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Assignment 1 1. A square silicon chip (k= 150 W/m.k ) is of width w= 5 mm on a side and of thickness t= 1 mm .

The chip is mounted in a substrate such that its side and back surfaces are insulated, while the front surface is exposed to a coolant. If 4 W are being dissipated in circuits mounted to the back surface of the chip, what is the steady state temperature difference between back and front surfaces? (ref. fig 1) 2. Radioactive wastes are packed in a long, thin- walled cylindrical container. The wastes generate thermal energy nonuniformly according to the relation q*= qo*[1-(r/ro)2], where q* is the local rate of energy generation per unit volume. qo*is constant, and ro is the radius of the container. Steady- state conditions are maintained by submerging the container in a liquid which is at T and provides a uniform convection coefficient h. Obtain an expression for the total rate at which energy is generated in a unit length of the container. Use this result to obtain an expression for the temperature Ts of the container wall. (ref fig. 2) 3. The temperature controller for a clothes dryer consists of a bimetallic switch mounted on an electrical heater attached to a wall - mounted insulation pad. The switch is set to open at 700C , the maximum dryer air temperature. In order to operate the dryer at a lower air temperature, sufficient power is supplied to the heater such that the switch reaches 700C (Tset) when the air temperature T is less than Tset . If the convection heat transfer coefficient between the air and the exposed switch surface of 30 mm2 is 25 W/ m2 , how much heater power Pe is required when the desired dryer air temperature is T = 500C ? (ref. fig. 3) 4. A vacuum system, as used in sputtering electrically conducting thin films on microcircuits, is comprised of a baseplate maintained by an electrical heater at 300 K and a shroud within the enclosure maintained at 77 K by a liquid nitrogen coolant loop . The baseplate, insulated on the lower side, is 0.3 m in diameter and has an emissivity of 0.25. a) How much electrical power must be provided to the baseplate heater? b) At what rate must liquid nitrogen be supplied to the shroud if its heat of vaporization is 125 kJ/kg ? c) To reduce the liquid nitrogen consumption, it is proposed to bond a thin sheet of aluminum foil( =0.09) to the baseplate. Will this have the desired effect ? 5.A solar flux of 700 W/m2 is incident upon a flat plate solar collector used to heat water. The area of the collector is 3 m2 , and 90 percent of the solar radiation passes through the cover glass and is absorbed by the absorber plate. The remaining 10 percent is reflected away from the collector . Water flows through the tube passages on the back side of the absorber plate and is heated from an inlet temperature Ti to an outlet temperature To. . The cover glass, operating at a temperature of 30 o- C , has an emissivity of 0.94 and experiences radiation exchange with the sky at -10o C . The convection coefficient between the cover glass and the ambient air at 25 o C is 10 w/m2 k. a) Perform an overall energy balance on the collector to obtain an expression for the rate at which useful heat is collected or unit area of the collector , q"u .

determine the value of q"u . b) Calculate the temperature rise of the water , To- It , if the flow rate is 0.01 kg/s. assume the specific heat of the water to be 4179 J/kg K. c) The collector efficiency is defined as the ratio of the useful heat collected to the rate at which solar energy is incident on the collector. What is the value of ? (ref fig 5) w
Dryer Wall

Coolant T , h

Heater Chip Bimetallic switch Tset = 700C Question 1 Question 3 Vacuum Enclosure r0 Liquid T , h Liquid N2 shroud

Liquid N2 Electric Heater Base plate

Question 2 Question 4

Cover glass Air space Absorber plate Water tube Insulation Question 5