FIRED HEATER DESIGN

FIRED HEATER DESIGN

TECHNIP

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FIRED HEATER DESIGN

PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS:
Maintain hydraulic symmetry:-Pipe lengths, fittings shall be same for all passes. Vaporizing Fluids Min.no. of passes.

Min. radiation loss ( based on LHV):
Without APH=1.5% Arch pressure: Normal Value -2.5 MMWG With APH=2.5%

TECHNIP

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FIRED HEATER DESIGN

PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS (cont.)
• Min. excess air: (A) Natural Draft:Gas Firing Oil Firing (B) Forced Draft:Gas Firing Oil Firing

10% 15%

5% 10%

TECHNIP

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• Max.FIRED HEATER DESIGN RADIANT SECTION DESIGN • Radiant average flux ( Kcal/Hr/M2 ): Crude 32500 Vacuum / Naphtha / DHDS 27100 Delayed coker / Visbreaker 25000 • Maximum film temp shall not be exceeded. • Maximum metal temp shall not be exceeded. volumetric heat release: Oil Firing 107 Kcal/M3 Gas Firing 142 Kcal/M3 TECHNIP 4 .

800 deg C • Min design temp for tube support = 871 deg C TECHNIP 5 . distance b/w refractory & tube center = 1.3 M • Max. length for Vertical tubes = 18. unsupported length for Horizontal tubes = lesser of 35 OD or 6M • Min.5Xnominal diameter • Duty absorbed in radiant = 60-70% of total absorbed duty • Normal Bridge wall temp = 600 .FIRED HEATER DESIGN RADIANT SECTION DESIGN (cont.75 • Max.) • Vertical cylindrical heaters: H / D < 2.75 • Horizontal tube heaters: H / W < 2.

1710 Kg/S/M2 • Typical flue gas side heat transfer coefficient is between 15 .3.5 • Process mass velocity = 1220 .0 .5 .0 Forced draft : 3. Fuel gas.25 Kcal/Hr/M2/K.FIRED HEATER DESIGN CONVECTION SECTION DESIGN • Flue gas mass velocity ( Kg/S/M2): Natural draft : 1. Bio gas) TECHNIP 6 . Fuel oil ) Fins : for lighter fuels ( viz.4. • Types of extended surfaces: Studs : for heavy fuels ( viz.

TECHNIP 7 . • Maximum metal (tube & extended surfaces) temp shall not be exceeded.FIRED HEATER DESIGN CONVECTION SECTION DESIGN (cont. Hence no extended surfaces are provided to prevent overheating of these tubes. • Never exceed critical velocity. • Maximum film temp shall not be exceeded.) • Normally first 3 rows are considered as shield tubes.

Z1 = Elevation of point 1 & 2 respectively (M) TECHNIP 8 .FIRED HEATER DESIGN STACK DESIGN • Stack is designed to maintain -2. Wt.1203 * Pa * ( ( Mwa / Ta ) .5 MMWG pressure at minimum 120% of design heat release with design excess air & max. of air & flue gas respectively ( Kg/Kg mol ) Z2.( MWf / Tf ) ) * ( Z2-Z1 ) Where. MWf = Mol. • Draft Analysis: Draft = 0. Pa = Ambient air pressure @ grade level (KPa) Ta. Tf = Ambient air & Flue gas temp respectively ( K) Mwa . ambient temp.

FIRED HEATER DESIGN STACK DESIGN (cont.Total pressure loss = Total draft gain • Normal Flue gas velocity in stack: Natural draft 8M/S Induced draft 15 .damper loss.) • Total draft Gain = draft gain in convection + draft gain in stack. Arch pressure . • Total pressure loss = pressure loss in convection ( entry loss. loss across tubes & exit loss ) + pressure loss in stack ( entry loss.20 M / S TECHNIP 9 . friction loss & exit loss ) • For viable design.

TECHNIP 10 . the flue gas temp is kept min 20-30 deg C above the flue gas dew point.) • Flue gas condensation: Sulfur dioxide produced as a result of combustion converts into SO3 and reacts with water vapor present in the flue gas to form sulfuric acid. Flue gas dew point depends on: (A) Fuel sulfur content (B) Flue gas O2 content (C) Flue gas moisture content (D) Combustion temp (E) Fuel & flue gas additives To avoid flue gas condensation. This sulfuric acid at low temperature condenses on the inside surface of the refractory. This is harmful for both the refractory & the casing.FIRED HEATER DESIGN STACK DESIGN (cont.

