. Gunther. and Levinson. Canad. Debrecen 7 (1960). 771782. “Differential Geometry and Symmetric Spaces.” McGrawHill. 145156. On Levi’s problem and the imbedding of realanalytic manifolds. 31. 6 (1955). S. G. S. 30. 7893. 39.S. Hopf. Massachusetts. N. An elementary proof of the existence of isothermal parameters on a surface. Flanders. “Homotopy Theory. Cartan’s theory of exterior differential systems. E. j’. H. R. P. Chern. New Jersey. Akad. Univ. 137 (1959). Cartan connexions and the equivalence problem for geometric structures. 34. S. N. New York. Coddington. N. Focal points of closed submanifolds of Riemannian spaces. Klingenberg. Sem. Math. “Lie Algebras. 1955. 1963. “Topology. 2021 (1955). Kervaire. Proc. Univ. 320328. “Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. S. Einfuhrung in die Theorie der Systeme von Differentialgleichungen.BIBLIOGRAPHY 26 1 21. Complex manifolds. 117126. New York. Hermann. Crittenden. S . S. 1959. Math. R. Proc. 1960). 209225. of Chicago lecture notes (1956). Hellwig. W. Einige Satze uber das Volumenelement eines Riemannschen Raumes. 68 (1958).
K. J. Lichnerowicz. 71. Myers. London Math.64 (1958)..” Ann. Duke Math. “The Calculus of Variations in the Large. and Nomizu. “Topological Transformation Groups.. 60. Press. Proc.” Edizione Cremonese. 1946. J. (1956). 51. Newlander. 1963. 3365. Milnor. Ann. Math. 1955. 67. 64A. 400407. J . 2063. 95102. Math. 65 (1957). Myers. Quelques propriktks globales des espaces de Riemann. Pontrjagin. Morrey. Princeton.New York. Princeton. The imbedding problem for Riemannian manifolds. New York. Kobayashi. 2 (1936). Bull. Math. in preparation. 3949.. The analytic embedding of abstract realanalytic manifolds. 105123. Amer. Math. J. J. Isometric imbedding of Riemann manifolds in a Riemann manifold. 64 (1956). Preissmann. J . K. T. I (1935). Princeton Univ. Japan Acad. S. 130. H. “Lectures on Morse Theory. 99100. of Math.. Math. SOC. 401404. 76 (1954). I. of Tokyo. M. 62. D. “Lie Groups and Differential Geometry. Princeton Univ. 221234. Princeton. Morse. J. T. C. L. Vol. and Nirenberg. “Topological Groups. Amer. B.262 BIBLIOGRAPHY 50. 68 (1958). Ann. Riemannian manifolds with positive mean curvature. SOC. 159201. K. New York. Comment. W. 1963. 8 (1941). Proc. 1963. Complex analytic coordinates in almost complex manifolds. Nomizu. 54. of Math. New Jersey. Amer. A . 66. Nash. 68. J . Pitcher. 51. 63 (1956). Connections between differential geometry and topology. of Math. A.. Infinitesimal holonomy groups of bundle connections. Studies No.G. On manifolds homeomorphic to the 7sphere. R. A. 391404. SOC. 52. S. Invariant affine connections on homogeneous spaces. Duke Math.” Wiley (Interscience). 29 (1953). Otsuki. Ann. Math. H. 1956. 70. SOC. Duke Math. Myers. On the existence of solutions of a system of quadratic equations and its geometric applications. 57. Press. S.” Ann. Vol. lecture notes (1958). 58. 73. J. Newns. Riemannian manifolds in the large.F. Otsuki. 175216. New Jersey. 31 65. “Foundations of Differential Geometry. Math. and Walker. SOC. Princeton Univ. K. 61. L. 11. Milnor. Helv. 376391. 53. Japan. 10 (1956). S. Myers. Inequalities of critical point theory. 11. 56.” Math. Studies No. . L. J. “Thkorie globale des connexions et des groupes d’holonomie. Nagoya Math. 64. J. and Zippin. Closed surfaces. 72. E . and Ozeki. New Jersey.” Wiley (Interscience). Nomizu. Montgomery. Ozeki.” Amer. The existence of complete Riemannian metrics. 399405. 1955. Munkres. 54. Rome. Press. Nomizu.” Princeton Univ. J. . 889891. 1934. “Elementary Differential Topology. I. Differential topology. 63. Milnor. Simply connected surfaces. Japan 6 (1954). J. 1 (1935). 69. Duke Math. A. of Math. 15 (19423). Ann. S. Tangent planes to a differentiable manifold. SOC. Connections between differential geometry and topology.12 (1961). Math. 59. 55.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
263
