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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Fourth Semester Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Regulation 2004) (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester Regulation 2005) Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks (Use of standard thermodynamic tables, Mollier diagram, Psychometric chart and refrigerant property tables are permitted) Answer ALL questions. P ART A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. What is the effect of compression ratio on efficiency of Otto cycle? 2. Define Mean Effective Pressure (MEP). 3. What is scavenging in two stroke engine? 4. What do you understand by Cetane Number? 5. What is the effect of friction-on the dryness fraction of steam leaving a nozzle? 6. What is compounding in turbines? Why is compounding necessary? 7. How does inter cooling reduce the work input of compressor? 8. How does the valve operation of a compressor differ from the valve operation of an I.C. Engine? 9. How does the sub cooling influence the refrigerating effect of a vapour compression refrigerator? 10. Define sensible heating and cooling process. P ART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11.(a)Derive an expression for the air standard efficiency and MEP of a Diesel cycle. (16) Or (b) The compression ratio of an air standard Dual cycle is 12 and the maximum pressure in the cycle is limited to 70 bar . The pressure and temperature of the cycle at the beginning of compression process are 1 bar and 300K. Calculate the thermal efficiency and mean effective p r e s s u r e . Assume Cylinder bore = 250 mm, stroke length = 300 mm, Cp = 1.005 kJ/kgK Cv = 0.718 kJ/kgK. (16) 12.(a) Explain the following with sketches. (i) Splash Lubrication of IC Engines. (ii) Thurmosyphon cooling of IC Engines.

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(8) (8)

Or (b) During the trial (60 minutes) on a single cylinder oil engine having cylinder diameter 300 mm, stroke 450 mm and working on the four stroke cycle, the following observations were made : T otal fuel used : 9.6 liters CV . of the fuel : 45000 kJ/kg T otal No. of Revolutions : 12624 Gross IMEP : 7.24 bar Pumping IMEP : 0.34 bar Net load on the brake : 3150N Diameter of the brake wheel drum : 1.78m Diameter of the rope : 40 mm Cooling water circulated : 515 liters Cooling water temperature rise : 25C Specific gravity of oil : 0.8. Determine the indicated power, brake power and mechanical efficiency . (6 + 6 + 4) 13. (a) Derive expressions for the exit velocity , mass flow rate and critical pressure ratio of a steam nozzle. (16) Or (b) One stage of an impulse turbine consists of a converging nozzle ring and one ring of 0 moving blades. The nozzles are inclined at 22 to the blades whose tip angles are both 35. If the velocity of steam at exit from the nozzle is 660 m/s, find the blade speed so that the steam passes without shock. Find the diagram efficiency neglecting losses if the blades are run at this speed. (16) 14. (a) Explain the working of a single stage single acting reciprocating compressor with a neat sketch and p-V diagram. Also explain the need and the advantages of multi stage compression, with a pV diagram. (16) Or (b) Estimate the volumetric efficiency and power consumption of a single stage single acting reciprocating compressor, given the following data : Cylinder diameter : 30 cm Stroke :22mm Clearance ratio : 0.03 Delivery pressure : 8 bar Suction pressure : 1 bar Speed : 400 rpm 1.3 Compression and expansion follows pv = constant. (16)

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15. (a) With the help of a suitable sketch explain the working of lithium bromidewater based vapour absorption system. Also list the advantages and disadvantages of vapour absorption systems. (12 + 4) Or (b) In an air conditioning system, re-circulated air is mixed with fresh air and the mixture is sent through the conditioner coil. After the conditioner coil, the conditioned air enters the room. Draw the block diagram of this system and show the related psychrometrjc processes on a psychrometric chart. Also explain RSHF , GSHF and ESHF in connection with this AC system. (16)

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B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2009. Fourth Semester Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester Regulation 2005) (Regulation 2004) Time : Three hours Maximum: 100 marks (Use of Steam tables/charts and refrigeration table/charts is permitted) Answer ALL questions. P ART A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. Define mean effective pressure. 2. Compare actual and ideal PV diagram of a four stroke compression ignition engine. 3. What do you understand by knocking? 4. What is the fuel economy of two stroke engines when comparing with four stroke engines? Why? 5. What do you mean by compounding of steam turbine? 6. How is the speed of the steam turbine regulated? 7. What is the effect of clearance volume in reciprocating air compressor? 8. What is the effect of inter-cooling in multi stage compressors? 9. Name any four commercial Non-CFC refrigerants? 10. What are the components used in winter air conditioning system? P ART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11.(a)The minimum pressure and temperature in an otto cycle are 100 kPa and 27 C. The amount of heat added to the-air per cycle is 1500 kJ/kg. (i) Determine the pressures and temperatures at all points of the air standard otto cycle. (ii) Also calculate the specific work and thermal efficiency of the cycle for a compression ratio of 8:1. T ake for air : Cv = 0.72 kJ/kg K and = 1.4. Or (b) In an engine working on dual cycle, the temperature and pressure at the beginning of the cycle are 90C and 1 bar respectively . The compression ratio is 9. The maximum pressure is limited to 68 bar and the total heat supplied per kg of air is 1750 kJ. Determine, (i) Pressure and temperature at all salient points. (ii) Air standard efficiency , (iii) Mean effective pressure.

