National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

What the Data Show about Students with Disabilities in STEM

Joan Burrelli Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering October 15, 2007

National Science Foundation Division of Science Resources Statistics www.nsf.gov/statistics

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

About 24 million people, or 16% of the U.S. working age population, have a disability
Population of the United States ages 25 to 64, by disability status and type of disability: 2002
Number (in millions) Percent

30 25

18 16 14

20 15

Number Percent

12 10 8

10 5

6 4 2

0 With a disability Difficulty seeing Difficulty hearing Difficulty with Difficulty speech walking/using stairs Learning disability

0

NOTES: “With a disability” includes other disabilities not shown separately. Respondents could report more than one disability.100 SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2002.

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Among secondary students ages 14-21, learning disabilities are the most prevalent disability.
Population ages 14 to 21 that are served under IDEA Part B, by type of disability: 1996-2005
100
5

80

4

P e rc e n t

P e rc e n t

60
Specific learning disabilities

3

Multiple disabilities

40
Other disabilities

2
Hearing impairments

20

1

Orthopedic impairments Visual impairments

0 1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

0 1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

NOTE: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B provides federal assistance for education of children ages 3 through 21. Other disabilities include autism, traumatic brain injury, developmental delay, speech and language impairment, mental 101 retardation, emotional disturbance, and other health impairment. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Undergraduate students with disabilities choose S&E majors at about the same rate as students without disabilities
Undergraduate students, by major and disability status: 2004
Natural sciences and engineering Social/behavioral sciences Humanities Health Education Business Other nonS&E 0 9 8 20 19 15 17 20 40 Percent 60 80 100 9 9 13 14 16 16
No disability

18 18

With disability

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 2004

102

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

More than half of postsecondary students with disabilities are in public 2-year schools
Postsecondary students with disabilities, by type of institution: 1966-97 or 1997-98
Private 4-year Public 4-year Private 2-year

All students
Public 2-year 10,000 or more students 3,000 to 9,999 students Less than 3000 students 0 10 20 30 Percent 40 50 60

Students with disabilities

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999. An Institutional Perspective on Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education, NCES 1999-046.

103

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Students with disabilities are less likely than those without to complete a bachelor’s degree

Students who began at 4-year colleges or universities in 1995, by disability status and persistence in 2001
100

80

No disability
Percent

Any disability
60

40

20

0 Attained bachelor's Attained associate's Attained certificate Never attained, still Never attained, left enrolled without return

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study.

104

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Bachelor’s graduates with and without disabilities enroll in and complete graduate school at about the same rate
1993 bachelor’s graduates, by disability status and graduate enrollment and attainment by 2003
100 80 Percent 60 40 26 20 2 0 Attained graduate degree, currently enrolled Attained graduate degree, not enrolled No graduate attainment, currently enrolled No graduate attainment, not enrolled 1 6 5 24 No disability With disability 67

70

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study.

105

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Graduate students with disabilities are less likely than those without to major in natural sciences and engineering
Graduate students, by majors and by disability status: 2004
Natural sciences and engineering Social/behavioral sci Humanities Health Education Business Other nonS&E
0

13 9 6 9 8 7 15 11 26 33 18 14 14 18
20 40 Percent 60 80 100

No disability

With disability

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 2004

106

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Why we don’t have data on bachelor’s and master’s degrees by disability status Schools differ in how they count students with disabilities. Counts can be based on services or accommodations provided, verification of disabilities, self-report to the disability support services office, or external/proxy report to the disability support services office. Schools differ in availability of records: • Half of institutions maintain paper records on students with disabilities in the disability support services office • Only 13% of institutions include data on students with disabilities in the general student record system from which degree data are reported to the Department of Education.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999. An Institutional Perspective on Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education, NCES 1999-046.

107

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Science and engineering doctorate recipients, by disability status: 1997–2005
Disability status All S&E doctorate recipients No disability With disability Blind/visually impaired Deaf/hard of hearing Learning disabilities Physical/ orthopedic disability Vocal/speech disability Other or more than one Unspecified 1997 27,229 1998 27,273 1999 25,931 2000 25,966 2001 25,496 2002 24,582 2003 25,274 2004 26,272 2005 27,974

26,909 320 39 45 na 104

26,951 322 55 36 na 92

25,594 337 54 40 na 96

25,638 328 49 38 na 94

25,156 340 39 48 83 99

24,254 328 26 42 78 121

24,961 313 28 48 74 95

25,986 286 22 33 99 88

27,667 307 24 40 89 86

7 98 27

11 96 32

6 110 31

6 110 31

8 58 5

8 48 5

11 52 5

11 28 5

14 49 5

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates, 1997–2005.

