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Sanskrit Introductory
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A Practical

Preface
This course of fteen lessons is intended to lift the English-speaking student who knows nothing of Sanskrit, to the level where he can intelligently apply MonierWilliams' dictionary1 and the Dhatu-Patha2 to the study of the scriptures. .

The rst ve lessons cover the pronunciation of the basic Sanskrit alphabet, together with its written form in both Devanagar and transliterated Roman: ash cards are included as an aid. The notes on pronunciation are largely descriptive, based on mouth position and e ort, with similar English (Received Pronunciation) sounds o ered where possible. The next four lessons describe vowel embellishments to the consonants, the principles of conjunct consonants, and additions to and variations in the Devanagar alphabet. Lessons ten and eleven present sandhi in grid form and explain their principles in sound. The next three lessons penetrate Monier-Williams' dictionary through its four levels of alphabetical order, and suggest strategies for nding di cult words. The last lesson shows the extraction of the artha from the Dhatu-Patha, and the . application of this and the dictionary to the study of the scriptures. In addition to the primary course, the rst eleven lessons include a `B' section which introduces the student to the principles of sentence structure in this fully in ected language. Six declension paradigms and class-1 conjugation in the present tense are used with a minimal vocabulary of nineteen words. In the `B' part of lessons ten and eleven the principles of compound words are introduced.

The course aims at a practical understanding of the basic principles, at getting a `feel' for the language, and not a learning of rules by rote. To this end, each lesson concludes with exercises for the student to put that understanding into practice: answers to the exercises are presented in an appendix.
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1 Monier-Williams

Sanskrit-English Dictionary is currently published by both Motilal Banarsidass in India and Oxford University Press in England: although the two are printed from the same plates, the latter is far superior in the quality of printing, paper, and binding| and this is re ected in its much higher price. 2 The edition of the Dhatupatha referred to in these notes is that edited . by J.L.Shastri and published by Motilal Banarsidass: it is a small book and quite inexpensive.

iv A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The pronunciation o ered in these lessons is optimised for the English-speaking student to understand the underlying principles of sandhi (sound changes).g. variations are illustrated in the ninth lesson. Where there is a variation in the form of a character (e. Charles Wikner. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Readers are invited to point out errors in the course. and o er suggestions for its improvement. .nac. these lessons standardize on the form that is most commonly used in currently available printed editions of the Bhagavad G ta and Upanisads. A or A ). There are several variations in the pronunciation of some of the Sanskrit sounds. The common . although this may confuse the mind trained to think in terms of opposites.za June. wikner@nacdh4. but neither is wrong. In view of this situation. and many schools have ceased to teach it. 1996. an appendix of basic English grammatical terms is included. that have been handed down over generations. None of these traditions are wrong. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: In the English-speaking world there is currently little appreciation of the value of studying formal grammar: as a result it has become unpopular. Consider the English spoken in Britain and America for example: they are certainly di erent.ac. of right and wrong.

A.2.8. B. More on Noun Cases B. Exercises B. A. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowel Measures Sanskrit Pronunciation The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The Other Simple Vowels: r l . A.1.1.2.1.4.6. A.4. Practicing the Alphabet B.1. Summary of Verbs B. Exercises 21 Lesson 4 A.2. Introduction to nouns . The Final Consonant: ha B. More on Noun Cases B.3. A.1. A.3. A. A. A.6.. A. The Compound Vowels: e ai o au Summary of All Vowels The Sixteen Sakti: am ah .7. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 31 Lesson 5 A.1.4.3. A.3. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 37 .3. B. B.2.2. The Concept of Dhatu Introduction to Verbs Exercises Flash Cards Lesson 2 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: The Five Mouth Positions B. A. A.2.5.5. More on Verbs The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa B.2.1. Exercises Summary of the Consonants The Alphabetical Order Devanagar Alphabet B. A.1.Contents Preface :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iii v ix 1 Contents ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Invocation A.4. A. A.1.1. More on Verbs The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma B. .2. A. Exercises Pronunciation of the Stops Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 13 Lesson 3 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va B.3.

vi A.1. B.2. Revision :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 71 Lesson 10 Introduction to Sandhi Guna and Vrddhi . B.1. Vowel Sandhi Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi B.4.1.3.1.5.1. B.1. A.2. B.2. Vowels after Consonants A.3. A. A. Joining Words in Writing B. Use of iti Variations in Samyoga B. Avyay bhava Samasa Bahuvr hi Samasa Exercises 85 . B.5. .2.4. A. Lesson 7 Conjunct Consonants Special Conjuncts ksa and j~a n .1.4. B.2.4.3. A. B. A.5. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B. More Noun Declensions Adjectives Adverbs Vocabulary Summary Exercises 63 A.2.3. A. A. A.1.3.3. B. A. Exercises 53 Lesson 8 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Savarna . B.3. B. Lesson 9 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowels Accents B. A. Dvandva Samasa Tatpurusa Samasa .2.1. Consonant Sandhi Grid A. A. Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit Noun Gender Summary of Case Information Exercises 45 A. Exercises 77 A.3. Internal Sandhi Lesson 11 Samprasarana .2.3. Visarga Sandhi A.4.5. A. Verbal Pre xes B. Exercises .4.3. Nasal Substitution for Anusvara Devanagar Numerals B.4. Pronunciation of ksa . History of Vowel Embellishment A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 6 B. A. A. Types of Words Variations in Devanagar Alphabet B. B. Introduction to Compound Words B.2. A.2.6.1.2. A.1.2.1. Pronunciation of j~a n List of Conjunct Consonants Special Symbols Halanta Consonants ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B.

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103 Lesson 15 1. 8. 2. Study of the Scriptures Study Practice ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109 Appendix 1: Suggestions for Further Study Appendix 2: Answers to Exercises Sanskrit Glossary and Index Appendix 3: English Grammatical Terms ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 121 123 135 141 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: . 8. 6. 2. 3. 4. 2. 5. 4. 6. 5. 6. The Contents Page The Text Body The Index Dhatu Spelling Changes Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use . Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . 4. 7. 3. Monier-Williams Dictionary Alphabet and Transliteration Fundamental Structure Page Heading Words Dictionary Practice Words beginning with SaStructure of Devanagar level Structure within non-Dhatu entries References and Abbreviations Special Symbols Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Supplement to the Dictionary Dictionary Practice Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Dhatu Entry Information Numbered Entries Misleading Words Di cult Words Dictionary Practice :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91 Lesson 13 1. 97 Lesson 14 1. 3. 2.Contents vii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 12 1. 7. 5. 3. 5. 4.

viii A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

reminding. Treating adh tam as a neuter noun and tejasvi its complement. having qualities of heat and light.N+ :pa= smEa.+ A:~tu+{ .ix INVOCATION Translations: E ective may our study prove! May our study be thorough and fruitful. Dh.f. tea. Dh. May our study be vigorous and e ective. get about to go to or towards. exist. deportment. . Swam Sarvananda) (Invocation to Taittir ya 2.1. reading. the act of causing to remember.N+ A a.an+{ tea. A. :::::::: :: :::::::::::::::::: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: (Invocation to Daksinamurti Upanisad. studied. the act of arising or becoming. (Invocation to Katha UUpanisad . .a~v+ na.d:ga. .pa.a~v+ na. walk to ow to blow to advance.ta. na. glare.] tejas | sharp (edge of a knife) point or top of ame or ray. re ptij | mw 446a to be or become sharp. whetting observing. perceiving. calling to mind. Swam Gambh rananda) (First Lessons in Sanskrit.tmanea.pa. Judith Tyberg) neuter nominative singular of adjective tejasvin.| ga. we have: \May the Light Shine upon our Studies.a. brilliance.E+ A. moving.a.pa. adhi | mw 20b pre x expressing above. (to be). to succeed.f.a.d:ga. light. splendid. adhyayana | mw 22c n. `may it be'. motion in general.Da. May our study be full of light. be take place.ja. bright. (Invocation to Taittir ya 2. Dh. or simply `our'.P.ta. Swam Sarvananda) . to undertake anything to be employed in. besides. | A:s+ A d a.| A.d sea. .vaDa.| Bua. p A:~tu+| rst of as `let it be'. reach. rather than the literal word-by-word translation. splendour.e. going. With reference to our study of Sanskrit. smarana | mw 1272b n.d A ana.a.ane+| nisana | mw 561a n. brilliant.i.f. | a.`a.d:ga.f. Dh. continue in any condition or relation .v+| bhu | mw 760c f. | I k A d a. (Invocation to Katha Upanisad . Dh. learned. A. p adhi. giving the meaning `of us both (student and teacher)'. over and above. studying.P. in the sense of matup (`belonging to this'.tam.d A ana.E+| genitive dual of personal pronoun `I'.pa. i.d a.a. sharpening. pas | mwpersontosingular imperativepresent. energetic. .a~v+| .| ana.Sastry) .N+ :pa= smEa." y y The light of understanding/knowledge/truth. .N+ :pa= smEa. come .pa.+| neuter nominative singular of adh tam.a.tam. read well-read. or simply `be!' 117a be. :pa. gati | mw 347c f.E+| . happen.P. live.| sma=*Ne+| . Comment: Tejas is a name given to the subtle element of re. tejasvin | mw 454c mfn. pi | to go.) adh ta |mw 22c mfn. this may be understood as the heat that burns o the dross of ignorance and allows the light of understanding to shine through. Let what we are studying be invigorating. spread.Da. . gait. `existing in this'). te!a.a. glow. | I z A d a.ja. to turn the mind towards.tmanea. Panini: ba. go on with. understand. Let our study be brilliant.j!a. . to arrive at. observe.N+ A a.d:ga.a.P. (The past passive participle used in the sense of an abstract noun.a.j+ Bva.P.d sea.hu lM C*nd as+{ 5| 2| 122{ In the Veda the a x -vin is variously introduced .tama~tu+! .!a. Using poetic licence to convey the sense of the whole. this gives a rather plodding translation of `Let our study be bright'.1. . .d A ana. attained.M. obtain .d:ga.Za.f. Swam Gambh rananda) . . | I z A d a.Dyayane+| . especially the Veda s.

x A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. fare. the pronunciation of English requires much e ort. for it re ects the natural evolution of creation. There are two fundamental divisions to the alphabet: the vowel (svara) and the consonant (vya~jana). accent and n vya~jana an adornment or decoration (to the sound). fat. and the prolonged for three or more measures. far). It is essential to use the correct mouth position and not to merely imitate an approximation of the sound. By contrast. The prolonged measure occurs in Vedic Sanskrit but is rare in Classical Sanskrit the prolonged measure (as a full breath) is useful in practising the vowels. The word svara literally means sound. (You may also see it as the long vowel followed by 3. but not so in Sanskrit.1 Vowel Measures Vowels can be short (hrasva) or long (d rgha) or prolonged (pluta). each letter represents one. and only one. In Sanskrit.Lesson 1. fate. There are no capital letters. and indeed throughout the systems of thought expressed in Sanskrit. and then instead of simply moving the tongue we move the whole jaw | and what a great weight that is to move about.A. sound. may indicate many sounds (e. the letter `a' for example. 1. The prolonged measure in both transliterated Roman script and devanagar is indicated by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3. for we barely open the mouth (which means that all sounds are indistinct or blurred). the long vowels for two measures. Without this. the development of the alphabet and the euphonic combinations that occur in continuous speech. two. will not be understood. The short vowels are held for one measure (matra). manifesting (as a stop in the n sound). In English. many. tone. where many means more than two) manifests throughout the grammar.A.2 Sanskrit Pronunciation The pronunciation of Sanskrit is very simple: you open the mouth wide and move the tongue and lips as necessary: the tongue and lips are almost pure muscle and have little inertia or resistance to movement. The word devanagar means the `city (nagar ) of immortals (deva)'. This system of enumeration (one.A Sanskrit is written in devanagar script. Having .g.) 1.

and the long like `peep' or `seat' the short u is similar to the vowel in `put' or `soot'.2 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory become well practised in speaking with a moving jaw. The mouth needs to open a lot more than you think | so don't think! | use a measure. it does require some attention to break that habit and speak with a moving tongue. What could be more natural than that? This sound is central to all the vowel sounds indeed. open the mouth as for a3 and raise the back of the tongue (the tip should be relaxed behind the bottom front teeth).3 The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The sounding of a3 is simplicity itself: with body and mind relaxed but alert. 1. like two ngers. the mouth opens to a mere slit of about 6-mm (a pencil thickness) for Sanskrit this needs to increase fourfold | literally! Try this out for yourself: with the mouth opened to a slit. In producing this sound it will be noticed that there is a slight constriction or tensioning in the throat as compared with the relaxed throat when sounding a3. to the richness and fulness that emerges. To sound u3. The short i sounds similar to the vowel in `pink' and not `pin'. is to open the mouth! For English. In spite of this di erence between a and a. sound a prolonged a3 and slowly open the mouth wide and listen to the change in the quality. As a very rough guide. so pout rather than purse the lips. and the long u like `boot' or `suit'. In producing the short a there is a slight tensioning in the throat that tension should not be there for the long a or the prolonged a3. open the throat and mouth wide. lling the opening) there should be no tension in the lips or face muscles. allow the lips to form a small circular opening of the mouth (so that the moistened back of a pencil just slips in and out. and with tongue relaxed.A. . To sound i3. breathe out and simply desire that the vocal cords vibrate. the short a sounds similar to the vowel in `but' and de nitely not `bat' likewise the long a is similar to the vowel in `harm' and not `ham'. they are treated as though the same in the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) of the grammar. the whole alphabet is simply an embellishment of this sound. The biggest single factor in practising the re ned sounds of Sanskrit. There will be a similar tension in the throat as for i3.

surnames like Przybylski it is also present in English in some pronunciations of the word `interesting' as `int r sting' or `intrsting'.A. . and then the i gave rise to r and l . and lr . In practice.A 3 1. to manage. Let's examine what we have so far. . . and . just attend to the tip of the tongue and listen.r even more improbably as r similarly l and l tend to be pronounced as lri . ik. and the memory of how to pronounce them has faded. to be well ordered or regulated). 1. each having its own unique mouth position. . Similarly for l3. We began with a and from this developed u and i to give the three primary vowels.Lesson 1. In fact the vocalic r is still present in Eastern European languages and you may come across . .. 3. . To get to the correct pronunciation of r3. approaching but not touching the roof of the mouth.. but a word like Krsna r .5 The Compound Vowels: e ai o au a u r . a vestigial i will emerge due to the bunching of the muscle at the back of the tongue when moving the tip downwards. begin by sounding a prolonged i3 and . or indeed in the American `prdy' for . .. de ne the ve mouth positions used for the whole alphabet. . ve basic vowels. start sounding with a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of . . Continue the exercise as for . .4 The Other Simple Vowels: r l . This accounts for the transliteration scheme found in the dictionary. when either of these vowels is followed by a consonant whose mouth position requires that the tip of the tongue be at a lower position. `pretty'. for example rk tends to produce . nor try to move it out of that position: simply have no concern with what is happening at the back of the tongue. Repeat the exercise a few times until comfortable with the sound of r3.A. the tongue to behind the upper front teeth without touching them. and l occurs only in one verb (klp. These . then practise directly sounding r3 for a full breath. 0 0 The long l is not used in the standard grammar. should produce no i sound at all. r These vowels appear to have vanished from popular speech. slowly raise the tip of the tongue so that it pointing to the top of the head.. Do not try to hold the back of the tongue in the i3 position. The pandit of today tends to pronounce r as if it were . i l . . ri.

e. so to move from e towards the a sound. The ai sounds similar to the vowel in `aisle' or `pie' there should be no glide or slide in the sound from a to i. Now the only di erence between e and a is the raised back of the tongue. the sound o naturally arises. e a i The e sound arises when a is sounded through the i mouth position. when a is sounded through the u mouth position. . The vowel e sounds similar to that in `fair' or `eight'. i. so that the position of the lips is roughly half way between that used for u and a. with the lips in the position for u but the throat relaxed for sounding a. while i has the back of the tongue raised and the throat tense: so relaxing the throat while retaining the back of the tongue raised will produce e. . and the throat is relaxed. ai a e The ai sound arises when e is further combined with a as it were. Remember that a has a relaxed throat and tongue. o a u In a manner similar to the arising of e. The vowel o should sound between `awe' and `owe' (or between the vowel sounds in `corn' and `cone') the ideal is that point where the sound could be taken as either of the two English sounds. au a o And nally. we need to drop the back of the tongue to a position half way between that used for i and e and the relaxed position used for a.4 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Further vowels are derived by combining the a sound with i and u to form the four compound vowels (sandhyaksara). The au sounds similar to the vowel in `down' or `hound' but without the glide from a to u. the au sound arises when a is combined with o.

. not ham pink / peep fair or eight aisle or `pie' put / boot between owe awe down or hound (acre) (table) The English approximations are only a very rough guide. or oral guidance given in person. Approx. tip upper teeth Lips wide open wide open wide open wide open wide open small circle small circle large circle wide open wide open Eng. Note that all these vowel sounds may be sounded continuously for a full breath: there is no glide from one sound to another. Also note that the four sounds e ai o au. but have no short measure. especially considering the wide variety of accents around the world. Vowel Throat tense relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense tense Tongue relaxed relaxed raised back raised back half-raised back relaxed relaxed relaxed half-raised back.6 Summary of All Vowels au o u r . Rather follow the instructions given earlier.Lesson 1. not bat harm. a i l . tip vertical half-raised back. l . y a a i/ e ai u/u o au r . being an addition of two sounds as it were.A.A 5 1. ai e Combining the previous ve sketches illustrates the central role played by the a sound. are naturally long (d rgha) and may also be prolonged (pluta). y but.

a nasal sound following a vowel. and is . In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. or visarjan ya. When the shape has become familiar then time can be spent re ning the proportions of the letter. which form the start of the alphabetical order. for example the macron (horizontal bar above the letter) is used to indicate the long (d rgha) version of the vowel. called `diacritical marks'. . the anusvara and visarga are not part of the alphabet inasmuch as they arise only through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination). Since these both arise after a vowel we shall precede them with a when sounding the sixteen sakti. but to associate a sound with a whole form. .8 Practising the Alphabet One way of memorizing the script is by writing it: look at the form of the letter. Strictly speaking.7 The Sixteen sakti: am ah . . so that ah may be sounded as aha. see if you can visualize the devanagar form. you forget how to continue the letter. i. then start again: and do not continue with that half-completed letter. The anusvara (m) is . Later on we shall consider how it may be substituted by a nasal consonant depending on the following letter. so that any one of these associates with the other two. etc. Some traditions append an echo of the vowel after the breath.6 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1. When you write the letter. . . Diacritics are combined with Roman letters to represent new sounds. a a i u u .e. Another method of practising the alphabet is to use ash cards with the devanagar letter on one side and the transliterated Roman letter on the other (in case you forget you can turn over). If. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form. . .A. there needs to be a three way association. . The visarga (h). breathed through the mouth position of that vowel. the lines and dots. an `after sound'. . It is sounded through the nose only.: In the transliteration scheme shown above. write the whole letter without referring back to the original.r r l l e ai o au am ah . sound it. namely between both the written forms and the sound. and then write it. so do not practise half letters. To these fourteen vowels are added the anusvara and visarga to form what are called the sixteen matrka or sakti (powers or energies). is an unvoiced breath following a vowel. These cards can also be used in the other direction: from the transliterated Roman letter. In fact. half way through. are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. 1.A. and should be independent of mouth position.

22 2. 6 Here are the rst six devanagar characters to practise.A 7 The ideal way of becoming familiar with these sounds and letters is to spend 15{20 minutes each day on the written exercise. You will nd that a broad nib ( 2. and one minute at a time 15{20 times throughout the day with the ash cards. As a very rough guide the nib width should be 1 8 of the overall height of the A character. into the paper) and nally remove the sharp edges by `writing' on 1000-grit water paper on a rm at surface.6mm) for normal writing.) and le the end of the nib to 22 as shown. Platignum. so start with an inexpensive calligraphy fountain pen (Schae er. They are the short (hrasva) and long (d rgha) measures of the three primary vowels. the second i . A A+ I o IR . The transliteration of the rst row is a a.5mm) is best for practising the forms of the letters.Lesson 1. and a much narrower nib ( 0. etc.5mm Pens with nibs pre-ground to the correct angle are not generally available. File across the nib (in the sketch. and the third u u. and the thickness of the nib about 1 of the width.

or su xes may be added to form nouns and adjectives. a list of roots (about 2000 of them) giving grammatical information about their in ection. together with a concise sense of their universal meaning. which has the sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. etc. stagnant. stack. be intent upon. such as `standard' indeed. static. and its grammar fully describes the development of words from the dhatu to its fully in ected form as found in sentences. stammer. a host of words may be derived from `stand'. continue. estate. stay. constitution. rely on.Lesson 1. Pre xes may be added to this to form further verbs. To appreciate how `stand' changes to `state' for example. such as stay. which is .1 The Concept of Dhatu A dhatu is a rudimentary verbal element from which words are derived: it is the nucleus to which other word fragments are added to form a whole word. The dhatu itself is not found in general speech or writing. and thus the simple verb derived from the dhatu stha may be translated as `to stand'. it would be necessary to study its etymological derivation from the Latin. last. extant. meaning `to stand. stop. | all these express some sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. stay quiet. Monier-Williams' dictionary gives several dozen English words that may be used in translating the verb: to stand. stem. instant. and ultimately from its Proto-IndoEuropean (pie) root sta. such as `misunderstand'. con de in. adhere to. and may be likened to the universal idea of a verbal activity. keep on.B. 1. hesitate. ecstatic. etc. be left alone. . make a practice of. wait. The pie root sta is allied to the Sanskrit dhatu stha. remain. which is the sense of the meaning of the dhatu stha given in the Dhatu-Patha (lit. The situation is a lot simpler in Sanskrit. Consider the English verb `to stand'. stow. tarry. such as constant. which diverges into many speci c meanings. endure. do not attempt to pronounce the Sanskrit words included in the text: this will save the unnecessary labour of unlearning the incorrect pronunciation. persevere. But a dhatu or root is even more fundamental than a verb. halt. linger. stand still. stand fast'. for these fundamental roots are included in the language itself. `recitation of roots'). remain stationary. From this pie root sta are derived other simple English verbs.B Note: Until you are familiar with the pronunciation of the consonants (given in the next lesson). each of which is an aspect of that common universal idea. desist.

simple sentences may be constructed: prathama-purusa .2 Introduction to Verbs A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol ` ' before it) develops to form a stem (anga). it means `last'. . kriya (verb) tisthati he/she/it stands . . purusa). In Sanskrit the personal ending of the verb changes according to purusa.B. so that uttama-purusa can also mean Supreme Spirit . there are three persons (purusa): the rst person (prathama. to give the .(up) and -tama (superlative su x) to mean best.Lesson 1. or You stand and speak.. madhyama-purusa . . . in a series of place or time or order. As in English.. . however. singular (eka-vacana) forms: Note that the order is the reverse of that used in English.. the dhatu does not necessarily undergo as great a _ p stha. middle person (madhyama-purusa).B 9 1. tisthami . Some words.. such as adverbs and conjunctions. as we have here. tisthati vadami ca He stands and I speak. . last person (uttama-purusa). uttama-purusa . With this limited vocabulary. tisthasi . and to the stem is added a personal ending (tin-vibhakti) to form a _ _ complete verb (kriya). tisthati . In forming the stem (anga). tisthasi vadasi ca You stand and you speak. or highest.. For example: p dhatu (root) p stha sense of `cessation or absence of movement' anga (stem) tistha to stand _ . An example of this is ca (`and') which is placed after the last word of the series it links (or after each word in the series). he/she/it stands you stand I stand vadami I speak or I am speaking. for example p vad remains clearly recognizable in the form change as with vadati `he/she/it speaks'. do not have endings these are called indeclinables (avyaya). The word uttama derives from ud. uppermost...

B. I stand and he speaks 6. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1.. it is preferable not to learn them. at the end of each lesson a few simple exercises are presented. With this aim in mind. . It would be useful to keep the ash cards in a box (for example a cigarette box): there will be a total of forty-nine cards for the alphabet. tisthami vadati ca ... Cut these out and start using them. (c) Look up the verb `stand' in a good English dictionary and observe its wide range of meanings.10 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1.. tisthasi vadami ca 4. tisthami vadami ca . You speak and he stands 2. The practical way to become familiar with the basics of Sanskrit is through practice: all the theory that is provided is simply so that the practice may be intelligent.. . and writing them r in Roman script. .4 Flash Cards The next sheet has the ash cards for the rst six vowels. 3. I speak and you stand 5. and lead to understanding. vadami tisthasi ca 6. 1. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen mat. tisthati vadasi ca .B. ka in their correct order.3 Exercises A wealth of information is presented in these notes. Flash cards for the rest of the alphabet will be provided at appropriate places in the course. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. but it is not at all necessary to learn all this or the Sanskrit technical terms: indeed. 2. You stand and he speaks 3. and a further ten for the numerals. He stands and I speak 4. You speak and I stand 5. (b) Practise writing and recognizing the rst six vowels in devanagar .. vadasi tisthami ca .

Lesson 1.B + in case you do not have access to a double-sided printer. 11 * A A+ I + IR o . making use of the registration marks bottom and top of each page. please glue this sheet to the next before cutting.

12 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory u u + i a a .

.ve consonants are calls stops (sparsa) because the complete contact (sp. o and au use guttural and labial (kanthosthya). u 2. . mouth..A.. The a is added for the sake of pronunciation only: being stops. the mouth. guttural palatal cerebral dental labial a i . The compound vowels make use of . sta) in the mouth fully stops the breath (and hence the sound) through r. 2. .. and the labials (pa-varga) are stops at the lips. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat. The same principle is used in English. a vowel) to stop (or start). ..e. Like the vowels. and . there are more consonants in Sanskrit than in English. the word `consonant' itself is derived from the the Latin cum (together with) and sonare (to sound).A. they need a sound (i. and thus diacritical marks are used with the Roman consonants to represent further sounds.r l . kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya .2 The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma The rst twenty.. These are arranged in ve sets (varga) according to mouth position and named after the rst letter in the group. .Lesson 2. two mouth positions: e and ai use both guttural and palatal (kanthatalavya). In fact.1 The Five Mouth Positions The ve mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. and the teeth (dantya) used by r l. Within these ve mouth positions the consonants are n further classi ed according to inner (abhyantara-) and outer (bahya-) methods of articulation or e ort (prayatna). . . .A The mouth positions (sthana) used by the vowels (svara) are also used by the consonants (vya~jana). next is the palatal position (talavya) used by the vowel i this is followed by the cerebral position (murdhanya) used by . and nally the two lips (osthya) used by u. for example the consonants `b-c-d' are pronounced `bee-cee-dee'. for example the ve in the guttural column (ka-varga) are stops at the back of the mouth. is called the guttural position (kanthya): this is associated with the vowel a. Moving towards the front of the ..