74. Rauch, H. A contribution to differential geometry in the large. Ann. of Math. 54 (1951), 3855. 75. Rauch, H. “Geodesics and Curvature in Differential Geometry in the Large.” Yeshiva Univ. Press, New York, 1959. 76. Rauch, H. T h e global study of geodesics in symmetric and nearly symmetric Riemannian manifolds. Comment. Math. Helv. 35 (1961), 111125. 77. de Rham, G. Sur la rCductibilitC d’un espace de Riemann. Comment. Math. Helv. 26 (1952), 328344. 78. de Rham, G. “VariCtCs diffbrentiables.” Hermann, Paris, 1955. 79. Sard, A. The measure of the critical values of differentiable maps. Bull. Amer. Math. SOC. (1942), 883890. 48 80. Seifert, H., and Threlfall, W. “Lehrbuch der Topologie.” Teubner, Stuttgart, 1934. 81. Seifert, H., and Threlfall, W. “Variationsrechnung im Grossen.” Chelsea, New York, 1951. 82. Simons, J. On the transitivity of holonomy systems. Ann. of Math. 76 (1962), 213234. 83. Singer, I. Differential geometry. M.I.T. lecture notes (1962). 84. Smale, S. A survey of some recent developments in differential topology. Bull. Amer. Math. SOC. (1963), 131145. 69 85. Steenrod, N. “The Topology of Fibre Bundles.” Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1951. 86. Synge, J. L. T h e first and second variations of the length in Riemannian space. Proc. London Math. SOC. (1926), 241264. 25 87. Synge, J. L. On the connectivity of spaces of positive curvature. Quart. J . Math. Oxford Ser. (l), 7 (1936), 316320. 88. Thom, R. Quelques propriCtCs globales des variCtCs diffkrentiables. Comment. Math. Helv. 29 (1954), 1785. 89. Tsukamoto, Y. On certain Riemannian manifolds with positive sectional curvature. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. Ser. A , 13 (1959), 140145. 90. Tsukamoto, Y. On a theorem of A. D. Alexandrov. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. Ser. A , 15 (1962), 8389. 91. Tsukamoto, Y. On Riemannian manifolds with positive curvature. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. Ser. A , 15 (1962), 9096. 92. Weil, A. “VariCtCs kahltriennes.” Hermann, Paris, 1958. 93. Whitehead, J. H. C. On the covering of a complete space by the geodesics through a point. Ann. of Math. 36 (1935), 679704. 94. Willmore, T. “An Introduction to Differential Geometry.” Oxford, Univ. Press, London and New York, 1959. 95. Yamabe, H. On an arcwise connected subgroup of a Lie group. Osaka Math. J., 2 (1950), 1314.
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Subject Index
A
Abelian Lie algebra, 26 Lie group, 25, 37 Action by compact group, induced Riemannian metric, 136 Action of Cm maps on forms, 68 Action of Lie groups, 38 effective, 38 free, 39 on connexion, 118 prolongation, I 18 to right, 38 transitive, 39 Action of principal bundle, 49 Adjoint representation of Lie algebra, 36 of Lie group, 36 of quaternions, 36 Ado's theorem, 30 Affine Bianchi identities, 101 Affine bundle, 109 connexion on, 120 Affine connexion, 89 classical definition, I 1 7 complete, 110 curvature and torsion zero, 95 curvature transformation, 96, 97 determined by geodesics and torsion, 106 on Lie group, 107 on parallelizable manifold, 106 symmetric connexion, see Torsion zero torsion form, 93
torsion translation, 96, 97 torsion zero, 95, 103, 106, 117, 118, 166 Affine product connexion, 119 Almost complex manifold, 64 structure, 51, 73 Alternating multilinear functions, 57 Arc length first variation of, 213, 214 minimizing, 149, 151, 154 of broken Cm curves, 123 of continuons curves, 158 reduced, 223 second variation of, 213, 214 Synge's formula, 218 Associated bundle, 45 connexions on, 83 coordinate bundle, 46 tangent bundle, 46 vector bundles, 48 Associated codistribution, 70 Associated distribution, 70 Associated vector field to a rectangle, 147 Atlas, same as basis for Cm structure, 3 Augmented index, 232 Automorphism of Lie algebra, 35 of Lie group, 35
0
Bagel, 210 Base space of bundle, 42 Basic inequality for index form, 228 generalized, 250 265
266
