EARTHWORK FOR ROAD EMBANKMENTS

Presentation by Dr. Vasant G. Havanagi

INTRODUCTION
• Pavement failures due to settlement of embankment fill and subgrade • Need for suitable fill materials and proper quality control during execution • Adoption of MORTH specifications

Types of soil in India
     Alluvial soils Fine sands Coastal soils BC soils Red gravelly soils

Types of soil in India .

Desirable properties of soil  Stability  Incompressibility  Permanency of strength  Minimum changes in volume & stability  Good drainage  Ease of compaction .

0 per cent maximum .1.5 per cent maximum  Organic matter .0.Undesirable types of soil      Highly plastic soils Soils which favour capillary rise of water Frost susceptible soils Organic and sulphatic soils Permissible limits  Sodium sulphate .

5 %) must be avoided within 500mm of metallic items  Borrow pits – max. . PI  45  With salts are not suitable  Free Swell Index  50 % should not be used  Total sulphate content (  0.EARTHWORK FOR EMBANKMENT/SUBGRADE • SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS  Free from peat.depth 1. perishable and other organic material  Should not be spontaneously combustible  LL  70. 10m.5m. offset from toe min.

particle size  2/3 of compacted layer thickness .) • SIZE OF MATERIAL  Size of coarse material  75 mm in embankment fill   50 mm in subgrade  Max.EARTHWORK FOR EMBANKMENT/SUBGRADE (Contd.

No. not subjected to extensive flooding Embankments exceeding 3 metres height or embankments of any height subject to long periods of inundation Subgrade and earthen shoulders/verges/backfill 2. Type of work Maximum laboratory dry unit weight when tested as per IS: 2720 (Part 8) Not less than 15.2. Not less than 16.m 3.5) S. Embankments up to 3 metres height.0 kN/cu.2 kN/cu.5 kN/cu.m 1. Not less than 17.Density requirements for Embankment and Subgrade (Section 305.1.m .

3) • • • • • Clearing and grubbing Setting out Dewatering Stripping and storing top soil Compacting ground supporting embankment/subgarde. .Construction operations (MORTH specifications-305. • Spreading material and bringing to appropriate moisture content.

 Max. compacted thickness = 20 cm  Moisture content (-2 % + 1% of OMC) Expansive soils (@ OMC or on wet side of optimum)     Pan drying method Oven drying method Speedy moisture meter (AASHTO T-217) Microwave oven method .EARTHWORK FOR EMBANKMENT/SUBGRADE (Contd.) • Spreading of material in layers and bringing to appropriate moisture content.

) • Compaction     Smooth wheel rollers Sheep foot rollers Pneumatic tyred rollers Vibratory rollers • Other compacting equipments  Small vibratory rollers  Plate vibrators  Rammers .EARTHWORK FOR EMBANKMENT/SUBGRADE (Contd.

Objectives of soil compaction • Increase in strength • Reduction in compressibility • Reduction in tendency for subsequent changes in moisture content • Reduction in erodability • Reduction in frost susceptibility .

Factors influencing compaction • Type of soil – Gradation (Well-graded/Uniformlygraded) – Clayey soil – Silty soil – Sandy soil – Gravel .

Moisture-density relationship for different types of soils .

Factors influencing compaction (contd. height of fall. number of blows • Weight of roller.) • Moisture content – Dry of optimum – Optimum – Wet side of optimum • Compactive effort – Energy applied per unit weight of soil • Weight of rammer. number of passes .

Moisture-density relationship .

R – Soaked C.R • Permeability • Settlement .B.B.B.Effect of compaction on soil properties • Unconfined compressive strength • California Bearing Ratio (C.R) – Unsoaked C.

Relation between density and unconfined compressive strength .

Relation between density and CBR for a heavy clay .

Variation of CBR of silty clay with compaction .

Compaction-permeability relation for clay .

Effect soil content & size of aggregate on CBR .

.6 km/h. and crushed rock – 8 to 10 tonne rollers – Appropriate speed of the roller should be 3 . base and asphaltic surfaces – Suitable for compacting gravels. sand.Field compacting machinery (Contd) • Smooth wheel roller – Used for compacting subgrade.

Conceptual structure of compacted material using static roller .

