ThinkFree Office 3 200 slides-5MB

Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

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FY01 Performance
1. Best earnings in the sector
In FY2001, LGIS recorded the sector's highest EBT of W203.6bn behind stable brokerage commissions and a reduction in bad debt related expenses

Earnings Before Tax Comparison
(Unit: Wbn) 203.6

FY2001: Apr 2001~ Mar 2002

104.4

51.4 37.3 24.7

LG

Samsun Hyundai Daewo o g

Daishin

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FY01 Performance
(Reference) Profit and loss analysis in FY 2001 (Unit: Wbn)

Income from ordinary operation
Brokerage commissions Commission on BCs* BC related losses1) Underwriting fees Gains on trading securities Net Interest Income Other income SG&A expenses Ordinary income 363.6 46.4 19.5 35.7 57.5 21.0 7.2 296.8 215.1

Gain & Loss from others
Credit loss and others 2) 74.0

Loss on disposition & valuation 62.5 of investment securities 3) Non-recurring income 11.5

Net income
Earnings before tax Income tax expense Net income 203.6 67.0 136.6

1) Valuation loss from unsold BCs W15.8bn (Hynix W9.8bn, Hyundai PetroChem W4.8bn, Ssangyong Cement W1.3bn) 2) Loan loss provisioning W 159.5bn ± reversal W 85.5bn 3) Gains from valuation and disposition of trading securities W140.4bn ± valuation, disposition loss W69.3bn ± Loss on disposition of loans W 8.6bn * Beneficiary Certificates

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FY01 Performance
2. Recovering brokerage M/S with improved operating capacity
Market share has increased behind the successful launch of the IfLG Trading System coupled with diverse marketing activities

LGIS Market share trend

Major Activities
Proactive sales by recruiting sales experts

11%

10%

Samsung

Introduction of a new online HTS (ifLG Trading) and aggressive marketing Opening of 19 new sub-branches

9%

LG No.2 No.5

8%

Increased international M/S using enhanced resources Introduction of performance-based compensation system to encourage top performance

7% 1Q01 2Q01 3Q01 4Q01 1Q02 2Q02
(end-May)

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FY01Performance
3. Growing Asset Management Business
Increasing balance of BCs backed by emphasis on improving asset management business

Balance of BCs*
(Unit:Wtn)
170 154
20.7 19.2 21.4

Major Activities

170

Market

Establishment of performance-based compensation system to encourage

Samsung

superior performance

Developing high quality products using
10.3 8.0 7.6 7.3

Hyundai LG

fund performance evaluation system

6.1

6.6

Increase ability to serve clients by training professional wealth advisors

Mar 2001

Mar 2002

Jun 18, 2002

(Financial Planners)

*BCs: Beneficiary Certificates

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FY01 Performance
4. Maintaining No.1 position in Investment Banking (IB)
Maximize income from investment banking by utilizing competitive edge in new business areas

IB business breakdown
New business

Major activities

W47.2bn W39.bn
3% 6%

Shift from traditional corporate
M&A, Consulting, Public offering, Etc.

W43.8bn 7% 33%

finance businesses into new business areas Establish new revenue sources such

23%

23%

ABS

as privatization, restructuring, consulting, and derivative related businesses Recruit approximately 30 experts in restructuring and OTC derivatives, and train existing employees in these areas
Major deals in FY2001 : KT ADR, Hynix GDR Foreign ABS of LG Card, LGCI rights offerings, etc.

91% 60%
Underwriting (corporate bonds, 54% Rights offering, IPO)

FY `99

FY `00

FY `01

Employed the largest number of IB professionals: 104

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FY01 Performance
5. Eliminated potential losses by sufficient provisioning
Eliminated potential losses by reserving a 61% provision for substandard assets at year-end

Asset and provisioning ratio

Asset Classification and Provision
(Unit:Wbn)

4

50%

3.47
3

38.6%1) 2.89 36.1% 2.33 33.5% 2.01 16.2%
40%

Mar 2001
Total Credit ( a )

Mar 2002
2)

2,330.8 1,418.3 841.8 36.1% 59.4%

2,009.1 1,098.1 673.7 33.5% 61.4%

30%

2

20%

Below Substandard (b) Provision ( c )

1

9.1%

10%

0

0%

Provisioning ratio (c/a) Provisioning ratio (c/b)

Oct 99

Mar 00

Mar 01

Mar 02

* Provision/Total credit
1) W167.3bn provisioning in FY 2001 when including write-offs

2) Estimated loss of W167.3bn with 100% provisioning have been written off in FY 2001.

