Projective Personality Tests

Chairperson: Dr. Ramanujam Presenter: Dr. Tejus Murthy

Basis of projective tests
• Projective hypothesis • Projective method

Basis of projective tests

Advantages of projective tests
• Markedly reduced chances of faking • No need for great proficiency in language • Cross-cultural utility • Tap the unconscious as well as conscious material

Inkblots as projective stimuli – The Rorschach • Hermann Rorschach • Swiss Psychiatrist .

First administration 2. Testing the limits . Inquiry 3.Procedure of administration 1.

however.The Rorschach – Card I When seeing card I. it can provide clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressful task. having readily available popular responses. Popular responses: bat. It is not. turning it) are not very significant. and questions on what they are allowed to do with the card (e. butterfly. Being the first card. a card that is usually difficult for the subject to handle. moth . subjects often inquire on how they should proceed.g.

and are the most distinctive features. Responses to them can provide indications about how a subject is likely to manage feelings of anger or physical harm. elephant. This card can induce a variety of sexual responses.The Rorschach – Card II The red details of card II are often seen as blood. bear . four-legged animal: dog. Popular responses: two humans.

The Rorschach – Card III Card III is typically perceived to contain two humans involved in some interaction. and may provide information about how the subject relates with other people (specifically. response latency may reveal struggling social interactions). Popular responses: two humans .

The Rorschach – Card IV Card IV is notable for its dark color and its shading (posing difficulties for depressed subjects). The human or animal content seen in the card is almost invariably classified as male rather than female. compounded with the common impression of the subject being in an inferior position ("looking up") to it. skin. and the qualities expressed by the subject may indicate attitudes toward men and authority. and is generally perceived as a big and sometimes threatening figure. this serves to elicit a sense of authority. Because of this Card IV is often called "The Father Card". Popular responses: animal hide. rug .

and typically instigates a "change of pace" in the test.The Rorschach – Card V Card V is an easily elaborated card that is not usually perceived as threatening. moth . Popular responses: bat. it is the easiest blot to generate a good quality response about. Containing few features that generate concerns or complicate the elaboration. after the previous more challenging cards. butterfly.

rug . even though other cards have a greater variety of commonly seen sexual contents. which often elicits association related to interpersonal closeness. skin. Popular responses: animal hide. it is specifically a "sex card". its likely sexual percepts being reported more frequently than in any other card.The Rorschach – Card VI Texture is the dominant characteristic of card VI.

The center detail is relatively often (though not popularly) identified as a vagina. which make this card also relate to feminine sexuality in particular. where difficulties in responding may be related to concerns with the female figures in the subject's life. and function as a "mother card".The Rorschach – Card VII Card VII can be associated with femininity (the human figures commonly seeing in it being described as women or children). Popular responses: heads/faces of women or children .

people who find processing complex situations or emotional stimuli distressing or difficult may be uncomfortable with this card. it represents a "change of pace". Similar to card V. the card introduces new elaboration difficulties. Therefore. being complex and the first multi-colored card in the set. which lets them relax and respond effectively. Popular responses: four-legged animal: not cat or dog . however.The Rorschach – Card VIII People often express relief about card VIII.

muted chromatic features. and it is the least frequent of all cards.The Rorschach – Card IX Characteristic of card IX is indistinct form and diffuse. but aside from this there are few particular "pulls" typical of this card. There is only one popular response. Having difficulty with processing this card may indicate trouble dealing with unstructured data. Popular responses: human . creating a general vagueness.

or what they desire to know. Popular responses: crab. it may provide an opportunity for the subject to "sign out" by indicating what they feel their situation is like.The Rorschach – Card X Card X is structurally similar to card VIII. caterpillars. Being the last card. worms. lobster. snakes . spider. but its uncertainty and complexity are reminiscent of card IX: people who find it difficult to deal with many concurrent stimuli may not particularly like this otherwise pleasant card.