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12.(a) (i)Explain the working principle of a simple carburettor and discuss its merits and demerits. (ii)Discuss the lubrication system used in a two stroke and four stroke SI engines. Or (b) Air consumption for a four stroke petrol engine is measured by means of a circular orifice diameter 3.2 cm. The co-efficient of discharge for the orifice is 0.62 and the pressure across the orifice is 150 mm of water . The barometer reads 760 mm of Hg. The 3 temperature of air in the room is 20C. The piston displacement volume is 0.00178 m . The compression ratio is 6.5. The fuel consumption is 0.135 kg/min and the calorific value is 43,900 kJ/kg. The brake power developed at 2500 rpm is 28 kW . Determine, (i) The volumetric efficiency on the basis of air alone. (ii) The air fuel ratio. (iii) The brake mean effective pressure. (iv) The relative efficiency on the brake thermal efficiency basis. 13. (a) (i) Define critical pressure ratio of a nozzle and discuss why attainment of sonic velocity determines the maximum mass rate of flow through steam nozzle. (ii) In a steam nozzle, the steam expands from 4 bar to 1 bar . The initial velocity is 60 m/s and the initial temperature is 200 C. Determine the exit velocity if the nozzle efficiency is 92%. Or (b) A single row impulse turbine develops 132.4 kW at a blade speed of 175 m/s, using 2 kg of steam per sec. Steam leaves the nozzle at 400 m/s. V elocity coefficient of the blades is 0.9. Steam leaves the turbine blades axially . Determine nozzle angle, blade angles at entry and exit, assuming no shock. 14. (a) The following data relate to a performance test of a .single acting 14 cm x 10 cm reciprocating compressor: Suction pressure = 1 bar, Suction temperature = 20 C, Discharge pressure = 6 bar, Discharge temperature = 180 C, Speed of the compressor = 1200 rpm, Shaft power = 6.25 kW , Mass of air delivered = 1.7 kg/min. Calculate, (i) The actual volumetric efficiency . (ii) The indicated power, (iii) The isothermal efficiency .

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(iv) The mechanical efficiency . (v) The overall isothermal efficiency . Or (b) (i) How the volumetric efficiency of the reciprocating air compressor is affected by the following parameters. (1) The speed of the compressor . (2) The delivery pressure. (3) Throttling across the valves. (ii) Discuss positive and non-positive displacement rotary compressors. 15.(a) (i) Explain the working principle of vapour absorption refrigeration system and compare it with vapour compression refrigeration system. (ii) A Freon vapour compression system operating at a condenser temperature of 40 C and an evaporator temperature of -5 0 develops 15 tons of refrigeration.- Using the p-h diagram for Freon 12, determine, (1) The mass flow rate of the refrigerant circulated. (2) The theoretical piston displacement of the compressor and piston displacement per ton of refrigeration. (3) The theoretical horse power of the compressor and horse power per ton of refrigeration. (4) The heat rejected in the condenser. (b) (i) Or Explain the working principle of year round air conditioning system.

(ii) An air conditioned space is maintained at 27 C DBT and 50 percent RH. The ambient conditions are 40" C DBT and 27 C WBT . The space has a sensible heat gain of 14 kW . Air is supplied to the space at 7 C saturated. Calculate, (1) Mass of moist air supplied to the space in kg/h. (2) Latent heat gain of space in kW . (3) Cooling load of the air washer in kW if 30 percent of the air supplied to the space is fresh, the remainder being recirculated.

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B.E./B.T ech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION, MA Y/JUNE 2009. Fourth Semester Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester Regulation 2005) (Regulation 2004) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks (Use of standard thermodynamic tables, Mollier diagram, Psychrometric chart and refrigerant property tables are permitted) Answer ALL questions. P ART A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. Mention the assumptions made on the air standard cycle analysis. 2. In an Otto cycle, pressure ratio during compression is 11. Calculate the air standard efficiency . 3. During peak power operation, why petrol engine requires rich mixture? 4. What do you mean by 'mist' lubrication? 5. What are the effects of super saturation in a nozzle? 6. List out some internal losses in steam turbines. 7. What is the effect of clearance volume on the power required and work done in a reciprocating air compressor? 8. Give two examples for positive displacement rotary compressors. 9. Which thermodynamic cycle is used in air conditioning of airplanes using air as a refrigerant? 10. Define W et bulb depression. P ART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) (i) Fuel supplied to an SI engine has a calorific value 42,000 kJ/kg. The pressure in the cylinder at 30% and 70% of the compression stroke are 1.3 bar and 2.6 bar 1.3 respectively . Assuming that the compression follows the law pV = Constant. Find the compression ratio, if the relative efficiency of the engine compared with the airstandard efficiency is 50%. Calculate the fuel consumption in kg/kW-hr. (12) (ii) A gas engine working on the Otto cycle has a cylinder of diameter 0.2 m and stroke 0.25 m. The clearance volume is 1570 cc. Find the air standard efficiency . Assume CP =

