Lecture 3: Air Traffic Control Tower

The Air Traffic Control Tower at Heathrow Airport, London.

By: Zuliana Ismail

The Air Traffic Control Tower at KLIA Airport

What Are the Purposes of ATC Towers?


• As example. hi-jacking. the air traffic controller’s role is extremely important. As example. Air Traffic Services at KLIA Air Traffic Control Services Air Traffic Control Tower • • Also part of an air traffic controller’s duties is to instruct ground workers at the airport in certain duties. etc. • Have to contact Meteorological Stations (METs) to update the weather info. no hold or delay) Update important information ATC Tower Services Emergency Deal with airport operations staff Air Traffic Control Services • To update important information such weather. airport lighting. • ATC also responsible for checking weather statistics at both the current airport and future destination to ensure the safest route of travel and issue any possible weather delays. or apron. for the airport surfaces and equipment maintenance (snow removal. aircraft crash.Air Traffic Control Services Aerodrome Control Services • To provide aerodrome control service. ice control. • Should an airplane encounter problems. • The air traffic controllers will maintain contact with the pilots. provide flight path changes for bad weather and in extreme circumstances. direct pilots to a specific area for emergency landings. • To control the flow of runway traffic so that it is most efficient and safe (fast clearance. issue instructions for takeoff and landing. taxiway. bomb threat. aid in overcoming any flight problems. Air Traffic Control Services • ATC are also vital in the case of an emergency. etc) Apron Control Tower 2 . • To direct pilots to the runway.

Surface Movement Radar (SMR) Display KLIA Main Control Tower Surface Movement Radar (SMR) • This radar is mounted on top of the Aerodrome Control Tower for surveillance of the movement of aircraft and vehicles on the runway and taxiways. • SSR radar provides. Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) and Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR). altitude and identity (callsign) of an aircraft. • The accurate information provided enables the tower controller to maintain a smooth flow of traffic during low visibility or darkness. bearing. • Facilities: • Terminal Area Radar (TAR) • Surface Movement Radar (SMR) • Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) Terminal Approach RADAR Terminal Approach RADAR (TAR) • TAR are comprised of two major components. after processing. ATC Equipment 3 . the range.Air Traffic Services at KLIA • ATC at KLIA Managed by Department of Civil Aviation. • PSR detects and provides both range and bearing information of an aircraft within its effective coverage by radio wave reflection.

Flight checks. • This pattern is called a flight profile. Automatic Terminal Information System (ATIS) • A VHF broadcasting system for continuous distribution of vital information (such as updated airside. • Step 4. • Step 6.) to pilots.Preflight: Pilot files the flight plan & send to the Tower controller. aircraft powers up & take-off. • Step 7. Pilot receives clearance for routing. 4 . flight level. • Each of these controllers follows specific rules and procedures while directing flights through designated airways. meteorological and navigational aids serviceability information. estimated time of departure/arrival. • Step 3.Approach: Pilot receives approach clearance & the then communication with pilot is passed to the Tower Controller. etc. • They monitor the flight using special equipment and decision support tools (computers) that ensure a safe and efficient flight. push-back from the gate & taxi to the runway. • A typical commercial flight profile has 7 phases. Preflight & Ta ke off 7 Flight Profile 7 Flight Profile • Step 1. • Each phase of a typical flight profile is monitored by an air traffic control facility with its own group of controllers. • Step 5. Flight Profile Climb Cruise / En-route Descend A pproa ch And Landing • Every aircraft that flies follows a similar flight pattern that begins before takeoff and ends after landing.Departure: Aircraft climbs to a define altitude Tower controller pass their communication with pilot to the Departure Controller. Tower inform pilot the weather information.Descent: Near airport Approach Controller instructing pilot to descent & change heading. Air route controller instructing pilot to the specific altitude and heading. such as flight route.Take-off: Tower controller gives pilot clearance for take-off.Landing: Local controller at tower gives clearance for landing. etc. Ground controller directs the pilot across the taxiways to its destination gate at the terminal.En-route: Communication with the pilot then pass to the Air Route Controller. • Step 2. expected times at reporting points.Flight Data Processing System (FDPS) • The FDPS processes the flight plan data from aeronautical messages and prints out flight progress strips automatically for use by air traffic controllers to assist in updating/monitoring of the aircraft flight profile. cruising speed.

Air Route Traffic Control Centers Radar Display Systems 5 .

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