SUBJECT INDEX
Basic vector fields, 92 Basis for Cw structure, 3 Bianchi identity, 82 affine identities, 101 Bonnet’s theorem, 252 Bracket of vector fields, 13 geometrical interpretation, 18 Broken Cm curve, 77 Broken Cm rectangle, 21 3 Bundle, see also Associated bundle, Principal bundle of adapted bases of product, 119 of adapted frames of immersion, 186 of bases, 43 connexion on, see affine connexion parallelization of, 92 reduction to O(d), 129 of frames, 127 as reduced bundle, 129 connexion on, see Riemannian connexion bundle map, 49 bundle space, 42 C
Cw,see class Cm Cmrelated, 2 Canonical lifting of Cw rectangle, 147 Cartan equations and forms of Maurer, 70,72, 82, 107 theorem of Hadamard, 184 Cartan connexion, 121 CartanKahler theorem, 205 Cartan’s criterion for closed subgroups, 30 Cartan’s local isometry theorem, 181 CauchyKowalevsky theorem, 205 Center, 36 Chain rule, 10 Characteristic value and vectors of generalized index form, 236 9 Class Ck, Class Cw,of action, 38 bundles, 41 codistribution, 70 covering map, 6
curve, 7 differential form, 62 distribution, 23 function, 2, 3 manifold, 3 partition of unity, 4 rectangle, 147 structure, 3 basis for, 3 tensor field, 47 Urysohn function, 2 vector field, 13, 47 Classical covariant derivative, 117 Classical coordinate definition of affine connexion, 118 Classical notion of differential form, 53 Classical rigidity theorem, 21 1 Closed form, 114 Closed geodesic, 241 smooth, 241 Codistribution, 70 Coefficients of connexion, 1 16 Comparison theorem, Rauch’s, 250 Complete connexion, 110 Riemannian manifold, 154 negative curvature, 184 zero curvature, 183 Complex differential forms of type (p, q), 73 Complex Grassmann manifold, 170 Complex Lie group, 34 compact, 34 Complex manifold, 7, 50, 64 complex structure, 51 Hermitian structure, 141 Kahler structure, 142 Complex projective space, 140 Complex structure, 51 Configuration space of mechanical system, 157 Conformal map, 136 Conjugate point, 225 complex projective space, 225 order of, 225 quaternion projective space, 226 sphere 225 Connexion, see also Affine connexion, Riemannian connexion
SUBJECT INDEX
267
curvature form, 80 existence of, 83 flat, 82 induced, 80 of Cartan, 121 on affine bundle, 120 on associated bundle, 83 on principal bundle, 75 one form of, 76 Conservative force field, 157 Continuous curve, 158 arc length, 158 Convexity, 246 local, 246 strong local, 248 Coordinate bundle associated, 46 principal, 44 transition functions of, 44 Coordinate neighborhood, 2 Coordinate system, 2 normal, 110 Covariant differentiation, 111 examples, 112 of Riemannian connexion, 166 parallelizable manifold, 114 structural equation, 116 Covering map, Cm, 6, 183 Riemannian, 134 Critical point of function, 197 Hessian, 197 Crosssections of bundles, 42, 48, 49 Curvature Gauss, 162, 211 mean, 253 pmean, 253 Ricci, 253 Riemannian or sectional, see Riemannian curvature Curvature form of connexion, 80 of immersion, 190 vanishing of, 82 Curvature transformations, 96 geometric interpretation of, 97 symmetries of, 162 Curve arc length, 123, 158
broken Cw, 77 cm, 7 continuous, 158 development of, 98 horizontal lift, 77 Cut locus, 237
D
Decomposable elements of Grassmann algebra, 55 Deformation, infinitesimal, 226 Derivative, Lie, 16, 69 partial, 8 Derivation of Grassmann algebra, as extension of linear endomorphism, 56 Determinant of linear endomorphism, 57, 61, 62 Development of curve, 98 Diffeomorphism, 11 Difference forms, 102 and geodesics, 105 and torsion, 103 Differentiable, see Class C"0 Differential of map, 9, 12 chain rule, 10 Differential form, 62 action of Cm maps on, 68 action of Lie derivative on, 69 as crosssection, 63 classical notion, 53 closed, 114 complex, of type ( p , q), 73 difference, 102 equivariant, 75, 85, 100 exact, 143 holomorphic, 73 vector valued, 71 Differentiation, covariant, see Covariant differentiation Direct connexion on parallelizable manifold, 106, 114 Distance on Riemannian manifold, 124 Distribution, 22 associated codistribution, 70 Cm,23 Frobenius' theorem, 23