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1.004 kJ/kg-K and Cv = 0.717 kJ/kg K for air. (4) Or (b) (i) A diesel engine has a compression ratio of 20 and cut-off takes place at 5%of the stroke. Find the air standard efficiency . Assume y= 1.4. (6) (ii) In an engine working on the diesel cycle the ratios of the weights of air and fuel supplied is 50 : 1. The temperature of air at the beginning of the compression is 333 K and the compression ratio used is 14 : 1. What is the ideal efficiency of the engine calorific value of fuel used is 4200 kJ/kg. Assume Cp = 1.004 kJ/kg K and Cv= 0.717 kJ/kgK for air . (10) 12. (ii) (a) (i) Compare four stroke and two stroke cycle engines. (9) Explain with a sketch the non-exhaust emission from a vehicle. (7) Or (b) An eight-cylinder, 4 stroke engine of 0.09 m bore and 0.08 m stroke with a compression ratio of 7 is tested at 4500 rpm on a dynamometer which has 0.54 m arm. During a 10 min test the dynamometer scale beam reading was 42 kgf and the engine consumed 4.4 kg of gasoline having a calorific value of 44,000 kJ/kg. Air 300 K and 1 bar was supplied to the carburettor at the rate of 6 kg/min. Find the brake power delivered, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific air consumption, brake thermal efficiency , volumetric efficiency and the air fuel ratio. 13. (a) (i) Derive an expression for maximum mass flow rate through convergent divergent nozzle for steam. (12) (ii) Dry air at a pressure of 12 bar and 573 K is expanded isentropically through a nozzle at a pressure of 2 bar . Determine the maximum mass flow rate through the nozzle of 0.00015 m2 area. (4) or (b) Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 8 bar enters a convergent-divergent nozzle and leaves it at a pressure of 1.5 bar . If the flow is isentropic, and the corresponding expansion index is 1.135; find the ratio of cross-sectional area at exit and throat for maximum discharge. 14. (a) A single stage, single acting reciprocating air compressor has a bore of 0.2 m and a stroke of 0.3 m. It receives air at 1 bar and 293 K and delivers it at 5.5 bar . If the compression follows the law pV13 = constant and clearance volume is 5% of the stroke volume, Determine the mean effective pressure and the power required to drive the compressor, if it runs at 500 rpm. OR (b) (i) Derive the expression for minimum work required for a two stage reciprocating air compressor . . (12)

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(ii) Estimate the minimum work required to compress 1 kg of air from 1 bar 300 K to 16 bar in two stages if the law of compression is pV125 = constant and the inter cooling is perfect. T ake R = 287 J/kg K. (4) 15. (a) A vapour compression refrigerator uses R-12 as refrigerant and the liquid evaporates in the evaporator at 258 K. The temperature of this refrigerant at the delivery from the compressor is 288 K when the vapour is condensed at 283 K. Find the coefficient of performance if (i) there is no under cooling (ii) the liquid is cooled by 278 K before expansion by throttling. T ake specific heat at constant pressure for the super heated vapour as 0.64 kJ/kg K and that for liquid as 0.94 kJ/kg K. The other properties of R12 as follows:

T emperature (K) 258 283 Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Liquid V apour 22.3 180.88 45.4 191.76 Entropy(kJ/kg K) Liquid V apour 0.0904 0.7051 0.1750 0.6921

Or (b) Explain the working of Lithium Bromide-water system with a schematic layout.

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B.E./B.T ech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION; NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2008. Fourth Semester (Regulation 2004) Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester Regulation 2005) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks (Use of Steam tables/charts and refrigeration table/charts is permitted) Answer ALL questions. P ART A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. Define air standard efficiency of Diesel cycle. 2. What is the significance of Mean effective pressure? 3. Draw the port timing diagram of a petrol engine. 4. What is splash lubrication? 5. What do you mean by supersaturated flow? 6. What is the function of governors in steam turbine? 7. Why clearance is necessary in reciprocating compressors? 8. Differentiate positive and non positive displacement compressors. 9. Define dew point temperature. 10. Explain adiabatic humidification of air. P ART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) lSketch the Diesel cycle on P-V and T -S diagrams and derive the expression for its mean effective pressure. Or (b) A dual combustion air standard cycle has a compression ratio of 10. The constant pressure part of combustion takes place at 40bar . The highest and lowest temperatures of the cycle are 1727C and 27C respectively . The pressure at the beginning at the compression is l bar. Calculate : (i) the pressure and temperature at the key points of the cycle, (in the heat supplied at constant pressure, (iii) the heat supplied at constant volume, (iv) the heat rejected, (v) the work out put, (vi) the efficiency and (vii) mep. 12. Explain why cooling is necessary in IC engine? With neat sketches describe the working of water cooling system used for a multi cylinder engine. Why should a pump and thermostat be provided in the cooling system of an engine? (4 + 8 + 4)