Tee. TECHNIP 11 .5 . • FD fan discharge pressure should be capable enough to over come: (A)Combustion air duct pressure loss ( straight & fittings ) (B)APH (C)Burners • Design velocities in combustion air duct: Straight. Capacity control is done by either Inlet guide vans / Inlet / Outlet damper.5 M / S • Normally Centrifugal fan with fixed speed drive are used.FIRED HEATER DESIGN FORCED DRAFT FAN • FD fans are designed with min 15 % margin over air flow rate corresponding to design heat release. Turns ~15 M / S Burner air supply & Plenum duct 7.10.

• Two options are used in case of 2 FD fans provided: (A) 1 fan is running. • MOC of casing .) 2 FD fans are provided.simple & cheaper but less reliable. CDU/VDU etc.costly but more reliable.FIRED HEATER DESIGN FORCED DRAFT FAN (cont. (B) Both the fans are running at 50 % load . other is standby .CS TECHNIP 12 .) • For critical applications ( viz.CS MOC of Impeller .

FIRED HEATER DESIGN FORCED DRAFT FAN (cont.) • Following parameters to be specified for the selection of FD fan: (A) Flow rate: Min / Nor / Max (B) Temp: Min / Nor / Max / Design (C) Inlet Pressure: Min / Nor (D) Outlet Pressure : Nor / Max (E) Air composition (F) Driver : Motor / Steam turbine (G) Spares TECHNIP 13 .

pressure drop in inlet damper. • Normal discharge pressure of ID fan is ambient pressure.CS / SS / Corten Steel A TECHNIP 14 . Turns ~12 M / S • MOC of casing .total pressure loss in convection total pressure loss in off take duct.FIRED HEATER DESIGN INDUCED DRAFT FAN • ID fans are designed with min 20 % margin over flue gas flow rate corresponding to design heat release.CS / SS MOC of Impeller . • Design velocities in off take duct: Straight. Tee. • Suction pressure = arch pressure .

TECHNIP 15 . P  n3 • Care must be taken to avoid flue gas condensation on the Impeller.Capacity control by Inlet guide vans/ Inlet damper (B) Variable speed drive ( Fluid coupling.FIRED HEATER DESIGN INDUCED DRAFT FAN (cont.) • Types of drive: ( A) Fixed speed drive (1000 or 1500 rpm ) . H  n2 . Hence the minimum temperature at ID fan inlet shall be about 25-30 deg C above dew point. VFD ) . Q  n .Capacity control by varying speed.

FIRED HEATER DESIGN INDUCED DRAFT FAN (cont.) • Following parameters to be specified for the selection of ID fan: (A) Flow rate: Min / Nor / Max (B) Temp: Min / Nor / Max / Design (C) Inlet Pressure: Min / Nor (D) Outlet Pressure : Nor / Max (E) Flue gas composition (F) Driver : Motor / Steam turbine (G) Spares TECHNIP 16 .

refractory & adjacent burners shall be avoided ) (D) Heat distribution requirements TECHNIP 17 . (B) Turndown requirements (C) Flame dimension: ( Flame impingement on tubes. of burners required for a given heat release shall be optimized based on following criteria: (A) In normal cases.FIRED HEATER DESIGN BURNERS • Types of Burners: (A) Gas Firing (B) Oil Firing (C) Combination Firing • No.0 MMKCal/Hr. max heat release per burner shall not exceed 3.

Pilot flame scanner ( Ionization rod ) ./Nor.25 6-7 1.20 >8 1. Heat Release <5 1. ~ 10 Kg/Cm2g (B) Steam atomization = steam/oil ~ 0. viscosity is 43 CSt. Igniter . TECHNIP 18 . Main flame scanner ( IR / UV ) .) • Component of Burner: Main Gas/Oil tips . max.15 • Min Pilot heat release 20000 Kcal/Hr • Type of Oil atomization: (A) Pressure atomization = min oil pr.3 Kg/Kg & Delta P ~2. Sight ports. • No. Pilot tip .1 Kg/Cm2 • For Oil fired burners. of Burners Max.FIRED HEATER DESIGN BURNERS (cont.

