L

ECTURE 11

The Production Cycle

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INTRODUCTION
• The production cycle is a recurring set of business activities and related data processing operations associated with the manufacture of products.

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INTRODUCTION
• Information flows to the production cycle from other cycles, e.g.:
– The revenue cycle provides information on customer orders and sales forecasts for use in planning production and inventory levels. – The expenditure cycle provides information about raw materials acquisitions and overhead costs. – The human resources/payroll cycle provides information about labor costs and availability.
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INTRODUCTION
• Information also flows from the expenditure cycle:
– The revenue cycle receives information from the production cycle about finished goods available for sale. – The expenditure cycle receives information about raw materials needs. – The human resources/payroll cycle receives information about labor needs. – The general ledger and reporting system receives information about cost of goods manufactured.
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INTRODUCTION
• Decisions that must be made in the production cycle include:
– What mix of products should be produced? – How should products be priced? – How should resources be allocated? – How should costs be managed and performance evaluated?

• These decisions require cost data well beyond that required for external financial statements.
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INTRODUCTION
• We’ll be looking at how the three basic AIS functions are carried out in the production cycle, i.e.:
– How do we capture and process data? – How do we store and organize the data for decisions? – How do we provide controls to safeguard resources, including data?

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PRODUCTION CYCLE ACTIVITIES
• The four basic activities in the production cycle are:
– – – – Product design Planning and scheduling Production operations Cost accounting

• Accountants are primarily involved in the fourth activity (cost accounting) but must understand the other processes well enough to design an AIS that provides needed information and supports these activities.
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PRODUCTION CYCLE ACTIVITIES
• The four basic activities in the production cycle are:
– – – – Product design Planning and scheduling Production operations Cost accounting

• Accountants are primarily involved in the fourth activity (cost accounting) but must understand the other processes well enough to design an AIS that provides needed information and supports these activities.
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PRODUCT DESIGN
• The objective of product design is to design a product that strikes the optimal balance of:
– Meeting customer requirements for quality, durability, and functionality; and – Minimizing production costs.

• Simulation software can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of product design.
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PRODUCT DESIGN
• Key documents and forms in product design:
– Bill of Materials: Lists the components that are required to build each product, including part numbers, descriptions,and quantity. – Operations List: Lists the sequence of steps required to produce each product, including the equipment needed and the amount of time required.

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PRODUCT DESIGN
• Role of the accountant in product design:
– Participate in the design, because 65−80% of product cost is determined at this stage. – Add value by:
• Designing an AIS that measures and collects the needed data.
• Information about current component usage. • Information about machine set-up and materialshandling costs. • Data on repair and warranty costs to aid in future modification and design.
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PRODUCT DESIGN
• Role of the accountant in product design:
• Compare current component usage with projected – Participate in the design, because 65−80% of usage in alternate designs. product cost is determined at this stage. • Compare current set-up and handling costs to projected – Add value by: costs in alternate designs.

• Provide AIS that measures and collects total • Designing an info on how design trade-offs affect the production cost and profitability. needed data. • Helping the design team use that data to improve profitability.

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PRODUCTION CYCLE ACTIVITIES
• The four basic activities in the production cycle are:
– – – – Product design Planning and scheduling Production operations Cost accounting

• Accountants are primarily involved in the fourth activity (cost accounting) but must understand the other processes well enough to design an AIS that provides needed information and supports these activities.
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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• The objective of the planning and scheduling activity is to develop a production plan that is efficient enough to meet existing orders and anticipated shorter-term demand while minimizing inventories of both raw materials and finished goods.

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• There are two common approaches to production planning:
– Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II) – Lean Manufacturing

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• There are two common approaches to production planning:
– Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II) – Lean Manufacturing

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• MRP-II is an extension of MRP inventory control systems:
– Seeks to balance existing production capacity and raw materials needs to meet forecasted sales demands. – Often referred to as push manufacturing.

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• There are two common approaches to production planning:
– Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II) – Lean Manufacturing

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Lean manufacturing is an extension of the principles of just-in-time inventory systems:
– Seeks to minimize or eliminate inventories of raw materials, work in process, and finished goods. – Theoretically, produces only in response to customer orders, but in reality, there are short-run production plans. – Often referred to as pull manufacturing.
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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Comparison of the two systems:
– Both plan production in advance. – They differ in the length of the planning horizon.
• MRP-II develops plans for up to 12 months ahead. • Lean manufacturing uses shorter planning horizons.