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Or (b) . The following details were noted in a test on a four-cylinder, four stroke engine, diameter = 100 mm ; stroke = 120 mm ; speed of the engine = 1600 rpm ; fuel consumption = 0.2 kg/min ; fuel calorific value = 44,000 kJ/kg ; difference in tension on either side of the brake pulley = 40 kg ; brake circumference is 300 cm. If the mechanical efficiency is 80 %, calculate : (i) brake thermal efficiency (ii) indicated thermal efficiency (iii) indicated mean effective pressure and (iv) brake specific fuel consumption. 13. (a) Steam enters the blade row of an impulse turbine with a velocity of 500m/sec, at an angle of 30 to the plane of rotation of the blades. The mean blade speed is 280m/sec. the blade angle on the exit side is 35. The blade friction coefficient is 12%. Determine : (i) The blade angle at inlet (ii) The work done per kg of steam. (iii) The diagram efficiency . (iv) The axial thrust per kg of steam per second. Or (b) (i) Explain with the sketches the velocity and pressure compounded impulse turbines. (8) (ii) Dry saturated steam enters a steam nozzle at a pressure of l0bar and is discharged to a pressure of 1.5bar. If the dryness fraction of a discharged steam is 0.95 what will be the final velocity of steam? Neglect initial velocity of steam. (8) 14. (a) A single acting single stage compressor is belt driven from an electric motor at 400 rpm. The cylinder diameter is 15 cm and the stroke is 17.5 cm the air is 1.35 compressed from 1bar to 7bar and the law .of compression PV = const. Find the power of the motor, ,if the transmission efficiency is 97% and the mechanical efficiency of the compressor is 90%. Neglect clearance effects. Or (b) A two stage double acting air compressor operating at 200 rpm takes in air at 1.013bar and 27C. The size of the L.P cylinder is 355 x 375 mm, the stroke of HP cylinder is the same as the LP cylinder and the clearance of both the cylinders is 4%. The LP cylinder discharges the air at a pressure of 0.452bar. The air passes through the inter cooler so that it enters the HP cylinder at 27C and 3.850bar, finally it is discharged from the compressor at 15.4bar. The values of n for both cylinders are 1.25. Cp= 1.0035 kJ/kgK and R=0.28 kJ/kgK.Calculate: (i) The heat rejected in the inter- cooler. (ii) The diameter of HP cylinder and

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(iii) The power required to drive HP cylinder. 15. (a) Explain with a neat sketch practical Ammonia-water vapour absorption refrigeration system. Also bring out any four important differences between vapour compression and vapour absorption refrigeration systems. (12 + 4) Or (b) A restaurant with a capacity of 100 persons is to be air-conditioned with the following conditions : Outside conditions = 30C, 70% RH Desired inside conditions = 23C, 55% RH 3 Quantity of air supplied = 0.5 m /min/person The desired conditions are achieved by cooling, dehumidifying and then heating. Determine : (i) Capacity of cooling coils in tones of refrigeration (ii) Capacity of heating coil and (iii) Amount of water removed by dehumidifier.

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B.E./B.T ech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION, APRIL/MA Y 2008. Fourth Semester (Regulation 2004) Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester Regulation 2005) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks Use of Standard Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning T able permitted. Use of Steam table/charts and refrigeration table/charts is permitted. Answer ALL questions. P ART A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. How does the change in compression ratio affect air standard efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle? 2. Mention the four thermodynamic processes involved in Diesel Cycle. 3. What are the functions of piston rings? 4. Define the term Brake Power. 5. What is critical pressure ratio of a steam nozzle? 6. What is the need for compounding in steam turbines? 7. Define volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating compressor . 8. What is the main advantage of inter cooling in multi stage reciprocating compressors? 9. What is the basic difference between vapour compressor and vapour absorption refrigeration system? 10. Define the terms RSHF and GSHF . P ART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) Air at 1.01 bar, 20C is admitted into an oil engine, which is working on the dual combustion cycle. The maximum cycle pressure is 69 bar . The compression ratio is 18. Assuming that the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat added at constant pressure ; calculate the following : (i) temperature at all salient points (ii) total heat supplied (iii) heat rejected (iv) air standard efficiency . Or (b) (i) Draw the theoretical and actual PV diagram of a four stroke Otto cycle engine and explain tl1e reasons for the deviations. (12)

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(ii) Calculate the ideal air standard cycle efficiency based on the Otto cycle for a petrol engine with a cylinder bore of 50 mm, a stroke of 75 mm, and a clearance volume of 3 21.3 cm . (4) 12. (a) Describe the working of a simple carburettor and derive the expression for the Air-fuel ratio. (16) Or (b) Following data are available for a four stroke petrol engine : Air fuel ratio (by weight) 15.5:1 Calorific value of the fuel 45,000 kJ/kg Mechanical efficiency 80% Air standard efficiency 53% Relative efficiency based on indicated thermal efficiency 70% V olumetric efficiency 80% Stroke/Bore ratio 1.25 Suction conditions 1 bar, 27C Speed 2400 RPM Power at brakes 75 kW . Calculate (i) Compression ratio (3) (ii) Indicated thermal efficiency (3) (iii) Brake specific fuel consumption (5) (iv) Bore and stroke. (5) 13. (a) A convergent-divergent nozzle receives steam at 7 bar and 200C and expands isentropically into a space of 3 bar. Neglecting the inlet velocity , calculate the exit area required for a mass flow of 0.1 kg/s : when (i) The flow is in equilibrium through-out (8) (ii) The flow is super saturated with pV1.3 = Constant. (8) Or (b) In a stage of impulse reaction turbine operating with 50% degree of reaction, the blades are identical in shape. The outlet angle of the moving blades is 19 and the absolute discharge velocity of steam is 100 m/s in the direction 100 to the motion of the blades. If the rate of flow through the turbine is 15000 kg/hr, calculate the power developed by the turbine. 14. (a) (i) With a neat sketch, explain the working of single stage single acting reciprocating air compressor. (6) 3 (ii) A single stage single acting reciprocating air compressor delivers 15 m /min of free air from 1 bar to 8 bar at 300 rpm. The clearance volume is 5% of the stroke volume and