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2002 Business Plan
1. FY02 Strategy Becoming a market leader by strengthening core businesses and focusing on growing businesses

‡ Establishing competitiveness in brokerage ‡ Strengthening asset management business ‡ Developing new revenue model in IB business ‡ Establishing strong corporate culture ‡ Implementing Risk Management & Compliance systems

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2002 Business Plan
2. 2002 projections
Aiming to maximize profits based on competitiveness in all business areas

FY`01 Stock
Brokerage

FY02(A) 9.20% 5.90% 8.00% 15.0% W330.0bn 10.0tn W308.6bn

Chg. +0.57% p +1.57% p +2.32% p +0.80% p +276.9bn +3.3tn +W105.0bn

8.63% 4.33% 5.68% 14.2% W53.1bn 6.7tn W203.6bn

M/S

Futures Options

Underwriting M/S IPO BC balance Pre-tax income

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2

2002 Business Plan
3. Securing competitiveness in brokerage
Providing the best service and maximize returns to customers (Wealth Manager)
Strengthen Off-line business

‡ Increase size and number of main branches in key locations ‡ Recruit wealth advisors and focus on maximizing returns for customers

Aggressive/ Scientific marketing

‡ Strengthen target marketing through CRM activities ‡ Aggressive marketing activities (i.e. TV Commercials)

Maintain strength in Online trading

‡ Maintain the best online trading system (ifLG Trading) ‡ Enhance online trading service for foreign investors

Increase institution al sales

‡ Strengthen research (aiming to become No.2 research house in FY02) ‡ Increase int'l M/S behind proactive marketing activities

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2

2002 Business Plan
4. Strengthen asset management business
Provide total asset management services (Wealth Manager)
- Individual customer focus approach -

Competitive products

‡ Provide financial products that suits each customer's needs ‡ Launch series of major funds

Strengthen customer relationship

‡ Effective customer management using CRM system ‡ Enhanced reliability through strong fund risk management

Professionals

‡ Implement systematic training program for wealth managers ‡ Recruit specialists

Strengthen Private Banking

‡ Expand sales to high net worth individuals through leading branches

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2

2002 Business Plan
5. Securing a stable profit model for IB business
Establish strong foundation for IB through strong competitiveness

Participation in Large-scale Projects

‡ To lead privatization of public companies and other landmark deals ‡ Seek business opportunities for structured deals

Expansion of new businesses

‡ Secure new revenue source through restructuring business ‡ Enter OTC derivatives market by acquiring expertise in the area

Strengthen traditional businesses

‡ Reinforce traditional businesses (IPO, rights offerings, etc.) ‡ Maximize risk-adjusted profits

0

2

2002 Business Plan
2. 2002 projections
Aiming to maximize profits based on competitiveness in all business areas

FY`01 Stock
Brokerage

FY02(A) 9.20% 5.90% 8.00% 15.0% W330.0bn 10.0tn W308.6bn

Chg. +0.57% p +1.57% p +2.32% p +0.80% p +276.9bn +3.3tn +W105.0bn

8.63% 4.33% 5.68% 14.2% W53.1bn 6.7tn W203.6bn

M/S

Futures Options

Underwriting M/S IPO BC balance Pre-tax income

0

2

2002 Business Plan
3. Securing competitiveness in brokerage
Providing the best service and maximize returns to customers (Wealth Manager)
Strengthen Off-line business

‡ Increase size and number of main branches in key locations ‡ Recruit wealth advisors and focus on maximizing returns for customers

Aggressive/ Scientific marketing

‡ Strengthen target marketing through CRM activities ‡ Aggressive marketing activities (i.e. TV Commercials)

Maintain strength in Online trading

‡ Maintain the best online trading system (ifLG Trading) ‡ Enhance online trading service for foreign investors

Increase institution al sales

‡ Strengthen research (aiming to become No.2 research house in FY02) ‡ Increase int'l M/S behind proactive marketing activities

0

2

2002 Business Plan
4. Strengthen asset management business
Provide total asset management services (Wealth Manager)
- Individual customer focus approach -

Competitive products

‡ Provide financial products that suits each customer's needs ‡ Launch series of major funds

Strengthen customer relationship

‡ Effective customer management using CRM system ‡ Enhanced reliability through strong fund risk management

Professionals

‡ Implement systematic training program for wealth managers ‡ Recruit specialists

Strengthen Private Banking

‡ Expand sales to high net worth individuals through leading branches

0

2

2002 Business Plan
5. Securing a stable profit model for IB business
Establish strong foundation for IB through strong competitiveness