. na . . third and fth rows are pronounced with little breath (alpaprana).A.: .e. i. The aspiration (prana) gives the native English speaker the most problems. whereas the rst two rows are unvoiced (aghosa). ta.14 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . these follow after the sixteen matrka in order from . and pa. dha . ta. slowly: this can be observed by listening to the di erence between ka and ga when `sounded' without the following a. the second and fourth rows with much breath (mahaprana). whereas the voiced .e. (ghosa) stops have a gentler quality to them as though releasing the stop more . . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta . 2. English there is a tendency to pronounce some consonants slightly aspirated before . am ah ka kha ga gha na ca cha .. . i.A. the others not. . .. da .3 Pronunciation of the Stops While the previous section (2. The last three rows are voiced (ghosa). . for example. The consonants in the fth row are nasalized (anunasika). and . .2) describes the sounds authoritatively. The unvoiced (aghosa) stops have an explosive quality to them. In terms of alphabetical order. The nasal (anunasika) consonants continue to sound through the nose when the breath through the mouth has been stopped by the tongue or lips. pa pha ba bha ma . the vocal cords vibrate in producing the . tha . ca. _ . consonant. In . The table is also arranged horizontally by rows: the rst. . . ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma The rst. ka-varga through pa-varga. comprises ka. . the following notes may assist with rst-time pronunciation.

dog. and ja as `dza'. hand. and so on. as mentioned earlier. and may be used to give a very rough guide to the Sanskrit pronunciation.. mumble When in doubt. bug gh | loghouse (`log-ghouse') n | sing. tongue _ c | cello. church ch | coach-horse (`coa-chhorse') j | just. It may help to consider the palatal stops as a modi cation or softening of the gutturals so that ca is a softer ka. pat. One e ect is that `d' and `t' are pronounced somewhere between the dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya) positions another e ect is that many speakers do not use the palatal (talavya) position for the stops. cab. d/d | day. long. however. problems occur with the centre three mouth positions.e. god . cart . tap ph | uphill (`up-phill') b | be. can be incorrectly pronounced as `b Because English pronunciation is acquired by imitating indistinct sounds which are not precisely described.A 15 a long vowel. canyon. dh/dh | redhead (`red-dhead') . . makes use of both the teeth and lips (dantosthya): the rules of sound and grammar will be easier to understand if .Lesson 2. so that ca is pronounced as `tsha'.. This di erence needs to be greatly increased to distinguish between the alpaprana . i. joy jh | hedgehog (`hej-jhog') n | enjoy. and mahaprana consonants. Some English consonants are similar to those in Sanskrit. kiln. pronounced purely with the lips (osthya). pa and pha: attend to the `p' breath when pronouncing the two English words `pick' and `peek' | hold the nger tips close to the mouth to feel the di erence. tap. pinch ~ t/t | tub. but the common error is to use so much breath that a . . There is a tradition that pronounces pha as `fa'. chair. aha'. particularly for the ghosa consonants for example. back kh | bunkhouse (`bung-khouse') g | good. n/n | gentle. th/th | anthill (`an-thill') . give. gain . English does not distinguish between dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya). ja a softer ga. vestigial vowel is inserted. and this may be used to illustrate the di erence between for example. the previous section has the authoritative description. p | pick. k | kiss. bha . imbibe bh | clubhouse (`club-bhouse') m | amble. jolly.

l l e ai . o au am ah .A.4 Devanagar Alphabet The previous lesson gave the rst six devanagar characters.16 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. . The Roman transliteration of the four rows is: . . here are all sixteen letters of the matrka to practise. a a i u u r r . A A + I IR o O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH . .

B 2. ought. dual (dvi-vacana). .. purusa he/she/it stands . we (pl. uttama. . There are ten tense/mood classi cations in Sanskrit: these are called lakara or l-a xes because their technical names all begin with the letter l. you (pl..1 More on Verbs As well as the division into purusa (person). dvi-vacana tisthatah . The conjugations given here are all in the present indicative (simple present tense) called lat. purusa you (sing. present.. they (two) stand bahu-vacana tisthanti . whereas in Sanskrit these are all included in the form of the verb itself. for example: eka-vacana prathama.) stand madhyama.. . (vacana): in English there is singular and plural.tisthati . conditional. future tense) and mood (indicative. . while in Sanskrit there is singular (eka-vacana).. .) stand Note that when the subject is dual. . a verb may express time (past. purusa I stand . benedictive.. we (two) stand tisthatha . the dual form of the verb must be used. A dhatu belongs to one of ten classes (gana) this classi cation is according to . The verbs used to _ form simple sentences in this section are all from the rst class (bhvadi-gana). variations in the formation of the stem (anga) from the dhatu. etc. they (pl. had. imperative.tisthasi tisthathah .Lesson 2.) stand you (two) stand . tisthavah . The personal endings are used to indicate both person and number. etc. should. the verbs are divided into number .B..) to express these. . and plural (bahu-vacana).) stand tisthamah .): English makes extensive use of auxiliaries (might.. As in English.tisthami .. .

. 4.. We (two) stand and you (pl. You (pl. tisthatha vadathah ca .. 3..) stand 6. . . (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. . (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. .) speak 2. tisthasi vadavah ca . ..B. tisthanti vadatah ca . 5. tisthati vadanti ca . 8...18 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2.2 Exercises (b) Practise reading and writing the sixteen mat. He stands and you (pl.) stand and I speak 5. .) speak 6. They (pl. . .. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order..) speak and you (sing. 7. tisthasi vadathah ca . You (two) stand and speak 4. ka in Roman script and r devanagar . 2.) stand 3. . You (two) speak and they (pl. vadatah tisthamah ca . . . They (two) speak and he stands 7. We (pl. vadamah tisthatah ca .) stand and you (two) speak 8. tisthathah vadavah ca .

B O + + Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH 19 .Lesson 2.

20 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ah am au o ai . . l . . r . r . + e l .

.g. and u to a produces va.. . these follow after the twenty. . but not rakara. including the vowels (e. naturally voiced (ghosa). although transliterated as va. i. . and so on. except for ra which is traditionally called repha (`snarl' or `burr') or simply ra. : . and so are called antahstha (`stand between'). making use of both teeth and lips is called dantostya. allow a restricted ow of air through the mouth. guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial ya ra la va The rst three of these.. Other traditions pronounce this as the English `va'. sta). r.ve stops. The derivation of the last semivowel (antahstha). This applies to all the sounds/letters. . r moving to a produces ra.. They are formed by slight contact ( satsp. produces a sound . are always referred to by their own name and have no -kara name. In the alphabetical order. which only arise through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) and are thus not strictly part of the alphabet.A The sound or letter ka is called kakara (`ka-action') the sound or letter ga is called gakara. there are only four semivowels. . and `luck'. ya ra and la.A. l to a produces la. and thus . . are similar to the English sounds in `yum'. and are . but do pay attention to the mouth position. i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya. akin to the English `wa': this latter pronunciation accords with the grammatical tradition and makes the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) easier to grasp. We shall now consider the nal eight consonants (vya~jana). akara). similarly. pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va . . These are considered to be between vowels and consonants. . in which case its mouth position. The anusvara and visarga (or visarjan ya). kanthya talava murdhanya dantya osthya . As a moving to a will not produce . `rum'. a new sound. n 3.e..Lesson 3.1 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va A semivowel (antahstha) arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound: .

. . 3. These sound analogies are given as a very rough guide: the description given above. . restricted (hissing) ow of breath through the mouth. called the jihvamul ya and upadhman ya. In the alphabetical order this follows the sibilants and is the last letter of the alphabet: . which are described as a `half-visarga' before ka/kha and pa/pha respectively. and the mouth position in particular. and sa like the sibilant in the German `ich'. . The sibilants are aspirated (mahaprana) and unvoiced (aghosa). . They are considered to . according to the grammatical tradition it is voiced (ghosa). . i. . are to be taken as authoritative. with similar qualities.2 The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa . A sibilant (hissing sound) is called usman (`heated'). In theory.22 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3.A. .A. It is generally pronounced as unvoiced (aghosa). be sadvivrta (slightly open) or ardhasprsta (half-contact).. sa The sa sounds like the sibilant in the English words `seek' and `kiss'. kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya .e. In the alphabetical order these follow the semivowels. These are so very rare that for all practical purposes they can be ignored. . `sh' in `ship' or `wish'. sa sa sa ha. guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial | sa sa . : . . . ya ra la va sa sa sa .. . .3 The Final Consonant: ha This aspirate (sometimes considered a sibilant) is also called usman (`heated'). . . . which allows a .. . there are two more sibilants. . sa like the . however.

.Lesson 3. guttural palatal cerebral dental labial Qualities ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa ha ta . ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta tha da dha na . .. it would be useful to start becoming familiar with the alphabetical order. ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa .A. ha . dha . The order is best memorized in groups as shown below: a a i u u r r l l e ai o au am ah . . tha . .A. da . . . na . ra sa .5 The Alphabetical Order Having now considered the whole alphabet in sound and Roman transliteration.A 23 3.4 Summary of the Consonants The de nitive qualities of the consonants are given in tabular form: kanthyatalavyamurdhanyadantyaosthya . . . .. ta pa unvoicedunaspirated full contact tha pha unvoiced aspirated full contact da ba voiced unaspirated full contact dha bha voiced aspirated full contact na ma voiced unaspirated full contact nasal la va voiced unaspiratedslight contact sa unvoiced aspirated slightly open voiced aspirated slightly open 3. .

A. Each symbol includes the sound a for example. g complete the loop. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ k K+ g+ . the rst symbol is ka and not just k.G+ z c+ C j+ J V+ The loop on the kha and ga is written as follows: e write the down-stroke with the curl at the end.24 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3.6 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the rst ten consonants in devanagar script. h this portion of the symbol is written without lifting the pen! . and for kha. f then change direction to start the loop. Note the similarity between the forms of i and jha. continue the stroke.

where the dhatu is followed by the eka-vacana prathama-purusa form. These are the normal endings for an active transitive verb.B 3. purusa . some in both. or result of the action. and the . but within the limits of the simple sentences in the exercises.Lesson 3. is transmitted to another. the sentence \I married her" would be expressed in atmane-pada or parasmai-pada when spoken by the husband or priest respectively. The division is not at all de nite. they will be presented in the form: p n nayate he leads. The atmanepada (`an expression for oneself') personal endings used in the active form of the verb (called the middle voice) imply an action whose fruit reverts to oneself: this does not mean re exive. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe . When verbs are presented for use in the exercises. and some partly in one and partly in another. By way of illustration. use the atmane-pada endings.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . Many of the verbs in this course may be conjugated in either pada. . purusa . . purusa .dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama.1 More on Verbs The personal endings of verbs given thus far are called parasmai-pada (`an expression for another') because the fruit. These are the only two forms of personal endings to verbs that will be used in this course. please use the pada given: in the case of dhatu n for example.B. parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka.nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . Some verbs are conjugated in one pada only. and has come to be a matter of conventional usage nevertheless many verbs do retain the formal distinction between parasmai-pada (active voice) and atmane-pada (middle voice). madhyama. English translation of that form.

for example `the men (pl. walk. dvit ya naram narau naran Other nouns that take this form of declension are asva `horse'.e. _ . the direct object of the sentence. and plural (bahu-vacana) form. like the verb. as listed in Monier-Williams' dictionary) means `man'. . Since the noun endings de ne the relationship to the verb.) stand'. .26 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. There are some verbs (such as n ) which have both a direct object and a destination. in which case both are expressed in dvit ya. . and allows the poet for example. The word nara (the pratipadika form.) stand'. and the subject precedes the object and destination.2 Introduction to Nouns A noun. dual (dvi-vacana). to juggle the word order to t the rules of scansion. the verb is found at the end of the sentence. and neuter (napumsaka_ _ . and vrksa `tree'. There are seven such grammatical relationships and. Where `tisthanti' is translated as `they (pl. and with its sup-vibhakti endings appears as: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah .. The rst (prathama) of these is the nominative or naming case. the man leads the horse to the tree. the destination is expressed in dvit ya. linga). . run). When the subject of the sentence is explicitly stated. . and usually names the subject of a simple sentence or the agent (initiator or instigator of the action) of the verb the second (dvit ya) case ending generally indicates the immediate destination of the action expressed by the verb..B. Normally however. . feminine (str -linga). For verbs having a sense of motion (such as go. in the verb and it is not necessary to add an explicit Sanskrit pronoun. the word order is not important (as contrasted with English where it is). and this is translated as `narah tisthanti'. each of these has a singular (eka-vacana). .rksam nayate . i. has its ultimate origin in a dhatu (root) a xes to the dhatu form the noun-stem (pratipadika) which will have a particular grammatical gender (linga): masculine (pum-linga). the pronoun `they' is implied . as in the above example. To the pratipadika form are added case-endings (sup-vibhakti) which _ indicate the relationship of the noun to the verb. then the implied pronoun falls away. like the verb. narah asvam v.

. The (two) horses lead the man. . 3. asvah tisthati ca narah vadati ca . asvah naram nayate . . (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. as well as reading n and writing them in Roman script and devanagar .) lead the horses (pl.A. . The man leads the horse. 4.5. narah asvah ca nayete . 5.Lesson 3. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. . 6. 4. The horse leads the man to the tree. 5.B 27 3.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. 3.. narau vrksan nayamahe ..) are speaking and leading. . The men (pl. 6. narah asvau ca tisthanti . 2. (b) Practise pronouncing the rst ten consonants (vya~jana). .B. The men (pl. The tree and the horse are standing. 2.). asvau naram vrksan nayete .

28 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This page is intentionally blank: there aren't many of them. so enjoy the rest while you can! .

G+ z + + c+ C j+ J V+ 29 .Lesson 3.B k K+ g+ .

30 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na jha ja cha ca ~ + na gha ga kha ka _ .

_ . ta tha da dha na f F q Q :N+ t+ T+ d .1 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the next ten consonants in devanagar script. . . for example with `P' and `h'. As we shall see later. and this gives a bias of `blackness' at the top of the letters: this is 1 visually compensated for by using the 3 and 2 lines to `open' the form of the letter.A 4.D+ n+ 1 Note the form of the letters in relation to the 3 and 2 ruled lines. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ta tha da dha na . the rst symbol is ta and not just t . Note the di erences between da na and i gha and dha and dha and da.Lesson 4. Each symbol includes the sound a for example. . . . There may be 3 a tendency to limit letters such as :N+ and t+ to the halfway point: this is a carry over from the Roman alphabet where it is appropriate. .A. in devanagar the top horizontal bar is extended to join the letters in a word. . 3 .

. than ten times once a day. nayethe-nayadhve (pause) naye-nayavahe-nayamahe. For your convenience a reference sheet with the full conjugation of dhatu n is given below: this also has a list of all the verbs that will be used in the simple sentence exercises. with a pause between each vibhakti and a longer pause between each pada.B. he takes. which means _ that one vibhakti consists of the three vacana forms. he goes. It would be useful to practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n . he speaks. parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka. purusa .nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . purusa . p gam pn p labh p vad p vah p stha gacchati nayate labhate vadati vahati tisthati . nayavah-nayamah (longer pause) nayate-nayete-nayante (pause) nayase. he carries. Thus the pattern is: nayati-nayatah-nayanti (pause) nayasi-nayathah-nayatha (pause) nayami. Thus three vibhakti cover one entire pada. purusa .nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . .. ten times a day.Lesson 4. As with practising the alphabet. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe . madhyama. he leads.B 4. .dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama. it is far more e ective to sound this once.1 Summary of Verbs The tin-vibhakti (personal endings of verbs) are grouped into three's. he stands. .

`he goes home by car'. For example. n For example. for example.Lesson 4. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . For example. . r . thus asvena but v. but in English it may also be used in the sense of accompaniment.B 33 4. but this does not convey the sense of instrumentality. but for the time being accept that this change occurs after `r' or `s' in the same word. `he gives the food to the dog'. . . This . .3). `he works for money'. `he falls from the tree'.B. The fourth (caturth ) case ending indicates the indirect object. ? the generic ending is -ena. `he walks from the river'. dvit ya naram narau naran trt ya narena? narabhyam naraih . `he goes home with an axe'. caturth naraya narabhyam narebhyah . `he makes a kennel for the dog'. . The fth (pa~cam ) case ending indicates the place from which the action begins. it is that `by means of which' the action is accomplished. `he cuts the wood with an axe': note that here `with' has the sense of `by means of'. .2 More on Nouns Cases The third (trt ya) case ending indicates the `instrument' in relation to the verb: . It may also express cause or motive: `out of anger he strikes the boy'. the recipient or bene ciary or purpose of the action. will be given more fully in a later lesson (11.A. but this changes to -ena due to internal sandhi. ksena. pa~cam n narat narabhyam narebhyah .

.1.34 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. .A. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1.B. . 3.) go from the tree to the horses. (c) Practise reading and writing the next ten consonants (vya~jana). . . asvam vrksat naraya nayate . 2. You (two) are leading the horse for the man. 5. 6. We (pl. 2.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. . 3. . . . They (pl. 6. 5.) with horses. (b) Practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n as given in 4.). narah asvah ca vrksat gacchatah . . . We (two) take the tree from the man by horse. 4. The horses (pl.) carry the trees (pl.B. narah vrksam asvena gacchati . vrksan asvat labhadhve .5.) carry the man from the trees (pl. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. in Roman n script and devanagar . . asvah naram vrksam vahati . 4. asvah vrksam naraya vahati . He goes by horse. .

Lesson 4.B f F q Q :N+ + + t+ T+ d .D+ n+ 35 .

. a dha da tha ta . . .A Practical Sanskrit Introductory n . + na dha da tha ta 36 + .

A. .Lesson 5.S+ s+ . and sa and kha with ra and va. :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ y+ = l v+ .1 Devanagar Alphabet Here is the rest of the alphabet in devanagar script.h .Z+ . The transliteration of the three rows of devanagar characters is: pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa ha . the rst symbol is pa and not just p. Note the di erences between ba and va ya and tha pa and sa la and l bha ma . Each symbol includes the sound a for example.A 5.

for example.e. `on'.B. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition `of' or with an apostrophe. or to the book that he wrote. caturth naraya pa~cam n narat sasth narasya . for example.B 5. narayoh . In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb: indeed John may be absent. Strictly speaking. and may be rendered in English by the prepositions `in'. The word in sasth is usually placed immediately before the word to which it is related. even deceased. naranam . narebhyah .. however many publications give an eighth. . . i. narebhyah . The strictly correct way of tabling the declension of nara is: eka-vacana prathama narah . for example. the sixth (sasth ) indicates a relationship to a word . `at'.Lesson 5. saptam nare dvi-vacana narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . . to another noun in the sentence. `among'. . `he stands on the table'. setting the scene as it were. `it is hot in summer'. naresu . `Oh Lord. sambodhana prathama he nara dvit ya naram trt ya narena . `he talks to the son of John'. The seventh (saptam ) case ending indicates the place or time where or when the action takes place. where are you?'. etc. . `John. A word with saptam case ending is often the rst in the sentence. bahu-vacana narah . sambodhana. hear my prayers'. naran naraih . In fact this is simply a special use of the prathama ( rst) case ending.1 More on Nouns Cases Unlike the other case endings. he narah . Sanskrit has just seven case endings. which is used for addressing or calling. This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession. `John's book' may refer to the book that John purchased.. `he drives John's car'. for example... . other than the verb.

narau . .5.. i. . 3.B 39 The vocative particle `he' is traditionally sounded in the paradigm it is optional in a sentence and may be translated as `Oh'. 5. 6.A. . .. . asve tisthati ca vadati ca . . use the `correct' table given above. 4. . .B. . thus asvanam but vrksanam. place that row at the bottom of the table.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. 5. The sandhi change of n to n that occurs in eka-vacana trt ya. . naram v. (c) Practise reading and writing the last thirteen consonants (vya~jana). labelling it simply `sambodhana' and omit the vocative particle he. . . . .B.narah (pause) he nara . asvah naram vrksat gacchati .. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. in n Roman script and devanagar . naranam asvah tisthanti . v. .: narah . ksesu narasya asvah tisthanti r . In practising sounding the full declension of the noun. narau . also occurs in .he narau . . like the verbs. Continued overleaf . narah vrksam asvat labhate . nara asve tisthasi ..e. bahu-vacana sasth . so that the prathama vibhakti refers to the forms of all three vacana.he narah (pause) naram . . The vibhakti of the nouns are. grouped into three's. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of nara as given in 5.. . ksat asvaih labhate r . 7. Publications that list sambodhana as an eighth case ending. .naran (pause) etc. . asvau vrksan naraya vahatah . 8. 2.Lesson 5. .1. . .

6.). He is standing on (two) horses. you are carrying the tree for the man. The (two) horses carry the man to the tree. The trees (pl. He takes the man's horses (pl.). Oh horse. 4.) from the tree. You (two) are carrying the man from the tree to the horse. The man and horse stand among the trees (pl.40 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. 2. The man's horse carries the man from the trees(pl.) of the (two) men are standing. 3. 7. . 5. 8.

B :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ + + y+ = l v+ .Lesson 5.Z+ 41 .

42 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ma bha ba pha pa + sa va la ra ya .

Lesson 5.h .B + 43 + :S+ s+ .

44 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ha sa sa . + .

Note that the characters are written left to right.l. maintaining the principle that a consonant can only be sounded together with a vowel.l. The forms indicating the various following vowels are: b+ a. occur only at the beginning of a word.e+ ba bi bu br . Where the vowel following the consonant is other than a. this is indicated by an embellishment on the consonant itself. .+ ba.) All the vowel forms given earlier.Lesson 6.A. bl .E+ ba b bu br .b+ bu+ bx+ bw+ be+ ba. (The `a-' pre x to a noun usually means negation. hr . 6.1 Vowels after Consonants The short vowel a ( A ) is never written unless it begins a word for example abala (weakness) is written A ba. The written form thus resembles the oral form. Thus the word bala (strength) is written ba. and that the horizontal line links the letters together.A The symbols for the consonants inherently include a following a vowel. be bo ba. bl . rather like the English `un-'. bai bau These vowel signs are used with all consonants (ka through ha). but note these exceptions: ru ru . for example b+ (ba) is the symbol for the the consonant b together with a following short (hrasva) a.+ bU+ bX+ bW+ bE+ ba. like the Roman.

46

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

Where the embellishment is above the letter itself (with or without the addition of a following vertical bar), namely for i e o ai au, these should link to the character where it joins the top horizontal bar, and where the character meets the bar more than once, to the rightmost junction. For example:
ak

ki

:Ne+

These syllables are connected together to form words: they are literally connected by the horizontal bar. For example:

ne .

devanagar matrka . vadami veda g ta guru

.de vana.aga=*+ ma.a.txak*:+ va.d a.am+ vea.d ga.a.ta.+ gua

6.A.2 History of Vowel Embellishment
It bothers some students that, in a script read from left to right, there should be the seeming anomaly that ki ( ak ) for example, is written back to front as it were, with the i-sign before the consonant. Originally the embellishment for i after a consonant had no down stroke at all, so that ki ke kai were written as:

ki i

ke j

kai k

However, as personality tends to intrude into handwriting, it could prove di cult to distinguish between ki and ke, especially if the ` ag' was written somewhere between the two positions. To solve this problem, the downstroke was added for ki. Whether this is true or not, is debatable, but it does make a nice story !

Lesson 6.B
6.B.1 Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit
In English speech or writing, the order of words shows their connection or relationship to the whole sentence. For example, in the simple sentence,
desire limits the mind,

the information as to which is the limiter and which the limited, is given by the position of the words in relation to the verb. This is an important point: in a sentence, a word's physical position (in time or space), re ects its subtle position (the relationship or part that it plays). Now, a word may be placed before or after the verb | but these are the only two possibilities, before or after, and thus can indicate only two relationships, namely subject and object. The subject comes before an active verb, and the object after it. (The order is reversed for a passive verb, e.g. the mind is limited by desire.) In order to show the relationship in a more complete sentence, such as,
desire limits the mind by attachment,

we make use of a phrase containing a preposition (in our example `by') to indicate the relationship of the word `attachment' to the activity of limiting. But notice the operation of the preposition | `pre-position' | it is an element which is placed before (`pre-') to give `position' to the word, that is, to indicate its relationship to the activity. Using prepositional phrases we can thus enlarge our sentence, as for example,
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment.

Now we can split up this sentence into its core subject-verb-object, and a number of related phrases:
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment .

48

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

We may now shu e these components around in any order and still retain the meaning: in doing so, we may well lose some clarity, or we may even sound poetic, for example: from the universal to the particular desire limits the mind in the waking state by attachment . The problem with these prepositional phrases is that it is not at all clear whether they are related to the the activity of the whole sentence (i.e. to the verb), or are merely qualifying one of the nouns. For example, the intention was to indicate that the mind su ers limitation/restriction/reduction from its natural open state of universality to the con ned state when identi ed with the particular, however, other interpretations are possible: the phrases from the universal to the particular in the rst of the two split up sentences may be construed as qualifying the word `mind' and thus be understood as a range of separate minds `from gods to dogs' in the second of these split up sentences these phrases could be viewed as qualifying the word `desire' and mean a range of desires `from the general to the personal'. The phrases can thus be re-arranged to produce all sorts of misunderstandings, so let us be clear that the intended meaning of the other two phrases is that `attachment' is the instrument/means/method by which the mind is limited, and that the `waking state' is the circumstance where/when the limitation takes place. In an in ected language (one that uses case endings) the relationship to the verb is shown by a su x appended to the word our sentence would thus become something like: waking state IN desire SUBJECT limits VERB mind OBJECT universal FROM particular TO attachment BY . There are two points to note here: rstly, the subject and object also have endings to show their relationship and secondly, the word endings indicate the relationship to the verb by de nition. All the words in the sentence are quite independent of their position (order or arrangement) which is one limitation in a non-in ected language like English but more importantly, the relationship to the verb is precisely de ned, and thus minimizes the possibility of misunderstanding. In Sanskrit there are seven case endings: the sixth indicates a relation to another noun in the sentence, and the other case endings indicate the relationship to the verb.