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compression and expansion follow the law pv = constant. Calculate the diameter and the stroke of the compressor. T ake L/D = 1.5. The temperature and pressure of air at suction are the same as atmospheric air . (10) Or (b) (i) With a help of PV diagram explain the need of multi-stage compression. (6) (ii) A three stage reciprocating air compressor compresses air from 1 bar and 17C to 35 bar. The law of compression is pV125 = constant and is the same for all stages of 3 compression. Find the minimum power required to compress 15 m /min of free air . Also find the intermediate pressures. Assume perfect inter cooling and neglect the clearance.(10) 15. (a) (i) With a simple block diagram, explain the working of a vapour compression refrigeration system. (6) (ii) The pressure in the evaporator of an ammonia refrigerator is 1.902 bar and the pressure in the condenser is 12.37 bar . The refrigerant is in dry saturated condition at the entry of the condenser . Calculate the refrigerating effect per unit mass of refrigerant and the COP . (10) Or (b) (i) Define Relative Humidity , Dew point T emperature and W et Bulb T emperature. (6) (ii) 100 m3 of air per minute at 15C DBT and 80% R.H. is heated until its temperature is 22C. Calculate heat added to air per minute, R.H. of the heated air and Wet bulb temperature of the heated air .(10)

1.3

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B.E./B.T ech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007. Fourth Semester (Regulation 2004) Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester Regulation 2005) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks (Use of Steam table/charts and refrigeration table/charts is permitted) Answer ALL questions. P ART A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. A carnot cycle works between the temperatures 300 K and 700 K. Find the maximum work possible per kg of air . 2. Define mean effective pressure of Otto cycle. 3. What is the function of push rod and rocker arm? 4. What are the basic requirements of a fuel injection system of a diesel engine? 5. What is the effect of friction on the flow through a steam nozzle? 6. What is Blading efficiency? 7. What is Isothermic efficiency of a compressor? 8. What are the advantages of multi stage compression? 9. Define COP of refrigeration. 10.Define wet bulb temperature and degree of saturation. P ART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) An engine 20 cm bore and 30 cm stroke works on Otto cycle. The clearance volume is 1600 cu cm. The initial pressure and temperature are 1 bar and 60C. If the maximum pressure is limited to 24 bar, find the following : (i) The air standard efficiency of the cycle (ii) The mean effective pressure of the cycle. Or (b) A gas turbine works on an air standard Brayton cycle. The initial condition of the air is 25C and 1 bar . The maximum pressure and temperature are limited to 3 bar and 650C. Determine the following : (i) Cycle efficiency

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(ii) Heat supplied and heat rejected/kg of air (iii) W ork output/kg of air (iv) Exhaust temperature. 12. (a) (i) Explain why cooling is necessary in an I.C. engine. (4) (ii) With neat sketches describe the working of W ater Cooling System used for multi-cylinder engine. (12) Or (b) The following data refer to a single cylinder four stroke petrol engine : Compression ratio = 5.6 Mechanical efficiency = 80% Brake specific fuel consumption = 0.37 kg/kW h Calorific value of fuel = 44000 kJ/kg Adiabatic index for air = 1.4 Find (i) brake thermal efficiency (ii) indicated thermal efficiency (iii) air standard efficiency (iv) relative efficiency with respect to indicated thermal efficiency and (v) relative efficiency with respect to brake thermal efficiency .

13. (a) Dry saturated steam at 2.8 bar is expanded through a convergent nozzle to 1.7 2 bar. The exit area is 3 cm . Estimate the exit velocity and the mass flow rate, assuming isentropic expansion and supersaturated flow exists. Or (b) (i) What are the different methods commonly used for governing steam turbines? (4) (ii) The following data refer to a single stage impulse turbine : Isentropic nozzle enthalpy drop = 210 kJ/kg, Nozzle efficiency = 90%, Nozzle angle = 25, Ratio of blade speed to whirl component of steam speed = 0.5, Blade velocity coefficient = 0.9, the velocity of steam entering the nozzle = 30 m/sec. Find (1) the blade angles at inlet and outlet if the steam enters the blades without shock and leaves the blades in an axial direction (2) blade efficiency and (3) power developed and (4) axial thrust if the steam flow rate is 10 kg/sec. (12) 14. (a) (i) Explain with suitable sketches the working of two stage air compressor with actual p-v diagram. (6) (ii) A single acting single stage compressor is belt driven from an electric motor at 400 rpm. The cylinder diameter is 15 em and the stroke is 17.5 em. The air is 1 3 compressed from 1 bar to 7 bar and the law of compression PV . = constant. Find the power of the motor, if transmission efficiency is 97% and the mechanical efficiency of the compressor is 90%. Neglect clearance effects. (10)