108

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Percentage with disabilities, by type of disability
Population 25 to 64 Total No disabilities With any disability Seeing Hearing Speech Mobility Learning 100% 83.7 16.3 2.5 2.3 0.9 8.0 1.4 STEM doctorate recipients 100% 98.9 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3

NOTES: Any disability includes other disabilities not shown separately. Respondents could report more than one disability. SOURCES: Population—U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2002; STEM doctorate recipients, National Science Foundation, Survey of Earned Doctorates 2005.

109

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Estimates of disability
Percent with disabilities Population 15-24 Students 6-17 STEM undergraduates STEM graduate students STEM doctorate recipients Population 25-64 US workforce 21-64 STEM workforce STEM doctoral faculty 11% 12% 11% 7% 1% 16% 10% 5% 8% Number with disabilities 4,128,000 5,708,900 580,000 30,000 307 24,350,000 14,313,000 242,700 13,500

SOURCES: Population and U.S. workforce—U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2002; Students 6-17—U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, 2005; Undergraduate and graduate students—U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 2004; STEM doctorate recipients, NSF/SRS, Survey of Earned Doctorates 2005, Workforce and doctoral faculty—National Science Foundation, SESTAT data system, and Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

110

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

EXTRA INFORMATION

111

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Students with disabilities age 14 to 21 exiting special education, by exit reason: 2005
Percent 100

80

60

54

40 28 20 16 1 0 Graduated with diploma Received a certificate Reached maximum age Died Dropped out 1

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, www.ideadata.org

112

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Postsecondary students with disabilities, by type of institution: 1996-97 or 1997-98
Number 250000

200000

150000

100000

50000

0 Public 2-year Private 2year Public 4-year Private 4year Less than 3000 students 3,000 to 9,999 students 10,000 or more students

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999. An Institutional Perspective on Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education, NCES 1999-046.

113

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Population ages 14 to 21 that are served under IDEA Part B, by type of disability: 1996-2005
Number (in millions) 3

All disabilities 2 Specific learning disabilities Other Multiple disabilities Hearing impairments Orthopedic impairments Visual impairments

1

0 1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

NOTE: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B provides federal assistance for education of children ages 3 through 21. Other disabilities include autism, traumatic brain injury, developmental delay, speech and language impairment, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, and other health impairment. 114 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, www.ideadata.org

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Employed scientists and engineers with disabilities, by type of disability: 2003 Number
300 243

250

200

150

100

88

78 40 21 16

50

0 S&E total Hearing Lifing Seeing Walking Multiple

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT): 2003

115

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Employed scientists and engineers with disabilities, by type of disability: 2003 Percent
100

80

60

40

20 5.0 0 S&E total Computer and math sciences Life sciences Physical sciences Social and behavioral sciences Engineering 4.7 5.4 4.9 6.2 5.0

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT): 2003

116

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Employed scientists and engineers with disabilities, by occupation: 2003 Number (in thousands)
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 S&E total Computer and math sciences Life sciences Physical sciences Social and behavioral sciences Engineering 95 78 24 31 16 243

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT): 2003

117

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Doctoral science and engineering faculty with disabilities, by type of disability: 2003 Number
15,000 13,500 12,000

9,000

6,000 4,300 3,000 1,300 0 S&E total Hearing Lifing Seeing Walking Multiple 900 4,700 2,400

NOTE: Faculty include full, associate, and assistant professors. SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients: 2003

118

National Science Foundation

Division of Science Resources Statistics

Doctoral science and engineering faculty with disabilities, by occupation: 2003
Percent 100

80

60

40

20 8.3 0 S&E total Computer and math sciences Life sciences Physical sciences Social and behavioral sciences Engineering 7.7 7.1 7.9 10.1 7.2

NOTE: Doctoral faculty include full, associate, and assistant professors. SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients: 2003

119

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