Participation in Large-scale Projects

‡ To lead privatization of public companies and other landmark deals ‡ Seek business opportunities for structured deals

Expansion of new businesses

‡ Secure new revenue source through restructuring business ‡ Enter OTC derivatives market by acquiring expertise in the area

Strengthen traditional businesses

‡ Reinforce traditional businesses (IPO, rights offerings, etc.) ‡ Maximize risk-adjusted profits

0

2

2002 Business Plan
2. 2002 projections
Aiming to maximize profits based on competitiveness in all business areas

FY`01 Stock
Brokerage

FY02(A) 9.20% 5.90% 8.00% 15.0% W330.0bn 10.0tn W308.6bn

Chg. +0.57% p +1.57% p +2.32% p +0.80% p +276.9bn +3.3tn +W105.0bn

8.63% 4.33% 5.68% 14.2% W53.1bn 6.7tn W203.6bn

M/S

Futures Options

Underwriting M/S IPO BC balance Pre-tax income

0

2

2002 Business Plan
3. Securing competitiveness in brokerage
Providing the best service and maximize returns to customers (Wealth Manager)
Strengthen Off-line business

‡ Increase size and number of main branches in key locations ‡ Recruit wealth advisors and focus on maximizing returns for customers

Aggressive/ Scientific marketing

‡ Strengthen target marketing through CRM activities ‡ Aggressive marketing activities (i.e. TV Commercials)

Maintain strength in Online trading

‡ Maintain the best online trading system (ifLG Trading) ‡ Enhance online trading service for foreign investors

Increase institution al sales

‡ Strengthen research (aiming to become No.2 research house in FY02) ‡ Increase int'l M/S behind proactive marketing activities

0

2

2002 Business Plan
4. Strengthen asset management business
Provide total asset management services (Wealth Manager)
- Individual customer focus approach -

Competitive products

‡ Provide financial products that suits each customer's needs ‡ Launch series of major funds

Strengthen customer relationship

‡ Effective customer management using CRM system ‡ Enhanced reliability through strong fund risk management

Professionals

‡ Implement systematic training program for wealth managers ‡ Recruit specialists

Strengthen Private Banking

‡ Expand sales to high net worth individuals through leading branches

0

2

2002 Business Plan
5. Securing a stable profit model for IB business
Establish strong foundation for IB through strong competitiveness

Participation in Large-scale Projects

‡ To lead privatization of public companies and other landmark deals ‡ Seek business opportunities for structured deals

Expansion of new businesses

‡ Secure new revenue source through restructuring business ‡ Enter OTC derivatives market by acquiring expertise in the area

Strengthen traditional businesses

‡ Reinforce traditional businesses (IPO, rights offerings, etc.) ‡ Maximize risk-adjusted profits

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices

Processor

Frame Buffer

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs ± Graphics terminals attached to a central timeshared computer

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

‡ Scan Conversion or Rasterization

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

±

PPT

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ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

0

1

FY01 Performance
1. Best earnings in the sector
In FY2001, LGIS recorded the sector's highest EBT of W203.6bn behind stable brokerage commissions and a reduction in bad debt related expenses

Earnings Before Tax Comparison
(Unit: Wbn) 203.6

FY2001: Apr 2001~ Mar 2002

104.4

51.4 37.3 24.7

LG

Samsun Hyundai Daewo o g

Daishin

0

1

FY01 Performance
(Reference) Profit and loss analysis in FY 2001 (Unit: Wbn)

Income from ordinary operation
Brokerage commissions Commission on BCs* BC related losses1) Underwriting fees Gains on trading securities Net Interest Income Other income SG&A expenses Ordinary income 363.6 46.4 19.5 35.7 57.5 21.0 7.2 296.8 215.1

Gain & Loss from others
Credit loss and others 2) 74.0

Loss on disposition & valuation 62.5 of investment securities 3) Non-recurring income 11.5

Net income
Earnings before tax Income tax expense Net income 203.6 67.0 136.6

1) Valuation loss from unsold BCs W15.8bn (Hynix W9.8bn, Hyundai PetroChem W4.8bn, Ssangyong Cement W1.3bn) 2) Loan loss provisioning W 159.5bn ± reversal W 85.5bn 3) Gains from valuation and disposition of trading securities W140.4bn ± valuation, disposition loss W69.3bn ± Loss on disposition of loans W 8.6bn * Beneficiary Certificates

