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CHAPTER I

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION Nursing is a science of caring. For centuries now, the science of caring continues to gain popularity through its primary mechanism of caring for another human being. According to Watsons Caring behavior, caring is effectively demonstrated interpersonally and the quality of nurse-client relationship is the most significant element. Caring consist of carative factors that result in the gratification of human need. The way variability provides the nurse with the freedom to bend his/her professional skills and knowledge with the patient (Walsh, 2006).

Nursing or the practice of nursing means the identification and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems and includes the practice of and supervision of functions and services that, directly or indirectly, in collaboration with a client or providers of health care other than nurses, have as their objectives the promotion of health, prevention of illness, alleviation of suffering, restoration of health and optimum development of health potential and includes all aspects of the nursing process.

In the latter half of the 20th century, a number of nurse theorist developed their own theoretical definitions of nursing. Theoretical definitions are important because they go beyond simplistic common definitions. They describe what nursing is and the interrelationship between nurses, nursing, the client, and the intended client outcome-health. They try to answer the question, If nursing disappeared and there were no nurses, what would be missing? Certain themes are common to many of this definition: Nursing is caring, Nursing is an art, Nursing is a science, Nursing is client centered, Nursing is holistic, Nursing is adaptive, Nursing is concerned with health promotion, health maintenance, and health restoration, and Nursing is a helping profession. (Kozier, 2001)

The Theory of Human Caring was developed by Jean Watson during 1975-1979, while engaged in teaching at the University of Colorado. The caring theory has a moral, philosophical, and spiritual foundation that addresses a patients health with a humanistic and holistic approach focusing on the mind, body, and soul. George (2008) the author of Nursing Theories: the base for professional nursing practice states that Watson believes that the essence of nursing is caring for the person; that is multidimensional to include lifestyle, environmental, social, spiritual, and mental components.

Caring is a part of health promotion and illness prevention. Health, being a subjective concept, is more than the absence of illness. Health is associated with a balance between a patients actual state of health and how they perceive their state of health. Every patient is unique and the person providing care co-creates a state of health considering that patients subjective and objective point of view. To effectively care for another person, it is important to be able to understand how that person views his/her own perception of health and caring.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The study will be conducted at Arellano University located at Legarda, Manila. It is open to intellectually competent individual who want to take up Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Furthermore, it is well-known for enhancing the capabilities of nursing students; both theory and practical setting, molding them not only into highly competitive professionals in the future but also better individuals.

Arellano University is a guided philosophy, objective, mission and vision in order to actualize the training of excellent professional nurses. With this view, the researchers would like to assess the extent of usual caring behaviors towards their client in Medical-Surgical Ward of the hospital they have been rotated. Now-a-days, many nursing schools are being built to meet the global demands for nurses, but the question is: Do this school produce quality professional nurses in terms of caring behaviors?

Arellano University College of Nursing has proven in the last 30 decades and more all over the world that it has been producing quality professional nurses. This is something that graduates of the university, as well as mentors must be proud of. Because of good tradition of providing excellent nursing professionals in the country and all over the world, the researcher desires to conduct this study to assess the caring behavior of Level III of AUCN based on Jean Watsons Theory of Caring. The result of this study will be a basis of improving the caring behavior of AUCN nursing student to continually provide competitive nurses all over the world.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK According to Jean Watson, nursing is interested in understanding health, illnesses, and the human experience. Within the philosophy and science of caring, she tries to define an outcome of scientific activity with regard to the humanistic aspects of life. She attempts to make nursing an interrelationship of quality of life, including death and the prolongation of life.

Jean Watson believes nursing is concerned with health promotion, restoration, and illness prevention. Health, more than the absence of illness, is an elusive concept because it has a subjective nature. Health refers to unity and harmony within the mind, body, and soul and is associated with the degree of congruence between the self as perceived and the self as experienced. According to Watson, caring is a nursing term representing the factors nurses use to deliver health-care to patients. She states that by responding to others as unique individuals, the caring person perceives the feelings of the other and recognizes the uniqueness of the other.

Using the ten carative factors, the nurse provides care to various patients. Each carative factor describes the caring process of how a patient attains, or maintains health or dies a peaceful death. Conversely, Watson describes curing as a medical term referring to the elimination of disease. The framework is presented in logical form. It contains broad ideas and addresses many situations on the health-illness continuum. Watsons definition of caring opposed to curing delineates nursing from medicine. This concept is helpful in classifying the body of nursing knowledge as a separate science.