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Or 3 (b) A three-stage air-compressor delivers 5.2 m of free air per minute. The suction pressure and temperature are 1 bar and 30C. The ambient pressure and temperature are 1.03 bar and 20C. The air is cooled to 30C after each stage of compression. The delivery pressure of the compressor is 150 bar. The RPM of the compressor is 300. The clearances of LP , I.P and H.P . cylinders are 5% of the respective strokes. The index of compression and re-expansion in all stages is 1.35. Neglecting pressure losses, find the B.P of the motor required to run the compressor if the mechanical efficiency is 80%. 15. (a) (i) Draw a neat sketch of a simple vapour compression refrigeration system and explain its principle of operation. (5) (ii) An ammonia refrigerator produces 30 tonnes of ice from and at OC in a day of 24 hours. The temperature range in the compressor is from 25C to 15C. The vapour is dry saturated at the end of compression and an expansion valve is used. Calculate the coefficient of performance. The properties of the refrigerant are given in the following table : (11)

T emperature C 25 -15 Enthalpy KJ/kg Liquid 100.04 -54.56 V apour 1319.22 1304.99 Entropy of Liquid KJ/kg-K 0.3473 -2.1338 Entropy of V apour KJ/kg-K 4.4852 5.0585

Or (b) An office is to be air-conditioned for 50 staff when the outdoor conditions are 30C DBT and 75 RH if 3 the quantity of air supplied is 0.4 m /min/person, find the following : (i) Capacity of the cooling coil in tonnes of refrigeration (ii) Capacity of the heating coil in kW (iii) Amount of water vapour removed per hour Assume that required air inlet conditions are 20C DBT and 60% RH, Air is conditioned first by cooling and dehumidifying and then by heating. (iv) If the heating coil surface temperature is 25C, find the by-pass factor of the heating coil?

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B.E./B.T ech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION, MA Y/JUNE 2007. Fourth Semester (Regulation 2004) Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester Regulation - 2005) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks (Use of Steam table/chart, Refrigerant Property tables and Psychrometric chart is permitted) Answer ALL questions. P AR T A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) Sketch the Diesel Cycle dh P-v and T -s planes. List out any two assumptions for the analysis of thermodynamic air cycles. What is the function of camshaft and crankshaft? List out the effects of detonation. Define nozzle efficiency . Give the working principle of an impulse turbine. Define volumetric efficiency of an air compressor . What is free air delivered? A carnot refrigerator requires 1.3 kW per tonne of refrigeration to maintain a region at low temperature of - 38C. Determine the COP of the refrigerator and the higher temperature of the cycle. 10. Define dew point temperature. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. P AR T B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) An engine working on Otto cycle has a volume of 0.45 m , pressure 1 bar and temperature 30C at the beginning of compression stroke. At the end of compression stroke, the pressure is 11 bar and 210 kJ of heat is added at constant volume. Determine (i) pressures, temperatures and volumes at salient points in the cycle (ii) efficiency . Or (b) (i) Derive an expression for the air-standard efficiency of a Brayton cycle in terms of pressure ratio. (8) (ii) Prove that the pressure ratio for maximum work is a function of the limiting temperature ratio.(8) 12. (a) Explain any four types of classification of Internal Combustion engines. (8) With a neat sketch explain any one type of ignition system. (8) Or (b) Following data relates to 4 cylinder, A stroke petrol engine. Air/Fuel ratio by weight 16:1. Calorific value of the fuel = 45200 kJ/kg, mechanical efficiency = 82%. Air standard efficiency = 52%, relative efficiency = 70% volumetric efficiency = 78%, stroke/bone ratio = 1.25 suction conditions = 1 bar, 25C. Speed = 2400 rpm power at brakes = 72 kW . Calculate (i) Compression ratio (ii) Indicated thermal efficiency (i) (ii)

3

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(iii) Brake specific fuel consumption and (iv) Bore and stroke. 13. (a) (i) Derive an expression for the critical pressure ratio in terms of the index of expansion.(8) (ii) Dry saturated steam enters a steam nozzle at a pressure of 15 bar and is discharged at a pressure of 2.00 bar . If the dryness fraction of discharge steam is 0.96, what will be the final velocity of steam. Neglect initial velocity of steam. If 10% of heat drop is lost in friction, find the percentage reduction in the final velocity . (8) Or (b) A 50% reaction turbine running at 400 rpm has the exit angle of the blades as 20 and the velocity of steam relative to the blades at the exit is 1.35 times the mean speed of the blade. The 3 steam flow rate is 8.33 kg/s and at a particular stage the specific volume is 1.381 m /Kg. Calculate for this stage. (i) a suitable blade height, assuming the rotor mean diameter 12 times the blade height, and (ii) the diagram work 14. (a) (i) Derive an expression for the minimum work required for a two-stage reciprocating air compressor with perfect intercooling and neglecting clearance. (8) (ii) A two stage air compressor compresses air from 1 bar and 20C to 42 bar. If the law of 1 35 compression is pV . = constant and the intercooling is perfect. Find per kg of air (1) the work done in compression (2) the mass of cooling water necessary for abstracting the heat in the intercooler, if the temperature rise of the cooling water is 25C. (8) Or (b) (i) With a neat sketch describe any one type of rotary compressor . (8) 3 (ii) A single stage single acting reciprocating air compressor delivers 14 m of free air per minute from 1 bar to 7 bar. The speed of compressor is 310 rpm. Assuming that compression and 1.35 expansion follow the law pV = constant and clearance is 5% of the swept volume, find the diameter and stroke of the compressor . T ake stroke length is 1.5 times the bore diameter. (8)