104. 22 Urysohn. 64 intrinsic formula for. 154 local minimizing property on Riemannian manifold. 179 closed. 187 Flat affine connexion. 2. Principal bundle First variation of arc length 213. linear determinant. 23 Doubly ruled surface. 30 matrices. 27 complex. 7. 96. 61. 56 trace. 5762 homogeneous elements. see Curvature and Torsion zero connexion. 183 tori. 9. 55 homomorphisms. 186 . 57 Equivariant forms. 22 restriction of. 56 extension as homomorphism to Grassmann algebra. 71 Function. 34 Fibre. 39 Frobenius’ theorem. see Gauss curvature General linear group. 108 into B ( M ) . 97 global minimizing property on complete Riemannian manifold. 46 action of principal bundle on. 170. 232 Force field of mechanical system. 49 Fibre bundle. 149. 21 1 Gauss’ lemma. see Imbedding Endomorphism. 65 F complete Riemannian manifold. 209 Dual forms of structural equations. 133 Grassmann algebra. 214 Flag manifold. 56 Grassmann manifold. 157 Form. 55 derivation of. 224 order of. 57. 214 unintegrated. 62 extension as derivation to Grassmann algebra. 100. 22 Exterior derivative. 76. 143 Exponential map affine connexion into M . 57 differential of. bundle of. 80. see also class Cm alternating. 38 Embedding. 90. 113 and curvature. see Differential form. see Associated bundle. 23. 139. 147 Gauss map.268 SUBJECT INDEX integrable. 34 Geodesics. Fundamental form Frames. of associated bundle. 162. 225 Focal values. 105 existence of. 4. 108. 185 second. 137. 133 Focal point. 101 E Effective action. 23 involutive. 32 Extension of function on submanifold. 132 Exact form. Index form. 217 on sphere. 101 Euclidean space. 2 Fundamental forms of immersion first. 91 G rljk. see Bundle of frames Free action. 86. 25. 241 connexions with same. 54 decomposable elements. 190 Fundamental vector fields. 108 Lie group. 22 vector field on submanifold. 23 integral manifold of. 85. 12 extension of. Faithful representation. 56 existence of. 195 Gaussian curvature. 82 117 Gauss curvature.
172 oriented. 170 quaternion. 194 Indecomposable elements of Grassmann algebra. 207 of rotation. 138 reductive subgroup. 188 second fundamental form. 137 Riemannian symmetric. 77 of vector field. see . 193 first fundamental form. 169 1 Jacobi equation. 136 Inverse function theorem. 225 Index of symmetric quadratic form. 132 Gauss map. 220 augmented index of. 14 manifold of codistribution. 209 rigidity. 75 Horizontal lift of curve. 221 nullity of. 170 real. 55 Index form. 26. 232 basic inequality. 83 Homometry. 39. 190 totally geodesic. 87 Homogeneous elements of Grassmann algebra. theorem of. 82 Riemannian. 11 Involutive distribution. 39. 190. 52 HopfRinow theorem. 30 Lie group. 250 generalized. 141 Hessian of function. 154 Horizontal differential form. 55 Homogeneous space. 233 Induced bundle. 21 isometric. 55 rank. 132 normal bundle. 75 Hyperbolic space. 76 vector field. 21 1 Ideal of Lie algebra. 26 Isotropy group. 174 Jacobi fields. 69 Invariant metric on Lie group. 43 connexions on. 80 Infinitesimal deformations. 23 Interior product i ( X )with vector field. 45 connexion on. 170 hyperbolic space. 23 Isometry. 122 theorem of Cartan. 135 Homomorphism of Grassmann algebra. 172 Hypersurface. 170 Group. 197 of normal coordinate function. 195 hypersurface. 228. 56 Lie algebra. see also Immersion. 250 index of. 73 section. 171 Holonomy group of connexion. 29 continuous.group H HadamardCartan. . 21 1 type number of. 132. 160 local. 198 Holomorphic curvature. 209 products of spheres as. 26 Imbedding.SUBJECT INDEX 269 I complex. 184 Hermitian manifold. 173 . 172 opposite spaces. 87 restricted. 70 manifold of distribution. 185 curvature of. 48 Immersion. 226 Integrable distribution. 223 null space. 23 Integral curve. 122. 37 Hopf maps. 207 Riemannian connexion. 181 Isomorphism of Lie algebras. 171 forms. 123 Index theorem.