RESEARCH PARADIGM

Profile of the student nurse: AGE GENDER RELIGION


JEAN WATSONS 10 CARATIVE FACTORS

Figure 1

The profile of student nurses that includes the age, gender, religion, are among factors that may or may not affect ones capability in caring out nursing functions. Student nurses are bound to a profession with a responsibility of taking care of a patient regardless of age, gender, or race, performing suitable nursing intervention, providing a quality patient based care carrying out/applying Jean Watsons Theory of Human Caring to measure quality care being rendered.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study aimed to assess the Caring Behavior as perceived by the nursing students of Arellano University. Specifically, it sought to answer the following: 1. What is the profile variable of the respondents in terms of: 1.1. Gender 1.2. Age 1.3. Religion

2. How frequent do the respondents display caring behavior in terms of the following carative factors on Jean Watsons Theory of Caring? 2.1 The formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values 2.2 The instillation of faith-hope 2.3 The cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others 2.4 The development of helping-trust relationship 2.5 Promotion and acceptance if the expression of positive and negative feelings.

2.6 The systematic use of the scientific problem solving method for decision making 2.7 The promotion of interpersonal teachinglearning 2.8 The provision for supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural, and spiritual environment. 2.9 Assistance with gratification of human needs. 2.10 Allowances for existential phenomenological forces.

3. Is there a significant difference in the extent of caring behavior of the respondents when they are grouped according to their profile?

HYPOTHESIS The following null hypothesis was raised in the study: 1. There is no significant difference in the extent of caring behavior of the respondent when they are grouped according to their profile.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of this study is to assess the caring behaviors of student nurses based on Jean Watsons Theory of Caring. Furthermore, the study will be beneficial to the following:

Student Nurses. Through identifying the presence of these caring behaviors, the creation of full awareness among student nurses with regards to their caring competencies and inabilities will be possible. Nursing students will be able to identify the major areas of caring behaviors student nurses possess as well as those behaviors that are nearing to imperil. From this, they can carefully assess and evaluate the needs for improvement and enhancement of their caring behaviors as main providers of care. Thus, promising an excellent means of patient care in the profession.

Patients. The patients can benefit from this study, since they are the main recipients of the care rendered by nurses. Enhanced quality of nursing care can help the patients cope more easily from their illness, and can help them improve not just in the physical, but also in the emotional, social and spiritual aspects.

Nursing Academe. Assessment of caring behaviors of student nurses may present a grasp of the stand of student nurses today with regards to their caring interaction. Nursing educators will get hold of the competencies of future nurses- their strength and weaknesses when it comes to their caring behaviors. This will create a vision for the academe to work comprehensively and devotedly to the needs of further enhancing student nurses caring behaviors to assure a better rendition of care in the nursing profession. They will be able to attend and focus on the improvement of nursing education with emphasis on the carative factors student nurses must possess as early as possible.

Future Researchers. This study will provide future researchers details about the context of the subject matter. It will serve as a valuable basis for future comparison and contrast of related studies. Furthermore, through this study, future researchers can find ways to improve and enhance future general studies related to caring behaviors of student nurses.

DEFINITION OF TERMS Below are the conceptual and operational definitions of terms used in the study. Assistance with gratification of human needs. Human needs include all acts of life, ranging from food to the need for achievement. Carative factor. Pertains to the science of Caring according to Jean Watson Caregiver/nurse persons other than the student nurses who render caring behavior Caring behavior application of the ten carative factors of Jean Watson

Large extent caring behavior that measured greater than or equal to 5 in the tool that used Likert scale No extent caring behavior that measured less than 1.49 in the tool that used Likert scale The allowance for existential-phenomenological forces. The nurse needs to view each persons reality through the individuals eyes The development of a helping-trust relationship. Effective communication techniques such as congruence aids in the creation of this relationship

The formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values. This factor develops at an early age and involves a broad awareness of self. The promotion of interpersonal teachinglearning. The provision of information empowers a client to make decisions about health and healing. The systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method for decision making. The problem-solving method is foundation to the practice of nursing. The provision for supportive, protective, and (or) corrective mental, physical, sociocultural, and spiritual environment. This factor encompasses internal and external variables that the nurse is responsible for guiding. student nurses Level III nursing students of AUCN

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY

METHODS OF RESEARCH The researchers utilized a descriptive design in the study. According to Polit and Beck (2004), the purpose of the descriptive studies is to observe, describe, and document aspects of a situation as it naturally occurs and sometimes to serve as a starting point for hypothesis generation or theory.