Thus kartr and karman name the relationship. the words marked with `1' in these two sentences are both called the subject of the sentence this accords with the Sanskrit prathama-vibhakti ( rst case ending). but is worn by the actor playing the role of king. having the r power to bring about the action: with an active verb the kartr is expressed in . provided that the relationship is clearly de ned. English is also sensitive to pauses between phrases. and then associates the two according to circumstance for example. when a verb changes from active to passive: desire 1 limits ACTIVE mind 2 (desire limits the mind) mind 1 limits PASSIVE desire 3 (the mind is limited by desire). . and number. our sentence becomes: waking state 7 desire 1 limits VERB mind 2 universal 5 particular 4 attachment 3 . the virama ( ) | and purnavirama ( ) to indicate respectively the halfway point and end of a stanza { . In fact Sanskrit uses both names and numbers for these relationships: it names the relationships (subtle) when de ning them. Scripture. has no need of these embellishments Sanskrit uses only two punctuation marks. limits the mind. which indicate pauses of increasing length.Lesson 6. In prose they are used to indicate the end of a sentence and the end of a paragraph respectively. says desire. merely indicate that relationship. and numbers the actual phonic su x endings (physical). The basic punctuation marks in English are the comma. Like the vibhakti adorning a word. A fully in ected language like Sanskrit. person. as well as voice. and these too can change the relationship and the whole meaning of the sentence. ) is the initiator.r) is expressed in dvit ya and prathama respectively. For example: Scripture says desire limits the mind. In English. colon. Using the Sanskrit numerical system. of verse. prathama (and English `subject') etc.B 49 It matters not whether we give these case endings names or numbers. However. in Sanskrit the agent (kart. and full stop. whereas . so the clothing of a stage actor indicates his role: the crown is not the king. being inherently clearer. but with a passive verb kartr is expressed by trt ya similarly the . mood. karman (that most directly aimed at by the kart. The a x to the verb indicates tense. semicolon. . prathama.

pa~cam n phalabhyam phalebhyah . .. the napumsaka-linga bahu-vacana forms of _ . pa~cam n balayah balabhyam balabhyah . . (11. prathama and dvit ya will also change from -ani to -ani if preceded by `r' or `s'. This sandhi rule will be described more fully in a later lesson. . but in the declension of bala it remains . . _ dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama phale phalani sambodhana prathama he phale he phalani dvit ya phale phalani trt ya phalabhyam phalaih . . sasth balayah balayoh balanam . caturth phalabhyam phalebhyah . Note that. . . and the feminine (str _ . sasth phalayoh phalanam . sambodhana prathama he bale he bale he balah . . .2 Noun Gender The nouns considered thus far are all masculine (pum-linga) the paradigms below . There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word.B. or a | thus -su is the most common form. _ are for the neuter (napumsaka-linga) noun phala `fruit'. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama bala bale balah . saptam balayam balayoh balasu . eka-vacana phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale .rt ya balaya balabhyam balabhih . linga) noun bala `girl'. saptam phalayoh phalesu . . that applies here: the saptam bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -su following any vowel except a . dvit ya balam bale balah . t.50 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. due to internal sandhi.A.. caturth balayai balabhyam balabhyah .3). as -su.

Lesson 6.B. direct object By whom/what? Whom? What? indicates immediate destination of action. . sasth . bene ciary. relation is not to verb. When? Where? place/time where/when action takes place.B Sanskrit case Relation to Verb names the agent/subject of the verb. the means by which action accomplished. caturth dative indirect object To/for whom/what? recipient. saptam locative 51 . calling/addressing..3 Summary of Case Information 5. dvit ya accusative 3. trt ya . pa~cam n ablative 6. purpose of action. instrumental 4. genitive 7. From whom/what? place from which action begins also cause/motive. genitive Of whom? Whose? relation of source/possession/etc. 6. prathama nominative sambodhana vocative 2. subject Who? What? Latinate name English grammar Answers question 1.

). narasya asvah phalam balayah labhate . ksat labhete r .B. narah phale vrksat balayai vahati . The man and the girl go among the trees by horse. . 3.) from the tree. . 9. asvah naram ca balam ca vrksam vahati . . . 7. 2. . bala asvam v. . 10. ksau gacchami ca phalani labhe r . narau vrksanam phalani asvam labhete . . balah naran phalani asvena nayante . The horse carries the fruit (pl. . 4.. 6. bale vrksesu tisthatah vadatah ca . The horse carries the tree to the girl for the man. You (two) lead the horse and I take the fruit. . . 8. 3. 9. 5. v. We (two) take the man and the girl from the tree to the horse. . 6.) by horse for fruit (pl. 10. bala narah ca vrksam asvam vahatah . 2. 4.52 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. The man stands and the girl speaks. The man leads the horse by means of fruit.). (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. . .) to the girls for the man. ksam phalaya nayate r . 8. The girls (two) stand on the horse and take the fruit (s.4 Exercises (a) Practise reading and writing all the letters of the alphabet. . (b) Practise sounding the full declension of bala and phala. bale phalani narasya v. The girl takes the fruit (two) from the tree for the horses (pl. . (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 7. 5. . The man goes to the trees (pl.

and you will nd that. . you can discard the notes. At a rst glance through these samyoga. In the devanagar script this is written as a short stroke ( . below and to the right of the consonant. 7. or conjunct consonant. Thus the letter pa for example. is called `halanta pa'.Lesson 7. Simply read through the general principles and use the illustrative examples to understand the principle. The symbols may be written continuously in the usual order from left to right with the rightmost vertical stroke dropped from all but the last letter: t. so halanta means `ending in a consonant'. now we consider how to write a consonant that is followed by no vowel at all. halanta ta f . for example the s in svara.+ + y+ ntya . Where a word uses a non.A We have examined how to write a consonant that is followed by any vowel.+ + y+ tm+ :Ny+ tma nya . consonants with nothing separating them in particular there is no vowel between them. without its following a sound.+ halanta ka k . It is the general principles that are important: once you understand the principles. Thereafter it is just a matter of applying the principles.nal halanta letter. literally `yoked together') comprises two or more .1 Halanta Consonants The adjective halanta is derived from hal (a technical term referring to any consonant). nty+ n. it forms a consonant cluster.+ + t. ) called virama (`stop').2 Conjunct Consonants A conjunct consonant (samyoga.A. daunting task. however the virama should (ideally) not be used within a word. 7. and a di erent method is used. For example: halanta pa :p. This is the form used when a word ends in a consonant. but fortunately you don't have to learn them.+ + m+ :N. familiarity with them may seem like a . in practice.A. it is a lot simpler than it looks. namely p. and anta (`end').

h.+ + f . When symbols are modi ed. nkya _ Most symbols retain their familiar shape in compounds.d + D+ k + m+ . . it is often only in combination with other particular symbols.. + m+ + tya .+ + F + y+ . .h. : + mna bva sta . .+ + v+ :S. . z+k .+ + n+ b. : + . . s.54 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Or they may be written one above the other. nka _ + Left to right and vertical arrangements may appear in the same compound: snya sthya . This arrangement can be useful where the rst letter has no vertical stroke on the right: .d + g+ f+f . in which case they are read from top to bottom: m.+ + t+ .d + y+ f + y+ . hma .+ + y+ :S.. dga tta .. . .d .+ + n. z + k + y+ . . + n+ . for example: t. but some are modi ed: dda ddha kma tta hna dya .d + .

. =. for example: + or + + S or or T or Zv+ Zc+ sva sca The same group of symbols can be found in di erent forms: or Vc+ nca ~ or #tv+ ktva or pl pla or cc+ cca or l lla While there may be di erent conventions and styles for making compounds. + rr .+ + v+ .e.R+ i.+ + l c. Ideas that familiar forms are right and others wrong should be avoided: both proportions and angles of the symbols may be varied. :p.Lesson 7. and l. + R R =.+ =.Z+ is often written as B or C in combination. + :p+ :pR+ rpa Dva. or even further to M .+ + v+ . for example: k+k .+ + c+ l+l .: rdhva This form is also used when ra is the only consonant before the vowels . r . there are no obvious absolute rules. For example: =. k + t+ .Z.+ + va. rl .A 55 The symbol k (ka) may be compressed to K . When ra comes at the beginning of a compound it takes the form of a hook above the line (the same as above the d rgha ): it is attached above the rightmost vertical of a compound. The symbol ra changes form in compounds. : + kka kta The symbol . + D.+ + c+ k + t. . It always appears in a vertical arrangement and is read in the sequence top to bottom.+ + c+ V.Z.

A. and their construction re ects their pronunciation. prolonged: try it. A practical method of approaching the pronunciation of these two sounds is o ered next. the prolonged halanta sa begins with halanta ka the important point is that . :pr+ d f pra dra tra . i. and are quite obvious to see. However. of the tongue is raised to the murdhanya position before sounding the halanta .56 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory When ra is nal in a compound.d + = f+= . Before sounding the halanta ka the breath is fully cut o by the back of the tongue in the kanthya . k + :S+ . the symbols being so di erent from their components.+ + = . The idea may be novel. . t. position as for the normal pronunciation of ka the di erence for ksa is that the tip .+ + = + y+ gy+ grya m.j.3 Special Conjunct Consonants ksa and j~a n .+ + =. Now. sound halanta ka through the sound of halanta sa | . . re ect their sounds which are somewhat di erent from their components.e.A. + y+ }y+ mrya 7.4 Pronunciation of ksa .+ + = + tra (note the truncation of the t+ ) This form is retained when ra appears in the middle of a cluster of consonants: g. but it is quite straightforward to pronounce halanta sa . the tip of the tongue is in the murdhanya position throughout. 7. the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. + Normally the symbols for a samyoga are constructed from their component symbols . it is represented by a small diagonal stroke: :p. there are two which are quite di erent from their component parts: ksa .. for example. .+ + V+ :]+ j~a n Although these two samyoga may be separated into their component parts when.

e.Lesson 7. Now with the tongue in the talavya position. begin by sounding the English `hiss' and holding the sibilant | this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. the halanta j~a tends to n n be followed by an additional nasal consonant before the vowel (i. 7. the pronunciation.A 57 ka. Now sound the English `his'. `rouge'. Although the j~a is originally formed by halanta ja joining with a following na n ~ (i. and may be thus separated when.e. n which should be the same. the alphabetical ~ n order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. Secondly. j + na j~a). or as in the `z' sound in the English words `mirage'. . k + sa ksa).e. practise sounding aj~a. This is about as close as one can get to describing the sound of halanta j~a. as j re ected in the changed symbol. which is of course. tip of the tongue from the murdhanya position. Now repeat this voiced sound allowing it to be strongly nasalized. . This means that halanta ksa may by sounded repeatedly without moving the . j~ + n + a) the n ~ halanta j~a is a single sound. the alphabetical . is in practice ( n ) + a. . (This sound is reminiscent of ten-year-olds playing cops and robbers!) Although the ksa is originally formed by halanta ka joining with a following sa . impossible to sound. attending to both a sounds. for example.5 Pronunciation of j~a n The pronunciation of this is similar to the French `J' as in `Jean-Jacques'. as re ected in the changed symbol. sound a prolonged halanta sa. And then repeat the sound but allowing the vocal cords to vibrate | with some imagination. n There are two common errors in sounding j~a. again holding the sibilant: note that the di erence between these sibilants is that the vocal cords vibrate for `his' and not for `hiss'. As a practical method of approaching this sound. or `vision' but in all cases it is sounded through the talavya mouth position. the pronunciation. and may be thus separated when. this is beginning to sound like a prolonged halanta ja. Firstly. s . for example. is in practice ( k ) + s + a. the nasalization is often carried over into n the vowel: to correct this. and is strongly nasalized.A. (i. order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. `measure'. ~ .

Q dhra . + ktrya kta + ktya kna + knya kma kla kva + kvya v+ ksva Ky+ khya K+ khra . dgha .Gm+ ghma nkta _ nktya _ nkya _ nkhya _ nga _ ngya _ nna __ nna _ nma _ + c~a n . .. + ghna + ghnya . .58 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. ddya ddha dbha dbhya dma dva dvya .. dga . g+ gra gy+ grya . ddha .. dda .$v+ jva + njya ~ cm+ cma :]+ j~a n + nca ~ + jja cC cchra . dga . . dghra dna dba d dra drya Dm+ dhma Dy+ dhya . :Nv+ nva tk tka . dya .A. kka ktra kya + ksa . . nkha _ nghya _ nghra _ + cca cC ccha C chra .Gr+ ghra nka _ nksva _ . arranged in alphabetical order: simply read through the list and you will nd that most of the symbols are easily recognizable.jJ jjha .. :Ny+ nya . . dhya . gy+ gya .. v+ ttva tT+ ttha tm+ tma t}y+ tmya ts+ tsa t + tsna .6 List of Conjunct Consonants The following is a standard list of conjunct consonants... + dhna chya ..j+ jra + nja ~ dma . + ttra tpr+ tpra tv+ tva . dghra .. #K+ kkha #c+ kca #N+ kna . dgha .. ktva k kra r r krya m+ ksma y+ ksya . tk tkra r + tta y+ ttya + tna + tnya tp+ tpa ty+ tya + tra y+ trya t + tsnya Ty+ thya . :Nf nta :NF ntha :Nq nda . dgra ddhya dya + dhnya :N dgya .$m+ jma + ncya ~ thya .Gy+ ghya nksa _ . tt a . ngha _ nya _ cy+ cya :]y+ j~ya n m+ ncma ~ tya . ndya . :N . :NQ ndha :NN+ nna :Nm+ nma .$y+ jya VC ncha ~ F thra . :Nq ndra . ndrya .

B+ bbha By+ bhya }b+ mba }v+ mva y+ lya v. :Sv+ sva .. :SN+ sna . + svya .A Dr+ dhra nd nda npr+ npra : + ptya : pla b. .+ bra + mna }y+ mya nD+ ndha ny+ nya :pp+ ppa :ps+ psa .By+ bbhya Br+ bhra }B+ mbha yy+ yya 59 sla : stra . . ..ZZ+ ssa : .. hya hra hla lla vva y+ srya : stya . you may be con dent that you will be able to decipher any samyoga that you may meet. ~t+ sta ~ty+ stya ~ &+ stra + snya ~p+ spa ~P spha ~ + sra ~v+ sva ss+ ssa . :SNy+ snya .d bda b.y+ bya Bv+ bhva mm+ mma yv+ yva v+ lva + sca Dry+ dhrya Dv+ dhva nd ndra nm+ nma . .Zy+ sya + sva . So. :Spr+ spra :Sm+ sma :Sy+ sya . hma mla k lka p+ lpa m+ lma h lha + vna v. the greatest number of conjunct consonants in a real word is ve: the usual example quoted for this is k*:a.+ vra + sra : sta .t R+ (kartsnya). .. n &+ ntra np+ npa : + pta :pr+ pra bj+ bja b.y+ vya y+ scya + sna . hna . bva }p+ mpa }+ mra nt+ nta nDr+ ndhra n+ nra :pm+ pma :p~v+ psva . ~tv+ stva sm+ sma . . Just as a matter of interest. ~k ska ~T+ stha s}y+ smya hna hva The table does not cover all possible combinations of consonants. having worked through the table.. but. on the other hand. + pna :pv+ pva bD+ bdha b.Lesson 7. bba + bhna }pr+ mpra nty+ ntya + nna ns+ nsa :py+ pya bG+ bgha b. it does contain many that are quite rare and which you may never come across in print. + bna . :Sp+ spa . ~K+ skha + sna ~y+ sya ... strya : stva : stha ..

out of. which will also give its component parts of pre x(es) and dhatu. with. to stretch: when a pre x is appended to it. instead of. which may then be separately looked up. attentive. at) (con-. in) (por-. attendance. apart. before. attendant.B 7. under) The English verb `to tend' derives from the pie root ten. wholly) (dis-. when appended to a verb. but the converse is not necessarily so: given the meanings of the root and pre xes only. then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and pre xes should contribute to enlarging that understanding. For example (with pre x meanings given): p Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood (more or less). very) (in-. as for example. to. is called an upasarga in Sanskrit grammar. instead of) (pre-. Again. Other words may be derived from that pre xed verb. the derivation of attention. from the verb `attend'. away) (ex-. its meaning alters.1 Verbal Pre xes attend contend distend extend intend portend pretend subtend (at-. A pre x. The grammarians list just twenty-two of these in alphabetical order they are: .Lesson 7. it can be appreciated that that the pre xes are instrumental in modifying the original root to give its particular meaning.B. before) (sub-. The situation is Sanskrit is similar: the meaning of a pre xed verb (as a compound) needs to be looked up in the dictionary. towards. towards. together. it may prove di cult to arrive at the meanings of the particular verbs. and they carry the sense of this compound as though it were a separate dhatu this is also the case in English. given the meanings of these verbs.

above towards. out. pari-hr to abandon . implying separation or dispersion with. forth. upon. asunder. in. out. away. excellent. to. towards. together. close. along. out. at. from. above. out. hard down. past. back.B 61 beyond. opposite down. on.Lesson 7. next to. under bad. (reversing) apart. but usually modi es the sense sometimes the changes is so great as to make the sense of the original dhatu quite unrecognizable. forward. over. onward. backwards. well The above list is included here for reference only. onto after. sam-h. towards. di cult. upwards. o . forth. on. di cult. hard bad. return. like. pra-hr to hit . forth back. to excess over. from towards. from. (reversing) up. for example: dhatu hr to take away . on. a familiarity with the Sanskrit forms will be useful. to a distance around. down. forth over. near. less.r to destroy vi-hr to roam . away. along with. into. away. forth away. fore against. surpassing. against. into. near. near. about before. and should not be learned however. under. o . at near. proximate to. again. atiadhianuapaapiabhiavaaudupadurdusninirnisparaparipraprativisamsu- . following away. conjoined with good. to. An upasarga may simply emphasize the original sense of the dhatu. return. back. towards. to. across. into away. a-hr to eat .

(d) Look up the words `attend' etc.h a.+ vxa a. t+H va.+ c+ a.+ va. 6. (g) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.) carry the fruit (pl.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.an. 5.l*.B. You (two) lead the horse to the fruit (pl.) for the men (pl. A: ba.l*.+H 5.d t+H c+{ +H vxa a~y+ :P*.a.). na=*+H 6.+ A: a. (e) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: 1.B.) to the man. ba. in a good English dictionary.l ba.) from the tree by horse.5.a. 2. (h) Now write your answers to (g) in devanagar . The horses (pl. to see how their meanings link to the given etymology.an.a.ta.a.l*.) carry the trees (pl.A. 4.h a.+ vxa a. (c) Write out a fair copy of the devanagar sentences given in (e) below.aBy+H l*Ba. The girl's horses (two) take the fruit (pl. given 7.l*.ayE+ l*Bante+{ ba. na=H 3.l*.+ ba.te+{ (f) Now translate the sentences in (e) into English. ba.1.l*.62 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. (b) By now the alphabet should be familiar: practise writing all the characters of the alphabet with particular attention to their proportions (see the note at the end of 4. The girl and the horse go among the trees (pl.+ na= ~y+ A: am.an+ na=*ay+ va.a.).1).a.+ naya. 3.a.t+{ 4.a.am.A.v+H{ 2.) of the tree. The man takes the tree from the horse for the girl.t.l*. na= ~y+ vxa a~y+ :P*.aya.l*m.) for fruit (pl. . You (pl.te+{ e A: +H :P*.

Lesson 8.A
8.A.1 Special Symbols
The following symbols are not strictly part of the alphabet, but constitute special symbols such as punctuation:
| This punctuation mark is used at the end of a half-verse or sentence. { This marks the end of a verse or paragraph. Y The elision of an A at the beginning of a word due to the rules of sandhi, is

<

>

? @ ^

indicated with this symbol called avagraha: it is not sounded. For example, te+Y.a.p+ for te+ A a.p+ is pronounced tea.a.p+ in transliteration it is represented by an apostrophe or prime mark, i.e. te pi. This symbol, called candrabindu (lit. `moon-dot'), placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel itself is nasalized for example, A< is A sounded through both nose and mouth together. Contrast this with AM , where the anusvara, which is just the bindu (`dot') above the vowel, is a nasal sound following after the vowel. The antahstha y l and v may also be nasalized. . This symbol indicates a compulsory anusvara (i.e. before an usman or . repha) in the Vedas, and is traditionally pronounced as a soft gna ( gn+ ). You may also nd it written as g,M+. The mystical symbol Om pronounced A ea3 m,+ and called the pranava sabda. ~ **: . An abbreviation is indicated by this sign, the rest of the word being provided from the context. This symbol is rare it is pronounced like a half visarga, and is called jihvamul ya when before k or kh, and upadhman ya when before p or ph. (See section 3.A.2.)
0

8.A.2 Savarna .

Those sounds which are pronounced in the same mouth position and with the same e ort within the mouth itself (i.e. the measure of contact or openness | see section 3.A.4) are called savarna (`same group'). This means that the ka-varga sounds . (k, kh, g, gh, and n | see section 2.A.2) are savarna, likewise ca-varga through _ . to pa-varga each form a savarna group of ve sounds. . For grammatical purposes, and their mouth positions di er. are also declared to be savarna, even though .

64

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

8.A.3 Nasal Substitution for Anusvara
The anusvara (see section 1.A.7) arises through the rules of sandhi: primarily it is the replacement for a nal m before a consonant. There are two traditions for pronouncing the anusvara: one tradition always pronounces it as an anusvara (a z -like sound in Northern India, and m,+ -like further South) the other tradition , substitutes the nasal that is savarna with the following consonant, i.e. if the . following consonant is a sparsa (one of the twenty- ve from k to m+) then the anusvara is sounded as the nasal of the same mouth position as the following letter | thus sMak*: p+ is pronounced sa *. p+, and sMa:]a.+ as saV]a.+, and so on. The second tradition is much like the pronunciation of `n' in English: sound the words `wink', `winch', and `wind' | prolonging the nasal if necessary | and note that the mouth position is determined by the following letter. Before ya la or va the anusvara may optionally be sounded as a nasalized version of that letter, for example sMaya.eag+ may be pronounced as say< ya.eag+. Monier-Williams, in his dictionary, follows the tradition of substituting the savarna . nasal before a sparsa (the twenty- ve from ka to ma), but not before an antahstha. . It would be useful (for these lessons at least) to practise that method.

8.A.4 Devanagar Numerals
The numbers one to ten respectively are expressed in Sanskrit as eka dva tri catur pa~can sas saptan astan navan dasan. The numeralss use the familiar order of n . . .. signi cance, so that 1234 is written as 1234. Here are the ten numerals in devanagar script, ordered 0 to 9:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Lesson 8.B
8.B.1 More Noun Declensions
The pratipadika form of nouns may end in letters other than those considered thus far: the table on the next page includes the three declension previously covered and adds agni ( re, pum-linga ending in -i), guru (teacher, pum-linga ending in . _ . _ -u), and nad (str -linga ending in - ). These declensions need not be practised, _ but it would be useful to spend some time observing the di erences between the declensions. The sandhi rule changing n to n following r or s follows through all declensions in . . trt ya eka-vacana and sasth bahu-vacana. . . ..

8.B.2 Adjectives
An adjective (visesana) quali es a noun: it is dependent the noun as an attribute. . . This dependence manifests in the grammar, requiring the visesana to agree with . . the noun in gender, case and number. Thus using alpa (small), we could have:

alpah narah alpam naram alpat narat vahanti . . alpa, mf(a)n. small sundara, mf( )n. handsome, beautiful, attractive

The small men (pl.) carry the small man from the small man. In Monier-Williams' dictionary a visesana is listed in the form: . .

where `mfn.' stands form `masculine-feminine-neuter', i.e. it may be declined in all three genders (as required by a visesana), and the `(a)' and `( )' inserted after the . . `f' of `mfn.' indicates the str -linga form in declension thus alpa declines like bala, _ and sundar like nad , in the feminine. For example:

alpa sundar bala tisthati ..

The small beautiful girl stands. As may be seen from the above examples, the visesana precedes the noun which it . . quali es.

balayoh . phalebhyah . gurvoh . agnau agn he agn agn agnibhyam agnibhyam agnibhyam agnyoh . gurubhyah . he nara naram narena . agneh .66 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Declension Paradigms Masculine in -a Neuter in -a narah . gurubhyah . Feminine in -a phalani he phalani phalani phalaih . agn nam agnisu . narebhyah . gurave guroh . he balah . narebhyah . guroh . balayah . nad h . agnyoh . nadyah . agnibhyah . he agnayah . gurunam . narayoh . guravah . nad he nadi nad m nadya nadyai nadyah . phalayoh . phalebhyah . naresu . . he guro gurum guruna . agn n agnibhih . gurun gurubhih . phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale phale he phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh . nadyoh . Feminine in - balah . phalanam phalesu . Masculine in -i agnih . balah . nad bhyah . balabhih . balanam balasu Masculine in -u guruh . nadyam nadyau he nadyau nadyau nad bhyam nad bhyam nad bhyam nadyoh . nad bhih . he narah . gurau guru he guru guru gurubhyam gurubhyam gurubhyam gurvoh . agnayah . naran naraih . he nadyah . balabhyah . he guravah . nad nam nad su . gurusu . agnibhyah . nad bhyah . naranam . balayam bale he bale bale balabhyam balabhyam balabhyam balayoh . balabhyah . bala he bale balam balaya balayai balayah . naraya narayat narasya nare narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . nadyah . narah . he agne agnim agnina agnaye agneh .

usually found immediately before the verb for example. tree A agn+ .d + f.2) c+ ind.d a. horse gua m.B 67 8.h a.ta. avyaya mf(a)n. quickly I*a.te+ he leads p l*B. the man goes quickly. va.+ f. river na= m.+ a.te+ he takes p va. small mf( )n.4 Vocabulary Summary The following is a complete list of all the vocabulary used in this course: kriya p gam.a. beautiful. and .Lesson 8.l n.B.t+ he goes p na. girl vxa + m.+ gacC a. 8.+ naya.+ l*Ba.h va. thus (lesson 9. p ~Ta. teacher na.aGram. .Za. a. using the adverb s ghram (quickly): narah s ghram gacchati .B.t+ he carries .t+ .// A p+ suand:= naman visesana . handsome ind. re A: + m.l*. man :P*.B.t+ he speaks p va. fruit ba.3 Adverbs An adverb (kriya-visesana) quali es a verb: it is indeclinable (avyaya). .t+ he stands m.d. It is .+ ind.