37 complex. 26 Lift. 62 trace of. 237 point. theorem of Cartan. 75 Linear endomorphism determinant of. 61.Lie group correspondence. equations and forms of. canonical. 180 rectangles associated to. 140 Lie algebra. 63 Normal bundle. 26 of Lie group. 103 Local one parameter group of local diffeomorphisms. 70. 123 Manifold. 151. 256 pmean curvature. 15 associated vector field. 2 almost complex. I57 Metric. 179. 142 Killing form. theorem of Cauchy. 72 Opposite connexion. 132 Operations on vector valued forms. of curve. 237 submanifold. 152 Null space of index form. 176 Linear transformation fields. 32 Jabobian. 82. 126 Minimal segment. 221 focal points and. 25. 147 horizontal. 221 Nullity of index form. 57. 107 Mean curvature. 15 Locally symmetric space. 233 Myers’ theorem. 64 product. 106 Opposite spaces to Grassmann manifolds. 172 . 10 M K Kahler. 225 generalized. 205 L Lens space. 48. 250 on Riemannian sphere. 34 Lie algebra of. 57 Linear homogeneous vector fields. 27 Lie subgroup. 10 MaurerCartan. 137 Kowalevsky. 4 topological. 256 N Negative curvature. 25 abelian. 110. 253 Myers’ theorem on.SUBJECT INDEX NJacobi fields. 174 Jacobi identity. 77 of vector field. 7. 184 Nonorientable. I68 Longitudinal curves of rectangle. 253 Measure zero. Riemannian. 122 complete. 69 on vector field. 196 Normal coordinates. see Basic inequality for index form Jacobian matrix. 26 abelian. 64 complex. 72. 5 submanifold. of rectangle. 154 existence of. 225 0 Onedimensional Riemannian manifold. 205 Kahler manifold. 147 Lorentz manifold. 28 Lie derivative. 17 Lie group. exponential of. 237 Morse index theorem. 27 Lie algebra. 172 hyperbolic space. 21 open. 16 on differential form. 14 Jacobi theorem. 12 Mechanical system. 50. 2 Matrix. 248 Minimum locus.
58 crosssection. 226 real. 133 Product manifold. 52 conjugate points. 34. 127 coordinate bundle. 41 affine bundle. 225 Kahler structure. 78 of tangents. 42 reduction of structure group. 42 Product connexion. 52 conjugate points. 89 Parallel vector field along curve. 142 Q Quaternion Grassmann manifold. 43 Prolongation of covering map. 48. 14 Representation. 55 Rauch’s comparison theorem. 22 of vector field. 213 canonical lifting. 10 Product of spheres as hypersurface. 147 broken Cm. 209 Projective space complex. 129 Reductive subgroup. 114 Lie group. 107 Riemannian connexion. 119 Riemannian. 44 induced. 92 Partial derivative. 187 Regular map. 83. 250.SUBJECT INDEX 27 1 Orbit. 49 bundle of bases. 147 transverse curve. 44. 84 in principal bundle. 43 Rectangle. 223 Reduction of structural group. 87 Restriction of function. 87 Riemannian structure as reduction of bundle of bases. 22 Ricci transformation. 45 product (trivial). torsion zero). 147 associated vector field. 36 polar decomposition. 5. 36 faithful. 252 Real projective space. 61 Plane section. 225 Orientability. 63 Oriented Grassmann manifold. 106 covariant derivative. 161 Polar decomposition of quaternions. 37 adjoint representation. 58 shuffle permutations. 36 regular left representation. 119 tangents to. 226 Quaternions. 120 homometry. 36 Restricted holonomy group. 170 Orthogonal group. opposite. 43 bundle of frames. 34 adjoint. 8 Partition of unity. 4 Permutation groups. 49. 5 bundle of adapted bases. 87 Product bundle. 135 Parallel translation in associated bundle. 58. 151. 34 Quotient space bundle of imbedding. 29. 34 of quaternions. 96 Parallelizable manifold. 196 R Rank of homogeneous element of order two. 170 Quaternion projective space. 49. 36 Principal bundle. 34. 253 Riemannian connexion. 48 normal bundle. 64 connexions (direct. 134 Parallelization of bundle of bases. 147 Reduced arc length. 52 conjugate points. 147 longitudinal curve. 49. see Associated bundle bundle map. 253 Ricci curvature. 109 associated to. 5 . Cm. 39 Order of focal point. 129 . 250. 33 P quaternion.