Descriptive research or statistical research provides data about the population or universe being studied. But it can only describe the who, what, when, where and how of a situation, not what caused it. Therefore, descriptive research is used when the objective is to provide a systematic description that is as factual and accurate as possible. It provides the number of times something occurs, or frequency, lends itself to statistical calculations such as determining the average number of occurrences or central tendencies.

The researchers utilized a descriptive design because they want to assess the extent of Caring Behavior of the respondents in terms of the 10 carative factors in Jean Watsons Theory of Caring: The assessment presented the necessary information needed by the researchers regarding the rate of extent in each carative factor.

SCOPE AND DELIMINATION The study was conducted at Arellano University located at Legarda, Manila. It is open to intellectually competent individual who want to take up Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Furthermore, it is well-known for enhancing the capabilities of nursing students; both theory and practical setting, molding them not only into highly competitive professionals in the future but also better individuals.

The respondents of the study will be the Level II & III nursing students of Arellano University College of Nursing, who have been rotated to Medical Surgical Ward. In this study, the researchers will use the simple random sampling. Polit (2004) defined that simple random sampling is a technique wherein the population has known chance of being selected. The researchers utilized this technique since they can have access to all the section list of the said population which is the Level II & III students of Arellano University College of Nursing.

INSTRUMENTATION

The researchers utilized a questionnaire as a method of instrumentation in this study. The questionnaire contains a set of assessment questions of caring behavior pertaining to Jean Watsons Theory of Caring. The set of questionnaire created and utilized will designed to gauge the Level II & III nursing student usual Caring Behaviors based on the Jean Watsons 10 carative factors.

A cover letter accompanied the questionnaire to inform the respondents the purpose of the study as well as its confidentiality and anonymity. Items identified in the questionnaire is modified from various tools such as the Caring Behavior Inventory, results from previous studies that used the caring Behavior Assessment Tool by Cronin and Harrison which was validated by Jean Watson, and other validated tools of different schools from the internet which cater the same assessment items pertaining to Jean Theory of Caring Watsons . The modified questionnaire based on the Carative Factor of Jean Watson was validated by the defense panel members, thesis adviser, and 3 faculty members at .877 and the reliability was established.

It was divided into two parts which aims to answer the specific problems. The first part is consisting of the respondents profile variable which resolved question 1. The second part was consist of assessment questions of caring behavior based on the Jean Watsons Theory of Caring. It then formed 30 items questionnaire. A 5-point Likert Scale was be utilized to gauge the extent of the caring behavior of the respondents.

PROCEDURE OF DATA GATHERING The following will be performed during collection of data: 1. Ask permission from the College of Nursing particularly to Dean Noli Pagdanganan, RN, MPA, MAN to conduct the study among the nursing students. A letter of request will be submitted stating the aim of the study and the benefit it will contribute to the enhancement of caring behavior of AUCN student-nurse- as well as the other beneficiaries of the study.

2. The qualification of the student will be identify and expect sample size will be taken using the Master List of the second semester of school year 2011-2012. This will be made possible with the help of our clinical coordinator. 3. The researchers will make an arrangement with different faculties of the College of Nursing to schedule the distribution of the questionnaire to the students during their respective classes. 4. During the distribution of the questionnaire, through explanation of the purpose of the study will be given to the students respondents.

5. Time allotted for the completion of the questionnaire by the student respondents is approximately 5 10 minutes. The researchers will set the schedules from different faculties for the completion of the questionnaire within the set period of time. 6. Focused attention during data collection will be an utmost concern for the researchers. Accurate number of the retrieval of the distributed questionnaire will be expected after each distribution to insure precise data gathering.

7. After the completion of the data gathering, the result will be thoroughly tabulated, presented, analyzed and interpreted using specific statistical techniques that arrived on solutions for the problems of the study and drew conclusions and recommendations.