– Consequently:
• MRP-II is more appropriate for products with predictable demand and a long life cycle. • Lean manufacturing more appropriate for products with unpredictable demand, short life cycles, and frequent markdowns of excess inventory.
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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Key documents and forms:
– Master production schedule
• • • Specifies how much of each product is to be produced during the period and when. Uses information about customer orders, sales forecasts, and finished goods inventory levels to determine production levels. Although plans can be modified, production plans must be frozen a few weeks in advance to provide time to procure needed materials and labor. Scheduling becomes significantly more complex as the number of factories increases. Raw materials needs are determined by exploding the bill of materials to determine amount needed for current production. These amounts are compared to available levels to determine amounts to be purchased.
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• •

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Key documents and forms:
– Master production schedule – Production order
• Authorizes production of a specified quantity of a product. It lists:
– Operations to be performed – Quantity to be produced – Location for delivery

• Also collects data about these activities,

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Key documents and forms:
– Master production schedule – Production order – Materials requisition
• Authorizes movement of the needed materials from the storeroom to the factory floor. • This document indicates:
– Production order number – Date of issue – Part numbers and quantities of raw materials needed (based on data in bill of materials)

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Key documents and forms:
– Master production schedule – Production order – Materials requisition – Move ticket
• Documents the transfer of parts and materials throughout the factory.

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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• How can information technology help?
– Improve the efficiency of material-handling activities by using:
• Bar coding of materials to improve speed and accuracy, • RFID tags can eliminate human intervention in the scanning process,
• • • • Up to 40 times faster than using bar-code scanners. Not impeded by dirt. Not limited to reading only those items in line of sight. Much easier to locate needed products and broadcast their location to forklift operators or other warehouse workers.
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PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Role of the accountant:
– Ensure the AIS collects and reports costs in a manner consistent with the company’s production planning techniques.

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PRODUCTION CYCLE ACTIVITIES
• The four basic activities in the production cycle are:
– – – – Product design Planning and scheduling Production operations Cost accounting

• Accountants are primarily involved in the fourth activity (cost accounting) but must understand the other processes well enough to design an AIS that provides needed information and supports these activities.
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PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
• Production operations vary greatly across companies, depending on the type of product and the degree of automation. • The use of various forms of IT, such as robots and computer-controlled machinery is called computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM).
– Can significantly reduce production costs.

• Accountants aren’t experts on CIM, but they must understand how it affects the AIS.
– One effect is a shift from mass production to customorder manufacturing and the need to accumulate costs accordingly.
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PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
• In a lean manufacturing environment, a customer order triggers several actions:
– System first checks inventory on hand for sufficiency. – Calculates labor needs and determines whether overtime or temporary help will be needed. – Based on bill of materials, determines what components need to be ordered.
• Necessary purchase orders are sent via EDI.

– The master production schedule is adjusted to include the new order.

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PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
• Sharing information across cycles helps companies be more efficient by timing purchases to meet the actual demand. • Although the nature of production processes and the extent of CIM vary, all companies need data on:
– – – – Raw materials used Labor hours expended Machine operations performed Other manufacturing overhead costs incurred
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PRODUCTION CYCLE ACTIVITIES
• The four basic activities in the production cycle are:
– – – – Product design Planning and scheduling Production operations Cost accounting

• Accountants are primarily involved in the fourth activity (cost accounting) but must understand the other processes well enough to design an AIS that provides needed information and supports these activities.
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COST ACCOUNTING
• The objectives of cost accounting are:
– To provide information for planning, controlling, and evaluating the performance of production operations; – To provide accurate cost data about products for use in pricing and product mix decisions; and – To collect and process information used to calculate inventory and COGS values for the financial statements.
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COST ACCOUNTING
• The objectives of cost accounting are:
– To provide information for planning, controlling, and evaluating the performance of production operations; To provide accurate cost data must collect real-time • –To accomplish the first objective, the AISabout products data on the performance of production activities so for use in pricing and product mix decisions; management can make timely decisions. and • RFID technology can be especially helpful, e.g.: – Broadcasting repair needs proactively. – To collect and process information used to – Helping in calculate the location of and COGS values for the inventory particular items. financial statements.
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COST ACCOUNTING