15. (a) A refrigeration system of 10.5 tonnes capacity at an evaporator temperature of 12C and a condenser temperature of 27C is needed in a food storage locker. The refrigerant ammonia is sub cooled by 6C before entering the expansion valve. The vapour is 0.95 dry as it leaves the evaporator coil. The compression in the compressor is of adiabatic type. Find (i) Condition of vapour at the outlet of the compressor (ii) Condition of vapour at the entrance of the evaporator (iii) COP and (iv) The power required. Neglect valve throttling and clearance effect. Or (b) A sling psychrometer in a laboratory test recorded the following readings. Dry bulb temperature = 35C W et bulb temperature = 25C

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Calculate the following : (i) specific humidity (ii) relative humidity (iii) vapour density in air (iv) dew point temperature and (v) enthalpy of mixture per kg of dry air T ake atmospheric pressure = 1.0132 bar .

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B.E./B.T ech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2006. Fourth Semester Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester (R 2005 (Regulation 2004) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks (Use of Steam table/ charts and refrigeration table/ charts is permitted) Answer ALL questions. P AR T A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Define air standard efficiency of Dual cycle. Define mean effective pressure of an I.C. engine. What is the function of push rod and rocker arm? What are the basic requirements of a fuel injection system of a diesel engine? What is super saturated flow in a nozzle? Explain the diagram efficiency of steam turbine. What are the advantages of multi-stage air compressor? Define the isothermal efficiency of a compressor . What is the unit of refrigeration and explain. Define degree of saturation and specific humidity . P AR T B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) A dual combustion air standard cycle has a compression ratio of 10. The constant pressure part of combustion takes place at 40 bar . The highest and the lowest temperatures of the cycle are 1727 C and 27 C respectively . The pressure at the beginning of compression is 1 bar. Calculate (i) the pressures and temperatures at key points of the cycle, (ii) the heat supplied at constant volume, (iii) the heat supplied at constant pressure, (iv) the heat rejected, (v) the work output, (vi) the efficiency and (vii) mep. Or (b) (i) Explain the working of 4-stroke cycle Diesel engine. Draw theoretical and actual valve-timing diagram for the engine. Explain the reasons for the difference. (10) (ii) Air enters the compressor of a gas turbine at 100 kPa and 25 C. For a pressure ratio of 5 and a maximum temperature of 850 C determine the thermal efficiency using the Brayton cycle. (6) 12. (a) Explain why cooling is necessary in I.C. engine. With neat sketches describe the working of water cooling system used for multi-cylinder engine. Why should a pump and thermostat be provided in the cooling system of an engine? Or (b) Explain with neat sketches the method of lubrication of the following parts of the I.C. Engines. (i) Piston and cylinder (ii) Crank-pin and Gudgeon pin (iii) Cam-shaft. 13. (a) Steam at a pressure of 15 bar with 50 C of superheat is allowed to expand through a

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convergent-divergent nozzle. The exit pressure is 1 bar. If the nozzle is required to supply 2 kg/sec. of steam to the turbine, then calculate (i) The velocities at throat and exit (ii) Areas at throat and exit Assume 10% frictional loss in divergent part only and percentage taken as % of total heat drop. Or (b) The blade speed of a single ring of an impulse turbine is 300 m/s and the nozzle angle is 20. The isentropic heat drop is 473 kJ/kg and the nozzle efficiency is 0.85. Given that the blade velocity coefficient is 0.7 and the blades are symmetrical, draw the velocity diagrams and calculate for a mass flow of 1 kg/s : (i) Axial thrust on the blading. (ii) Steam consumption per B.P . hour if the mechanical efficiency is 90 per cent. (iii) Blade efficiency and stage efficiency . 14. (a) (i) Define the volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating compressor and explain why it is less than unity . (ii) Determine the size of the cylinder of a double acting air-compressor of 32 KW LP . in which 1 25 air is drawn in at 1 bar and compressed to 16 bar according to the law pv . =constant. R.P .M. = 300, Piston speed = 180 m/min, V olumetric efficiency = 0.8. Or (b) A two-stage double acting air compressor, operating at 200 r.p.m, takes in air at 1.013 bar and 27 C. The size of the L.P . cylinder is 350 x 380 mm, the stroke of H.P . cylinder is the same as that of the L.P . cylinder and the clearance of both the cylinders is 4%. The L.P . cylinder discharges the air at a pressure of 4.052 bar. The air passes through the inter-cooler so that it enters the H.P . cylinder at 27 C and 3.850 bar, finally it is discharged from the compressor at 15.4 bar. The value of n is both cylinders is 1.3. Cp = 1.0035 kJ/kg-K and R = 0.287 kJ/kg-K. Calculate : (i) The heat rejected in the inter-cooler. (ii) The diameter of H.P . cylinder and (iii) The power required to drive H.P . cylinder .