STATISTICAL TREATMENT The statistical treatments that the researchers will utilize in this study are the following: Percentage the rates of a part of the whole expressed in percent. Percentage and frequency distribution were used to describe the profile of the repondents in terms of age, gender and religion. The formula is shown below: P = f/N x 100 Wherein: P = Percentage f= frequency N = Number of respondents

2. Weighted Mean The frequency of students nurses caring behavior based on the carative factors of Jean Watson will be interpreted using the following methods: (1) weighted mean per item; (2) average weighted mean per carative factor; (3) grand total weighted mean of the carative factors being selected. The weighted mean of the weighted frequencies will be computed using this formula: WM = (Wf/f) Where: WM Weighted Mean fw sum of the product of the frequency and the weight - Summation of Weighted Frequency f- frequency

To interpret the weighted mean, the researchers formulated mean score range with the corresponding verbal interpretation. Weight Verbal Interpretation Scale

5 4 3 2 1

Always Most of the Time Sometimes Seldom Never

4.50-5.00 3.50- 4.49 2.50 3.49 1.50-2.49 1.00-1.49

3. Ranking was used to describe the most perception of the respondents on the nurse caring behavior. 4. T- Test - In determining the significant difference in the extent of caring behavior of the respondents and when they are grouped according to their profile. the independent T- test will be used and value of T- was determine through the formula. __ __ T= X1 X2 SS1 + SS2 __________ N1 + N2 2

[1/N1 + 1/N2]

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) -It was used to determine the significant differences of mean ratings of the two groups of the respondents (Age and Religion) responses. This follows the formula shown below:

F=

ssb/dfb ssw/ dfw

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data gathered in the study with the accompanying analysis and interpretation. The presentation follows the sequence of specific problems that that this study endeavors to answer.

1.What is the profile variable of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age
Distribution of Respondents According to Age

Respondents

Age
16-18 19-21 22-24 Total

F 6 77 17 100
Table 1

% 6% 77% 17% 100%

ANALYSIS
The respondents were grouped according to their stage of developments. The first age group, 16-18 years old (6%), second age group 19-18 years old (77%), and the third age group, 22-24 years old (17%), included those in the early adult stage.

Interpretation This indicates that there were more adolescents than young adults in the respondents. Since most of them are young, they have fewer responsibilities in life, and younger people tend to be less caring than older people, because of their experience.

1.2 Gender
Distribution of Respondents According to Gender Gender

Respondents F 25
75 100

% 25%
75% 100%

Male
Female Total

Table 2

Analysis
For this study, 75 (75%) of the respondents were female. There were only 25 (25%) male respondents. Most of the respondents were female. Interpretation Although the respondents are all nursing students, and are expected to be caring, many people believe that the women are more caring than men. This could be due to the fact that women are expected to be more in touch with their emotions, and is usually thought of as the weaker sex.

1.3 Religion
Distribution of Respondents According to Religion Religion Roman Catholic Iglesia ni Cristo Islam Prostestant Born Again Others Total Respondents F 75 6 3 0 5 11 100

%
75% 6% 3% 0% 5% 11% 100%

Table 3

Analysis
The table shows that 75 (75%) of the respondents were Catholic, 6 (6%) were Iglesia ni Cristo, 5 (5%) were Born Again and 3 (3%) were Islam. Interpretation Considering that our country is known to be populated by mostly Catholic citizens. The Catholic Church can be grouped with the Christian Churches, who believe in Jesus Christ. And Christians are expected to be caring, following the codes of the bible. Although, this table does not mean that non-Catholic are not caring.

2. How frequent do the respondents display caring behavior in terms of the following carative factors on Jean Watsons Theory of Caring?
Summary of Carative Behavior as Perceived by the Student Nurses

Carative Factors A. The formation of humanisticaltruistic system of values

Weighted Mean

Interpretation

4.42

Most of the Time

1. I show kindness, time and concern for my patient 2. I made myself available when my patient need me 3. I am approachable to the patient

4.48

Most of the Time

4.29

Most of the Time

4.49

Most of the Time

B. The instillation of faith-hope 4.45 1. I instill the patients confidence in the doctor and other members of the team Most of the Time

4.17

Most of the Time

2. I encourage my patients to pray and talk to God


3. I explain to my patient the importance of believing in themselves and that they play an important role in their own recovery C. The cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others 1. I value my patient as an individual