• To accomplish the second and third objectives, the AIS must collect costs by various categories and assign are: The objectives of cost accountingthem to specific products and organizational units. To provide information for planning, • –Requires careful coding of cost data during collection because costs may be allocated in different ways for different reporting controlling, and evaluating the performance of purposes.

production operations; – To provide accurate cost data about products for use in pricing and product mix decisions; and – To collect and process information used to calculate inventory and COGS values for the financial statements.
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COST ACCOUNTING
• Types of cost accounting systems:
– Job order costing
• Assigns costs to a specific production batch or job. • Used when the product or service consists of discretely identifiable items. • Example: Houses.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• Types of cost accounting systems:
– Job order costing – Process costing
• Assigns costs to each process or work center in the production cycle. • Calculates the average cost for all units produced. • Used when similar goods or services are produced in mass quantities and discrete units can’t be easily identified. • Example: Paint.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• Accounting for fixed assets:
– The AIS must collect and process information about the property, plant, and equipment used in the production cycle. – These assets represent a significant portion of total assets for many companies and need to be monitored as an investment.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• The following information should be maintained about each fixed asset:
• • • • • • ID number Serial number Location Cost Acquisition date Vendor info • • • • • • Expected life Expected salvage value Depreciation method Accumulated depreciation Improvements Maintenance performed

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COST ACCOUNTING
• The purchase of fixed assets follows the same processes as other purchases in the expenditure cycle (order  receive  pay). • But the amounts involved necessitate some modification to the process:
– Competitive bidding
• Machinery and equipment purchases almost always involve a formal request for competitive bids.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• The purchase of fixed assets follows the same processes as other purchases in the expenditure cycle (order  receive  pay). • But the amounts involved necessitate some modification to the process:
– Competitive bidding – Number of people involved
• More people are likely to be involved in reviewing bids for fixed assets.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• The purchase of fixed assets follows the same processes as other purchases in the expenditure cycle (order  receive  pay). • But the amounts involved necessitate some modification to the process:
– Competitive bidding – Number of people involved – Payment
• Purchases of fixed assets are often paid for in installments, including interest.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• The purchase of fixed assets follows the same processes as other purchases in the expenditure cycle (order  receive  pay). • But the amounts involved necessitate some modification to the process:
– – – – Competitive bidding Number of people involved Payment • The cost of fixed assets justifies more elaborate controls to safeguard them, including: Controls
– Maintenance of detailed records of each item. – RFID tags to:
• Monitor location • Facilitate preventive 11/e Romney/Steinbart Accounting Information Systems, maintenance

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COST ACCOUNTING
• The purchase of fixed assets follows the same processes as other purchases in the expenditure cycle (order  receive  pay). • But the amounts involved necessitate some modification to the process:
– – – – – Competitive bidding Number of people involved Payment Controls • It’s critical to formally approve and accurately record the sale or disposal Disposal
of fixed assets.
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COST ACCOUNTING
• A typical AIS would look something like the following:
– Product design
• Engineering specifications result in new records for both the bill of materials and the operations list file. • To create these lists, engineering accesses both files to view designs of similar products. • They also access the general ledger and inventory files for info about alternate designs.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• A typical AIS would look something like the following:
– Product design – Production planning
• The sales department enters sales forecasts and customer special order information. • Production planning uses that information and data on current inventory levels to develop a master production schedule. • New records are added to the production order file to authorize the production of goods.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• A typical AIS would look something like the following:
– Product design – Production planning – Cost accounting
• New records are added to the work-in-process file to accumulate cost data.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• A typical AIS would look something like the following:
– Product design – Production planning – Cost accounting – Production operations
• The list of operations to be performed is displayed at workstations. • Instructions are also sent to the CIM interface to guide operation of machinery and robots. • Materials requisitions are sent to inventory stores to authorize release of raw materials to production.
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COST ACCOUNTING
• Such a system can be used for a job-order or process costing system. • Both require that data be accumulated about:
– – – – Raw materials Direct labor Machinery and equipment usage Manufacturing overhead