Za. 5.a.+ A:gnaye+ . (b) Practise reading and writing the ten numerals in devanagar .+ vxa a.a.a. 6.a.aGram. a.+ l*Bea.a.t.+ A pam.te+| 4{ gua=*v+H A pam.68 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8. 3.+ naya.ta.l*.t.l*. The girl of the teacher stands on the handsome horse. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.B.+ A: am.t. The man's teacher goes to the river by horse.am. The teacher stands among the beautiful fruit of the small tree. The beautiful girl leads the man to the small teacher quickly. The teacher of the girl stands in the small river. .+ suand:= m.+ vxa am.te+| 2{ suand:=*+ ba.te+| 3{ na=*E+ suand:=*a.a.+ na E+ nayante+| 5{ A p+H vxa +H suand:=e A:gna.A. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: ba.a.+ na. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .+ na=*a.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English. 2.N+ :P*.d am.+ ba. The girl carries the small fruit to the man's teacher.an+ A pa.// agnam.E+ a.l*.t.+ suand:=*a.+ gacC a. 4.5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.5.+ l*Ba.l*.+ A .t+| 1{ na=H A pam.+ A: am.

B 0 1 2 3 4 + + 5 6 7 8 9 69 .Lesson 8.

70 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9 8 7 6 5 + 4 3 2 1 0 .

Thus the above example in transliteration would be: satyam j~anamanantam brahma .g. a and a).Lesson 9. This is a variation of the form O . In classical Sanskrit texts. so one has A + A e+ A E+. for example: s!a.2 Variations in Devanagar Alphabet Just as there are variations in the Roman alphabet (e. and svarita by the vertical bar above the vowel. but there is no stress system in Sanskrit (indeed there should be no stress at all in the study of Sanskrit!) Sanskrit is either sounded with the pitch accent described above.1 Vowels Accents Accent is the sounding of a vowel at a higher or lower pitch or tone (svara). This is another form of . (Although in grammatical treatises it may be indicated as a small u above the vowel. similarly I for . and just as one has derivatives of the familiar form as A + A e+ A E+.A.!anam`anantM+ b. There are three tones: raised (udatta). the udatta and svarita will be indicated by the acute and grave accent marks respectively. a neutral accentless tone. n . Where these are marked in the dictionary in Roman transliteration.g. the accent is not marked. 9.A The next three sections may be considered as informational only they are provided for completeness. These are only marked in the Veda. and a combination of the two or moving tone (svarita). .tyM+ :]a. English has a stress accent system (e. 9. listen to the `to' syllable in `photograph' and `photographer'). or in ekasruti.a. ` The anudatta is indicated by a horizontal bar under the vowel. while udatta is unmarked. so there are variations in devanagar : some of the less obvious ones are illustrated below: A E H This is an alternate form of A.A. not raised (anudatta). An alternative form of J. for example n'+ ).

Vedic form of q. Another form of (hva). n This is a variation of the form for + (ksa). A variation of (hna). you may nd that much of the information now is clearer. An alternative of (hla). D O P Q x This is a quite common form of . there are no hard and fast rules governing the formation of a samyoga however. and the following page is a reference sheet of the character shapes of the alphabet. As was mentioned in Lesson 7.4 Revision The next page has a summary of the information about the alphabet. but far less common. . A radically di erent form of :N+. Obviously the same as l.A. This would be a good time to lightly revise all the notes about the alphabet.+ L \h The following are variations in the numerals: 1 =1=1 6 =6=6 4 =4=4 8 =8=8 5 =2 =5=5 9 =0 =9=9 9. An alternative form of :]+ (j~a).d (dr).1).A. there are a few that are sometimes not obvious: . .72 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Another variant of J.3 Variations in Samyoga .A. Another form of the Vedic anusvara > (see 8. J L N G F gM. . 9. starting from Lesson 1: now that you are more familiar with the alphabet. Vedic form of Q.

ya an+ k*:N ta. + A:nua~va.a.a.ea.Lesson 9.vasagR+ A A + I IR o a t+ O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH .N+ .Ga.v.d D+ n+ l s+ 8 > A pa.a.a *vxa.pra.ta.t+ .+ i a.y+ mUaDRany+ . + mUaDRany+ . + . k K+ g+ . A:nt+H:~T+ 8 > < IR *Sa.r tX+ R l .l*. + ba.h a.+ u u tu+ tU+ .Za. tw+ R l .t~pxa.y+ A ea.Z+ .Ga.d:nty+ A ea.d:nty+ k*:NF*.a= }| { a.r tx+ R a ta.l*.a.h 9 > = > *:Sman.asak IR *Sa.ea.a. + 8 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > < ~pxa.ZR+ > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : A:nuana.a.a. ta.N+ > > > < > > > > : ma.ea.j+ J V+ y+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ . tW+ R e ai te+ tE+ o ta. .pra.G+ z c+ C .y+ z k*:NF*.t+ ta.E+ tM+ t+H exceptions: Alphabetical Order v.v. z k*:N }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { ta.:praya.S+ A.S+ :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ 9 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > = > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ~pa. - .A 73 .+ > : } | {z A aByanta= :praya.l*.v.a.e+ au am ah .

h .J V+ y+ .D+ n+ l s+ o :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ .G+ z I c+ C j+ .Z+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ d .74 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory A k K+ g+ .

A 75 9.Lesson 9. _ . as well as the verbal quali er (kriya-visesana) which is . typically referring to something that has been said it is the Sanskrit equivalent of inverted commas. The naman and kriya have the fundamental notions of `being' and `becoming' respectively. Note that iti grammatically isolates the phrase or sentence before it. There is no system of indirect or reported speech in Sanskrit.B. The nipata are avyaya (indeclinable). The upasarga (verbal pre x) has been discussed in 7. which conjugate according purusa . and the nipata (particle) is a catch-all for the remaining types of word. the samj~a (proper noun.B. naman (noun).2 Use of iti The nipata iti means `thus': it lays stress on what precedes it.1." he says. upasarga (verbal pre x). 9. The naman type includes the basic naman (common noun etymologically derived from a dhatu). indeclinable (avyaya). so the above may equally be translated as: He says that he is going by horse. personal name or technical term whose . . and although they are separate words they are not used by themselves: words of this class are ca (and) and he (vocative particle).B. This isolating function of iti may also be used to separate a de nition from the word being de ned. The kriya type includes the basic kriya (verbs derived from a dhatu) and the nama-dhatu (verbs derived from nouns). vacana and vibhakti. from what follows: in the above example. For example: asvena gacchami iti vadati \I am going by horse. and the nominal quali er or adjective (visesana): all these decline according to linga. and nipata (particle). the sarva-naman (pronoun). the trt ya vibhakti of asvena is not related to the . n meaning cannot be etymologically determined).1 Types of Words Sanskrit grammarians traditionally describe four types of words: kriya (verb). . vacana and lakara. . and so on. or a grammatical rule from an example of its application. even if the word `gacchami' were omitted. kriya vadati.

l*.d t+H| 1{ e .l va. We (two) take the fruit (pl.h a.a.l*.a. 3.t+| 2{ e A: +H vxa a~y+ :P*.) for fruit (pl.an+ ba. thereafter practice sounding the order while following the alphabet chart on page 74.l*m.+ va.+ suand:=*am.+ va.) are quickly taking the girl's fruit (two) to the man.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order (which should be familiar by now) following it through the diagram on page 73 once familiar with the relationship of the alphabetical order to the diagram.a.t+ A p+H na=H va.am+| 5{ na.).am. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: na=H :P*.t. 2. \I am taking the fruit (pl.l*. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .h t+H| 4{ vxa am.+ A pa.+ vxa am.) to the horse.Za.d a.a.+ A: E+H .E+ A:gna.76 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9.an+ l*Ba. The man says to the girl that he is carrying the tree to the river.ayE+ va. 4.) from the girl's tree. You (pl.he gua=*e+ ba.+ vxa a. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.t+ ba.+ ba.a.a.h a. The beautiful girl leads the horse to the small trees (pl." the girl says to the teacher. Associating the sound/letter with its position on the chart provides a visual `short-cut' to where a sound/letter is in relation to the alphabetical order as a whole: this will prove to be a very useful trick when using the dictionary.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English.t+| 3{ :P*.B. 6.h a.aya.a. (b) Write out the alphabet once per day.te+ I*a. 5.d + A pam. .l nayase+ I*a.h should be on a line by itself). The man and girl go to the handsome teacher by river.aGram. in the form given in the chart on page 74 (ideally .l*.+ A: ean+ na=*ay+ va.

inasmuch as it is not sounded.A. and the other a long measure. Sandhi applies to vowels too: consider how \he is" becomes \he's". (The apostrophe functions somewhat like the avagraha (Y). Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals: for example. when a long IR meets a short I. We shall examine external sandhi broadly and Sandhi applies whenever two sounds come together | and this is the point: it is . natural. This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusvara that was considered earlier.1 Introduction to Sandhi Sandhi (`placing together') is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously. and for the various pronunciations of the English letter `n' mentioned in that section (8. When sounded | and that's the key | you will hear that both vowels have the same sound: certainly one has a short measure. which is pronounced as `cats and dogz'. they are both replaced by a long IR .) sounds coming together. consider the English phrase `cats and dogs'. It is quite . internal to an individual word. The rules also apply between words as they come together to form a sentence: this is called external sandhi.3). the letters are symbols representing the sounds: in Sanskrit the notation changes when the sound changes. external to the individual words. So. Why should that be? Looking at it doesn't help you need to sound it. but the sound is the same. try swapping the sibilants around: `catz and dogs'. The rules of sandhi apply within a word as it is being developed from its elemental components to its fully in ected form: this is called internal sandhi. Have you heard why it is so? Well. and to hear that sound. to sound it aloud (or in the mind at least).A. isn't it? So there is an English sandhi rule that a sibilant preceded by an unvoiced consonant is unvoiced. when reading the written word. Di cult. In the written form.A 10. and for the ease of pronunciation. and thus it has an inherently phonetic script the English script does not do this.Lesson 10. and this is one of the reasons that foreigners mutter darkly about English spelling! The rules of sandhi only make sense in sound and not in writing: thus it is important. and preceded by a voiced consonant it is voiced (ghosa). The rules of internal and external sandhi are largely the same. but each has its own eld of special cases and exceptions. which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting.

.2 Guna and Vrddhi . al al 3 A useful way of considering guna. . but what is important is to understand them.A. The breve ( ) and macron ( ) diacritical marks. . the d rgha measure does not occur. simple vowel guna form .A. for example. and v. . 2 In the grammatical formation of words. 1 a a a a a a 1 e ai u o au .A.78 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory only lightly touch on internal sandhi as it a ects the declension of formed words. vrddhi form . does not arise in the grammar. Panini de nes . This process has been described in Section 1. in the same sentence or line of poetry: a vowel nal is not changed before a consonant or in pausa. 10. Also V stands for any vowel. arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. In these notes. There are only six principles that cover all cases: it is not necessary to learn these. used together ( ) indicate a long or short measure of the vowel. at the end of a sentence. and vrddhi as A + Oe and A E+. the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels and . namely A a. 10. guna as the three vowels A O and A e+. is the strengthening of the ve simple vowels . 3 The vrddhi form of . and also gives . by the addition of a single measure of A (so as to leave A itself unchanged).rddhi as the strengthening of the guna by the addition of a further measure of . . . as you would expect. unless explicitly restricted. and that means to work through each principle | in sound | and understand that they are simply statements of the obvious. The grammatical terms guna (`secondary form') and vrddhi (`increase') can be .r ar ar l2 . and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel.l. the breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels.5.3 Vowel Sandhi Vowel sandhi. A.

)e +u)o + r ) ar . When a simple vowel (hrasva or d rgha) other than a is followed by a di erent vowel. so that when meets or . When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by a guna or vrddhi sound.A. they are both replaced by the d rgha measure of that vowel. . . a+a)a + ) u+u)u r+r)r . the .A 79 1. the result is . vrddhi sound replaces both. . Note that is not shown here. long) meet a vowel of the same kind (hrasva or d rgha). guna replaces both. 3.l + V ) lV where V stands for any di erent vowel. short or d rgha. the rst vowel is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position: . + l ) al .Lesson 10. + V ) yV u + V ) vV r + V ) rV .A. 2. . a + e ) ai a + o ) au a + ai ) ai a + au ) au 4. When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by one of the ve simple vowels other than A (hrasva or d rgha).4) and that and are savarna (Section 8. It was mentioned earlier that the d rgha measure of is not used in the grammar (Section 1. . When one of the ve simple vowels (hrasva. + a a a a . .2). .

-a l. -a r.-a e-a ai-a o-a au- -o -o -a a-a -a -a u-a u-a r. . l.eaioau- . When a compound vowel (e ai o au) is followed by another vowel. 6. e+a)e o+a)o 0 0 -a1 -a-a-e-e-o-o-ar-2 -ar-al-ai-ai-au-au- -ya-ya---yu-yu-yr-2 . it splits into its component parts (a or a. -la-la-li-l -lu-lu-r. and i or u) and the second of those parts is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position. -yr. the A is elided and replaced by an avagraha. The antahstha . As a quite non-obvious exception to the above rule. -r. -le-lai-lo-lau- -e -e -a a-a i-a -a u-a u-a r. -yl.-ve-vai-vo-vau- -r . -avr. -vr. -r. and overriding it.-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -au -ava-ava-avi-av -avu-avu-avr.-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -ai -a a-a a-a i-a -a i-a u-a r. e + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V ai + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V o + V ) a + u + V ) avV ) a V au + V ) a + u + V ) avV where V stands for any vowel. though useful in its own way. is no substitute for understanding the principles in sound. r. -ave-avai-avo-avau- Following Vowel aaiuur.80 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 5. -a l. -avr. -a r. -ra-ra-ri-r -ru-ru-r. All the information on vowel sandhi may be conveniently displayed in tabular form | called a sandhi grid | which. when O or A e+ are followed by hrasva A. -r.-ye-yai-yo-yau- -u -va-va-vi-v -u-u-vr-2 . -a r. -a l. -re-rai-ro-rau- Final Vowel -l. may then optionally be elided: generally it is only retained when the preceding vowel was au. -r. -vl.

the basic vowel may be replaced by its hrasva equivalent. 10. easy and easily.. b. is that resolving a given sandhi into its components is not at all straightforward: for example. A similar process occurs in English when a nal `y' is replaced by `i' before adding another su x. Examples of this are ij-ya derived from dhatu yaj. c. 2 Optionally. and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel. .A 1 81 Note: l does not occur as a word nal. and p. called pragrhya (`to be taken separately'). while it is clear that -a + aproduces -a-. are included in the table for completeness.3. and the r .Lesson 10. for example: maha + rsi ) maharsi or maharsi. holy and holiness.4 Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi There are some exceptions. . . retained. uc-atha from dhatu vac. For external sandhi these are: a. and neither r nor l as a word initial. or O . Prolonged (pluta) vowels. One thing that the table does illustrate. sup-ta from dhatu svap. pronouns. sandhi rules do not operate. This is the complement to rule 4 in 10.5 Samprasarana . beauty and beautiful. .A.rcch-ati from dhatu prach. . The terminations of duals (whether nouns.A. Particles consisting of a single vowel. .A. where . vowel of the same mouth position (and the following vowel is elided). or verbs) ending in d rgha IR .. The breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. as for example. or ending in A e+: these are usually interjections or exclamations. rather like the English `Ah' and `Oh'. Samprasarana is the process whereby an antahsthah is replaced by the simple . but they . .whether either (or both) of the original a's were long or not. . 10. the grid cannot determine from -a.

This ` xing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a su x (pratyaya) the process in English is similar for example. attentive having the quality of attending. where it may cause one to stumble when reading it). attendance the action of attending.. pigtail : a plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head from its resemblance to the tail of a pig]). or may have a meaning quite di erent from its parts (e. it is hyphenated.g. .Lesson 10.g. are derived: attendant one who attends. this activity needs to `freeze'. gravestone : stone marking a grave). . reman).g. from the verb `attend' given in 8.1 Introduction to Compound Words The dhatu (root) is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity: in order to form a noun (naman) or adjective (visesana) etc.B. attention the quality of attending. these su xes may be concatenated and further pre xes may be added.g. to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable. as it were. or express a speci c idea related to its parts (e.B. as for example.1.y lamp-post right-handed world-wide . attentiveness the state of having the quality of attending. `inattentiveness'. Words thus ` xed' by a su x (pratyaya) may be joined together to form a compound word. When a compound is not yet fully accepted in English writing (e. As shown by the last word in this list. as: bread-winner full-grown light-weight roof-garden break-down ginger-beer old-fashioned single-minded double-decker heart-shaped pony-tail store-room far-fetched hot-house red-hot whole-hearted re.B 10. as in the following English examples: bedroom reside headache screwdriver blackbird gingerbread housekeeping sightseeing breakfast greenback newspaper songwriter daydream haircut paperback sunrise dressmaker handwriting rattlesnake wheelbarrow The compound word may simply be a conveniently brief way of expressing a longer phrase (e.

B. AB avyay bhava (forms indeclinable (avyaya) functioning as an adverb) AB bahuvr hi (serves as an adjective qualifying an external principal) Other types of samasa are subdivisions. very extensive use indeed so much so. i. There are few exceptions to the above: words such as atmane-pada and parasmaipada where the case-a x of the rst word is not dropped.2 Joining Words in Writing Sanskrit is spoken without any break between words. then the four classes of samasa may be indicated as: AB dvandva (meaning `A and B') AB tatpurusa (A is in some case relationship to B) . Although a samasa may comprise many words.Lesson 10. n n In declining the compound word. Sanskrit makes extensive use of the samasa.( rst) purusa person = rst person.e. and the written form re ects this: after the operation of sandhi. a compound word (samasa) is always written without a break. are called a-luk samasa. or special cases. only the last member appears to decline. for example: prathama. then the n is dropped. all the principles are covered in considering the joining of just two words (call them `A' and `B') a more complex samasa is simply a case where A and/or B is itself a samasa.am+ ) na=*ana. . words are joined together in writing except after words ending in a vowel. self-knowledge. of these four main classes. the vibhakti ending is added to the end of the :pra. anusvara or visarga. that it is unusual to nd a sentence without a samasa.B 83 In devanagar .Tam+ :pua *:S+ - compound as a whole. If the principal (more important) word of the compound is underlined.+ A pean+ A: ean+ gacC a. A samasa is formed by simply placing the pratipadika (stem) forms together and applying the sandhi rules at the junction. the virama ( . For example: na=*an. This makes expressions in Sanskrit at once concise and precise. 10.am+ Ideally. but in transliteration these are often shown hyphenated. ) may only be used at the end of a sentence. . One exception to this should be noted: if the pratipadika ends in -an.a ean+ gacC a. for example: atman (self) + j~ana (knowledge) ) atmaj~ana. while earlier members retain their pratipadika form. peana.

29. 11. 21.t+ + A .SNa. 8.tam. 30. 15.h + k*:tRx+ k*:+ n+ + A T+ + A:mxa.+ + A ea.h:=e maDu+ ma.p+ ma. 20.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74.+ a= + I yam.. .h + + O *v+ + O k*:tvam.a.+ + A anand + A aca. Do remember that the purpose of the exercises is a practical understanding: one learns from mistakes. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. (c) Join the following word pairs using vowel sandhi: this exercise is most usefully done in sound alone. 6.pa.ty+ sa.d + I nd + *. a. 13.v+ + A: an+ 16. 23.h:~te+ :pa= m+ :pra. 2. 22.m.Za. 12.+ .t+ + A:kH + O *v+ .d:nam.aya. 5. 10. 24. 18.a.+ + O k*.B.aDu+ k*:tRx+ A: + BU+ + A anand + IR *Z+ *k*:a= a.Za. not from right answers! 1.v+ gua ma.tman. 4.e+ :pa= m+ n+ + + I*a.a. 7.d + ma.+ + IR a= .S+ A anand k*:a./ a~t+ . by repeatedly pronouncing the word pairs aloud very swiftly.84 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 10.d a.e. + O *ta.a. 26. 17. 19. and then writing down what is heard: the results may afterwards be checked against the rules or the sandhi grid. 28.ayR+ + I nd + A anand sa.tx+ :pa.h + .E+ + A a.de va.va. i.+ + A anand + A a~y+ + A a. 25. 14. 9. 27.+ + IR *Z+ + IR + O *v+ a. 3. ant+ na.

is the last row: an avasana is a pause or stop in speech. t/thany other aghosa vya~jana n . 2. 1.++A@ becomes @A e+Y@. Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs .. A =. c/cht/th.A. and a preceding A I or o lengthened. unless that vowel is hrasva A in which case @A:s.1 Visarga Sandhi This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form: Final Vowel -as -as Vs1 Vr2 Next Initial Sound The table is simple enough. Note: The words s+H or O *S+H followed by hrasva A becomes sa.(a disallowed combination). the following consonant. 3 any other ghosa vya~jana n . -Vh . -as -ah . -Vs -Vh . t/th. is elided. Basically a nal s or r becomes r before a voiced (ghosa) sound (which includes the vowels. is that before c/ch t/th or . And the nal s or r becomes a visarga before an unvoiced (aghosa) sound (whether . -o -a -o -o -as -as . Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs . it is replaced with a sibilant (s s or s) of the same mouth position as that of .{ ) 1 -Vs = any vowel except a or a before the nal s. -Vh .. 2 -Vr = any vowel before the nal r.A 11. a vowel. followed by another =.e+Y or O *Sa. and the preceding vowel. as for example at the end of a sentence or line of poetry. a consonant or a pause in sound) the exception to this.Lesson 11. is lengthened. if a i or u. -Vs -Vh . -as before a ghosa consonant becomes -o the -s is dropped before . any vowel other than a a- r- .g. where the nal is -r and the following word begins with r. of course) the exceptions to this are: . One very important point to note about this table. -as -ah . -ah . 0 -a -a -a -a -as -as . the rst r is dropped. avasana (e.e+Y before any other letter the visarga is dropped. -ah .

.g. . these four are replaced by their ghosa equivalents. while the dantya nasal (like the -t) changes .h@ ) @gG+@). when a word ends in -n or -n preceded by a short vowel.: -V ch.) -VnnV- .and s.86 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This also applies when a sentence is split up into its independent words (padani) by removing the external sandhi. . So. a process called sandhi vigraha. mahaprana equivalent of that ghosa substitute (e. and to . . .A. remain unchanged when followed by an aghosa sound but note that a nal -t . As with the visarga sandhi.(which is ghosa) . . The immediate relevance is that the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs is given in the form of independent words. (h) were discussed in 11. A .e. an anusvara and sibilant of the following mouth position of a following talavya. then a c is inserted secondly. . consonant of the same mouth position when the following sound is ghosa. . case the substitute replaces the following s. murdhanya or dantya aghosa also note the special changes before l.A. .(in the last . The rst four of the nal consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa (except c) . The sandhi of words ending with a visarga .2 Consonant Sandhi As a rule.) -Vcch- -V_ V. . with two exceptions: when a word ends in a short vowel and the following word begins with ch-. . this table is split according to the following sound being ghosa or aghosa.is replaced by the . Before an h. when the word is used in a sentence. and the remaining three are nasals. nal -m changes to anusvara before any consonant (see 8. or h. changes to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya sound (both ghosa and aghosa). .and s-. and _ the following word begins with a vowel.. @k . or with any vowel except r and l. _~. and may end (before an avasana or pause) one of eight consonants k t t p n n m _ . this should be replaces with an s. . and the h.1 this table covers the remaining consonants. .3 for pronunciation of the anusvara). this sandhi must be removed: where the word is given in the tables with a nal visarga. The nal aghosa (k t t and p) are basically replaced with the ghosa alpaprana . The kanthya nasal remains unchanged. 11. There are no sandhi changes when a vowel meets a consonant.h. which means that sandhi rules applicable to a following avasana have already been applied.) -VnnVn __ -Vn V.as well). i. then the nasal is doubled. a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m n n n r l . . and observe its special changes before l.. to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya ghosa sound..A. and .

The nasal doubles to -_ n or -nn if the preceding vowel is short. . -k -t -c -p -n -ms -m _ . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ .may also become -~ ch-. . -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . are: s following k r i u u . . n n 1 2 Next Sound any vowel g/ghj/jhd/dh.. -g -d -j -b -n -~ -m _ n . and which a ect the spelling of vibhakti endings in particular. following s r r or r . is replaced by even if there is an intervening m or h . m v y or n (which last becomes n). -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . . y v h or m intervene _ .-bbh. 11. 3 -k -t -cch-p -n -~ -m _ n .e. n_ This is a nasalized l. . .A. . . . . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . 3 -~ s. -ggh. i. . .A Final Consonant (before avasana) 87 -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ .Lesson 11. . . -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . @n.-n -n -m _ . -n _ -n -n -m -n -n -m _ . . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . n when followed by a vowel. . p ph b bh m.-ddh. . is replaced by even if k kh g gh n. -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ .. . r e ai o or au r. s unless it is the nal letter or followed by r. n . -g -d -d -b -n1 -n1 -m _ . .+ l@ becomes @. -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ .-ddh. d/dhb/bhn/my/r/v- lhk/khc/cht/th. . -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . < l@. . . . .. -g -d -l -b -n -l< 2 -m _ . t/thp/phss/s. . . .3 Internal Sandhi The two most common rules of internal sandhi.

has a case relationship to). tree-root. .. . would be in the same case (vibhakti) and connected by the conjunction c+ (and). is characterised as having ..B. Pairs of opposites are often put in this form. or modi es. For example: Tatpurusa | also called vyadhikarana-tatpurusa. . `his man') samasa is a determinative compound in which the . ... . . vrksamulam ( vrksasya mulam (sasthi-tatpurusa) . 11.2 Tatpurusa Samasa . . = root of a tree. `couple') samasa is a copulative compound in which the members. . Samahara | the members are taken collectively as a unit it is always neuter sukham ca duhkham ca ) sukhaduhkham (note the singular) . 11. There are several types: di erent case endings if the compound is dissolved. . .. Dvigu | this samasa has the same sense as the karmadharaya. ramah ca krsnah ca ) ramakrsnau (note the dual) = Rama and Krsna. . . There are two types of dvandva: the gender of the last member the number is the sum of the members. .e. . . .e. if not compounded.Lesson 11.B The following detailed notes may be used for reference: they need not be studied. but has a word . Karmadharaya | this is a descriptive determinative compound. rst member depends on (i. also called samanadhikarana-tatpurusa.1 Dvandva Samasa The dvandva (lit. for example: = pleasure and pain. The tat-purusa (lit..B.. the members refer to the same object for example: denoting direction or a numeral as its rst member for example: purnacandrah ( purnah (full) candrah (moon) = full-moon. The compound may be further classi ed according to the case relationship (dvit ya through saptam ) of the rst member to the second. the second. i. i. if the compound is dissolved.e. . . . and is characterised as having the same case ending . For example: Itaretara | the members are considered separately the gender of the compound is singular. . the members are di erent objects.

padmaksa ( padma (lotus) + aksa (eye) . 11.B O k*:vacan+ 89 eka-vacana. singular (lit.(the sense is proportion) + sraddha (faith) = according to (one's) faith. an-. from p vac. .3 Avyay bhava Samasa The avyay bhava (lit. `much rice') samasa is a descriptive compound forming an adjective (visesana) agreeing with a noun (expressed or understood) for example: . n n 11. and the whole takes the form of the neuter singular for example: sakrodham ( sa. lotus-eyed. or a-) as its n . giving `dual' and `plural'] Upapada | this compound has a dhatu derivative as its second member for example: kumbha-kara ( kumbham (pot) + p kr (to do. . . = whose eyes are (like) lotuses. (similarly a-kara etc.B.(the sense is accompaniment) + krodha (anger) yathasraddham ( yatha. remains a noun. while the latter becomes an adjective. `an unchanging nature') samasa is indeclinable (avyaya) and functions as an adverb. Na~-tatpurusa | a compound with a negative particle (na-. the king's son (tatpurusa). The di erence between the tatpurusa and the bahuvr hi is that the former .+ (king) + putra (son) raja-putra = whose son is a king (bahuvr hi) .1): raja-putra ( =*a.(many). angrily. . make) = potter . act.(negation or absence) + j~anam (knowledge) = ignorance.A.Lesson 11.speaking.B. In the Vedic Sanskrit the determinative and descriptive compounds were distinguished by accents (see 9.(two).). to speak) also dvi. The rst member is an indeclinable (preposition or adverbial pre x). = with anger. giving a negative or privative sense for example: a-j~anam ( a. and the last a noun (naman). = the son of the king. one .4 Bahuvr hi Samasa The bahuvr hi (lit.jan. bahu. rst member.