) • Generation of pollutants from Burner: (A) SOx : Sox (SO2 & SO3 ) generation chiefly depends on the sulfur content of the fuel. Refraction method is used to monitor the SPM content in flue gas.FIRED HEATER DESIGN BURNERS (cont. Normal limit is 50-125 ppmv for gas firing & 200-250 ppmv for oil firing. (C) Unburnt hydrocarbon: Result of improper mixing of fuel with air. (B) NOx : NOx (NO & NO2 ) is generated thermally by the reaction occurring above 700-800 deg C. Methods of NOx reduction are: Splitting fuel within burner Splitting combustion air within burner Diluting air-fuel mixture by flue gas mixing. TECHNIP 19 . ash etc. (D) SPM: Soot.

Pressure. UHC. CO etc. (C) Fuel details : Composition. Low Nox. of burners. (F) Emission requirements: SOx. LHV. Relative humidity (E) Nos. Pressure. SPM. Ignition details. NOx. TECHNIP 20 .FIRED HEATER DESIGN BURNERS (cont. Temperature (D) Combustion air details: Temperature. Forced Draft.) • Min parameters required for burner selection: (A) Heat release : Min / Nor / Max (B) Type of burner : Natural draft. (G) Noise limitation: 85 dBA A 1M from burner. Combination.

. TECHNIP 21 . (C) Reduce oil burner fouling (D) More complete combustion of difficult fuels.FIRED HEATER DESIGN AIR PREHEATER • Advantages of APH : (A) Enhance efficiency ( up 92-93 %). so either ID fan or taller stack will be required. • Disadvantages of APH: (A) Increases potential of SO3 & NOx generation as adiabatic flame temperature is high. (B) Reduces the stack temp. (B) To enhance air-fuel mixing ( High air velocity ).

Heavy so increases the structural cost if placed onboard. Easy to design & fabricate. Disadv: Higher pressure drop as compared to plate type.. metal temp is kept 10-15 deg above dew point. the min. Adv: Very low leakage. When cast iron tubes are provided. • Type of Air preheaters (recuperative type ) normally used in refinery services: (A) Tube Type: Tubes made of cast iron or glass. glass tubes may damage during transportation. falls to a very low value. TECHNIP 22 .FIRED HEATER DESIGN AIR PREHEATER (cont. normally Low unit cost.) • Steam air preheater (SAPH) is used when ambient air temp. easy for maintainence.

Light in weight & compact. high unit cost. so mostly used as onboard unit. These modules are standard in size and required capacity is obtained by increasing the number of modules. TECHNIP 23 . easy to foul & corrode(sometimes porcelain enameled plates are used ).) (B) Plate Type: Typically it contains carbon steel plates(typically 2mm thick) assembled in a frame. Adv: Low pressure drop. Disadv: Costly maintenance.FIRED HEATER DESIGN AIR PREHEATER (cont.

) • Min data required for air preheater specification: (A) Air / Flue gas flowrates : Min / Nor / Max (B) Air / Flue gas temperatures (in/out): Min / Nor / Max / Des (C) Air / Flue gas pressures (in) : Min / Nor / Max / Des (D) Type of APH (E) Duty : Nor/ Max (F) Allowable pressure drop ( Air side / Flue gas side ) (G) Sulfur dew point of flue gas (H) Flue gas composition (I) Requirements of tube skin thermocouple.FIRED HEATER DESIGN AIR PREHEATERS (cont. TECHNIP 24 .

• Soot has to be removed to maintain heat transfer coefficient. • Type of soot blowers: (A) Retractable type: Mostly use for high temperature & dirtier fuel application. (B) Fixed Rotary type: It is cheaper than Retractable type but can not be used in high temperature or dirty fuel services. TECHNIP 25 . Very limited experience is available for this type. (C) Vibration type: Ultrasound waves are used in this type to create vibration to disengage the soot from the coils. It is more costly but has better cleaning characteristics.FIRED HEATER DESIGN SOOTBLOWERS • Soot is generated as a result of improper combustion in burners. Normally it is used in fully automatic sequential mode.

FIRED HEATER DESIGN SOOT BLOWERS (cont.2M or 5 rows. TECHNIP 26 . • Some times steam lancing nozzles are provided to remove soot for smaller installations. whichever is less.) • Min steam flowrate required : 4535 Kg/Hr • Min steam pressure required : 10 Kg/Cm2 g • Each soot blower should cover maximum 1.

It can be either manual or automatic in operation. It can be single blade ( like butterfly damper ) or multiple blade ( like louver damper ).FIRED HEATER DESIGN DAMPERS • Type of Dampers: (A) Control damper: It controls the draft in the heater. No. of Blades ~ inside area of the duct or stack (M2) / 1. FD/ID fan and combustion air bypass around the APH. TECHNIP 27 . Multiple blade damper can have parallel blade opening or opposed blade opening ( better control but complex in operation).2 Control damper is normally use in stack. It always has some leakage ( ~3%).