• The choice of method:
– Does not affect how data are collected – Does affect how costs are assigned to products
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COST ACCOUNTING
• Raw material usage data:
– When production is initiated, the issuance of a materials requisition triggers a debit (increase) to work in process and a credit (decrease) to raw materials inventory. – Work in process is credited and raw materials are debited for any amounts returned to inventory. – Many raw materials are bar coded so that usage data is collected by scanning. – RFID tags improve the efficiency of tracking material usage. – Usage may be entered online for materials such as liquids that are not conducive to tagging.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• Direct labor costs:
– Historically, job time tickets were used to record the time a worker spent on each job task. – Currently, workers may:
• Enter the data on online terminals. • Use coded ID badges, which are run through a badge reader at the beginning and end of each job.

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COST ACCOUNTING
• Machinery and equipment usage:
– Machinery costs make up an ever-increasing proportion of production costs. – Data about machinery and equipment are collected at each production step, often with data about labor costs. – Until recently, data was collected by wiring the factory so all equipment was linked to the computer system.
• Limits the ability to rearrange the shop floor.

– 3-D simulations can be used to assess the impact of altering floor layout.
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COST ACCOUNTING
• Manufacturing overhead costs:
– Includes costs that can’t be easily traced to jobs or processes, such as utilities, depreciation, supervisory salaries. – Most of these costs are collected in the expenditure cycle. – An exception is supervisory salaries, which are collected in the HRM/payroll cycle.

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COST ACCOUNTING
– Accountants help control overhead by assessing how product mix changes will affect overhead costs. – They should also identify the factors that drive the changes in these costs.
• This information can be used to realign processes and layout.

– Accurate and complete information about production cycle activities are required to perform these analyses.
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CONTROL: OBJECTIVES, THREATS, AND PROCEDURES
• In the production cycle (or any cycle), a well-designed AIS should provide adequate controls to ensure that the following objectives are met:
– – – – – – – All transactions are properly authorized. All recorded transactions are valid. All valid and authorized transactions are recorded. All transactions are recorded accurately. Assets are safeguarded from loss or theft. Business activities are performed efficiently and effectively. The company is in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. – All disclosures are full and fair.
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CONTROL: OBJECTIVES, THREATS, AND PROCEDURES
• There are several actions a company can take with respect to any cycle to reduce threats of errors or irregularities. These include:
– Using simple, easy-to-complete documents with clear instructions (enhances accuracy and reliability). – Using appropriate application controls, such as validity checks and field checks (enhances accuracy and reliability). – Providing space on forms to record who completed and who reviewed the form (encourages proper authorizations and accountability).
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CONTROL: OBJECTIVES, THREATS, AND PROCEDURES
– Pre-numbering documents (encourages recording of valid and only valid transactions). – Restricting access to blank documents (reduces risk of unauthorized transaction). – Using RFID tags when feasible to improve data entry accuracy.

• In the following sections, we’ll discuss the threats that may arise in the four major steps of the production cycle, as well as general threats, EDI-related threats, and threats related to purchases of services.
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THREATS IN PRODUCT DESIGN
• The major threats in the product design process is:
– THREAT 1: Poor product design
• You can click on the threat above to get more information on:
– The types of problems posed by each threat. – The controls that can mitigate the threat.

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THREATS IN PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
• Threats in the planning and scheduling process include:
– THREAT 2: Over- or under-production – THREAT 3: Suboptimal investment in fixed assets
• You can click on any of the threats above to get more information on:
– The types of problems posed by each threat – The controls that can mitigate the threats.

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THREATS IN PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
• Threats in the production operations process include:
– THREAT 4: Theft of inventories and fixed assets – THREAT 5: Disruption of operations
• You can click on any of the threats above to get more information on:
– The types of problems posed by each threat. – The controls that can mitigate the threats.

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THREATS IN COST ACCOUNTING
• Threats in the cost accounting process include:
– THREAT 6: Inaccurate recording and processing of production activity data
• You can click on the threat above to get more information on:
– The types of problems posed by the threat. – The controls that can mitigate the threat.

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• You can click on any of the threats below to get more information on:
– The types of problems posed by GENERAL THREATSeach threat.
– The controls that can mitigate the threats.

• Two general objectives pertain to activities in every cycle:
– Accurate data should be available when needed. – Activities should be performed efficiently and effectively.