90

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

11.B.5 Exercises
(a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. (c) Write the following sentences in devanagar , applying sandhi rules as necessary | and it will be necessary quite often! | and then translate them into English. For example:

narah asvah ca alpan vrksan labhete . . . .
na=*e+Y a a.a. pa.anvxa a.a. < l*Bea.te+

1. narau alpam vrksam agnim asvat vahatah . . . 2. bala asvam naram ca vrksat labhate . . 3. phalani asvam vahati iti guruh balah vadati . . 5. narah vrksam agnim balayai asvena vahati . . . 6. bala asvam alpam nad m vrksat nayate . . 7. narah vrksan phalebhyah asvena gacchati . . . .

The man and horse take the small trees.

4. guru alpam naram vrksayat s ghram gacchatah . . .

8. guruh agnim narat gacchati iti alpa bala vadati . 10. alpebhyah phalebhyah sundaresu vrksesu gacchavah . . . . . . . 9. bala alpah asvah ca agnim narat gacchatah . . .

Lesson 12
12.1

From here forward the lessons will no longer be divided into parts `A' and `B', there will, however, be exercises related to the dictionary or Dhatu-Patha at the end of . each lesson.

Monier-Williams Dictionary

In the dictionary, words are listed in their pratipadika (stem) form, i.e. without the vibhakti endings that they gather in actual use therefore in seeking the meaning of words found in Sanskrit writings, the rst part of the word will be found in the dictionary, and the last syllable or two forming the vibhakti ending needs to be omitted. There will be an element of guesswork in this because only the six most common noun declensions have been given: forty declensions are necessary to cover all possibilities, and as many again for exceptions. The dictionary often marks the accents of vowels in transliteration: the udatta is marked with the acute accent ( ) and the svarita with the grave accent ( ) | this is illustrated in section 9.A.1. There is an interesting section on the subject of accents on page of the dictionary introduction, beginning with the fourth paragraph \Then a third improvement . . . ". The rest of the lengthy Preface and Introduction need not be read however, do note that the dictionary was completed at the end of the Nineteenth Century, and thus there is some Victorian coyness in translating sexual terms, which are sometimes given in Latin rather than English.
xviii

This dictionary is either very simple to use, or very di cult: the di erence lies in understanding the founding principles of the dictionary, and appreciating the devices that Monier-Williams has employed in order to make it simple to use. In this lesson the broad structure of the dictionary is explained, and subsequent lessons will cover the details.

12.2

Alphabet and Transliteration

Some of the devanagar characters used in the dictionary di er from the standard followed in these lessons, and some transliterations di er from the generally accepted standard. The alphabet used in the dictionary, in both devanagar and transliterated Roman characters, is presented below in the standard format, from which one may deduce the standard alphabetical order (which of course, the dictionary does use).

92

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

A A+

I IR

o

H I

O

Oe

A ea. A Ea.

AM

AH

a a i
k K+ g+ .G+ z

u u ri r lri lr e o ai au am/an ah . . . . . . ka kha ga gha na _
c+ C .j+

V+ y+ .Z+

ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa _

ta . F tha . q da . Q dha . N na . = ra :S+ sha
f

t+ T+ .d D+ n+ l s+

ta tha da dha na la sa

pa :P pha b+ ba B+ bha m+ ma v+ va
:p+

.h

ha

Observe the devanagar characters used for A and its derivatives in the sixteen sakti, and the consonants J and :N+ observe also the transliteration for .r r l l, . .. the anusvara, s and s. These are also shown on page (facing page 1) of the . dictionary.
xxxvi

Monier-Williams distinguishes between a `true' anusvara (n) which is inherent in the word from its dhatu and is found in such words as AM :s+ (ansa) and a.hM:s+ (hinsa), and the `substitute' anusvara (m) which arises through the operation of the rules . of grammar, as for example sam,+ + sa.a= ) sMasa.a= (samsara). This distinction is . peculiar to Monier-Williams (the standard is to use m throughout), and may be . ignored: simply treat m and n as synonymous with the anusvara. .

12.3

Fundamental Structure

The dictionary is arranged on etymological principles, and it is this that makes it such a powerful tool. The two main advantages of this arrangement are, rstly, that cognate words derived from the same dhatu are gathered together, and this facilitates a broad understanding of the word, together with its applications and uses secondly, it becomes a trivial matter to trace the word back to its dhatu, thus allowing a penetrating insight into the very essence of the word. This combination, giving both breadth and depth to the understanding of a word, is immensely valuable in the penetrating study of the scriptures.

a. The reason for this instruction is that the dictionary uses four levels of alphabetical order. and not just two. the words in Roman script are themselves listed alphabetically. the words a.ba.l.ba. Now look at the next page: at the bottom of the rst column is the entry buaD. and observe that each entry begins with an indented word in devanagar or bold Roman script. and that each entry comprises just one paragraph.ba.a.l a. Now open your dictionary at page 732. the dictionary is also ordered alphabetically. but their order is independent of the outer structure using devanagar script. The entries in this column should be the same as the list given above: con rm this.Z+ in devanagar script should be between Bilasa and Bilma.l a. Similarly. Comments on the list: The entries in devanagar script are listed in alphabetical Do not proceed any further with this lesson until this principle of the independence of the two levels of alphabetical order is clear.Lesson 12 93 Besides the etymological arrangement. Such an entry indicates a major dhatu. and the sub-structure of derived words is listed under the devanagar entry in transliterated Roman script the derived words are themselves listed alphabetically. Look down the rst column.a. The seeming con ict between these two is resolved quite simply: the main etymological structure is ordered alphabetically in devanagar script. the entries could be listed as follows: a. h N+ order and ignore any intervening words in transliterated Roman script. For example.l*.ba.a.ba.a. and Buddhaka and Buddhi (middle of third column). A word of caution: the dictionary contains a wealth of information | do be alert to attention being captured by some interesting item. At this stage the purpose is not to nd word meanings.l . in this case).l*. but to understand how to use this tool called a dictionary.ba.a. as one would expect of a dictionary.l*nT+ a. The words derived from this dhatu include Buddha (middle of second column).Z+ a.ba.l a.+ in large devanagar type.ba.l*nT+ a.ba.l*.ba=*a.l*. and are all derived from the previous word in devanagar script ( a. The list also demonstrates the two levels of alphabetical order: without these levels. Continuing through these . Bila Bilasa Bilma Bilmin Billa Bilva Bilvaka Bilvak ya Bilvala a.

as will be explained later. The next entry word is Buddhaka. Thus these samasa sub-entries are truly a third level of alphabetical order. Now return to page 733. i.g.94 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory derived words on the next page. following -kapalin . and similarly in the line below that.through Bo. the next word in bold type is -kalpa. is -vara-locana . but more of that later): observe that these words or listed in alphabetical order. This third level may be viewed as an extension of the second level. and on the following page to Bau. forming the samasa Buddhakalpa. note that in the third column (about three inches (80 mm) down) is Buddhagama: the caret c ( c ) above the vowel indicates that it is long (d rgha) | it conveys more information in fact. and nd the fourth samasa entry -kshetra (about 1 2 2 inches (60 mm) from the bottom). Buddhagama (with d rgha a) follows after the previous samasa -sena. to the entry Buddha in the middle of column two.e. which returns to the second level of alphabetical order: the point to note here. due to the rules of vowel sandhi. remembering the two levels of alphabetical order. observe the change of the rst vowel from Buto Bo. Return to the second column.| at this stage just note that they are the guna and vrddhi forms | the . where the leading hyphen is mentally replaced by the entry word. and thus out of sequence as far as the second level in concerned.(e. before the next word in devanagar script (bua. Continuing at this level. note that there can be several pages between devanagar entry words and secondly.g. is that a samasa like Buddhagama is before it. Work through these samasa until satis ed that they are in fact in alphabetical order. Bodha).(e. There are two points to appreciate here: rstly. The rest of the column has several more such words in bold type and each beginning with a hyphen (and the hyphen is not irrelevant. The next line contains the word (in feint italic type) -pari_ odhaka .to Bau. This means that -kapalin is appended to the entry word Buddha so as to form the samasa Buddhakapalin . the nal a of buddha is changed: thus. These form s . Similarly. Bauddha). Buddhagama and subsequent samasa are spelled out in full because. Buddhasena (with hrasva a). This is the third level of alphabetical order: samasa beginning with the entry word (which may be in Roman type or devanagar ) are listed within the body of the paragraph for that entry in alphabetical order. . in strict alphabetical order. +). Three inches (75 mm) below this is -kapalin in bold type: nd this. signi cance of this will be explained later. note the strengthening of the dhatu vowel of the entry words from Bu.

4 Page Heading Words The words in the top margin of each page. Examine the words at the top of page 732 for example. 12. and the last (b jin) is in transliterated Roman: these words are at di erent levels in the hierarchy of alphabetical orders. indicate respectively the rst and last entry words to be found on that page. . Do make use of these rather than the body of the text as you scan through the pages looking up a word: but don't rely on them totally. but be aware that it can happen. This situation does not happen often and so one forgets about it. i. sub-entry -ksetra. Again.e. on the next page the heading words are at the second and third levels and turning over the page. but for the moment leave aside words beginning with s+ (sa). are also in alphabetical order: this is the fourth (and last!) level . . for they can sometimes be misleading in that they do not indicate at which of the four levels of alphabetical order they occur. turn a few pages backwards (towards A) and follow the devanagar entries in the body of the dictionary. Note that these two sub-sub-entries listed under the . When you suspect that you have been misled by the page heading words. Buddhiksetrapari_ odhaka and s . and note that the rst (birala) is in devanagar script in the text. the words at the top of page 735 are both at the second level but are in reverse alphabetical order. Buddhiksetravaralocana.Lesson 12 95 further samasa when appended to -ksetra. At this stage you could start to make use of the dictionary if there are words that you particularly want to look up. the heading words would have been quite misleading.+ (the rst entry in the second column). being derive from di erent words in the devanagar script: had one been looking for bua}Ba. of alphabetical ordering. given in both devanagar and Roman transliterated forms.

(2) Forgetting that `a' and `a' for example.e.. .96 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 12. sar ra 18. ananta 20.. 16. (6) Wasting time by reading interesting but irrelevant entries. When you are more familiar with the dictionary. 1. visnu . are two separate letters. bhakti 19. so simply nd the word and note the page and column in the form: buddhi 733b (i. prakrti . atman 2. ananda 7. 8. page 733. 14. hrdaya .. (3) Not seeing what is actually there. manas 17. You have been warned: but go ahead and fall at on your face anyway! But then do observe what tripped you up. j~ana n 6.5 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary. 13. 15. rajas 11. brahman 9. The exercise is to nd the word in the dictionary and not to examine the meaning of the word. it should take no longer to nd a word in the Sanskrit dictionary than it does in the English dictionary. The words in the list will all be found at the start of an entry (like buddhi) and not buried in the text the words may be in devanagar or transliterated in the dictionary. Common errors of rst-time users are: (1) Confusing the English and Sanskrit alphabetical orders. vyakarana . guru 10. second (=b) column). citta 12. both in the list of words and in the dictionary: watch those diacritics! (4) Failing to use the page heading words. purusa . krsna . (5) Misunderstanding the structure of the devanagar and transliterated entries. say fteen seconds. yoga 4. hetu 3. 5. rsi ..

D+. .+. anD+ etc. In looking up words containing the anusvara it is essential to sound the word.va.+ and is . z . one needs to make the same nasal substitution for the anusvara for the words in the dictionary.d an+ similarly for sMak*: p+. Again.l . the tradition followed by MonierWilliams makes this nasal substitution only before a sparsa (the twenty. -vadin etc. the last being in the dictionary order of sa *. .ve from ka to ma) and secondly.1 Words Beginning with Sa- The pre x sam.a= is not substituted and therefore. etc. For example. .(`altogether'. substituted with a nasal: for example. expressing conjunction. in the word sMa. sa u .+ in devanagar . p+ for sMa:]a. -yu. up the word in the standard alphabetical order with that substituted nasal.. in the dictionary order where the anusvara appears before the consonants. As an illustration of the importance of sounding the words.va. sMa. . and thus there are many words beginning with it since the nal -m is often replaced with the anusvara. and sMak*. For example.) are listed after the antahstha and usman. and not only to words beginning with sam-. follows the anusvara in the alphabetical order). saV]a.) are listed in alphabetical order | but note that the sparsa (-karana.+ | and that is the alphabetical order in sound! u This principle applies wherever the anusvara occurs.Lesson 13 13.d an+ the anusvara is sounded as the savarna m. di culties may arise if the rules for pronouncing the anusvara are not thoroughly practised. -kartavya. i. sa. There are two points to bear in mind here: rstly. is sounded with its replacement savarna nasal to give A h: *=*N+ (and. . then found in the dictionary where one would expect to nd sa}pra.c.a= will be before saga= which in turn will be before sMak*: p+.+ and for sMa. and then look .e. in column two of page 124 is the entry A h:m. the anusvara in sMa. union. examine the third column of page 1125 of the dictionary: the last three words given in devanagar script are sMak*:a. the anusvara . p+. sound them! Do remember that in the dictionary the anusvara before an antahstha is not . look up sa *.+. and derived from it (and hence transliterated) is the next entry word aham (note the anusvara): the samasa formed with aham | (-yati. replacing the anusvara with its savarna nasal where applicable. completeness) is very common.pra. of course.

+ p having three pre xes prati-sam-a. followed by its transliterated form and a class number.tasama. At this stage. together with the other information given in the dhatu entry.buaq. The next word. There are ten classes of dhatu (i. like the thing signi ed). and buaq.aBa. or have a pre x added. which is a dhatu.tasMaca=. is a dhatu. Returning to the top of the rst column.ts+ which is not a dhatu.98 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13.a. The next two entries are dhatu note that bua.2 Structure of Devanagar Level The outermost layer of the dictionary. the rst entry is ba. and bua. . That was a pretty mixed bag of words.tasuac.d. except for those beginning with a pre x which form the bulk of the words listed in devanagar . is class-6. and the dhatu bua.a. The word buak is onomatopoeic (i. The last word in this column is in large devanagar type. buaq*. For the next three words. but in practice it includes those words whose form has changed radically (e. and allows each element to be separately examined in the dictionary.dis.d l. and is followed by ba. indicating a major dhatu: the entry for this word begins with its transliterated form. p has two pre xes prati-sam.a. followed by \ cl. .s+ whose root is not known. The transliteration shows the etymology of the word. bua . will be explained in the next lesson.a. These are followed by the onomatopoeic . The next dhatu bua . the dhatu bua.suc the next entry :pra. but the entry shows that it is derived from the dhatu badh.d Z. *. should ideally only contain dhatu. or .aB. simply be aware that a devanagar entry. no etymology is given. i " which stands for `class-1'. by samprasarana). This . but does illustrate the many types of entries listed in devanagar . . which means that the dhatu is not known (to Monier-Williams anyway) and may be foreign words absorbed into Sanskrit.f is given as .a.e. and half-way down the column is :pra. Page 672 of the dictionary is representative of this type of entry: the second column begins with :pra. is also given the alternative reading vung the similarity in both sound and form of b+ and _ v+ allows this to happen.+ and in transliteration is p conveniently split into the pre x and dhatu as prati. the personal name bua.+. ten ways of conjugating verbs). but this.a. both class-1 and -10. namely the entries in devanagar script. Turn to page 733 of the dictionary and examine the devanagar entries in the rst column. it sounds . is followed by the onomatopoeic bua u *d and nally the dhatu buaD. This is followed by buak whose etymology is not known.g.+.e. whose dhatu is not known. gives references to columns two and three: common words like this are often listed in the devanagar with a cross-reference given to their etymological entry position.car.

The visesana. followed . Now lightly read through the text for the word Buddhi in the third column. 5th line: (am ) ind. tall . str -linga naman _ 14th line: n. . .' or `n. _ 12th line: (a ) f. . lofty. m. . and this is shown in the dictionary _ by `m. Thus the same pratipadika form may be a visesana or a naman. as a bonus. thus the word Buddha can also be a neuter noun. visesana (adjectives). for a long time .' buried in the text | this re ects the overall structure of the dictionary in tapering down from the general to the particular.Lesson 13 99 13. The converse does not apply: had the entry been `Buddha. so if the heading . . produces Bodha (Knowledge). . a long vowel . you are given an insight into the mythology of India. knowledge'. Here.' Examine the entry for Buddha in the second column of page 733: it begins with `mfn. long. to a naman. a species of grass . .' one may yet nd `m. a wise or learned man'.3 Structure within non-Dhatu Entries The entries for naman (nouns). . indicating a visesana however. there will be no `mfn. a wise man'. six lines down is `m. from a quality (visesana) to .d aGR+ near the bottom of the third column of page 481: 1st line: mf(a)n. the speci c (naman). . and lightly read through the text for the word Buddha: the information provided about Gautama Buddha (the founder of Buddhism) is typical of the encyclop dic scope of the dictionary. in bringing a quality . Return to page 733.' (masculine. napumsaka-linga naman.'. A fuller illustration of this principle is shown under the entry . long. pum-linga naman . _ . buried in the text for that word. and avyaya (indeclinables. visesana form . . an oblong tank . . feminine. guided by Dharma (Law). . . where the gods and their consorts are the personi cation of universal forces: from Daksa (the Creative . . are listed in their pratipadika form. which. Force) arises Buddhi (Intelligence).' etc. `f. neuter). must have the same linga as that naman. avyaya form 7th line: m. and are thus indicated in the dictionary as _ `mfn. . The rst division of naman is into linga (gender). word indicates `mfn. . . . typically kriya-visesana adverbs). by a description indicating their meaning. . . and must therefore be able _ to take any form of the three linga.'. so Buddha can also be a masculine naman and further down (just before the bold type -kapalin ) is `n. This is the general order followed in the dictionary within the text for an entry word.

short or long. rather than repeat the word in full. b d denotes the joining of two long vowels. a c 13. for MahaBharata. Make it a discipline to look up the references (when appropriate) and abbreviations (always) when you are not sure what it stands for | this way you will very soon become familiar with them. for example. The next page of the dictionary has a list of symbols that are used: read through and understand these. if the word `conscious' is under discussion. as a + a ) a. the abbreviation con or even c may be used similarly ly would mean consciously. and very helpfully indicate the length of the nal and initial vowels at the point of union. but will be elucidated in the next section. Monier-Williams also uses this symbol to abbreviate English words in order to save space. c b denotes the joining of a long with a short vowel. 13. The following page of the dictionary lists the abbreviations that are used. a + i ) e. c denotes the joining of a short with a long vowel. e. The caret symbols a b c d denote a joining of vowels.g. for Bhagavad-g ta and MBh. nd the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalin and -kalpa: the hyphen not only indicates that the word . These are used in the transliterated script for samasa (compound words). d These are also used when the rules of sandhi change the vowel sound. As an illustration of its use. a + u ) o etc. as a + a ) a. consciousness.6 Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Turning again to page 733 column two. as a + a ) a. and ness. Bhag.4 References and Abbreviations xxxiii On page of the Introduction is the List of Works and Authors that MonierWilliams has consulted in compiling the dictionary: look for a few works that you know to see how it is abbreviated in the body of the dictionary. as a + a ) a.100 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13.5 Special Symbols @ and a b c d The little circle (@) is a standard abbreviation symbol in the devanagar script to denote either the rst or last part of a word that has to be supplied from the context. so that the words may readily be looked up separately: a denotes the joining of two short vowels. The last four symbols are not very clear.

pa. Baga.va. may usually be separately found in the dictionary).d e *cC ja. this use of the caret symbol allows the second word of the samasa to be correctly determined as beginning with a d rgha a. .ta=e k l Guasa va. the `weaker' of the two vowels in terms of guna and vrddhi (see .h:=*NyagaBR+ :pUa. .a. 3.eaBa.eag+ A.va. If a word is not found in the main dictionary.a. 6.tx+ a.ta.a. 10.2).A. but that kapalin and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary.t+ . 12. 19. kaya . 20.l*yuag+ mUa.Q sMagamama.ya. 9. 2.a. Buddha-eduka and not Buddha-aiduka (which are the two possibilities listed in . 7. 18.8 Supplement to Dictionary Dictionary Practice 1.ta. 5. is given the thin stroke in the caret symbol.A.eag+ Dya.l* *.anaya.pa a.p+ a *a.asan+ a.+ a.Za. Where the samasa is printed in full.t+ A:gxa.a ayaDamR+ ba. and they may be printed in devanagar or transliterated Roman or both. the samasa printed as Buddha duka stands for a. .N+ a.va. -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element. Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary: the words may be at any of the four levels of alphabetical order. look for it in the supplement of Additions and Corrections beginning on page 1308. *.vRa. 13. and varna for example.a.7 13. 4. as in Buddhagama.Lesson 13 101 is appended to Buddha (see section 12. 11.3). section 10. 8.3): the reasoning here is that. 17. the vowel sandhi grid of 10.va. 16. 13.a=*ea.l sMa~k*:t+ x k*:a.+ mana.a.a. and hyphenated appropriately.v. and this is why the next samasa. A:nvaya.a. Similarly. 14. although O and Oe are both long vowels. 15.Dya. so that agama can be separately looked up. .paDxak .h a.h:k*:a. which stands for c Buddha-agama.veak sMaya.va.

102 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

to cause to appear. . before vowels for 3. sign. manifest. . In the middle of the second column is: vy. badge. ind. . . a consonant . In the third column of page 949 is the entry: 3. . . Now that may appear to be a very owery description of what . n n. beautify to n cause to appear. .1 Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Since the dictionary is essentially etymologically arranged. a.given in 7. . display v.vi. The next step in n analysing this word is to look up the two component parts of this verb. . speci cation a mark. decoration. mfn. Since this entry is not in devanagar . In the second column of page 1028 is found: n v. indication .ya . a consonant.+ vy. manifesting.a~j . . . adorn.+ p This is the kriya from which the naman vya~jana derives.v+ Compare this with the sense of the upasarga vi. . . . n Vy-a~jana. . . to celebrate . . m. `arrangement' . This is best illustrated by example: nd the word Vy-a~jana in the third column of page 1029. . it is quite straightforward to trace a word to its dhatu. Compare all this information with the description of vya~jana given at the start n of the rst lesson.Lesson 14 14.y. . indicating .1.B. `distribution'. . to decorate . ornament manifestation. to anoint thoroughly to decorate. follow the entry words backwards (towards A ) until an entry given in devanagar (the outermost level of alphabetical order). namely vyand dhatu a~j. `distinction'. used as a pre x to verbs and nouns . token . . . . .vi Here is an example of vowel sandhi used in forming a word. in comp. .+ a~j. . to express `division'. The dhatu of vya~jana is given in the rst column of page 11: n A: . make n clear .

) . before starting the English translations `to wake' etc. also P. but can it embellish that to say `Who could fool you?'. bodhati and bodhate for . bubodha) or pre xed with `a' (e. A dog may be able to howl a perfect prolonged u3 . parasmai-pada and atmane-pada respectively. abudhram). simply note that some of the forms have the rst syllable `re-duplicated' (e..11)'. no culture or civilisation | all this rich diversity is founded on the simplicity of vowels and consonants.i. indicative) prathama purusa eka-vacana forms. just as a matter of interest.63)' is a Dhatu-Patha reference next `budhyate ' shows the lat . `bodhati. The following . P. The last four lines show associated verbs in several other Indo-European languages. where the form will be buddhyati. te '. . as also derivative verb forms. That the dhatu is printed in large devanagar means that it is a major dhatu this is followed by the numeral `1'. i. show the lat (present . no history or philosophy. in the rst column on the next page). A.' which means that it may also be found as a class 4 atmanepada verb `( . but in the class-1 conjugation the vowel has the guna form some other classes use the vrddhi form. two words. . xxvi The next eight lines show conjugations of this dhatu for other lakara (tenses and moods) etc.e. conjugation as a class-4 verb. but in this complicated hi-tech age the profundity of simple things is often overlooked: the ability to form a range of consonants is what separates man from animal.' indicates that the dhatu conjugates according to class-1 rules in both parasmai-pada and atmane-pada this is followed by the Dhatu-Patha reference `(Dhatup. passive forms of the verb are given. . many scriptures speak of the creative power of speech.104 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory is simply a consonant. 14. which are printed in feint italic.2 Dhatu Entry Information Turn again to the dhatu budh at the bottom of the rst column of page 733.g. Indeed. . which may or may not be another dhatu (in fact it is a visesana listed . `cl.4. and that creation itself is spoken into existence. (Observe.) Within the English translation section. ti ' means that in the epics it may also be found conjugated in (class-4) parasmai-pada. The `ep. which indicates that there is another entry budh. xxi Next there is `cl. that the dhatu vowel remains unchanged when conjugated as a class-4 verb. Next. (Again. . Without adorning the vowel sounds with consonants there would be no language: without language there would be no mathematics or science.g.A.