15. (a) Freon 12 is compressed from 200 kPa to 1.0 MPa in an 80 percent efficient compressor . The condenser exiting temperature is 40 C. Calculate the COP and the refrigerant mass flux for 100 tons (352 kW) of refrigeration. Or 3 (b) 100 m of air per minute at 15 C DBT and 80% R.H. is heated until its temperature becomes 22 C. Find the following (i) Heat added to the air per min. (ii) R.H. of the heated air . Assume air pressure is at 1.033 bar.

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B.E./B.T ech. DEGREE EXAMINA TION, MA Y/JUNE 2006. Fourth Semester Mechanical Engineering ME 1251 THERMAL ENGINEERING (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester (R 2005 (Regulation 2004) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks (Use of Steam table/ charts and refrigeration table/ charts is permitted) Answer ALL questions. P AR T A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. For a given compression ratio and heat addition explain why Otto cycle is more efficient than Diesel cycle? 2. Explain the effect of pressure ratio on the net output and efficiency of a Brayton cycle. 3. What are the various methods to determine the FHP of the engine? 4. What are the basic requirements of a fuel injection system of a diesel engine? 5. What is the effect of friction on the flow through a steam nozzle? 6. Define 'degree of reaction' in a steam. turbine. 7. What are the advantages of Multi stage compression? 8. Define volumetric efficiency of a compressor. 9. What is a ton of refrigeration? 10. What should be the properties of an ideal refrigerant? P AR T B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (i) Explain with suitable sketches the working of two stage air compressor with actual p - v diagram. (6) ii) A single acting single stage compressor is belt driven from an electric motor at 400rpm. The cylinder diameter is 15 cm and the stroke 17.5 cm. The air is compressed from 1 bar to 7 bar and 1. 3 the law of compression PV = constant. Find the power of the motor, if transmission efficiency is 97% and the mechanical efficiency of the compressor 90%. Neglect clearance effects. (10) 11. (a) Sketch the Otto cycle on PV and TS diagrams and derive the expression for the mean effective pressure of Otto cycle. (16) Or (b) 1 kg of air is taken through a diesel cycle. Initially the air is at 25C and 1 bar . The compression ratio is 14 and the heat added is 1850 kJ.Calculate the ideal cycle efficiency and mean effective pressure. (16) 13. (a) (i) What are the causes of knock in C.I. engines? (4) (ii) Explain with suitable sketch the Magneto-ignition system used in petrol engine and state its advantages and disadvantages over battery ignition system. (12) Or (b) A four cylinder, four stroke cycle petrol engine 79 mm bore, 132 mm stroke develops 28.35 kw brake power while running at 1450 r.p.m. and using a 20% rich mixture. If the volume of the air into

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the cylinder when measured at 15.5C and 760 mm of mercury is 70% of the swept volume, the theoretical air fuel ratio is. 14.8, the heating value of petrol used is 44000 kJ/kg and the mechanical efficiency of the engine is 90%, find the indicated thermal efficiency . T ake R = 0.287 kJ/kg K. (16) 14. (a) Steam enter the blade row of an impulse turbine with a velocity of 500 m/s at an angle of 30 to the plane of rotation of the blades. The mean blade speed is 285 m/s. The blade angle on the exit side is 35. The blade friction coefficient is 12%. Determine. (i) The angle of the blade on the entry side (ii) The work done per kg of steam (iii) The diagram efficiency and (iv) The axial thrust per kg of steam/second. (16) Or (b)(i) Explain with sketches the working principle of a single stage reaction turbine.(8) (ii) Dry saturated steam enters a steam nozzle at pressure of 12 bar and is discharged to a pressure of 1.5 bar . If the dryness fraction of a discharged steam is 0.95 what will be the final velocity of steam? Neglect initial velocity of steam. (8) 15. (a) A simple R-12 plant is to develop 5 tonnes of refrigeration. The condenser A and 0 evaporator temperatures are to be 40 C and l0C respectively . Determine (i) the refrigerant flow rate in kg/s 3 (ii) the volume flow rate handled by the compressor in m /s (iii) the compressor discharge temperature (iv) the heat rejected to the condenser in kW (v) the COP and (vi) the power required to drive the compressor. How does this COP compare with that of a Carnot refrigerator operating between 40C and l0C. (16) Or (b) An office is to be air-conditioned for 50 staff when the outdoor conditions are 30C 3 DBT and 75 RH if the quantity of air supplied is 0.4 m /min/person, find the following : (i) Capacity of the cooling coil in tonnes of refrigeration (ii) Capacity of the heating coil in kW (iii) Amount of water vapour removed per hour. Assume that required air inlet conditions are 25C DBT and 65% RH. Air is conditioned first by cooling and dehumidifying and then by heating. If the heating coil surface temperature is 28C, find the by-pass factor of the heating coil. (16)

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