0

1

FY01 Performance
2. Recovering brokerage M/S with improved operating capacity
Market share has increased behind the successful launch of the IfLG Trading System coupled with diverse marketing activities

LGIS Market share trend

Major Activities
Proactive sales by recruiting sales experts

11%

10%

Samsung

Introduction of a new online HTS (ifLG Trading) and aggressive marketing Opening of 19 new sub-branches

9%

LG No.2 No.5

8%

Increased international M/S using enhanced resources Introduction of performance-based compensation system to encourage top performance

7% 1Q01 2Q01 3Q01 4Q01 1Q02 2Q02
(end-May)

0

1

FY01Performance
3. Growing Asset Management Business
Increasing balance of BCs backed by emphasis on improving asset management business

Balance of BCs*
(Unit:Wtn)
170 154
20.7 19.2 21.4

Major Activities

170

Market

Establishment of performance-based compensation system to encourage

Samsung

superior performance

Developing high quality products using
10.3 8.0 7.6 7.3

Hyundai LG

fund performance evaluation system

6.1

6.6

Increase ability to serve clients by training professional wealth advisors

Mar 2001

Mar 2002

Jun 18, 2002

(Financial Planners)

*BCs: Beneficiary Certificates

0

1

FY01 Performance
4. Maintaining No.1 position in Investment Banking (IB)
Maximize income from investment banking by utilizing competitive edge in new business areas

IB business breakdown
New business

Major activities

W47.2bn W39.bn
3% 6%

Shift from traditional corporate
M&A, Consulting, Public offering, Etc.

W43.8bn 7% 33%

finance businesses into new business areas Establish new revenue sources such

23%

23%

ABS

as privatization, restructuring, consulting, and derivative related businesses Recruit approximately 30 experts in restructuring and OTC derivatives, and train existing employees in these areas
Major deals in FY2001 : KT ADR, Hynix GDR Foreign ABS of LG Card, LGCI rights offerings, etc.

91% 60%
Underwriting (corporate bonds, 54% Rights offering, IPO)

FY `99

FY `00

FY `01

Employed the largest number of IB professionals: 104

0

1

FY01 Performance
5. Eliminated potential losses by sufficient provisioning
Eliminated potential losses by reserving a 61% provision for substandard assets at year-end

Asset and provisioning ratio

Asset Classification and Provision
(Unit:Wbn)

4

50%

3.47
3

38.6%1) 2.89 36.1% 2.33 33.5% 2.01 16.2%
40%

Mar 2001
Total Credit ( a )

Mar 2002
2)

2,330.8 1,418.3 841.8 36.1% 59.4%

2,009.1 1,098.1 673.7 33.5% 61.4%

30%

2

20%

Below Substandard (b) Provision ( c )

1

9.1%

10%

0

0%

Provisioning ratio (c/a) Provisioning ratio (c/b)

Oct 99

Mar 00

Mar 01

Mar 02

* Provision/Total credit
1) W167.3bn provisioning in FY 2001 when including write-offs

2) Estimated loss of W167.3bn with 100% provisioning have been written off in FY 2001.

0

2

2002 Business Plan
1. FY02 Strategy Becoming a market leader by strengthening core businesses and focusing on growing businesses

‡ Establishing competitiveness in brokerage ‡ Strengthening asset management business ‡ Developing new revenue model in IB business ‡ Establishing strong corporate culture ‡ Implementing Risk Management & Compliance systems

0

2

2002 Business Plan
2. 2002 projections
Aiming to maximize profits based on competitiveness in all business areas

FY`01 Stock
Brokerage

FY02(A) 9.20% 5.90% 8.00% 15.0% W330.0bn 10.0tn W308.6bn

Chg. +0.57% p +1.57% p +2.32% p +0.80% p +276.9bn +3.3tn +W105.0bn

8.63% 4.33% 5.68% 14.2% W53.1bn 6.7tn W203.6bn

M/S

Futures Options

Underwriting M/S IPO BC balance Pre-tax income

0

2

2002 Business Plan
3. Securing competitiveness in brokerage
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Providing the best service and maximize returns to customers (Wealth Manager)
Strengthen Off-line business

‡ Increase size and number of main branches in key locations ‡ Recruit wealth advisors and focus on maximizing returns for customers

Aggressive/ Scientific marketing

‡ Strengthen target marketing through CRM activities ‡ Aggressive marketing activities (i.e. TV Commercials)

Maintain strength in Online trading

‡ Maintain the best online trading system (ifLG Trading) ‡ Enhance online trading service for foreign investors
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then op