4.83

Always

4.36

Most of the Time

4.48

Most of the Time

4.62 2. I create an atmosphere of love and respect rather than showing power and authority 3. I encourage my patient to discuss relevant family concern

Always

4.49

Most of the Time

4.35

Most of the Time

D. Development of helping-trust relationship

4.51

Always

1. I show sincerity and truthfulness in relating to my patient

4.48

Most of the Time

2. I show interest in the concern of my patient by means of careful listening

4.45

Most of the Time

3. I talk in a calm voice in front of my patient

4.60

Always

E. Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feeling 1. I accept my patients opinion or argument even if it does not agree with mine 2. I do not show irritation toward my persistent and troublesome patient

4.23

Most of the Time

4.27

Most of the Time

4.28

Most of the Time

3. I do not show irritation toward persistent and troublesome patient

4.13

Most of the Time

F. Systematic use of the scientific problem solving method for decision making 1. I formulate a plan of care for the patient based on their needs

4.40

Most of the Time

4.65

Always

2. I allow my patient to participate in the implementation of the plan of care

4.25

Most of the Time

3. I evaluate the effect of care on my patients

4.31

Most of the Time

G. Promotion of interpersonal teachinglearning

4.54

Always

1. I explain procedure, instructions, in a clear and simple manner to my patient 2. I give health teachings in a friendly and personal way

4.52

Always

4.48

Most of the Time

3. I respect the right of my patients to ask question and to know additional information regarding their state of health.

4.62

Always

H. The provision of supportive, protective and connective mental, physical, socio cultural and spiritual environment. 1. I perform nursing care in a safe and gentle manner

4.38

Most of the Time

4.59

Always

2. I talk in low tones so as not to disturb other patients who are asleep

4.43

Most of the Time

3. I offer assistance to the spiritual needs of my patient

4.12

Most of the Time

I. Assistance with gratification of human needs

3.03

Sometimes

1. I assist my patients with personal activities such as, personal hygiene, shampooing of hair and oral care 2. I offer assistance to the emotional needs of my patient

2.54

Sometimes

2.87

Sometimes

3. I give praise and recognition for my patients achievements and cooperation in nursing activities

3.07

Sometimes

J. Allowances for existential phenomenological force

4.35

Most of the Time

1. I give positive outlook to my patient towards their illness

4.35

Most of the Time

2. I encourage my patient to face whatever are the result of their condition and its effects on their daily lives 3. I assist my patients in making a responsible decision regarding their health

4.39

Most of the Time

4.31

Most of the Time

Table 4

According to the student nurses, they try their best to behave like professional nurses and possess that required carative behavior of student nurses. Since nursing is their own choice, they said that this is the best time for them to practice such behaviors in order to develop them fully as they pursue the nursing course and consequently possess those carative behaviors in the discharge of duties and responsibilities to the clientele. Table 4 shows the summary of the nursing students perceived caring behavior based on the ten carative factors considered in the study.

As can be seen in table 4, they did most of the time the seven carative factors but did sometimes the carative factor concerning the assistance with gratification of human needs that received the weighted mean of 3.03.

This goes to show that generally, the student nurses as they see perceived possess the necessary carative behavior. However, more improvements are needed in providing assistance to the patients so that the patients may feel some gratification of human needs.

Ranking of Carative Behavior as Perceived by the Student Nurses


Carative Factors Promotion of interpersonal teaching- learning Weighted Mean Ranking Interpretation

4.54

Always

Development of helping-trust relationship

4.51

Always

The cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others

4.48

Most of the Time

The instillation of faith-hope 4.45 4 Most of the Time

The formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values 4.42 5 Most of the Time

Systematic use of the scientific problem solving method for decision making

4.40

Most of the Time

The provision of supportive, protective and connective mental, physical, socio cultural and spiritual environment.

4.38

Most of the Time

Allowances for existential phenomenological force Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feeling Assistance with gratification of human needs

4.35

Most of the Time

4.23

Most of the Time

3.03

10

Sometimes

GRAND TOTAL MEAN

4.28

Most of the time

Table 5

Further scrutiny of the table reveals that two of the carative factors, were observed to be performed by the student nurses always, seven of the carative factors were also observed most of the time except for Assistance with gratification of human needs (3.03) that were done sometimes by them.