Further down the column are two entries for anucchindat which have di erent derivations from the same dhatu. but the rst is a verb and the second a noun. gives pointers to where the other entry may be found.v. xxxv Be aware that the numbered entries inform you that there are at least two entries with the same spelling: for example. wrong. A:nua. kr at the end of . mfn.aca. . (for 2. he usually. ci. where it is given as {1.) |now nd the meaning of . page 300. p Note the numerals and the di erent derivations indicated in the transliterated forms. ( 1. and so on. In the next column. . . . both here and in A:nua. which in turn indicates that there is more than one dhatu ci (in fact there are three) the second is derived from p uc. such as ba.' in the list of abbreviations on page (two pages before page 1). improper. there are ve entries for cit on pages 394{5.v. Also note that these words do not have consecutive entries: indeed they may be separated by several pages.3. Turning to page 662. -pana m. but the overall format is similar.t+ | A:nua. set or placed along or . observe that there are two entries for A:nua:]a. and we now need to nd it at the outermost (devanagar ) alphabetical order: this is at the bottom of the second column on page 667. 14. which both have the same etymological derivation.aca. which is found by looking up ucita on page 172c. ci ). `s.3 Numbered Entries Words having the same spelling may have quite di erent etymologies having di erent derivations.aca. their meanings will be quite di erent: in such cases.t+ above. whilst others give more information.Lesson 14 105 Some dhatu entries give much less information. The entry for pratipana that we are now examining is at the third level of alphabetical order.+. Note that the numerals appear before the transliterated form. an-ucita. as we shall see shortly. but not always. nd the entry for pratipana in the middle of the second .t+ 1. mfn. anu-cita. where entries have the same spelling. such as k 1. Monier-Williams numbers these 1. turning to the second column on page 32.t+ 2. For example.aca. .+ near the top of the px rst column. nd the two consecutive entries for A:nua. Here Monier-Williams gives a clear reference to where we have just come from: where the numbered entries are widely spaced ( ve pages in this case). see s.aB.2. unusual strange . column. . p The rst is derived from 1.

Be warned that this numbering system is not perfect: for example. looking for a. Astanga | Turn to page 116: according to the heading words we should nd . . These examples illustrate that the page heading words are a useful guide to get within ten pages or so of the target word. we come to a. This . if the word had not been found on page 1138. .t. We shall examine three such words here. Sattva | This will be found listed as sa v+ in 1138b. It is in fact listed at the third level in 1134c where it simply gives `see below' | this means scan forward over entry words (at level-1 or -2) for the entry. All the samasa listed on this page are derived from a.v+ on the previous page. for reasons best known to himself.vak*:l : continue forward at the devanagar level. but neither of refer to cet in 397c. .4 Misleading Words Because of the etymological foundation of the dictionary and its four levels of alphabetical order.vMa.Z+ on 953b. of samasa.+ . you would not have found it on this page. Although there are these inconsistencies.. 14. It would be a useful exercise to nd them. :pra:]a. However... there are fortunately very few of them. However. some words may not be straightforward to nd. but that they can also mislead. Again..v+ on the previous page. but these are not numbered. _ astanga here. and as a noun in the second column. _ . where it gives a cross-reference to page 1135 column 2: and indeed there it is listed as Sat-tva. according to the heading words we should nd vicara in the middle of the second column.. and in the next column asta. The next devanagar entry is a. This will p be found near the bottom of 958c where it simply refers to vi. not even at the third level _ . but there is no astanga. This is the outermost (devanagar ) level | now remain at that level and search for vicara.106 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory and a sixth on page 398. in the third column of page 401 are two entries for cea.car. and thus the entry word is found near the bottom of 958b. If we look down the second column there are three entries for asta. which in turn does not refer to the other two. The trick here is to escape out of the current level of alphabetical order to the next higher level: searching backward for the entry word under which these samasa are listed.vaca. Monier-Williams has here decided to have a separate entry word for samasa where the adjoining word starts with `a': astanga is on the third line of the rst column of page 117. and the page ends with a. not according to the heading words which indicate that it is on the previous page.a= .+ is indicated as a verb in the rst column of page 659. _ Vicara | Turn to page 950: again..

treat it as a samasa and use the sandhi rules to split it into parts at every syllable | this process may seem rather laborious.an+. until nally at the outermost devanagar level. This detective work is illustrated with two words: Yatatman | The word is not found as a samasa under y+ or ya. If the word is still not found. So let's split the word at a: we could have yata-atman. svaadhyaya. Nevertheless.Lesson 14 107 confusion arises because the page heading words may refer to any of the rst three levels of alphabetical order: if the word sought is not quickly found on the expected page. see p 1277. yata-atman. 13. this is not the end of the story: we want to nd the dhatu from which . col.5. then examine entries at the next level of alphabetical order. is irregular and the only recourse is to lists of paradigms.aDa. 14. working from the left again.' And indeed there we nd two entries: the rst a as a noun and the second as a verb. but reading the text for that entry we nd `svadhyaya. we would have arrived at ~v+ and thus nd the entries in 1277b. and there is no entry word Yata. to produce su-adhyaya. Having found nothing useful under su+ ( ve entries) or sU+ (four entries) or ~va. or yata-atman. or sva-adhyaya. but it does get there if the word is listed in the dictionary. When you have exhausted all the tricks that you know with the dictionary (see sections 12.7. (b) If it has three or more syllables. sva-adhyaya. for example.t. sva-dhyaya. following this clue to page 845 we nd Yatatman in the third column | who would have c guessed that it came from dhatu yam? Svadhyaya | Having worked our way to the devanagar level of alphabetical order.t+ . then examine the heading words a few pages before and after. then consider the following: (a) If it is a short word (one or two syllables) then it may not be listed in the dictionary at all: the declension of pronouns. yata-atman. sva-adhyaya. The rst two don't help because we have already found that there is no entry word Yata | but there is an entry word ya. However. Alternatively we could have tried splitting the word ourselves.5 Di cult Words Some words. because of their etymological development.+ .4). Don't get excited: it is a guess and could be wrong. su-adhyaya. and 14.2. we nd the closest entry is ~va.+. are just plain di cult to nd.

the English equivalent is also given): . adh -aya. giving a-dhyaya: but nothing suitable is found under A (six entries). So we proceed to the next syllable: adhi-aya.tama. 14.h a= (withdrawal) A:ca. So we do the same trick again.mRa.a. y+ (steadiness) .a.Da.NR+ (abundance) :pra.a. Again we nd nothing helpful under A +.pa.D+ (two entries).ana.a.Da. we return p to the devanagar level (A. 3. and there the dhatu is given as . 6.d (skilled in painting) na.a.+ we nd the entry word Adhy-aya! Having found the word. but cannot nd adhyaya on page 23 where we would expect it. starting from the left. (fearlessness) :pUa. 5. aca ak*. adhya-aya.tya. but under A.+ ).+ (not too much pride) A:Bay+ Look up the following words in the dictionary and trace their etymology as shown in 14.1 (as an aid.a.va. and adhya-aya. 4. 2. nor is the entry word dhyaya found. adhyaaya.108 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory this word derives. adhya-aya.ta.6 Dictionary Practice 1.

This lesson is concerned with extracting the artha. Nouns. . which word p is formed from bhu-adi-gana. Note that this publication makes use of alternate character forms to those we have been using in this course (see section 9. after the rst dhatu in its section: for example. the rst is Bva.2 The Contents Page This lists the ten gana. Payasya in 586a.A. i. is a class of dhatu derived from nouns.' is the abbreviation for `Nominal Verb'.e.+@. derive directly from the dhatu. `beginning with'. and its meaning is restricted according to the context. where adi means .a.N+ . `freeze' an aspect of the activity of a dhatu whereas verbs.e.g. .) The immediate utility of this page is that it connects the dictionary classi cation. i. where `Nom. A word is thus given many meanings in the dictionary: the particular meaning is selected according to the context in which it is used. with that used in the Index. e. names that have come to be used as verbs.d:ga.a.N+ . information about the conjugation of verbs and the formation of nouns derived from each dhatu: much of this information will not be used at this stage of the study. is a dhatu dictionary.1. of each dhatu from the Dhatu-Patha. or `meaning'. Bva. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . Each gana is named .2) and since the page numbers are also in devanagar . As an example of this class in the dictionary. `Recitation of Roots') also encodes a wealth of grammatical .d:ga. the class beginning with bhu. which name things.1 A word standing alone expresses a universal: in a sentence it refers to a particular. cl. The eleventh class.a.a. as it were: it provides a sense of the underlying meaning of the dhatu | usually in just one word! The Dhatu-Patha (lit. and its application in the study of the scriptures. (Note: `Nominal' is the adjectival form of `noun'. or classes of dhatu conjugation.Lesson 15 15. 15. which express the activity of a sentence. see 2. . note the numeral forms used (especially for 8 and 9). k*:Nq*. and here means `derived from a noun'. A dhatu is therefore the most universal element of all words and the Dhatu-Patha .

na. the above four appear in the dictionary as BU+ O :D.a. success. and the next entry is: O :D+ vxa *E+| and so on. and encode further grammatical information which is not now required: our interest at this stage is in the basic dhatu and its artha. In this type of samasa only the last word of the compound takes a vibhakti ending the others remain in their pratipadika form. which may be translated as `in the sense of'.110 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15. the dhatu edh (to prosper. For example.+ na.a. The artha is generally expressed in saptam vibhakti. not compounded.+H Su+| giving both dhatu the same artha.1).3 The Text Body BU+ sa a.+ and na.aD. In the Dhatu-Patha each dhatu usually has an extra syllable appended to the end .am.aDx+ ya.T. the eka-vacana form is used when two words (formed into a samasa). `bound along with'). forming a simple list of words which.pa. or `meaning'.Za. of it. | mw1011a)'.a. Thus all words derived from this dhatu have this sense of expansive good fortune | a sense that may be overlooked in some of the English words o ered in translation. r fortune.B. and subsequent pages. are divided into two columns.Tx+ . These extra syllables are called anubandha (lit.a a. Note the layout which gives the dhatu and artha in two columns: there may be more than one dhatu in the rst column. of the page. the bahu-vacana form.pEa aya.+| Turn to the rst page of the body of the Dhatu-Patha: after the heading the rest . become happy grow strong { mw231c) is used `in the sense of v. and sometimes one appended before it: for example. would be expressed in the same vibhakti and be joined together with c+ (and). Where the artha is a single word. and the artha may spread over more than one line.ta.R+ YY. When the artha has two or more words. increase. (sattayam). the compound formed is an itaretara dvandva samasa (see 11. . etc. ddhi (growth.+ .aya. In the lefthand column the rst entry is: This is the rst dhatu (bhu) together with its artha. a little lower down is the entry: na.ea. the dvi-vacana form and when three or more words. Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored. For example.

. for an ending in -i. The last . entry on the rst page is of this type: a. read -a.de| Here the dhatu hrad (to delight or refresh { mw1307c) is used `in the sense of unmanifest (avyakta { mw111b) sound (sabda { mw1052b)'. read -i. and not that happiness and refreshment that comes from without. from the stillness of unmanifest sound. . The itaretara dvandva samasa will generally not be found in the dictionary as one would expect to nd a samasa listed. for those ending in -esu. read -i.e. for an ending in -au.ya. artha illustrated above. (b) dvi-vacana samasa end in -yoh. which is removed. This is straightforward enough: simply start at the left and nd the word in the dictionary that uses most syllables assume that is the rst word. read -a.Lesson 15 111 To get back to the pratipadika form as listed in the dictionary. for an ending in -yam. . For example. and then repeat the process with the following syllables | but do remember that sandhi rules apply at the junction of words. read -a. . is thus that which comes from within.Za. both in saptam vibhakti.b. for an ending in -ayam. . in other cases simply remove the -su. i. (c) bahu-vacana samasa end in su. through the senses | here we have a subtlety of meaning that is not at all obvious from the English translation. then the rst of the pair is a visesana. read -u. n for an ending in -uvi.e.d A v. when the artha is given as two separate words. remove -i (i. ends in halanta vya~jana). instead the words will need to be looked up separately. Some entries in the Dhatu-Patha di er from the common format of dhatu and . e . . The quality of happiness and refreshment referred to. use the following: (a) eka-vacana endings have six forms: for an ending in -e.

4 The Index In the body of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu are grouped together according to . this refers to artha given in di erent versions of the Dhatu-Patha as handed down. not mentioned elsewhere.+ m. 15.eacya.hM:sa.eacya.O k = thus in one) e e or I*tyanye+ (= I*a. also). r harm { mw1297c). For example. some of which is helpful in nding the correct dhatu.) (d) When the artha is followed I*tyeak (= I*a. (na. and may be construed as `for the sake of (causing) injury'.o*cya.R+H ' may be translated as `for the purpose of'. includes an index listing the dhatu in alphabetical order and indicating where each dhatu is listed in the body. expressing motive.a.te+ .te+ = not spoken. (e) Where the artha is given as a samasa ending in A Ta. .Ta.A:nye+ = thus in another).+ = injury.e.e. Fortunately the Dhatu-Patha . (f) Some entries have an unusual format.+ causatives (treated as having an I*t. dhatu k*:T. . enclosed by purnavirama . i. .R+H (prathama bahu-vacana of A TR+ bahu-vacana because the artha applies to several dhatu). or `with the aim of harming'.t+ . This ordering is not at all helpful in seeking the entry for the dhatu.+ which prevents the normal lengthening of A in the causative). i.+ has the artha a. then ` A Ta. then the artha for that dhatu is that word together with the artha of the previous dhatu.t. ( ) and may have the order of dhatu and artha reversed: these { dhatu have a special meaning when they are ama. it means that this artha is not given elsewhere in the Dhatu-Patha. (c) When the artha is followed by na. then this has the same artha as the previous dhatu. The index also provides more grammatical information.112 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The interpretation of other variations in the format is described: (a) When the dhatu is followed by c+ ( = and.t+ .hM:sa. (b) When the artha is given as a word followed by c+ . common grammatical features of their development into words. and are comments by the compiler of this edition.R+H ( a.te+ = n+ .

Lesson 15 113 The index starts on page 53: each page is divided into two columns. . Where the dictionary gives both . on page 99. does not do so): this may be .I*f. accepts augment I in its . . i.e. in the Dhatu-Patha gives the order of the gana).Ba.' means class 1 (bhvadi-gana) and atmane.e. rst syllable of the gana. parasmai-bhasa.aya. one row of tabulated data.d:ga. (e) The page number on which the dhatu together with its artha may be found. A:k and A ak ). is an Addendum listing entries that had been omitted from the main index. (c) The bhasa (= speech synonymous with pada used in this .f l*. from left to right. (f) The column on that page where it may be found. expansion). (d) Whether the dhatu is sea. is :pa= smE+ .+ .N+ . . etc. as: A:k . ignored at this stage. 4 P. . which may be atmane-bhasa. . in fact. (b) The gana to which the dhatu belongs: this column has just the . .E+| u Note that the index has two entries for dhatu A:k with di erent anubandha . .a.' means divadi-gana parasmai-bhasa. whereas the dictionary lists only one dhatu A:k. . `cl. provide the following information: (a) The dhatu together with its anubandha: the index is ordered alphabetically according to this column.a. which is shown in full on the contents . and may be found on page 17 column 1.a.f (= s+ . The rst entry of the index shows that the dhatu A:k (with its anubandha) belongs to Bva.'. . atmane and parasmai ). do make use of the information given in the dictionary immediately after the dhatu heading word: this information gives the class (gana) and bhasa of the dhatu (see (b) and . At the end of the index. . this is the equivalent of ubhayato-bhasa in the Dhatu-Patha. Where the dhatu has more than one entry in the index. or . A:g+ k*:a. page.+.Sa. . (c) above) for example. .f (= A:n. bhasa.M+ ga.ta. or A ana. . ubhayato-bhasa (= both. as `P. (the table of contents . so that a dhatu together with its grammatical information is listed on one line. bhasa `cl. vowels (i. course). A. six columns wide. These columns. 1 A.I*f.

Na.g.a.a. p . as mua.6 The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice (section 14. cl.) .Sa. These spelling changes may also be combined. so the dhatu entry aVaBa. .d mua. p E. and 7. (b) An initial n. . Index: aV+ ] Ba. The class (juhotyadi-gana) and bhasa agree with the .+ may be spelt here with an initial :N.+ . p Ba. .l. sUa + asa.3. . and thus provides no further insight into the sense of the dhatu than that provided by the dictionary entry. be afraid of mw758a Dh. dhatu is located in the index. as in the Dhatu-Patha as a.d na.g. then its artha found in the body.6) will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha: the .+ may be spelt here with an initial :S.a. The notes in section 15.d listed as :Na.+.Nq*k mua.+ may be found in alphabetical order. na.vu+ o*.d as :Sa.65. and the remaining word in its pratipadika form is looked up in the dictionary.l. (c) When the dhatu has a nal I as an anubandha.Nq.3 may be used to `remove' the vibhakti from the artha (although this declension should be familiar).a.58 respectively.g.pa.+ 1. . w E.+ listed as a. .Sa. as :Na.114 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15. and nally the artha is examined in the dictionary. 6.ju+@ :p+@ A@ 26 1 Dh.ana. dread .P.1.a.+. Body: aVaBa. p .1. Notes: This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it: in the index this is enclosed in square brackets so that the dhatu Ba. p p . . which is listed in (Those seeking the technical reasons behind these changes should consult the commentaries to Panini 6.bh .d.l na. ( bh ) fear. to fear.64.5 The spelling of the dhatu may di er from that given in the dictionary: (a) An initial s.P.d na. anand + Dhatu Spelling Changes p anand.a. information provided in the dictionary.d sa. In this case the given artha is itself derived from the dhatu being examined.+ is sought in the Dhatu-Patha body in the rst column of page 26: it is the second entry. (1) Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use . .+ Baye+| p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n. .aq .1. alarm. . 15.v. P. it may require the insertion of a nasal after the vowel of the dhatu.d . A anand nand listed as qu ] na. p E.

Lesson 15
(2)

115

mw648a

Dh.P. Index: :pX+ r *:+@ :p+@ se+@ 39 1 Dh.P. Body: :pX+ :pa.a.l*na.pUa=*Naya.e+H | mw623a Palana mf( )n. guarding, nourishing . . . n. the act of guarding, protecting, nourishing, defending . . . mw642a Purana mf( )n. lling, completing, satisfying . . . m. `completer' . . . . n. the act of lling or lling up. Notes: The index has three entries for dhatu :pX+ , so the class (kryadi-gana) . and bhasa information from the dictionary is used to select the correct one. . The dhatu with its artha are in fact at the top of the second column of page 39: there are a number of such errors, so beware! The vibhakti ending of the artha is the dvi-vacana form (see section 15.3), so we can expect to look up two words in the dictionary. As nouns (which is the sense here), both words end in `-na' (with or without sandhi changes) | this is a common neuter su x usually meaning `the act of . . . ', and is given as such in the dictionary translation. The artha palana adds the sense of `nourishing' to the ` lling up' of purana . (which itself derives from the dhatu pr). This gives a bene cial aspect to the . dhatu: it is not to ll to the point of bloatedness, nor is it to ll with rubbish, but the sense is of generous abundance.
mw1302a

p :pX+ pr , cl.9 P. . . . to ll . . . to sate, cherish, nourish .

(3)

Dh.P. Index: . V,+ Bva.+@ o@ A@ 20 1 Dh.P. Body: . V,+ .h:=*Ne+| mw1289a Harana mf(a or )n. carrying, holding, containing . . . n. the act of . carrying or bringing or fetching. Notes: The gana and bhasa are used to select the dhatu entry. . . Dh.P. Index: k*:a.p+ Bva.+@ A +@ se+@ 8 2 Dh.P. Body: k*:a.p+ ca.l*ne+| mw391b Calana, mf(a)n. moving, movable, tremulous . . . n. shaking motion, shaking, trembling. Notes: If the dhatu is not found at its expected place in the alphabetical order in the index, nor in the Addendum, then check for applicable dhatu spelling changes (see section 15.5): the third rule applies here. Dh.P. Index:
mw252b

p . 1.hri, cl.1. P.A. . . . to take, bear, carry .

(4)

p k*.}p,+ kamp, cl.1.A. . . . to tremble, shake.

(5a) mw395b

p aca.t,+ 4.cit, cl.1 . . . to perceive, x the mid upon, attend to . . .
aca.ta.+ Bva.+@ :p+@ se+@ 2 1

116

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Dh.P. Body: aca.ta.+ saV]a.ane+| mw1133c Sam-j~ana mf( )n. producing harmony . . . n. unanimity, harmony . n with . . . consciousness . . . right perception Notes: Again, the gana is used to select the entry in the index. . Observe the aspect of harmony and unity provided by the artha: there is no passion or ulterior motive in the perception or attention of the dhatu cit.

(5b) mw300c

Dh.P Index: qu ] k*.V,+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2 x Dh.P. Body: qu*k*.V,+ k*.=*Ne+| x mw254a Karana mf(a)n. doing, making, e ecting, causing . . . m. a helper, . companion . . . n. the act of making, doing, producing, e ecting, . . . Notes: The dictionary entry for this dhatu is quite lengthy: reading through the rst column of page 301, it also gives `cl.1. P.' and `cl.5. P.' as well as `cl.8 (this is the usual formation in the Brahmanas, Sutras, and in classical Sanskrit)'. . The Dhatu-Patha does not list a class 2 dhatu k , hence the return to x . the dictionary for more information. In practice the cl.5 dhatu should also be examined, but its artha a.hM:sa.aya.am,+ , meaning `in the sense of injury' is inappropriate to the original word that led us to the dhatu in the rst place.
mw963b

p k 1.kri . . . cl.2. P. . . . to do, make, perform, accomplish. x .

(5c)

Dh.P. Index: a.va.d A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1 Dh.P. Body: a.va.d :]a.ane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n Notes: The gana and bhasa given in the dictionary are used to choose among . . , the ve entries in the index for dhatu a.va.d . Dh.P. Index: man+ a.d@ A +@ A@ 29 2 and manu+ t+@ A +@ se+@ 38 2 Dh.P. Body: man+ :]a.ane+| and manu+ A va.ba.eaDane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n mw101b Ava-bodhana, n. informing, teaching, instruction. Notes: Since the dictionary gives two classes for this dhatu and both are listed in the index, the artha for both need to be examined. In fact, given the original word that led to the dhatu, and which was to do with pride, both artha seem applicable: one to the opinion held in the mind, and the other to the expression of that opinion in word or deed (thus informing others).
mw783a

p a.va.d, 1.vid, cl.2. P. . . . to know, understand, perceive, learn . . .

(6)

p man,+ man, cl.8.4. A. . . . to think, believe, imagine.