Scoring • • • • • Location Determinants Content Popularity Form .

greater color response. confusion in defining limits of responses. personal references. F (minus) responses. Neurotic records generally show color shock or shading shock and increased form inability to elaborate responses. inability to elaborate responses in enquiry.preponderance of shading responses. perseveration. contaminations. Mania. • • • • • . There is bizarreness and variability of responses. M below normal . Depression. confabulations. Anxiety. lack of human movement responses and presence of responses which have determinants without form interest.greater number of achromatic responses and texture responses. stereotype and so on. Organic records is characterized by few responses. few popular responses. perseveration .certain blockings of response.Rorschach responses in various conditions • Schizophrenia. color shock and shading shock.

Test-retest reliability 3. Split-half reliability 2. Inter-scorer reliability .Reliability of the Rorschach 1.

Pictures as projective stimuli Henry A Murray Christiana D Morgan Originators of the TAT .







. Uma Chowdry of Kolkata.TAT Indian adaptation of TAT and CAT has been done by Dr.


William Henry’s variables for TAT interpretation • Description • Manifest stimulus demand • Form demand • Latent stimulus demand • Frequent plots • Significant variations • Introduced figures .

• High susceptibility to faking.Critiques of the TAT • The relation between expression of fantasy stories and behavior in real life may be only tentative. .

. births. • Used in children between 3 and 10 years of age. • CAT-A .the stimuli include pictures of children in common family situations such as prolonged illnesses.humans CAT-S .animals CAT-H . deaths. and separations from parental figures.Children’s Apperception Test • Developed by Leopold Bellak and Sonya Sorel Bellak and first published in 1949.

1950) Psychoanalytically based cartoon-like items featuring Blacky the dog .Blacky Pictures Test (Blum.

Blacky Pictures Test (Blum. 1950) Psychoanalytically based cartoon-like items featuring Blacky the dog .

portraying 2 persons in frustrating situations Each picture has 2 speech balloons. a filled one for the frustator or antagonist and a blank one for the victim’s response to the situation Direction of aggression: • Intropunitive (directed inward) • Extrapunitive (outwardly expressed) • Inpunitive (avoided or glossed over) Types of reactions • Obstacle dominance – response concentrates on frustrating barrier • Ego defense – attention is focused on protecting the frustrated person • Need persistence – attention is focused on solving the frustrating problem .Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study • • • • • Developed by Saul Rosenzweig Consists of 24 cartoon pictures.

most susceptible to faking .Words as projective stimuli • Word association tests • Sentence completion tests – general/specific – Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank – High face validity.

Sounds as projective stimuli B F Skinner “auditory inkblots” Reasons for disuse: lack of differentiation lack of complexity and richness unsatisfactory scoring systems .

The production of figure drawings Quick. Cheap Karen Machover Draw A Person Test • Instructions • Factors for evaluation • Placement of figure • Characteristics of individual drawn . Easy.


The production of figure drawings House-Tree-Person Test (Buck.1972) . 1948) Kinetic Family Drawing Test (Burns & Kaufman. 1970.

Projective methods in perspective • Assumptions – Ambiguity of stimulus – Similarity of stimulus – The assumption of the “unconscious” • Situational variables – Presence of examiner – Age of examiner. instructions given – Examiners’ contribution .

. factors.Frank’s response to those who would reject projective methods because of their lack of technical rigor: These leads to the study of personality have been rejected by many psychologists because they do not meet psychometric requirements for validity and reliability. or as static organization. then these projective methods offer many advantages for obtaining data on the process of organizing experience which is peculiar to each personality and has a life career. as an active dynamic process to be studied as a process rather than as entity or aggregate of traits. If we face the problem of personality. in its full complexity. but they are being employed in association with clinical and other studies of personality where they are finding increasing validation in the consistency of results for the same subject when independently assayed by each of these procedures. . .

– Ronald Jay Cohen and Mark E Swerdlik .Reference • Psychological Testing and Assessment – An Introduction to Tests and Measurement – 6th Ed.

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