• Threats in the process of ordering goods include:
– THREAT 7: Loss, alteration, or unauthorized disclosure of data – THREAT 8: Poor performance
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PRODUCTION CYCLE INFORMATION NEEDS
• In a manufacturing environment, the focus must be on total quality management. Managers need info on:
– Defect rates – Breakdown frequency – Percent of finished goods needing rework – Percent of defects discovered by customers

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PRODUCTION CYCLE INFORMATION NEEDS
• In traditional systems, this type of data was not well linked with financial data, and cost accounting systems were separate from production operations information systems. • However, both financial and operating information are needed to manage and evaluate these activities.

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PRODUCTION CYCLE INFORMATION NEEDS
• Two major criticisms have been directed at traditional cost accounting systems:
– Overhead costs are inappropriately allocated to products. – Reports do not accurately reflect effects of factory automation.

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PRODUCTION CYCLE INFORMATION NEEDS
• Two major criticisms have been directed at traditional cost accounting systems:
– Overhead costs are inappropriately allocated to products. – Reports do not accurately reflect effects of factory automation.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Traditional cost accounting systems use volume-driven bases such as direct labor hours or machine hours to apply overhead. • However, overhead does not vary with production volume. • EXAMPLE: Purchasing costs vary with the number of purchase orders processed.
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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Allocating overhead based on output volume:
– Overstates the costs of products manufactured in large quantities. – Understates the costs of products manufactured in small batches.

• Also, allocating overhead based on direct labor input can distort costs.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Example of two products:
– Product one uses:
• $5 of materials • 1 hour of labor • 5 minutes of machine time

– Product two uses:
• $5 of materials • 1 hour of labor • 42 hours of machine time on very expensive equipment
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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Example of two products:
– Product one uses:
• $5 of materials • 1 hour of labor • 5 minutes of machine time
Under a traditional cost accounting system, both products will appear to have the same cost.

– Product two uses:

• $5 of materials • 1 hour of labor • 42 hours of machine time on very expensive equipment
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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Solution to criticism 1: Activity Based Costing (ABC)
– ABC can refine and improve cost allocations under either job-order or process costing systems.
• ABC traces costs to the activities that create them and allocates them accordingly. • ABC aims to link costs to corporate strategy.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
– Corporate strategy results in decisions about what goods and services to produce.
• These activities incur costs. • So corporate strategy determines costs.

– By measuring the costs of the basic activities, ABC provides information to management for evaluating the consequences of their decisions.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC vs. traditional cost systems:
– There are three significant differences between ABC and traditional approaches.
• Tracing of overhead costs • Number of cost pools • Identification of cost drivers

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC vs. traditional cost systems:
– There are three significant differences between ABC and traditional cost accounting approaches.
• Tracing of overhead costs • Number of cost pools • Identification of cost drivers

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC directly traces a larger proportion of overhead costs to products. • This tracing is made possible by advances in IT.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC vs. traditional cost systems:
– There are three significant differences between ABC and traditional cost accounting approaches.
• Tracing of overhead costs • Number of cost pools • Identification of cost drivers

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC uses a greater number of cost pools • EXAMPLES: Setup, inspection, and material to accumulate indirect costs handling costs. (manufacturing overhead). and allocated to the • Accumulated for a batch products in that batch. • Most systems lump all overhead together, • Consequently, costs per product will be less when products are made larger quantities. but ABC distinguishes threeincategories:
- Batch-related overhead

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC uses• aExamples: R&D, environmental regulations, and greater number of cost pools purchasing costs. to accumulate indirect costs to the diversity of the • These costs are related company’s product line. (manufacturing overhead). • ABC attempts to link these costs to the products • Most systems lump all overhead together, that generate them. • For example, purchasing costs might be but ABC distinguishes three categories: of allocated to products based on the number
purchase orders - Batch-related overhead generated for each product. - Product-related overhead

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC uses a greater number of cost pools to accumulate indirect costs (manufacturing overhead). • Most systems lump all overhead together, but ABC distinguishes three categories: • EXAMPLE: Rent or depreciation.
• These costs are applied to all products - Batch-related overhead and allocated according to departmental - Product-related overhead or plant rates. - Company-wide overhead