Field compacting machinery
(Contd)
• Sheepsfoot roller
– Used in road and earthen dam works
– Suitable for compacting heavy clays and silty clays – Important parameters affecting compaction
• Weight of roller • Area of each foot • Number of foots/lugs in contact with the ground at any time • Contact area of the foot

Field compacting machinery
(Contd)
• Pneumatic tyred rollers
– Used for both earthwork and bituminous works
– Suitable for compacting cohesionless gravel, sand and cohesive soils

– Important parameters affecting compaction • Tyre inflation pressure • Area of contact

Field compacting machinery
• Vibratory rollers

(Contd)

– Higher compaction level can be achieved with minimum work – Compaction can be done up to greater depths – Output is many times more than conventional rollers – Suitable for compacting sand and gravels – Important parameters affecting compaction
• Dead load
• Frequency • Amplitude • Area of contact

Vibratory roller .

Conceptual structure of compacted material using vibratory roller .

Effect of frequency on compactions of gravel .

Density depth relationship with various compaction unit .

Field compacting machinery (Contd) • Vibratory plate compactors – Useful for small road works and narrow areas such as trench backfilling – Suitable for compacting thin layers – Can be tractor-towed • Rammers – Provide impact load – Suitable for compacting small areas. back filling of trenches in foundations – Suitable for compacting cohesive as well as non-cohesive soils – Operated manually (driven by petrol engines) .

Small vibratory roller Plate compactor .

Lift thickness during compaction • Depends on different factors – Type of roller – Weight of roller – Type of soil – Number of passes – Prevailing moisture content – Degree of compaction required .

Dozers .

JCB (Backhoe cum Loader) Motor grader .

Tractor as grader Tractor as plough .

Water pipe lines.Construction in urban areas  Need of survey of underlaying Cables. .  Shifting the same as per requirement. and Sewer lines etc.

EARTHWORK FOR EMBANKMENT/SUBGRADE (Contd.) Man hole in the centre of Compacted subgrade .

EARTHWORK FOR EMBANKMENT/SUBGRADE (Contd. Nuclear density gauge (AASHTO T-238.D-3017 • Relative compaction Field dry density x 100 Laboratory density .) • Field density control  Core cutter method  Sand replacement method  Non-destructive methods. ASTM D-2922.

laboratory dry densiy as per IS: 2720 (Part 8) Not less than 97 Not less than 95 1. Subgrade and earthen shoulders Embankment Expansive clays (a) Subgrade and 500 mm portion just below the subgrade Remaining portion of embankment Not allowed Not less than 90 (b) . 3. 2.Compaction requirements for embankment and subgrade (Table 300-2.MORTH specifications) S.No. Type of work/material Relative compaction as percentage of max.

Gradation 2 tests / 3000 m3 4 Plasticity Index 2 tests / 3000 m3 5. C.29 1 test / 1000 m2 1 test / 500 m2 .16 1 test / 250 m3 3. Compaction tests 2 tests / 3000 m3 6. FField density (a) Embankment (b) Subgrade/shoulders IS:2720 : Part – 28 IS:2720: Part .8 IS:2720 : Part .4 IS:2720 : Part .R 1 test / 3000 m3 7. Deleterious content Min 2 tests per borrow area 2. Natural Moisture content IS:2720 : Part .27 Frequency of test 1.No Test Relevant code IS:2720 : Part .5 IS:2720 : Part .B.Quality control tests and their frequencies (Section 903.MORTH) Sl.2 IS:2720 : Part .

-25 mm • Acceptance crireria Mean density should not be less than specified density + 1. of samples)0.1.5 .65 times the standard deviation (No.65 .) • Tolerances in surface levels in subgrade + 20 mm.QUALITY CONTROL (Contd.

EARTHWORK UNDER SPECIAL CONDITIONS (MORTH specifications 305.4)

• Compacting ground supporting
Embankment/Subgrade • Earthwork over existing road surface • Earthwork for widening existing road embankment • Embankment construction under water

EROSION CONTROL (MORTH SPECIFICATIONS 306 TO 308
• Common methods  Turfing with sods  Seeding and mulching with jute/geo netting  Special techniques Use of geocells Slopes in cohesionless sands and black cotton soils

Erosion Control of Slopes

Use of Jute Geotextile

GEOCELL FOR SLOPE STABILIZATION AND EROSION CONTROL .

CASE STUDIES .

APPROACH EMBANKMENT FOR SECOND NIZAMUDDIN BRIDGE AT DELHI .