Lesson 15

117

15.7

Study of the Scriptures

Since most scriptures are available in translation, it would be a pointless exercise to apply the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to merely con rm the translation in fact, . all translations are signi cantly awed by two factors: the rst is the translator's level of understanding of the subject (in respect of the scriptures that means spiritual understanding) and his ability to express that understanding in another language secondly, the student (the reader of the translation) has his own limited associations with the words in his native tongue. These sources of error and misunderstanding are minimized by studying the scriptures in the original language, and, through tracing the etymology of each word to its nest, most universal source, thereby overcoming the limitations that the individual has with particular words and ideas. The translations are helpful in selecting a passage for study, and to con rm that the correct word is being traced through the dictionary. After this preparatory work with the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha, the passage is considered in relation to the . section of scripture in which it occurs, in relation to the scripture as a whole, in relation to the entire Veda: the mind is thus turned towards the spiritual world, and slowly trained to view all of life in terms of that spiritual world. It does take practice before realising that the scriptural texts can only be understood through contemplation and meditation. As an illustration of this method of study, let us examine a verse from the Bhagavad G ta: Chapter 10 Verse 33 is selected simply because it has some words and concepts introduced in this course. It is an extract from Sr Krsna's response to Arjuna's ... asking for details of His Glory and powers the rst line of the verse is:
A: a=*a.Na.amak*:a=*e+Y.;/ / / asm+

Of letters I am the letter A I am the copulative of compound words. At rst glance, this statement does not appear to be at all profound or have any spiritual associations whatsoever, but nonetheless we pursue it through the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to see what may be discovered. . Removing the sandhi from this line, we have:
A: a=*a.Na.am,+ A:k*:a=H A ;// / asm+ A: a=*a.Na.am,+ n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

| sasth bahu-vacana of A: a= . . .. mw3b A: a= a-kshara mfn. imperishable . . . n. a syllable, letter, vowel, sound, word. mw1a A 3.a a pre x having a negative or privative or contrary sense.

equivalent. .kri . . doing. abide. world or universe.sam ind. mw1206b sa. to be. com. .kara mf( )n.asak*. smooth . to do. perish . | prathama eka-vacana of n .118 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw327a Ksara mfn. .l*ne+| mw1132a Sam-calana n. `equality' .a. p x mw300c k 1. making.~y+ . cl.+ 1. male and female . moving about.A). water the body. being. doing.Bhu mfn.V. A:k*:a=H | prathama eka-vacana of A:k*:a= . existing .+ k*. wane. a cloud n. A asm+ .v+| mw760c 2. .sa ind. or n. doing. Dh. be present. A as+ A@ A +@ se+@ 23 1| A as+ o*. .a. the letter or sound a. . similar like. . .1. stream. a compound word. causing . qu ] k*. . Dh. . action the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word .ama.P. succinct. . exist. mw503b M n. e ecting . agitation.+@ :p+@ se+@ 18 2| a= sa a. expressing `junction'. A:s+ A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1| A:s+ Bua. perform. . n. m. .kri .+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2| qu*k*. a= Bva. comprehensive. . . .asak . . like to or identical or homogeneous with . `having the same'.+ 2.. ksar.sa and 2. a helper.) an act. to ow. trembling.Asa m. m. . p A:s. along with.vea. p mw159c A as. a copulative compound (or any compound in which the members if uncompounded would be in the same case and connected by the conjunction `and').sama mf(a)n.ama. remain. f. .2. melting away. becoming. altogether.sama ). make. mw117a Dh. shaking. . with. the act of making. e ecting. n H p | sasth eka-vacana of sa. . mw327a a=. (connected with 7. P. m. space. mw1152a sam. (from sam-asa ). . (see beginning of Lesson 3. cl.. producing. panion . p.P. . .Zane+| sa. . perishable m.P. seat. the act of becoming or arising the place of being. . even. `similarity'.2. making. together with. . `conjunction' .a.P.// / | eka-vacana uttama-purusa lat (present indicative) of as = `I am'. . P.ama. live. same. mw504c a two. mw1152a sam+ 2. .asak mf( )n. (ifc. . mw503b original stem of dvi.as cl.V. concise. brief relating to or belonging to a compound word m.+ 2. . mw1a A -kara m. accomplish . . . p mw274b k*:a= 1. .=*Ne+| x x mw254a Karana mf( )n. .a. Bhag. a couple. Dh. . working . mw1111b s+ 7.as to sit quietly. equal.pa. glide to melt away. P. . mw159c 1. . 1.

they may be unmanifest. sna gives many examples of being the r. which are deemed important and interesting. on their signi cance and meaning. which is their source and support. . The primacy of its position at the head of the alphabet re ects its role as the source of the whole alphabet. and all sounds are derived from A they are all but a modi ed form of that A . how then does one describe their source and support. . By analogy it is Consciousness that underlies the ever-changing variety of creation. the attention at the moment is on the words on this page. But what of the letters which form the words? Or the ink that forms the letters? And what about the paper that holds the ink in place? The plain white paper. Here the allusion is also to Consciousness as being the underlying Source and Support of p the manifest creation ( asa bhuvi. but are not subject to absolute destruction. foremost of several classes. and here the illustration is being the A of letters.A.Lesson 15 mw207a 119 engaged in. All words are formed from sound. and. The sounds of the alphabet are imperishable (aksara): they may be manifest. The mark of the dvandva samasa is that there is an equality between the joined elements. ca ind. Re ections: The following personal re ections are o ered as illustrative of this process of study: they are neither right nor wrong. holding it all together as one. If the sounds of the alphabet are imperishable. are derived all the consonants. yet allowing the elements to retain their individuality. K. In Sanskrit this is easy to demonstrate: the gure given in 1.1). both. In responding to Arjuna's question. Giving this as the foremost of the samasa | where there is no di erence in importance between the elements | places the emphasis on that which links them together. In all languages the rst letter of the alphabet is A. neither good nor bad they are simply what were presented to the mind in considering the passage. `in this world'). may change. is like Consciousness and all the words. a seat the being devoted to or 2. which is taken for granted. moreover. mw380a c+ Upa-vesana n. the ever-present A ? This may be understood as referring to the immutable Consciousness underlying the whole creation. the act of sitting down. are like creation. as well as . . By way of illustration. .6 summarizes the core role of A in forming all the vowels and from the ve mouth positions of these vowels. they . c+ | avyaya c+ . also. and each retain its individuality (see 11.B.

a.a. A h:mea. There is no rush with this part of the exercise: let the scripture come to mind over a period of a week or so.// / prathama eka-vacana of personal pronoun `I'. (The last entry is the most appropriate.lH Da. a little performed regularly has the greatest bene t in the long term.ta.a.ta.ta. . is implied here.120 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.K+H{ A h:m.ta. the artha for the three possibilities and compare that with the meaning given in the dictionary. As with all exercise.a.+ O *v+ A: ay+H k*:a.+ A h:m.) Da. . and then write down your understanding in clear readable English.hM a. Note: the verb A asm+ used in the rst line of this verse.va a. There are no right or wrong answers here. it is not possible to select which of the entries in the Dhatu-Patha index is the correct one: one needs to examine . tracing it to its dhatu where possible.a. together with its grammatical division down to the pratipadika level. Examine each word in the dictionary.va a.e+ Da.+ a. avyaya = verily.eamua.lH | Note: from the information given in the dictionary. then nd the artha in the Dhatu-Patha. and write down what is presented to the mind.+ | O *v+ | A: ay+H | k*:a.ta. .+ | prathama eka-vacana of dhatr = dispenser. .K+H | prathama eka-vacana of visvatomukha = facing everywhere.ta.l = time.8 Study Practice As a practice in using the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha in studying the scriptures. .a ay+H k*:a. prathama eka-vacana of k*:a.va a. the other half of this verse from the Bhagavad G ta is o ered.eamua. consider the passage in a universal or spiritual sense. so do not look for clever results: the exercise is one of stretching the mind to larger issues than those that daily life normally o ers.l*.K+H{ I am verily Time inexhaustible I am the Dispenser facing everywhere. . prathama eka-vacana of aksaya = inexhaustible.eamua. indeed.va. and examine those words in the dictionary. Having done this mechanical work. Removing the sandhi from this line. we have: A h:m.

from comparative linguistics to liberation. This translation provides a simple way of getting the context of a verse being studied. and is also useful in selecting a verse of interest to study. though expensive for its size. There are a wide range of books on Sanskrit grammar available. the general reader will nd the rst ve books in the list useful to further study of the grammar: (a) The Geeta. The Gospel of the Lord Shri Krishna. as well as putting the Chapter number in the top outer margin of each page. .Suggestions for Further Study There are many reasons for studying Sanskrit. makes it an ideal work with which to begin. which. rather than treating the study as a means to penetrate writings which express ideas and concepts foreign to the Western mind-set. therefore translating from English into Sanskrit is irrelevant. and the building of a vocabulary detracts from the penetration of the scriptures (because of the limited worldly associations with familiar words). translated by Shri Purohit Swami. Faber and Faber: 80 pages.e. together with its magni cent philosophy and wealth of practical advice. paperback. Whatever the reason. i. as it expresses the grammar of the text as well as giving a word-by-word translation. with a view to translation. the next obvious step is further study of the grammar. The G ta is written with simple and straightforward grammar. The verses are not numbered: it is worth the e ort to work through the book numbering the verses in pencil. paperback. SUNY: 739 pages. from simple chanting to mythology. the range of grammar needs to be very wide: from the full etymology of each word (including the signi cance of each a x) to the gurative use in the most sublime writings. from poetry to philosophy. translated by Winthrop Sargeant. This translation is especially suited to the Sanskrit student. rather than a literal translation: a delightful book. (b) The Bhagavad-Gita. ranging from the introductory level to academic tomes: the majority of these approach the subject as they would any other foreign language. A personal bias needs to be declared here: my interest in Sanskrit lies in studying the scriptures. Despite the above quali cations. Furthermore. In clear easy-to-read language.

with indices linking noun.tadhyay s . Motilal Banarsidass: 451 pages. As the title implies. in both directions. but answers are not provided. this book gives a broad understanding of the language without getting bogged down in details and exceptions. depth. Michael Coulson. it is a reference work containing many tables of noun declension and verb conjugation. (d) Teach Yourself Sanskrit. Motilal Banarsidass: 208 pages. Each lesson has translation exercises. Hart. paperback. It is useful as a semi-reference book when examining a particular concept in depth: the next book is a lot easier for general study. Motilal Banarsidass: 254 pages. hardcover. the Bhagavad G ta with Samkara's commentary in . by Swam Madhavananda).. by Sri Ramakrishna Math or with Samkara's commentary by Advaita Ashrama (Eight . translated by James R. with answers given at the back of the book. each introducing one or two topics. this is a `hard' book because of its style. . . (e) A Rapid Sanskrit Method. George S. . Hodder and Stoughton: 493 pages. but is essential study to penetrate to the full spiritual signi cance of words. This contains approximately one third of the sutra s of Panini 's A. Each chapter has translation exercises into and out of Sanskrit. gathered together thematically to exhaustively explain word formations in Classical Sanskrit the text and commentary are in devanagar with English translation. Divided into thirty lessons.Sastry is published by Samata Books the major Upanisads . translation by A. A useful tool to determine the pratipadika forms of nouns. As a `part-time' student studying alone. This covers the grammar of Classical Sanskrit in some detail.M. For further scriptural study.and verb-endings and verb stems to the paradigm tables. and Chhandogya. Bucknell. George L. are published with word-by-word translations of Swam Sarvananda etc. This is an exacting work and not to be tackled lightly. hardcover or paperback. A Quick-reference Guide to the Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit. (f) Laghukaumud of Varadaraja. Principal Upanisads. Ballantyne. from in ected words. paperback. and large vocabulary. of verbs. by Swam Gambh rananda Brhadaranyaka . .122 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (c) Sanskrit Manual. tense etc.

5. He stands and they (pl. 6. tisthathah vadathah ca . tisthati vadatha ca .. tisthati vadami ca .) stand and we (two) speak.) stand. 6.d.2. tisthanti vadami ca . tisthavah vadatha ca ..d. We (pl.B. 5..1. tisthamah vadathah ca . You stand and I speak..e.) stand and you (two) speak. 2. 4.B. 4.3. 1. tisthasi vadati ca . 5. 2. vadathah tisthanti ca . . 7.c. They (two) speak and we (pl..2.. 3. vadasi tisthami ca .B. You (s.. 8. You (pl. . vadami tisthasi ca . Answers: Lesson 2 2. vadatha tisthasi ca . . 6.B. 2.) stand and you (two) speak..1. 3. 7. . He stands and you speak. .. 6. 5. 3. I speak and you stand. 4. tisthami vadati ca ..1. 3. vadasi tisthati ca . I stand and he speaks. 8. They (pl. You (s. vadatah tisthati ca . 2.Answers to Exercises Answers: Lesson 1 1. . 4. . You speak and I stand. 2..1.) speak.. . You (two) stand and we (two) speak.3..) stand and they (two) speak. I stand and speak..) speak and they (two) stand.

3. narah vadanti nayante ca .c.B. asvau naram nayete 3. 6. . ksam nayate r . narah asvam nayate . asvah naram v.3.e. The horses (two) lead the man to the trees (pl.1. narah asvan nayante .d.3. .1. . 5. The horse carries the man to the tree. 4. The horse leads the man. 2. 3. The horse carries the tree for the man. 4. asvan vrksat gacchamah .124 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 3 3. . The man goes to the tree by horse. asvah naram vrksebhyah vahanti .d.1.. 2. .) lead the men (two) to the trees (pl. 5. asvena gacchati 2. .B. asvam naraya nayethe 3. 3. 4. .B.). 5. 6. You (pl. 6. vrksah asvah ca tisthatah .1. .3. . 4. 3. 2. 4. 6.) from the horse. 5. We (pl. . . The horse stands and the man speaks.B. He leads the horse from the tree for the man. The man and the horse are leading. The man and horses (two) are standing.). vrksan asvaih vahanti . Answers: Lesson 4 4. ksam narat asvena labhavahe r . v. The man and the horse go from the tree.) take the trees (pl. .

.1. (he) asva v.) from the man's tree. . . The man carries the fruit (two) from the tree for the girl.). 7. 5. . 5. 8. Answers: Lesson 6 6.) for the man.. 7. ksam naraya vahasi r . The girls (two) take the fruit (pl.B. 8. . 10.2. narasya asvan vrksat labhate .d. 6. The man takes the tree from the horse. narayoh vrksah tisthanti . 4. . I go to the trees (two) and take the fruit (pl. The girls (pl. 3.) of the men (pl. 7. The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree. The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit. The man's horse takes the fruit from the girl. ksat vahathah r . 2. vrksesu narah asvah ca tisthatah . The men (two) take the fruit (pl. O man. 5. . 8. .B. .) to the horse. . 6.) are standing. The man's horses (pl.) to the fruit (pl.) lead the men (pl.. 3. 2.) by horse. 3. naram asvam v. The horse goes to the man from the tree. The girls (two) stand among the trees and speak.. .) are standing among the trees (pl. asvau naram vrksam vahatah . . 4.e.3. . . . 4. you are standing on the horse.1. 5.B. . The horses (two) carry the trees (pl.). 6. The horses (pl. .) of the trees (pl. . 2.1. narasya asvah naram vrksebhyah vahati . The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse. He stands on the horse and speaks.c. asvayoh tisthati . .Answers to Exercises 125 Answers: Lesson 5 5.2. 9. He takes the man from the tree by horse.

3. . . 4.) to the trees (pl. . . The man and the girl stand and talk. . The horse takes the tree's fruit (two) from/for the girls (pl. 7. naram balam ca asvam vrksat labhavahe . The girl's horse carries the fruit (pl. . narah vrksan asvena phalebhyah gacchati .).2. 8. asvah phalani balah naraya vahati . . . narah bala ca v. . 6. ksasya phalani nayethe r . bala phale vrksat asvebhyah labhate . The man takes the fruit (s... 5.B. .) of the tree for the girl. asvah vrksasya phale balabhyah labhate .1. 9. Answers: Lesson 7 7. asvam nayethe ca phalam labhe 3. balayah asvau phalani naram labhete . . . .d. . . . balam vrksat narasya asvam vahavah .B. . r .B. 2. asvam v.1. .e.1. 5. ksasya phalam balayai labhante . 6. narah vrksam asvat balayai labhate . 3. 7. 4. . 5. . narah asvam phalena nayate . 6. . . . 4. 2.. asvah vrksam balam naraya vahati . . .2.1. narah v. phalani vrksat asvena vahatha . 5. 7.).2. 6. . 2. . .3.g. 2. bale asve tisthatah ca phalam v. . . narasya bala asvan vrksan nayate . . narah bala ca tisthatah vadatah ca .) for the man. ksat labhete r . . 3.f. . balayah asvah phalani naraya vahati . . 10.B. 4. asvah vrksan narebhyah vahanti . . . narah tisthati ca bala vadati .126 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. The man's girl leads the horses (pl. . r . bala asvah ca vrksesu phalebhyah gacchatah . We (two) carry the girl from the tree to the man's horse. ksesu asvabhyam gacchatah (assume two horses).

a.Te+| 3{ na=H vxa am.+ A: a. .+ A: +H c+ vxa ea. 2. guravah alpam sundaram asvam nadyau nayante .a.5. :P*. 8.l*.h .l*. guroh bala sundare asve tisthati . The teachers (pl. The girl goes to the re from the handsome man. alpah vrksah sundare agnau tisthati .e.5.1.B.t. 5. 3. . sundar bala alpam asvam nad m nayate 4.+ l*Bea.+ ba. ksam balam agnaye s ghram labhate r .a. 6.2.a.an+ nayea.+ vxa a~y+ :P*..a.1. . narau sundarani phalani alpat vrksat labhete .a. 4.+ A: ean+ va.a.l*.Answers to Exercises 7.+H A: a.ayE+ l*Ba. . The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for re. bala agnim sundarat narat gacchati 2. .an+ na= m. .B.l*. 8. .. 3.E+ :P*.B.an+ vxa a. The men (two) take the beautiful fruit from the small tree. narasya guruh nad m asvena gacchati .an. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river..h.l*. .5. .B.+ na=e By+H va.te+| 4{ ba.c.d.nt+| 6{ a 127 Answers: Lesson 8 8. 5.te+| 2{ A: am. narah alpam v. . guruh alpasya vrksasya sundaresu phalesu tisthati .l*. 4.h T+| 1{ ba..t. The small tree stands in the beautiful re. sundar bala naram alpam gurum s ghram nayate 6. .a. 5. .Su+ :P*. balayah guruh alpayam nadyam tisthati . 6.1.l*By+H gacC t+H| 5{ e A: +H vxa a. 2. bala alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati 3.aya. .) lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers (two). . . .

f.Su+ a.B.5.Za. 4. . 9. he guro bale nayase iti alpah narah vadati . phalam vrksayat asvena naraya vahatah . 2. 5.5. .ta.) of the tree for the girl.+ A pam.m. vrksam nad m vahami iti narah balam vadati . .+ a.+ naya. 3.).+ :P*.l*. vrksam alpau agn asvaih s ghram vahami .+ va. . . asvah vrksasya phalani balayai vahati .l*. . The horse carries the fruit (pl. phalani balayah v. 6.+ na= m. a. you are leading the (two) girls. A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na= ~y+ gua H na.l*.te+| 5{ gua H A pa~y+ vxa a~y+ suand:=e *Su+ :P*. 2. a.+ suand:=e A: e+ a.5. . . . \The man is taking the fruit (pl. 5.aya.t+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 9 9.t+| 3{ gua=*e+H ba.+ A pam. 4. 3.aya.B.) from the tree by horse for the man. . 3.t+| 2{ ba. .ta. balayah phale naram s ghram labhadhve . narah phalani labhate iti bale vadatah .+ na= ~y+ gua *.h a. a. . phalani asvam labhe iti bala gurum vadati 2.a.d am.+ na am.d. nad alpam vrksam sundar m balam vahati .l*." the small man says.+ .128 8.5.t+| 4{ suand:=*+ ba.1.B.B. .a. I quickly carry the tree to the small res (two) by horse (pl.1.l*m.a." the girls (two) say.+ A: ean+ gacC a. 6.aGram. .am. 6.e.).+ gua *.1.+H gua H A pa. r .m. \O teacher.a. They (two) carry the fruit (s.l*.c. narah bala ca sundaram gurum nadya gacchatah .ta. sundar bala asvam alpan vrksan phalebhyah nayate . ksat labhavahe . 5.t+| 1{ ba. 9. 4. The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl. .

+ na.a. A: Ea.Za.l*.+ l*Ba.+ :P*.tam.Z+ 4.l*. .he| 4{ na=H ba.t. :pa= ma.l*. sa.aca.h 10.Ea.a. sa.+ 28. Bva.m. k*:tRXak*:a= 5. .+ 12.+ vxa a.+ va.t+| 2{ ba.yam.l*By+H naya. na. k*.vakH 22. a.h a.+ va.l na= m.a.an+ ba.an.an+ A: am.t+ ba.a.d a. a.a.+ l*BaDve+| 3{ e :P*.v+ 15.a.aya.aDva.+ gua *. :pa= mea a= 14. :P*.am+ I*a.Ranand 25.va. .l*.a. a.antyamxa. nEa.+ e 26.m.tman.+H :P*.+ A: am. k*:pa.Answers to Exercises 9.d .a.d am.tyeak*.t+| 1{ vxa am.+ A pa. 7.a.m.t+ 20.+ 19.+ c+ suand:= m.Z+ 13. maDva.va.a. ma.+ 29.f. ma. :pa. . A anandE ta.veRak*:tvam.anand 17. v.+ . a.d:nam.h:=e Y.a.aya.h a.d a.a.a. :pra.SN+ A a~y+ 2.Za.+ va.l*.+H vxa a. k*.l*.a.ya. nea.B.T+ 11.l*.SR+ or ma.am.+ l*Be+ I*a.S+ 8.tya.a.he: a= 24.l*.Za.de v. ma.a.ya an+ 16. gua.t+ na=H ba.ayEa.v+ 6..+ .aGram.va.anand 3.pa a.5.+ na + gacC t+H| 5{ 129 suand:=*+ ba.v+ 27.h:~te+Y.he:nd a.ayR+ 23.and 9.te+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 10 1.an./ a~t+ 30.d 18. ma.anand 21.d a.+ gua *.

t+ gua *:ba. .a. 2. ba. 10.d M+ vxa a. Answers: Lesson 12 1.M+ na. A peaBy+H :P*. na=*e+ vxa ama..+ 737c 9. pa.l*.a.=*.a. :n.4.l*. Rajas 863b 11./ The men (two) carry the small tree to the re from the horse. gua *.te+ The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree.+ va. *Ba.a *h t+H .riti 654a J~ana 426a n A-nanda 139c Vy-akarana 1035c .t+ agnM \The teacher is going to the re from the man. 9.Za=*a= 1057c 18.d a.a ama.va.a M+ na=M c+ vxa a.a.agnama a. 5.) for fruit (pl. 7. b.// + na=*a. 8.a aya.e+Y a a.h ta.l*. hridaya 1302c .aya.v+H (no sandhi) We (two) are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit (pl. pa. pM+ vxa ama. 3.eag+ 856b Pra-k. :P*. 2.b) The teachers (two) go quickly to the small man from the tree.tman.agnM+ na=*a.A. 5.te+ The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree. k*:SN+ 306b x or Krishna 308a .S+ 226c 13.+ va. gua A pM+ na=M vxa a. Manas 783c 17.a. 6.a.t+ agnM The man carries the tree to the re for the girl by horse.le*By+H suand:=e *Su+ vxa ea. a.e+Y ean+ gacC a.l*.va. 7.a. Bhakti 743a 19.+ The words are given in the form found in the dictionary: 8.aya. gua 359b 10.h a. *cC t+H .). ba. 135a Hetu 1303c ya.le*Bya.l*.Ra.+ A: ean+ va. 4. 6.d a. A a. 3.a.l*.t+ \I carry the fruit (pl. *cC ta.acC aGrM+ gacC t+H (see 10. pa." the small girl says. Citta 395c 12.anya M+ va. ba.a.t+ The man goes to the trees (pl.Su+ gacC a.a.a.a." the teacher says to the girls (pl. 4.+ ba. na=*e+ vxa a. .a.anP*./ The girl and the small horse go to the re from the man. A:nant+ 25a 20.tya.) to the horse.l*./ + ba. :pua *:S+ 637a 16. na=*a. .130 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 11 1.) by horse. 15. *.).SNu+ 999a 14.

10. A-grih ta 1309a . mw1a A 3. mw126a A + 4. because of its meaning in translation this is con rmed by the conjugational form harati given at 677b. 18.vR+ 15.a. abstraction p mw677b :praya.hri. mw663c Praty. cl. cl. p mw641a :pUa= pura. Vi-veka 987c 14. . . . to take.bh .l -yuga 262a 6. abundance . .prati. cherish. 8. . . having a negative or privative or contrary sense p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n. near. . . Answers: Lesson 14 1. Mleccha -jati 837c 20. . Adhy-aropa 23b 17. Hiranya -garbha 1299c . -harati to withdraw .a. . carry.1. 5. near to. Dhyana -yoga 521a 13. dread . . ind. . Sam-gama -mani 1128c .3. n. ba. . . . mw60c A:Bay+ a-bhaya.) . . mf(a)n. n. P. . . . Mano -bhava -_ asana 785b s 12. . . . 3.l -rupa -dhrik 729b . to sate. . to fear. . before vowels for prati above mw661b :pra.t+ 1. . k*:a. A:nvay+ 11. 7. mw677b Praty-ahara m. .( bh ) fear. mfn. absence or removal of fear.A. _ 16. .a . mw642a Purna. 1. mw758a Ba. . . :pUa. 2. harati . ( pr .+ 1.Answers to Exercises 131 Answers: Lesson 13 -vyatireka 46b 2. Bhagavad -g ta 744a 1. plenty. . bear. towards. Caus. P. Sraddhatri 1095c . Vi-vaha -kala 987b 4. nourish . mw1302a . mw648a :pX+ pr . alarm. . praty-a. . towards . . Note: It is not the second dhatu . . -paksha -pada 643c 19. to ll . back .a (as a pre x . . fulness. cl. Mudha 825b . . P. l Gu+ -sattva -ta 894b 3. . Kshatriya -dharma 325b 9.hri P. . . Sam-skrita 1120c . . . Sam-yoga 1112b . .a. . (as a pre x . . .9. in comp. drawing back . be afraid of .

(from capo ) mobility . . . . too . act. . . kri . agitation. not very much. x the mind upon.a. . not.a .pa. imaginary . proud . . cl.Vid. . . . understand. ckleness mw393a ca.cit. .) fancying that one possesses.l capala.2.1 on page 83: ..pa. freedom from unsteadiness. mw300c k 1. distinguished . believe. .B. nor. .2.l capala. . a mw523a n+ 2. . mw12b Ati . mw783a man. to think. 2 and 3. . not too proud or arrogant. . ( man ) opinion . (ifc. . trembling mw252b k*. skilled in the art of painting . accomplish . Bhag.mana ) . n. for 1. . n. understanding. excessive. . mfn. . cols. x .4.8. mw396b Citra-karman n. . . . . mw809b Mani -ta f. cl. Note: It is not the second dhatu k on 304a because its meaning given x in translation is not appropriate to that given for karman. haughty. cl. ( kamp .t. cl. imagine.vid. p mw258b k*. . n. .Manin mfn (fr.1. conspicuous. . p mw388b ca. mw810b ma. man or fr. . . .+ man. 6. . See p 809. to perceive.d 1. shake 5. perform. . . not too. make. neither . . m. . . .anak manika.) a Nati . then the n is dropped .va. excellent. manita. .+ kamp. . . . . having a negative or privative or contrary sense. . or its dhatu a. (o ni-ta. . . .d 3. action. am. a Nati (for na + ati .va. mfn.}p. -manin. .+ 4. . ) shaking. if the pratipadika ends in -an. n.kri . mw963b a. to do.P. 1. in comp. . Mani. . mw1a A 3. 1.an+ 1. . . . . . . mw393a Capalya. . mw523b Nati . P.manin. . .mRan. . mw396a Citra. knowing. . . pride .manin. . ). . . A. no.132 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. . o rma-vid. mfn. . . a knower . mf(a)n. cl. p mw809c 1. . performance . mf(a)n. to know. mw963c 2. self-conceit. p mw809a ma.na ind. . attend to . intense. unsteadiness. extraordinary. learn .Vid on page 965a.a.mana. . any extraordinary act . mw8c A-capalya. unsteadiness. painting . to tremble. . .+ karman. mw395b aca. mw396b Citra-karman . . f.1. . perceive. Note: See 10. . . . -manin . A. Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4. . pre x . a.vid on 964c. .2. .

aV. loss. wane.Naya. the act of eating.vi_ to pervade) all. measurement. `I'.kal . . . .1.pa.P. . . . to enter. movement in general. mw1a A 3. moving. holding. generate. to impel. . universally .+ 1. Dh.l 2. bearing. .va. arranger. create. urge on . n. . ( 3. (probably from 1. . waste. qu ] Da. time (in general). . founder. sending. p Da. .+@ :p+@ A@ 5 2| a + mw278a k*:a. p mw989a a. p mw260a k*:l. mw328a 3. cast . undecaying.a. set .kshi cl. constitute to make. pervade. . everywhere.pe+| Dh. bearing . kshaya m. immovable concentration of the mind upon. establisher. P. . . exempt from decay. and for the others the artha must be examined. to be absorbed in .ta. insult. having a negative or privative or contrary sense. p mw328a a + 4. indeed.va. produce. appoint.P. corrupt. keeping.P. procrastination . . the rst may be eliminated because it is p aye+| atmane-pada. . s p s mw992b a. injure. . really.3. to destroy. sg. every.vea. the act of nourishing. omni-present. all-pervading. for vi_ va-tas.Z. to put. bearer.6.kal to calculate or enumerate) . going. mw3b A: ay+ a-kshaya mf(a)n. . calculation . tasting. . direct or x the mind or attention mw513b upon .Z+ :pra. .+ Da. cause. place. . incite. Dh.Sa. . . appearance. moving to and fro.aV. a + Bva. mw650b :pa. . P. entire. dismissing .vi_ cl. universal. from or on all sides. everyone whole.P. . establish. dimunition. supporting. gait . mw347a Gati f. ruin. mw1128b Sam-khyana n. becoming seen. mw994c Vi_ va-to-mukha in comp.ea.+ O *v+ nom. . . truly.d:ne+| Dh.dha cl. . kill. .P. mw994c Vi_ va-tas ind. The last is selected as being most suited to the dhatu meaning given in the original word k*:a.e+H| mw515a Dharana mf( )n. the act of holding. s Dh. all round.+ . P. . mw162a A-svadana n. keeping.l .va + mf(a)n. . . nourishing n. Dh. delay. one whose s s face is turned everywhere. preserving.Zane+| .kala m. decay. a. k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 45 1| k*:l A a~va.Answers to Exercises 133 Answers: Lesson 15 mw124b A h:m. 3. facing all sides. maintaining . (rarely A) . mw232b ind. mw514a Dhatri m.E+ sa ane+ c+| mw329a Kshepe m.P. destruction. enumeration.ea. reckoning. mfn. k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 48 1| k*:l ga. . . invective.Z+ tu+@ :p+@ A@ 36 1| a. P. abuse.ju+@ o@ A@ 26 2| qu Da. just so. enjoying. . creator.A.S+ -na mfn.a=*Na. Note: Of the four entries for k*:l . supporter.+ 1. k*:l cu+@ :p+@ se+@ 42 2| k*:l ea. all-containing.va.a . a throw.