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Increase institution al sales

‡ Strengthen research (aiming to become No.2 research house in FY02) ‡ Increase int'l M/S behind proactive marketing activities

0

2

2002 Business Plan
4. Strengthen asset management business
Provide total asset management services (Wealth Manager)
- Individual customer focus approach -

Competitive products

‡ Provide financial products that suits each customer's needs ‡ Launch series of major funds

Strengthen customer relationship

‡ Effective customer management using CRM system ‡ Enhanced reliability through strong fund risk management

Professionals

‡ Implement systematic training program for wealth managers ‡ Recruit specialists

Strengthen Private Banking

‡ Expand sales to high net worth individuals through leading branches

0

2

2002 Business Plan
5. Securing a stable profit model for IB business
Establish strong foundation for IB through strong competitiveness

Participation in Large-scale Projects

‡ To lead privatization of public companies and other landmark deals ‡ Seek business opportunities for structured deals

Expansion of new businesses

‡ Secure new revenue source through restructuring business ‡ Enter OTC derivatives market by acquiring expertise in the area

Strengthen traditional businesses

‡ Reinforce traditional businesses (IPO, rights offerings, etc.) ‡ Maximize risk-adjusted profits

0

2

2002 Business Plan
2. 2002 projections
Aiming to maximize profits based on competitiveness in all business areas

FY`01 Stock
Brokerage

FY02(A) 9.20% 5.90% 8.00% 15.0% W330.0bn 10.0tn W308.6bn

Chg. +0.57% p +1.57% p +2.32% p +0.80% p +276.9bn +3.3tn +W105.0bn

8.63% 4.33% 5.68% 14.2% W53.1bn 6.7tn W203.6bn

M/S

Futures Options

Underwriting M/S IPO BC balance Pre-tax income

0

2

2002 Business Plan
3. Securing competitiveness in brokerage
Providing the best service and maximize returns to customers (Wealth Manager)
Strengthen Off-line business

‡ Increase size and number of main branches in key locations ‡ Recruit wealth advisors and focus on maximizing returns for customers

Aggressive/ Scientific marketing

‡ Strengthen target marketing through CRM activities ‡ Aggressive marketing activities (i.e. TV Commercials)

Maintain strength in Online trading

‡ Maintain the best online trading system (ifLG Trading) ‡ Enhance online trading service for foreign investors

Increase institution al sales

‡ Strengthen research (aiming to become No.2 research house in FY02) ‡ Increase int'l M/S behind proactive marketing activities

0

2

2002 Business Plan
4. Strengthen asset management business
Provide total asset management services (Wealth Manager)
- Individual customer focus approach -

Competitive products

‡ Provide financial products that suits each customer's needs ‡ Launch series of major funds

Strengthen customer relationship

‡ Effective customer management using CRM system ‡ Enhanced reliability through strong fund risk management

Professionals

‡ Implement systematic training program for wealth managers ‡ Recruit specialists

Strengthen Private Banking

‡ Expand sales to high net worth individuals through leading branches

0

2

2002 Business Plan
5. Securing a stable profit model for IB business
Establish strong foundation for IB through strong competitiveness

Participation in Large-scale Projects

‡ To lead privatization of public companies and other landmark deals ‡ Seek business opportunities for structured deals

Expansion of new businesses

‡ Secure new revenue source through restructuring business ‡ Enter OTC derivatives market by acquiring expertise in the area

Strengthen traditional businesses

‡ Reinforce traditional businesses (IPO, rights offerings, etc.) ‡ Maximize risk-adjusted profits

0

2

2002 Business Plan
2. 2002 projections
Aiming to maximize profits based on competitiveness in all business areas

FY`01 Stock
Brokerage

FY02(A) 9.20% 5.90% 8.00% 15.0% W330.0bn 10.0tn W308.6bn

Chg. +0.57% p +1.57% p +2.32% p +0.80% p +276.9bn +3.3tn +W105.0bn

8.63% 4.33% 5.68% 14.2% W53.1bn 6.7tn W203.6bn

M/S

Futures Options

Underwriting M/S IPO BC balance Pre-tax income

0

2

2002 Business Plan
3. Securing competitiveness in brokerage
Providing the best service and maximize returns to customers (Wealth Manager)
Strengthen Off-line business

‡ Increase size and number of main branches in key locations ‡ Recruit wealth advisors and focus on maximizing returns for customers

Aggressive/ Scientific marketing

‡ Strengthen target marketing through CRM activities ‡ Aggressive marketing activities (i.e. TV Commercials)