50.1.8 km Height varies from 6 to 9 m Ash utilized .000 cubic metre Embankment opened to traffic in 1998 Instrumentation installed in the embankment showed very good performance – Approximate savings due to usage of fly ash is about Rs.APPROACH EMBANKMENT FOR SECOND NIZAMUDDIN BRIDGE AT DELHI – – – – – Length of embankment .1.1.00 Crore .

APPROACH EMBANKMENT FOR SECOND NIZAMUDDIN BRIDGE AT DELHI .

30 1.36 1.20 1.48 1.5 m side cover throughout 2 m side cover upto mid height and remaining portion 1 m cover 2 m side cover throughout Case I Fly ash saturated upto mid height Factor of safety Case I -Case II 1.Approach Embankment for Nizamuddin Bridge SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH EMBANKMENT (DIFFERENT SIDE COVER THICKNESS) Details 6 m high embankment.42 1.05 1. 1 m side cover throughout 1.41 Case II Fly ash saturated upto top level .

Spreading of pond ash Second Nizamuddin Bridge Approach Embankment Compaction of pond ash .

Stone pitching for slope protection Second Nizamuddin Bridge Approach Embankment Traffic plying on the embankment .

boulders • Stones in wire crates over a layer of granular material (filter)-protection against river action. • Size of spalls min.3.weight of stone 40 kg.25mm • Use of cement concrete blocks (M15) when stones not available .1 of IRC:89 • Min.PITCHING/REVETMENT OF SLOPES • Road embankment with stone.5. • Size and weight shall conform to clause 5.

Approach Embankment for Nizamuddin Bridge INSTRUMENTATION Following instruments installed for monitoring performance of embankment – Magnetic settlement gauges for settlement – Pressure cells for base pressure – Pore pressure transducers for pore water pressure measurement .

Deatails of instrumentation .

Installation of pressure cells Second Nizamuddin Bridge Approach Embankment stallation of settlement gauge under progress .

Approach Embankment for Nizamuddin Bridge INFERENCES FROM INSTRUMENTATION DATA – No settlement of the embankment structure (fly ash fill) – Development of negligible pore water pressure .

saving of precious top soil • In road projects savings to the extent of 1520 per cent can be achieved • Savings depend on cost of transportation of fly ash .TECHNO-ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES • Direct saving of about Rs.One Crore in second Nizamuddin Bridge project for PWD • Additional savings to Vidyut Board.

WEST BENGAL) . DANKUNI TO KOLAGHAT.USE OF POND ASH FOR ROAD EMBANKMENT (FOUR-LANING WORK ON NH-6. KM 17 TO 72.

2 to 4 m • Water logged conditions • Soft sub-soil conditions .60 km • Height of embankment .Four-laning work on NH-6. Dankuni to Kolaghat. TYPICAL ROAD FEATURES/CONDITIONS OF THE PROPOSED ROAD • Length of road .

Dankuni to Kolaghat.Four-laning work on NH-6. EXISTING CONDITION OF ROAD OTHER SIDE .

Dankuni to Kolaghat. EXISTING CONDITION OF ROAD .Four-laning work on NH-6.

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT OF SITE CONDITIONS • Medium to High rainfall • Water table is high • Waterlogged conditions • Subsoil generally weak – Silty clay or clayey soil up to 20 m depth – SPT values in the range of 2 to 5 – c = 0.  = 0o .Four-laning work on NH-6.25 kg/cm2. Dankuni to Kolaghat.

• Haul distance more than 100 km.0 million cum.Four-laning work on NH-6. 2.  Earth requirement –approx. Dankuni to Kolaghat. NEED FOR ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL • Earth proposed in contract document. • High transportation cost • Delays expected in the completion of the project  RECOMMENDATION OF POND ASH AS AN ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL .

PROPOSED ALTERNATIVES FOR CONSTRUCTION  Alternative 1 Median cm Granular subbase Soil cover (1. 0.5 m 1 Improved Subgrade of compacted thickness not less than 50 Existing embankment Fly ash in compacted layers of 200 mm thickness 2 Rock or boulder filling Proposed berm of pond ash after completion of embankment Temporary pond ash bund .5 m thick) Min.