The table shows that among the 10 carative factors being used to assess the extent of caring behaviors of the student nurse that, promotion of interpersonal teaching and learning rank first, with a weighted mean of (4.54), this is due to the students from the very first level of their course were practiced to explain every steps and rationale, indications of every single procedure being done to a client. Lastly, because the Collge of Nursing believes that every patient must have this right which is the Right to Know.

Assistance with gratification of human needs rank last (3.03) due to the reason that students believed that one of our responsibility is to promote independence, thus letting them to function to the extent of their ability is one. Student nurses are responsible in providing clients need in all aspect; on the other hand they are being guided by clinical instructors in every clinical exposure.

This tend to show that the student nurses are just average in assisting patients with personal activities, offering assistance to the emotional needs of the patients and giving praises and recognition to the patients for their achievement and cooperation in nursing activities. This implies also that the student nurses have recognized the fact that they have to improve more in these aspects. Since they are still starting to be exposed in the world of providing nursing care, there is still more time for them to enhance themselves.

The student nurses are still learning and may not be so effective in all the carative attitudes but they are trying their best to possess all those attitudes and provide them to the patients. Student nurses are responsible in providing clients need in all aspect; on the other hand they are being guided by clinical instructors in every clinical exposure, they have still some inhibitions as to how they should perform as professional nurses equipped with the desirable attitudes and behavior.

The table presents that the grand total mean of 4.28 indicates that as perceived by the student nurses have very good carative attitude that may help them become very good professional nurses someday. This is because most of the carative factors were performed by the nursing students most of the time. However, there is a need for the nursing students to improve in the areas of assistance with gratification of human needs

The clinical instructors should consider these areas in order to help the nursing students improve and consequently possess those values to a very good level.

4. Is there a significant difference in the extent of caring behavior of the respondents when they are grouped according to their profile.

Difference in the extent of Caring Behavior of the Respondents when grouped According to Gender
Profile Computed t test df Tabular t at 0.05 Decision Description

Gender

2.53

18

1.73

Reject Ho

Significant

Table 6

Analysis The respondents were grouped according to gender with a computed t-test of 2.53 and a degree of freedom of 18, using a tabular t at 0.05 level of significance came up of a decision of rejecting the null hypothesis.

Interpretation This indicate that there is significant exist in the extent of caring behavior of the respondents when they are grouped according to gender. According to the study conducted by Anthony (2006) Men in Nursing focusing on natural characteristics of women in which nursing was equated with caring was an inborn trait fostered by mothering, nursing and femininity seemed an ideal fit. Men were excluded, as it was perceived that they didnt have the capacity for mothering or caring

Difference in the extent of Caring Behavior of the Respondents when grouped According to Religion

Profile

Computed f test

df

Tabular f at 0.05

Decision

Description

Religion

1.85

df1- 4

5.19

df2- 5

Accept Ho

Not Significant

Table 7

Analysis The respondents were grouped according to religion with a computed t-test of 1.85 and a degree of freedom of (df1 4, df2 5), using a tabular t at 0.05 level of significance came up of a decision of accepting the null hypothesis.

Interpretation Study shows that there is no significance difference in the extent of the caring behavior in terms of religion. Differences in spiritual belief have nothing to do with caring behavior of health care providers. On the other hand, according to Cohen, also cited from the essay of Fly (2008), Caring outcomes in practice, research, and theory depend on the teaching of a caring ideology.
Nursing as a loving care developed from the Christian religion. The Parable of the Good Samaritan and Christs teaching. I was sick and you visited me (St. Matthew 25, verse 26) formed the basis for patient care.

Difference in the extent of Caring Behavior of the Respondents when grouped According to Age
Profile Computed f test df df1- 2 df2- 7 Tabular f at 0.05 Decision Description

Age

2.43

4.73

Accept Ho

Not Significant

Table 8

Analysis The respondents were grouped according to religion with a computed t-test of 2.43 and a degree of freedom of (df1 2, df2 7), using a tabular t at 0.05 level of significance came up of a decision of accepting the null hypothesis.