162. 123 index of. 170. 209 hypersurface of. 49 to complex general linear group. 129 Subalgebra. 207 ruled. 193 interpretations of. 136 on vector bundle. 21 1 Rinow. 161 and geodesics. 21 Structural constants of Lie algebra. 134 Riemannian homogeneous space. 180 of symmetric space. 131 Riemannian curvature. 133 Stereographic projection. 93 Space form. 154 Rotation manifold of partial. 123 Lorentz manifold. 107 Rigidity theorem. 162. 58. 42 reduction of. 21 8 unintegrated. 183 Riemannian manifold. 209 s Sard’s theorem. 131 of immersion. see Riemannian curvature Semidirect product. 184 continuity. 184 simple. 26 Submanifold. 171 negative curvature. 137 Striped pants. 257 Special linear group. 165 Second fundamental form. 180 product of spheres as hypersurface. 4 Stiefel manifold. 194 Surface. 80. 214 Section. 4 conjugate points. 12 Schur’s theorem. 122 complete. 133 Riemannian covering. 179 computation of. 180 Jacobi fields. 213 Synge’s formula. 127 Riemannian product. 208 existence of. 248 open. 132144 imbedding of. classical. 26 Subgroup.272 SUBJECT INDEX Second variation of arc length. 116 of affine connexion. 139 Riemannian symmetric space. 90. 133 geodesics. 166 holomorphic. 137 Riemannian homogeneous symmetric space. 122 existence. 209 Ruled surface. 21 minimal. 69 Structural equations dual formulation. 165 constant. 86 Structure group. 192 . 126 induced by action of compact group. 33 Sphere. 190. 168 Right action of Lie group. 4 totally geodesic. 100 of connexion. 188 uniqueness. 132 semi. 138. 165. 81 of horizontal form. 209 Riemannian. 39 SemiRiemannian manifold. theorem of Hopf. I24 examples. 101 for covariant differentiation. 170. 184 of immersed manifold. 170 zero curvature. 171 Sectional curvature. 154 distance function. 209 hyper. 161 holomorphic. 123 Riemannian metric or structure. 5 doubly ruled. 225 curvature. 38 Right connexion of Lie group. 190 and curvature. 123 Shuffle permutations. 208 doubly. 191. 61 Solder form. plane. 193 ofsphere. 51 to orthogonal group.
147 Trivial bundle. 47 Topological manifold. 29 linear homogeneous. 97 Torsion zero. 13. 194 Synge’s theorem on connectivity. 5 complex. 38 Transition functions. 126 Vector field. 47 field. 147 broken Cm rectangle. 118. 13 along Cm curve. 92 Cm. 106. 71 operations on. 64 Riemannian. 15 Vector valued forms. 100 Torsion translation. 168 Transverse curves of rectangle. 27 associated one parameter subgroup. 8 bundle. 173 NJacobi. 22 fundamental. 21 8 unintegrated. 214 Vector analysis in R3. 176 local one parameter group of. 93 structural equations. 2 Torsion form. 2 1 1 Synge’s formula. 57 Transformations local one parameter group of. 9 1 Jacobi. 44 Transitive action by group. 48 Riemannien metric on. 74 Volume element. 95. 34 flat. 15 group of. 64 of product. 122 U Unintegrated variations of arc length. 42 Tubular neighborhood. 166 Torus. 243 T Tangent. 103. 218 Synge’s theorem on imbeddings. 221 left invariant. 34 Urysohn function. 151 Type number of hypersurface. 214 basic. 46. 39 Transvections. see Torsion zero Synge’s formula for unintegrated second variation. 96 as crosssection. 133 Totally geodesic submanifold.SUBJECT INDEX 213 Symmetric affine connexion. 214 . 47 extension of. 2 V Variations of arc length. 194 Trace of linear endomorphism. 68 Vector bundle. 96 geometric interpretation. 72 Vertical forms. 21 8 Unitary group. 96 parallel. 213 Synge’s formula. 76 vectors. 10 Tensor bundle. 117. 47 associated to Cm rectangle.
This Page Intentionally Left Blank .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.