5 m Existing embankment Granular material (Cu > 10) Proposed berm of pond ash after completion of embankment Temporary pond ash bund .PROPOSED ALTERNATIVES FOR CONSTRUCTION  Alternative II Median cm Granular subbase Soil cover (1.5 m thick) Fly ash in compacted layers of 200 mm thickness Improved Subgrade of compacted thickness not less than 50 2 1 Min. 0.

PROPOSED ALTERNATIVES FOR CONSTRUCTION  Alternative III .

50 .62 1.36 1.92 Soil Unsaturated condition Pond ash Soil Saturated condition Pond ash 1.RESULTS OF STABILITY ANALYSIS Condition Fill material Minimum factor of safety 1.

ARRANGEMENT FOR DEWATERING OF STAGNANT WATER . Dankuni to Kolaghat.Four-laning work on NH-6.

Four-laning work on NH-6. CONDITION OF THE GROUND AFTER DEWATERING AND SCARIFYING . Dankuni to Kolaghat.

Four-laning work on NH-6. Dankuni to Kolaghat. SPREADING OF GEOTEXTILE OVER SOFT GROUND .

COMPACTION OF BOTTOM ASH OVER THE GEOTEXTILE . Dankuni to Kolaghat.Four-laning work on NH-6.

NEW DELHI) .UTILISATION OF FLY ASH IN THE WIDENING PORTION OF EMBANKMENT (AT SHASTRI PARK.

EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION AT SHASTRI PARK .

6 kN/m3 0 33o Earth cover 20 kN/m3 15 kN/m3 28o Sub soil 18 kN/m3 0 30o OVERALL STABILITY OF FLY AH EMBANKMENT WITH 2 M TOE-WALL .STABILITY ANALYSIS Properties of soil Param eter g bulk c  Pond ash 15.

) FLY ASH EMBANKMENT WITH TOE WALL .EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION AT SHASTRI PARK (CONTD.

EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION AT SHASTRI PARK (CONTD.) FILTER MEDIA BEHIND RETAINING WALL .

Construction of embankment using Hydraulic fill Technique Dredging Plant used for Transporting Sand from Yamuna .

Construction of embankment using Hydraulic fill Technique (Contd.) Dredging of Sand Through Pipes .

Construction of embankment using Hydraulic fill Technique (Contd.) Pumping of Dredged Sand .

Construction of embankment using Hydraulic fill Technique (Contd.) Drainage Pipes used for Disposal of Water .

Construction of embankment using Hydraulic fill Technique (Contd.) Spreading of Dredged Sand using Dozer .

) Embankment built using Dredged Sand .Construction of embankment using Hydraulic fill Technique (Contd.

) Stone Pitching on Embankment Slope .Construction of embankment using Hydraulic fill Technique (Contd.

Runn of Kutch on Indo-Pak Border in Gujarat .Construction of Embankment in Salt Infested Area .

which shows highly erosive nature of soil .44-1.The Problem • The embankment fill consists of soil excavated within Runn of Kutch 7m India Pakistan 1.28%) • Rills are formed on the slope.5m • High salt content (0.

RD 31.975 Pak Side .

Causative Factors • Overflowing of water: • Wave action • Piping phenomenon resulting in slope failure and subsidences. • Reduction of effective stresses .

The Solution (Contd) 600 150 GSB 100 Locally Available GSB Formation Height H 380 2.25 H 300 GL 150 100 CC 1:4:8 450 35 Existing Toe Wall Fig. 2 Proposed Measures for A2 and B1 Sections Provision of Toe wall and GSB .

25 H 300 GL 150 100 CC 1:4:8 450 35 Existing Toe Wall Fig 3 Proposed Measures for B2 and C1 Sections Dry Stone Pitching Filled with Gravel 150 150 600 GSB 100 Proposed sections in water logged areas 300 150 100 380 CR Masonryof Variable Height 2.The Solution (Contd) Dry stone pitching filled with gravel on Existing slope 150 600 GSB 100 Geotextile Formation Height H 380 2.25 H Existing Toe wall 35 CC 1:4:8 450 H Geotextile Original side slope Formation Height GL Fig 4 Proposed Measures for C2 Section .

25 H GL 150 100 CC 1:4:8 600 35 Fig. 5 Proposed Measures for locations having height of Toe wall > 1000mm .The Solution (Contd) Dry stone pitching filled with gravel on Existing slope 400 H Dry CR Masonry of Variable Height 600 150 GSB 100 Geotextile Formation Height Original side slope 2.

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