FIRED HEATER DESIGN DAMPERS (cont. It is designed for a very high sealing efficiency ( 99.9%). (C) Diverter damper: It is used to divert the flow of air or flue gas from one duct to another duct. TECHNIP 28 .) (B) Shut off damper:It is used to prevent the flow through a duct. It can be operable manually by chain & pulley arrangement ( as in Guillotine blind ) or by an electric motor ( as in swing gate ).

SPM / NOx / SOx analyzers. Convection outlet temperature / pressure. Stack outlet temperature / pressure. High arch temperature ( alarm ). stack. TECHNIP 29 .FIRED HEATER DESIGN INSTRUMENTATIONS • Applicable code is OISD 111. convection. • Following instruments are normally provided: Draft gauge for radiant. Oxygen / CO analyzer in arch ( Alarm ). High / low arch pressure ( trip / alarm ).

Process fluid inlet & outlet temperature / pressure.FIRED HEATER DESIGN INSTRUMENTATIONS (cont. Tube skin temperatures in coil / APH.) Nozzles for pollution monitoring. TECHNIP 30 .

JM 26 etc.They are laid loose on the floor. JM 23. radiant wall and sometimes in vertical flue gas ducts. TECHNIP 31 . They are laid with mortar and expansion gaps are provided to accommodate the thermal expansion of the bricks. Exp.FIRED HEATER DESIGN REFRACTORIES • Type of refractories: (A) High Density Fire Bricks(HDFB): These are normally placed on the floor to protect the mechanically weak castables / bricks. Exp. They have excellent mechanical strength but very poor thermal insulation properties. AC30 etc. They are lighter than HDFB and hence mechanically poor. (B) Insulating Fire Bricks(IFB): These are normally placed on radiant floor (below HDFB). Application of IFB requires more time than castables / ceramic fibres.

Sometimes ceramic blocks are used in place of castables. Y or chain link type anchors are used. They can be mechanically very strong ( as Insulyte 15Li ) or thermally very superior ( like Firelite 124). Cerablok-800 etc.FIRED HEATER DESIGN REFRACTORIES (cont. depending on the tip temperature) are used to hold the castable with the casing. Normally V. In dual layer construction. Castable can be applied in dual layer also. They are applied on the surface by pouring or gunning. Anchors (CS or SS-304.) (C) Castables: Castable are placed in all parts of fired heater. TECHNIP 32 . Exp. a mechanically superior castable is used on hot face & thermally superior castable on cold surface.

they can potentially reduce the structural cost. TECHNIP 33 . Cerablanket 1450 etc. blankets or module for application on casing plates.FIRED HEATER DESIGN REFRACTORIES (cont. They are used as loose fibres for filling gaps. Due to their low weight. Application is very fast. Normally a vapour barrier (0. They are fixed to the casing by studs & nuts.1 mm SS-304 foil) and an anticorrosive paint are used to avert the flue gas condensation on the casing plate. Further.) (D) Ceramic Fibres: These refractory materials are very light weight. thermally superior but mechanically poor material. They can not be used where the flue gas velocity is 40fps ( for blankets) or 80fps( for modules). Exp: Cerablanket 1260. they can not be applied where the total metal content exceeds 100 ppm.

(D) Attack by Polythionic acid. (F) Attack by H2. (B) Vanadium & sodium attack in presence of sulfur. (G) Carburisation. (E) Attack by Chlorine. (C) Attack by H2S. TECHNIP 34 .FIRED HEATER DESIGN METALLURGY • Process affects the material selection: (A) Oxidation at high temperature.

25Cr-20Ni : 871oC. P9) -600 deg C Austenitic Stainless Steel ( SS304 / 310 / 321 / 347) -820 deg C • Following support materials are normally used: CS : 427oC.525 deg C High alloy steel ( P5.FIRED HEATER DESIGN METALLURGY (cont.P22) . TECHNIP 35 .) • Following tube materials are normally used: Carbon Steel . 50Cr-50Ni-Cb : 982oC • Heater casing is always made of carbon steel.525 deg C Low alloy steel (P11.

FIRED HEATER DESIGN METALLURGY (cont.) • Typical tube material for various services: Crude P5 Vacuum P9 Delayed coker / Visbreaker P9 Hydrotreater SS 321 / SS 347 Hot Oil Heater CS Reboilers CS TECHNIP 36 .

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