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7/13/12

Median in various form.It is an effective means of reducing headlight glares. and 7/13/12 HIGHWAY MEDIAN . becomes absolute requirement for highways because of this following advantages: 1. conflicts.

Two sets of double strip painted on the existing pavement. low curbing and shallow ditches. . Provide non-traversable energy absorbing barriers. 2. Provide non-traversable rigid 7/13/12 barriers.For Narrow median. 3. Nontraversable rigid barriers are metal guard rail. Provide deterring devices. raised diagonal bars. The line chain link fence 1 meter high supported by steel post augmented by cables at the bottom and midpoint. there are 4 means in reducing cross median accidents: 1.

In mountainous areas. the designer must consider the following : 1. Undesirable native soil should be provided with sufficient covering. In flat area. 3. 5. is governed by the expected level of .In laying the grade line. Where earthwork is minimal and consistently meeting sight distances in relation to grade line. 4. the grade line is set almost parallel to the ground surface but sufficiently above the ground for drainage purpose. economy is one main consideration. Grade line elevations along the river or 7/13/12 stream. the grade line must be considered balanced excavation against embankments to get the minimum overall cost. 2.

VERTICAL CURVE OVER CREST All vertical curves should not be shorter than the established minimum over crest. “the vertical distance from the intersection of the straight grade line to the curve is equal to one eight of the product of the algebraic difference in grade line and the length of the 7/13/12 curve in stations”. AASHTO(American Association of State Highways and Transport Official) suggested that the minimum curve length varies with the design speed in meters distance = 8 x the velocity in kilometers hour. This is called the maximum . But some designers prefer no vertical curve t be shorter than 300 meters.

7/13/12 . Multiplying the maximum correction by the square of the horizontal distance between near end of the curve and the point. Divide the product by the square of one half the length of the curve. 2.The correction at any intermediate point is obtained by: 1.

7/13/12 . A successful freeway operations.RIGHT OF WAY Acquisition of land for the right of way is very costly. closes the roadway from direct access to adjoining property and some local roads or streets. Frontage road shall be permitted to enter connecting cross streets only at distance of at least 100 meters for rural road and 50 meters for urban conditions.

Stopping Sight Distance The stopping sight distance is defined as the longest distance that a driver could see the top of an object 15 (6”)centimeters above the road surface where the design height of the driver’s eye above the pavement is 105 centimeters. The second distance is consumed while the . 1. Stopping distance is made-up of two elements or object is seen and before the driver applies the brakes. The distance traveled after the obstruction 7/13/12 2.

4%grade at station at station 1+990 of elevation 42. Design velocity= 60 kph. Design a vertical summit parabolic curve connecting the two tangent grades to conform with the following safe stopping sight distance specification.Example of stopping sight distance: A 5% grade intersects a -3.15 determine the stopping sight distance? Solution: S= v t + _ V²____ 7/13/12 . perception reaction time =3/4 sec and coefficient of friction between the road pavement and the tires=0.30m.

and the length of vertical curve is represented by the following equations: L=2S .The passing Sight Distance The passing sight distance is the longest distance that a driver can see the top of an oncoming vehicle where the driver’s eye level is 1. the algebraic difference in grades.943 A 7/13/12 where S is greater than L .o5 meter above the pavement surface. The relationship between the passing sight distance.

L= AS2 943 meters where: S is less than L L is length in L= length required of vertical curve S= specified sight distance A= algebraic difference in grades expressed in percent 7/13/12 .

An abrupt change from flat to sharp curve and long tangents followed by sharp curve be avoided because it will only create hazard an invite accident similarly. unless suitable transitions between them are provided. designing circular curves of different radius from end to end or compounded curve is not a good practice.Road Alignment Road alignment should be consistent. 7/13/12 .

. neither the side friction on the super elevation.Circular Curve A vehicle traveling in curved road is subject to centrifugal force. This force is balanced by equal and opposite forces developed through the super elevation and side frictions. Sharpness is expressed in terms of the curve degrees. and the degrees of curve is inversely proportional with the radius. could overcome nor exceed the maximum control and limit on the sharpness of a curve is dependent on its radius. The degree of curve is expressed either by 7/13/12 the Arc definitions or the Chord definitions. How ever.

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