Interpretation:
According to the study, there is no significant difference exist in the extent of caring behavior of the respondents when they are grouped according to age. It can be observed in the table that the computed t of 2.53 is greater than the tabular value of 1.73 indicating significant difference in the extent of caring behavior of the respondents. It appears that caring behavior varies when it comes to gender. At this point, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected.

It can be inferred that the way students render care to the patients is based on how they see themselves as a healthcare provider, do they are subject to a responsibility of providing care we cant ignore the fact that between male and female there is still difference. It appears that there is no significant difference in terms of caring behavior rendered by nursing students when they are grouped according to age and religion. It can be in inferred that in terms of spiritual aspect and religious preference, this does not affect caring behavior of the student nurses. This only means that students/respondents understand that caring must be provided to all clients and religious aspect is not a barrier or hindrance in providing care.

In terms of age it can also see that there is no significant difference when they are grouped according to age. Result shows that it is not true that age varies in terms of providing care.

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 1. What are the profile of the respondents 1.1. Out of the one hundred (100) respondents, seventy five (75) or 75 % are females, twenty five (25) or 25% are males. Majority of the respondents are females (75%).

1.2. Out of the one hundred (100) respondents, seventy five (75) or 75% are Roman Catholic, six (6) or 6 % are Iglesia ni Cristo, five (5) or 5 % are Born Again, three (3) or 3% are Islam and eleven (11) or 11% belong to others.

1.3. Out of the one hundred (100) respondents, seventy seven (77) or 77% are belong to the 19-21 age group, seventeen (17) or 17% are belong to the 22-24 age group and the remaining six (6) or 6% belong to the 16-18 age group. 1.4. The mean age of the student nurses were 20.33.

2. What is the extent of the Caring Behavior of the respondents in terms of the following carative factors in Jean Watsons Theory of Caring:

1.2.

As per the carative behaviors perceived by the student nurses, the nursing student did always the promotion of interpersonal teaching- learning, development of helping-trust relationship. On the other hand, the student nurses did most of the time on the carative factors on the cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others, the instillation of faith-hope, the formation of humanisticaltruistic system of values, systematic use of the scientific problem solving method for decision making, the provision of supportive, protective and connective mental, physical, socio cultural and spiritual environment, allowances for existential phenomenological force, promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feeling. The only one that they did sometimes was assistance with gratification of human needs.

2.2. Based from the carative behavior perceived by the student nurses, they did always two of the ten carative factors and they did most of the time seven of the ten carative factors. They only one that they did sometimes was assistance with gratification of human needs.

CONCLUSIONS 1. Majority of the respondents of the respondents are females. 2. Majority of the respondents are Roman Catholic. 3. Majority of the respondents belongs to young adult hood.

4. Based from the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the student nurses perceived carative factors possess very good carative behavior in all most all the carative factors except in the providing assistance with the gratification of human needs.
5. There is no significant difference in the extent of caring behavior of the respondents when they are group according to their age and religion, but there is significant exist when they are group according to their gender.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Student Nurses Caring is lot different form curing. And patients need care, that is what nurses are here for. Student nurse should learn to appreciate the scope of their responsibilities to client, which is to CARE, and not just focus on technical procedures and drugs in taking care of their patients. There is a lot more that can be done to take care of the patients, and many of it can be derived from the ten carative factors of Jean Watson.

Nursing Academe Nursing education is not just about knowledge and skills acquisition, especially for the profession of nursing. Although the knowledge and skills are equally important, relevant importance to the caring attitude of the students must be taken into account.

Hospital Administrators The Ten carative Factors by Jean Watson proved to be significant. Thus, health care is affected by the behavior of the nursing staff and student affiliates. Therefore, hospitals would need to make sure that they utilize these behaviors to the full extent, by providing adequate number of staff needed per unit, so that not just the physiologic needs of the clients are met, but also their caring needs.

Future Researchers This study will provide future researchers details about the context of the subject matter. It will serve as a valuable basis for future comparison and contrast of related studies. Furthermore, through this study, future researchers can find ways to improve and enhance future general studies related to caring behaviors of student nurses.

Future researchers on this study might also want to focus on the aspects that may have been overlooked, like the respondents all coming from level II & III nursing students. A bigger study might want to make a comparison of the caring behaviors of the students per year level, so as to determine, if the nursing education of the students really improved the caring behavior of the nurses, or, if the caring behavior is something that is natural or inherent to some people.