Maintain strength in Online trading

‡ Maintain the best online trading system (ifLG Trading) ‡ Enhance online trading service for foreign investors

Increase institution al sales

‡ Strengthen research (aiming to become No.2 research house in FY02) ‡ Increase int'l M/S behind proactive marketing activities

0

2

2002 Business Plan
4. Strengthen asset management business
Provide total asset management services (Wealth Manager)
- Individual customer focus approach -

Competitive products

‡ Provide financial products that suits each customer's needs ‡ Launch series of major funds

Strengthen customer relationship

‡ Effective customer management using CRM system ‡ Enhanced reliability through strong fund risk management

Professionals

‡ Implement systematic training program for wealth managers ‡ Recruit specialists

Strengthen Private Banking

‡ Expand sales to high net worth individuals through leading branches

0

2

2002 Business Plan
5. Securing a stable profit model for IB business
Establish strong foundation for IB through strong competitiveness

Participation in Large-scale Projects

‡ To lead privatization of public companies and other landmark deals ‡ Seek business opportunities for structured deals

Expansion of new businesses

‡ Secure new revenue source through restructuring business ‡ Enter OTC derivatives market by acquiring expertise in the area

Strengthen traditional businesses

‡ Reinforce traditional businesses (IPO, rights offerings, etc.) ‡ Maximize risk-adjusted profits

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

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ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

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Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs ± Graphics terminals attached to a central timeshared computer

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

‡ Scan Conversion or Rasterization

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

±

PPT

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

2004

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

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ThinkFree Office 3
Welcome to the world of ThinkFree Office 3. An office suite of high-performance word processing, spreadsheet and presentation applications that is extremely compatible with Microsoft® Word, Office and PowerPoint.

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

± Approximation of smooth lines, etc.
‡ Jaggies/staircasing is inevitable.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics System
‡ Five major elements in a graphics system
± Processor ± Memory ± Frame buffer ± Output devices ± Input devices
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Processor

Frame Buffer

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Memory

‡ A graphics system includes
± Workstations ± PCs

Frame Buffer (1)
‡ Frame Buffer
± In simple systems, it is part of standard memory, DRAM. ± In high-end systems, it is implemented with special types of memory chips for the fast redisplay of the contents.
‡ VRAM(Video RAM) with double ports: The drawing Drawing Video engine can independently write into the frame Engines Controller writes reads buffer while the video controller is reading the pixels. So, VRAM is expensive!
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

Frame Buffer

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

Graphics Processor
‡ Processor
± Normal processing ± Graphics processing

‡ Main graphical function of the processor: Scan Conversion
± To take specifications of graphical primitives (such as lines, circles, and polygons) specified by application programs. ± And, to assign values to the pixels in the frame buffer that best represent these entities.

Output Devices
‡ CRT(Cathode-Ray Tube) ‡ Vector Display, Raster Display ‡ Color CRT ‡ LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)

Raster-scan Display (2)
‡ Operation
± Electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time form top to bottom. ± The beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

‡ Picture
± Stored as the intensity information in a memory area called the frame buffer.

‡ Used for
± The realistic display of scenes containing

Vector Display vs. Raster Display
‡ Vector displays are virtually all gone.
± Image filling an area with vector display!!

‡ Raster displays dominates (since early 70s). ‡ Disadvantages of Raster display
± Scan conversion is needed.
‡ Graphics commands specifying straight lines and other geometric objects are scan-converted into a set of discrete intensity points.

Raster Display Terminology
‡ Scan line
± Horizontal line of pixels

‡ Refresh rate
± The number of times per second the image is redrawn. ± Not only for raster display, but also for vector display. ± Typically 60~80 frames/sec for raster display.

‡ Noninterlaced, Interlaced
± Noninterlaced
‡ Pixels are displayed scan line by scan line at the refresh rate, which is usually 50 to 75 Hz.

Color Monitor
‡ Color CRTs
± Three different colored phosphors (red, green, blue). ± The phosphors are arranged in triangular groups called triads, each triad consisting of three phosphors, one of each primary color.

‡ Shadow-mask CRT
± A metal screen with small holes ensures that an electron beam excites only phosphors of the proper color.

Applications of Computer Graphics (1)
‡ Display of information
± Computer-based drafting ± Cartographers, GIS(Geographic Information System) ± In the field of statistics ± Medicine: CT, MRI, PET (Color Plate 20) ± Scientific visualization (Color Plate 19)

‡ Design
± Engineering and architecture design

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.