for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable `constant'. `Providence' may be a better word to use than `Dispenser': the latter has a sense of purposive action (i. The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space. the mouth. In the light of the Vedic teaching. Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time. arranger' given for dhatr.K+ Re ections: In the West. intelligence.. That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgement of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating. however. to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness. represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place. entering. the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Krsna . opening. supporting'. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses. relative to which movement takes place. In the second half of the line. . Taking mukha in the sense of `mouth'. in visvatomukha. as the underlying constant. s mukha n. or as a multiple of cycles (e. and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years. time is viewed linearly. through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished. the cycle of birth and death. In one sense time can be viewed as an e ect of movement. and speech exits taking it in the sense of `face'.e. and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment. it represents a two-way opening through which food enters. sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness. as a measure of the movement in another sense time can be viewed as the cause of movement. countenance .g. the rotation of the seasons. time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night. . whilst the former is more an impersonal principle.. time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle (e.134 mw819c A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw692c Pra-ve_ a-na n. the phases of the moon. even their very existence.g. entrance into or egress out of. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dhatu as `nourishing. In daily life. and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit . Or again. . . both active and receptive. seeking a result). entrance or penetration into . time of day). . it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses. face. and dhatr . mua. years): this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. aperture. as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future in the East. rather than the active role of `creator.

expressing an attribute of the subject (ii) Object Complement: (Co ) used with transitive verbs in the active voice and expressing an attribute of the direct object of the sentence. NB: These notes are about English Grammar: the grammar of Sanskrit is rather di erent | do not confuse the two. each of which may comprise one or more words: (a) Subject: (S) in English grammar this is considered the main element or focus of the sentence. and every grammatically complete sentence must have one explicitly stated: even the subject may be implied. For example: Jack and Jill (S) went up the hill (predicate).English Grammatical Terms On the assumption that the reader can speak correct English but is unfamiliar with formal grammar. and Finite Verb Forms | and then followed by an alphabetical list of other common terms that do not t under these headings. 1. Parts of Speech. Love (S) is (V) blind (Cs ). She (S) gave (V) the food (Od ) to the dog (Oi ). manner. It is the most essential word. These terms are gathered together thematically under three headings | Sentence Elements. Sentence Elements A sentence comprises one or more of ve elements. (c) Object: There are two types: (i) Direct Object: (Od ) expresses that which is directly acted upon by the verb (ii) Indirect Object: (Oi ) is the recipient or bene ciary of the activity. as in the command `Run!'. place. They (S) elected (V) him (Od ) chairman (Co ). (d) Complement: This completes the sense expressed by the verb. the technical terms will not be strictly de ned but brie y described and followed by illustrative examples where appropriate. . Again (A) it (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A). Unlike the other elements. It expresses the agent of an active verb. The purpose of these notes is to brie y illustrate the technical terms and concepts of English grammar. and the rest of the sentence (the predicate) is considered to be a statement about the subject. There are two types: (i) Subject Complement: (Cs ) used with intransitive verbs. He (S) became (V) a doctor (Cs ).) related to the activity of the sentence as a whole. or transitive verbs in the passive voice. which may be used to demonstrate similar or contrasting concepts in Sanskrit grammar. (e) Adverbial: (A) these express a wide range of meaning (time. For example: The children (S) are playing (V). etc. The judge (S) set (V) the prisoner (Od ) free (Co ). there may be several of these in one simple sentence. (b) Verb: (V) this expresses the activity of the sentence it agrees with the subject in person and number. He (S) built (V) the dog (Oi ) a kennel (Od ).

As such it is the most exible of the parts and appears in a wide variety of forms to express its manifold potential. etc. There are two types: (i) Proper nouns name a person.136 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. (a) A verb taking an object is called transitive (the `energy' of the activity is transferred to the object. (ii) Common nouns name general things. 3. Finite Verb Forms The activity of the sentence is expressed by the verb. (c) The verb is the dynamic part of the sentence. and one that doesn't is called intransitive. Note: nouns and pronouns are categorized according to number. (g) Interjection: an exclamation expressing emotion: Alas ! Oh ! Ah ! Ahoy ! (h) Adverb: quali es a verb or adjective or another adverb: The very tall man spoke quite softly. but may often be used either way: He beat the drum. the girl stepped from the house into the garden. as it were). I live. (f) Conjunction: connects one word or phrase or sentence. Among these are: . `the': A boy gave an apple to the teacher.. (d) Article: a name for the three adjectives `a'. both concrete and abstract: The love of money is the root of all evil. `an'. with another: Jack and Jill wanted to go. (i) Verb: expresses the activity of the sentence: He built a house. (b) Pronoun: used instead of a noun to designate a person or thing without naming it: He kissed her when they met she enjoyed it. gender and case. intransitive. and auxiliary. They dig a hole. place. These are: (a) Noun: used to name a person or thing. expressing its relation to another noun or pronoun or to the verb: As the sun rose in the East. I must have been sleeping. There are three types: transitive. but were detained. (b) The main verb may be accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs used to express tense or mood: I had slept. animating the relatively static nouns etc. Verbs are typically one or the other. (c) Adjective: quali es a noun or pronoun: The happy dog wagged its long tail at the familiar gure. (e) Preposition: `governs' a following noun or pronoun. and are usually written with an initial capital letter: John and Mary went to London on Tuesday. I will sleep. The children are playing a game]. She was here. Parts of Speech There are nine types of word called Parts of Speech.

Continued overleaf . He will stand. third) of the subject of the sentence: I am here. Help me! (c) Subjunctive: expresses an action. He had been standing. future) at which the action is perceived as taking place: He stood. He is everywhere. (b) Passive: e. second. (iv) Aspect: the verb form expressing the activity as: (a) Inde nite: the degree of completeness of the action is not speci ed. advice. (vi) Voice: the verb form indicating the relation of the subject to the activity as: (a) Active: e. He will have been standing. (d) Perfect Continuous: combining the force of the previous two. (c) Perfect: the action is in a completed or perfect state. plural) of the subject of the sentence: He stands here. (ii) Number: the verb form indicating the grammatical number (singular. not as a fact. These four are shown in order. May you live long. He will be standing. . or purpose: Were he here . .g. Did he stand ? (b) Imperative: expresses a command. He is standing. He will stand. but as a condition. If he stands . You are there. (v) Mood: the verb form indicating an (emotional) quality or manner of the activity. He was standing. He had stood. desire. The door was opened by him. or entreaty: Go ! Follow the instruction of your teacher. present. (iii) Tense: the verb form indicating various times (past. He eats that he may live. . He has been standing. He has stood. present. He opened the door. They stand there. in the past. (b) Continuous: the action is not yet complete but still continuing.English Grammatical Terms 137 (i) Person: the verb form indicating the grammatical person ( rst. and future respectively: He stood. He stands. He stands.g. Note: the verb agrees with the grammatical subject in person and number. . There are three basic moods: (a) Indicative: asserts a statement as a fact it may also express a condition or question: He stands. He will have stood.

etc. the book of the having more than one clause which are coordinate. 3] apposition with another when it refers to the same person or thing and is Declension { the change of form of mentioned immediately after it (often o set nouns and pronouns to express di erent by commas) to identify or describe it. John. expressing its relation to another clause(s) which form sentence element(s) of word as source.g. gender. and (loosely) the relation Exclamation { See Interjection 2. 2. some other word.g]. either or both. called to see me. formation and derivation of words the Case { one of the forms of a noun or expounding of the elements of a word with pronoun. See Case..c. the masculine gender denotes Clause { a combination of words having a a male. itself.138 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. and Gender { in English. the author's book.g. which expresses its relation to their modi cations of form and sense. un happy. More Grammatical Terms A x { a verbal element joined to a word I opened the door when John rang the bell.ii] Agreement { see Concord Conjugation { the change of form of verbs Apposition { a noun or pronoun is in to express tense. committee. Examples of this last are: I. I opened the door. author.: E. of the semantic subject of the sentence. one larger complex sentence. number. E. I Etymology { the facts relating to the spoke to my neighbour. we/us.g.g. Compare with Complex Sentence. having more than one clause. 3] split into subjective and objective: I/me. See Pre x. gender. It may generally be rephrased with the e.e. feminine denotes a female.: grammatical relations. what (Od ) you (S) did (V)](Od ).: The window is open. two or more simple sentences Gerund { a non. one being the Genitive { a grammatical form of a noun or main clause and the other(s) subordinate pronoun.g.b. nouns and pronouns express natural (as opposed to grammatical) who/whom.g. E. etc.nite verb form that linked together with conjunction(s) to form functions as a noun. 1.g. neuter subject (stated or implied) and a predicate. denotes neither sex. The form the main clause.e. for example: heroine. and in performs the activity of the verb the role particular between the grammatical subject and the verb. 3. For Finite Verb { expresses the activity of a just six pronouns the common case is clause or sentence. John. to form a new word. i.: Writing a textbook is more di cult John rang the bell. possessor. i. the book's author.: Show (S) me (Oi ) usually manifests with an `apostrophe-s'. she/her. they/them. he/him. Compare e. Concord { the agreement between words Agent { one who instigates or causes or in case. and common denotes See also Compound and Complex Sentence. E. . Su x. and person.i. English uses two cases: the unmarked common case. E. and the genitive case. with Compound Sentence. author of the book. the Compound Sentence { a construction preposition `of'. mood. than teaching orally. It usually ends in `-ing'. my neighbour. The windows are open. Complex Sentence { a construction doctor.

e.c. `turning left' (participial phrase). You need not read this.i] Phonetics { the science of vocal sounds (especially of a particular language) that deals with their production and representation. Participle. or more than one (plural) person or thing is spoken of. meaning as such. In nitive. See also Complex Sentence. the conjugation of verbs.g. In nitive { A non. Number { the property in words of expressing that one (singular). Non. hyper sensitive. im possible. friendship. In ection { the change of word form to express di erent grammatical relations. 2. Grammar { the rules describing the best Phrase { a group of words which operate Pre x { a verbal element joined to the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning. e. `on a hill' (adverbial phrase). See Gerund.b. `because of' (prepositional phrase). E. and may take take an object. forming the grammatically complete expression of a single thought. 3.g. and in the nature of an adjective in qualifying a noun. For example. Participle { a non. including the declension of nouns and pronouns. the grammatical subject expresses the semantic object. where the subject and direct object refer to the same thing or person also pronouns so used (usually ending in `-self'). Su x { a verbal element joined to the end of a word to form a new word. 139 together as an element of a sentence.nite verb form that functions as an adjective.g. E. Verb { See Finite Verb and Non. shortly.nite verb form that functions as a noun or adjective or adverb it names the activity in the most general sense. the audience addressed (second person). Word { a minimal element of speech having . The two primary areas of study are morphology and syntax. Morphology { the study of word structure. He saw himself in the mirror. Re exive { describes transitive verbs Semantic { relating to signi cance or meaning. primarily a xes and in ection. E. By itself it expresses a universal concept in a sentence it denotes a speci c thing.: Having heard this he went away. etc.nite Verb. A combination of words forming only one clause. careful. with a passive verb.g. relation. E. It participates in the nature of a verb expressing aspect and voice. primarily the conventions of arrangement by which the connection and relationship of words are shown. Person { The three classes of pronouns and corresponding verb forms denoting the person speaking ( rst person).nite Verb { A verb which has been turned into another Part of Speech it may express aspect and voice. attribute. and the rest of the world (third person). He considered the matter to have been settled.English Grammatical Terms use of language. anti septic. and the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. Syntax { the study of sentence structure.: he likes to read. English makes little use of this to express grammatical meaning. It is meaningful by itself. in connected speech or writing. faultless.g. It is usually preceded by `to'. See also Complex Sentence. Sentence { a combination of words forming Simple Sentence { a series of words at least one clause.g.

140 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

ical person. 104. 21. 22. 83] Alpa-prana. 9. and page reference(s) to where the word may be more fully described or applied. of a dhatu. 14. or separating a word from its de nition. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . 80] Avasana: cessation of sound. `meaning': the word(s) provided in the Dhatu-Patha as the sense of the meaning . 83.rta. 13. `bound along with': a letter or syllable attached to a dhatu and marking some peculiarity in its in ection.g. `stand between': general name . e ort' applicable to the semi-vowels ya ra la and va. 21. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . of those consonants uttered with minimal breath. 64. `last person': grammat. nasal: characteristic of those sounds uttered through both nose and mouth. gure eight. 79] Artha. synonymous with atmanepada. sa . 14{15. 110] Anusvara. `half-contact': the `inner . 22. 25. 113] Atmane-bhasa. 71. `raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system in Vedic Sanskrit. . distinction in verb endings denoting the agent of the verb ( = English rst person). ^: the rare half visarga before pa or pha. that do not have vibhakti endings. stem: that part of an in ected word _ that remains unchanged (except for sandhi ) in the process of in ection. 109{112] Ardha-sprsta. `expression for oneself': verbal voice. 73] Isad-viv. 73] Anga. 14. `thus': used as inverted commas. `after sound': (1) a nasal sound following a svara. 89] Astan. 63] ... 73] Avagraha. verbal voice. 22] s A-luk Samasa: a samasa wherein the rst word does not lose its vibhakti. . Y : symbol for the elision of A at the beginning of a word due to sandhi. eight: the cardinal number the . 91] Upadhman ya. `slightly open': the `inner . 85. `little breath': characteristic . for the semi-vowels ya ra la va. the rst word of which is the more important. 87] Each entry word is given a simple translation (in single quotes where it is literal) followed by a brief description. a sa and ha. 73] . `expression for oneself': . A-ghosa. 9] Udatta. `slight contact': the `inner . at the end of a line of verse. indeclinable: that class of words . 73] Itaretara Dvandva Samasa: the basic copulative compound whose number is the sum of its members. unvoiced: characteristic of those Avyaya. 88] Iti. 86] Antahstha. Uttama-Purusa. 63. 73] Anubandha. sa sa sa and ha.Sanskrit Glossary and Index consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords not vibrating. 113] Abhyantara-prayatna. 75] Avyay bhava Samasa: an adverbial compound. e. `inner e ort': the method (within the mouth) of articulating sounds. . 64] Atmane-pada. `not raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system of Vedic Sanskrit.. 75] Isat-sprsta. 71] Anunasika. 6] (2) sandhi substitute for an m before a consonant. 9] An-udatta.

expressed in J~a: pronunciation of. < `moon-dot': the symbol pronunciation of e.e. voiced: a characteristic of those . i. verbal pre x: (1) a pre x to Ka-varga. verb. 113] that one person or thing is referred to. e. with the tonal accent (svara ) system of consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords vibrating. 17. vowels. sa and the verb. 13. Eka. ka kha ga gha na. 63] ~ Kanthya. 13. i. 73] n Kart. or prathama with a passive verb.. ^: a rare half-visarga before ka or kha. 83. determinative com. 73] placed above a vowel or ya la or va to Kanthosthya. and ai. 75] x appended to a Ubhayato-bhasa. 73] ending. or t. if dissolved. 13. 13. ca cha ja jha na. 64] va. 22. verb: (2) one of in ected types of . 75] ha. `quality': the secondary form of . 51] . cavarga. pa-varga. guttural: the mouth position . `single hearing': the neutral sound of Classical Sanskrit. 22. 56] . 60] beginning with ka. 23. `heated': general name for the Kriya. 17. 13. 14. 9] s word.e. 73] Caturth Vibhakti. bahu-vacana. (1) fully form Usman. 33. 113] . 73] Vedic Sanskrit. expressed in dvit ya with an active verb. `action': su to name it. guttural and palatal: a x of nouns and adjectives. 49] pound: in which the rst word quali es the Karmadharaya Tatpurusa Samasa: de.75] one.142 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Upapada Tatpurusa Samasa: determi. . as contrasted Ghosa. singular number the word su x denoting dhatu. palatal: the mouth position the members would have the same case associated with the pronunciation of i. 21] bhasa or atmane-bhasa. `one-speaking': grammatical Gana. 63] _ (2) one of the four types of words. terminative compound which. 78] Eka-sruti.. `class': there are ten classes of . 23. 26] Guna. mouth position associated with the pronun. 89] Upasarga. one: the cardinal number the gure that quali es a. a passive verb. . See also dvi-.rt ya with Tatpurusa Samasa. 13. four: the cardinal number the .Ca-varga. 73] beginning with ca. ka-group: the group of stops verbs to qualify or change its meaning. 88] . guttural and labial: the indicate that the sound is nasalized.Jihvamul ya.second. `expression for both': -kara. ya and sa. 71] Osthya. the four of group of four consonants sa.. .Karman: the immediate object of the . 13. 63] varga and ha. native compound having a dhatu derivative agent. with the pronunciation of u. 49] as its nal member.. Talavya. the mouth position associated with the Candrabindu.r: the agent of the verb. 88] . adverb: an indeclinable . ka. 63] . Eka-vacana. 6. and gure four. ca-group: the group of stops ciation of o. 67.g. a. associated with the pronunciation of a. 109. 57] prathama with an active verb. fourth case: dative Kanthatalavya. 64] Ksa: pronunciation of. labial: the mouth position used Catur. and au. 73] Kriya-visesana. dhatu conjugation in parasmaikara. 23. . ka. Sanskrit letter/sound verbal voice.

64] Dantosthya. 26. to this day. 9] .e.l. 13. 75] Naman. compound with a negative particle as its rst member. See also eka.Sanskrit Glossary and Index of the kriya indicating purusa and va. 50] Navan. _ grammatical genders. i. 5] Devanagar . expression for another: verbal voice. verbal su x: the su x Napumsaka-linga.51] Pada. masculine: one of the three . position associated with the pronunciation of the English `f' and `v'. 113] Na~-Tatpurusa Samasa: determinative n . root: rudimentary meaningful verbal element from which words are derived. `long': the long measure. 113] Parasmai-pada. 1. su x to nouns and adjectives. . 32] Trt ya Vibhakti. ( ) full stop: indicates the { . fth case: ablative n su x to nouns and adjectives. fully describes the . 65] Purusa. 78. particle: one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. . has been so perfectly described. 26. verbal voice. 15. . nine: the cardinal number the gure nine.bahu-vacana. tavarga. pa-group: the group of stops beginning with pa. work. 88] Dvit ya Vibhakti. tive compound having a numeral or word denoting direction as its rst member. ten: the cardinal number the gure ten. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of (prathama-purus a ). 113] Pa-varga. one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. 103. third case: instrumental . 75] Pa~can. 21] Dantya. 33. 50. 92] Dva. 63] _ Tin-Vibhakti. 9. see atmane-pada and parasmaipada. ve: the cardinal number the n gure ve. 104. 8. `name': a noun.tadhyay . `person': grammatical person. or vowels having this measure. 25. pa pha ba bha ma. la and sa. 64] D rgha. 83.. neuter: one of the _ . 73] Dasan. 64] Nama-dhatu. 23. 104. word: (1) traditionally divided into four types. grammar of Sanskrit in minute detail. 64] Dvandva Samasa. 63] Panini: a grammarian (circa 350 bc) whose . end of a verse or end of a paragraph. 88] Dvigu Tatpurusa Samasa: a determina. 75] (2) general name for a fully in ected word. expression for another: . synonymous with parasmaipada. copulative compound: a type of compound in which the words are of equal importance. 26] Dhatu. 33. 75] Nipata. 109. two: the cardinal number the gure two. dental: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . 104. nominal verb: a verb derived from a noun. 51] Dvi-vacana. three: the cardinal number the gure three. dental and labial: the mouth . `two-speaking': grammatical dual number the word su x denoting that two persons or things are referred to. `city of immortals': (1) the name of the Sanskrit script. spoken to (madhyama-purus a ). 113] Parasmai-bhasa. 71] (3) used in dictionary. the As. 51] Tri. 25. 17. and the . cana. person speaking (uttama-purusa ). 13. 1] (2) variations in symbols. 92. 89] 143 three grammatical genders. 64] Pa~cam Vibhakti. 26. Purna-virama. 86] (3) verbal voice. second case: accusative a x to nouns and adjectives. 114] Pum-linga. No other language.

( ) stop: indicates the end of a | half-verse or end of a sentence. e. 63] Pratyaya. Pratipadika. 73] Bhasa. ) stop: indicates a consonant without a following vowel.dvi-vacana. two. istic of those consonants uttered with extra breath. group: grouping of consonants according to some common quality. l-a xes: a common term for the ten primary tenses and moods of Sanskrit verbs. ` rst person': gram. `prolonged': the prolonged measure. . 9] Prathama Vibhakti. Madhyama-Purusa. 53] Virama. 21] La-kara. 17] Lat: a technical term for the present . indicative (simple present tense) one of the la-kara. 91] Pluta. `emission': unvoiced breath after a vowel. 1. does not use the -kara su x. 26] n .e. 63] Pranava Sabda: a name applied to the Mat. 73] . distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of ( = English third person). `great breath': a character. kavarga. grammatical gender: there are three _ genders.napumsaka-li_ ga. matical person. 75] Visarga. 6. 82] Prathama-Purusa. `emitted': unvoiced breath after a vowel synonymous with visarga. Repha: traditional name for ra which.144 mystical symbol ?. unlike other sounds. 63] Visesana. e ort: the method of articulating sounds: divided into abhyantara. 14] Vibhakti: common term for the case endings used for nouns and adjectives (supvibhakti ). . 26] Varga. adjective: it has the same case. 17. 22. 13] Prana. i. 38] Prayatna. 26. . ( . Vacana. number. or vowels having this measure. `breath': see alpa-prana and maha. 17] Linga.and bahya-prayatna. or more persons or things are referred to. 73] A Practical Sanskrit Introductory sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. 23. see atmane-.rka: name applied to the rst sixteen . 26] Bahuvr hi Samasa. See ekadvi. and gender as the noun that it quali es. speech: verbal voice.g. 6. 13. without any case ending) of a noun or adjective. as found in the dictionary. . su x: general name for any type of su x. a descriptive compound: a compound forming an adjective qualifying an external noun. 14] . . prana. 83. . 73] Visarjan ya. `many-speaking': the grammatical plural number the word su x indicating that many (more than two) persons or things are referred to. pum. 9] Maha-prana. 113] . ra and sa. cerebral: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . pa-varga. rst case: (1) nominative su x of nouns and adjectives. 13. 'speaking': grammatical number the word su x that one. 1. ubhayato-bhasa. `middle person': the . 6] Matra. parasmai-. 5] Bahu-vacana. See also eka.tavarga. 65. . 89] Bahya-prayatna.bahu-vacana.r. 13. second grammatical person distinction in verbal su x denoting the person spoken to ( = English second person). the throat) of articulating sounds. 51] (2) and vocative. as well as the personal endings for verbs (ti_ -vibhakti ).str . `measure': the length or duration for which a vowel is sounded these may be hrasva d rgha or pluta. 14. word stem: the stem form (i. 17.e. outer e ort: the method (external to the mouth. 26. 2] Murdhanya. 32] n Virama.

81] . Sakti: name applied to the rst sixteen Sambodhana. `separation of sandhi': removal of the sandhi between words Sprsta. 4] Sanskrit. 51] . `bound together': a conjunct e ort'. 71. 73] separately. . seven: the cardinal number the Svarita. if dissolved. 86] Svara. compound vowel: general for the vowels. `contact': the general name for the ease of pronunciation. 73] Sandhi Vigraha.nal': ending in Samanadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: consonant without a following vowel. endings.tively as a unit the compound is treated as .Sanskrit Glossary and Index 145 word. six: the cardinal number the gure prathama-vibhakti. 53] and adjectives. 65] uttered in proximity it is the tendency to Sparsa. determinative compound which. mixed tone: one of the three gure seven. `name of all': pronoun. `placed together': a compound . 64] Sarva-naman. consonant consonants not having a sepa. accents (udatta an-udatta svarita ) of Vedic name for e ai o au. feminine: one of the three _ euphonic changes that arise when sounds are grammatical genders. sixth case: genitive a x Savarna. 51] Halanta. addressing: case sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. `contact': the `inner e ort' for the . 13] Sandhi.Sup-vibhakti: case endings used for nouns rating vowel or pause. 50. 103] compound whose members are taken collecVyadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: de. 83] vowels. 6] ending of nouns and adjectives. to nouns and adjectives. . technical terms whose meanings positions used in uttering vowels and cannot be etymologically derived. 13. a neuter singular noun. 38. 88] Vrddhi. . `sound' or `tone': (1) a general term Sandhyaksara. `increase': strengthened form of Samasa. 26] Samj~a. 1] (2) a term for the tonal . `embellishment': general name Samahara Dvandva Samasa: copulative n for any consonant. 1] endings. 88] the members would have di erent case Samprasarana: the process whereby an . seventh case: locative pitches of Vedic Sanskrit. `position': the various mouth . six. proper noun: personal or place Sthana. variation of Sas. 38. in a sentence so that the words stand 25 sparsa ka through ma. 26. `consonant. n name. 64] or tones (svara ) of the vowel Saptam Vibhakti. 88] antahstha is replaced by a simple vowel. 1. homophonic: categories of sounds . `short': the short measure. if dissolved. 75] consonants. 63] . . `placed together': the system of Str -linga.. 77{81. 13. calling. 51] having the same mouth position and `inner Samyoga. 78] Vya~jana. the members would have di erent case Hrasva.. 71] Saptan. 38. . 85{87] group of 25 stops ka through ma. or vowels having this measure. 53] a . 91] accent system su x to nouns and adjectives. . terminative compound which. . 75] Sasth Vibhakti.