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• ABC vs. traditional cost systems:
– There are three significant differences between ABC and traditional cost accounting approaches.
• Tracing of overhead costs • Number of cost pools • Identification of cost drivers

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Benefits of ABC systems
– ABC systems are more costly and complex. – But proponents argue two important benefits:
• More accurate cost data result in better product mix and pricing decisions. • More detailed cost data improve management’s ability to control and manage total costs.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Benefits of ABC systems
– ABC systems are more costly and complex. – But proponents argue two important benefits:
• More accurate cost data result in better product mix and pricing decisions • More detailed cost data improve management’s ability to control and manage total costs.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Better decisions
– ABC avoids problems of applying too much or too little overhead to products and consequently results in better price decisions. – ABC uses the data collected to improve product design. – ABC provides management with the information about the costs associated with specific activities, resulting in better analysis and decisions.
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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Benefits of ABC systems
– ABC systems are more costly and complex. – But proponents argue two important benefits:
• More accurate cost data result in better product mix and pricing decisions. • More detailed cost data improve management’s ability to control and manage total costs.

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Improved cost management
– ABC measures the results of managerial actions on overall profitability. – ABC measures both the amount spent to acquire resources and the amount spent to consume them. – ABC measures unused capacity:
• Cost of activity capability = Cost of activity used + Cost of unused capacity

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• EXAMPLE: A publishing company has five employees who operate printing presses. • The employees each have annual salaries of $25,000 for a total salary cost of $125,000. • Each employee should be able to print about 10,000 books per year. • The total capacity, therefore is 50,000 books. • The salary cost per book would be $125,000 / 50,000 books = $2.50 per book. • During the most recent year, the presses produced 47,000 books.
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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• EXAMPLE: A publishing company has five employees who operate printing presses. • • The employeesThe cost of theannual capability is the total each have activity salaries of book capacity for of year of 50,000 $25,000 for a total salary cost the $125,000. books times the salary cost per book of $2.50. • Each employee should be x $2.50 = print about 10,000 • 50,000 books able to $125,000. books per year. • The total capacity, therefore is 50,000 books. • The salary cost per book would be $125,000 / 50,000 books = $2.50 per book. • During the most recent year, the presses produced 47,000 books.
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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• EXAMPLE: A publishing company has five employees who operate printing presses. • The employees each have annual salaries of $25,000 for a total salary cost of $125,000. • The cost of the activity used is the number of • Each employee should be able to print about 10,000 books actually produced times the salary cost books per year. book of $2.50. per • 47,000 books x is 50,000 books. • The total capacity, therefore$2.50 = $117,500. • The salary cost per book would be $125,000 / 50,000 books = $2.50 per book. • During the most recent year, the presses produced 47,000 books.
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• The 1: INAPPROPRIATE CRITICISMunused capacity is the difference between the activity capability ($125,000) and the cost of ALLOCATIONactivityOVERHEAD COSTS the OF used ($117,500).

• • •

books per year. • The total capacity, therefore is 50,000 books. • The salary cost per book would be $125,000 / 50,000 books = $2.50 per book. • During the most recent year, the presses produced 47,000 books.
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• $125,000 - $117,500 = $7,500 unused capacity. EXAMPLE: A publishing company has fivebe calculated • Alternately, unused capacity can employees who operate printing of $2.50 times the difference as the cost per book presses. The employeesbetween the books that salaries produced and each have annual could be of the $25,000 for a totalbooks that were actually produced. salary cost of $125,000. • $2.50 x (50,000 possible books – 47,000 actual Each employee should$7,500 unused capacity. 10,000 books) = be able to print about

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CRITICISM 1: INAPPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF OVERHEAD COSTS
• Management may be able to improve profitability by:
- Applying the unused capacity to other revenue-generating activities; or - Eliminating the unused capacity.

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PRODUCTION CYCLE INFORMATION NEEDS
• Two major criticisms have been directed at traditional cost accounting systems:
– Overhead costs are inappropriately allocated to products. – Reports do not accurately reflect effects of factory automation.

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CRITICISM 2: REPORTS DO NOT ACCURATELY REFLECT EFFECTS OF AUTOMATION

• When an organization transitions from a traditional production system to a lean manufacturing system, inventory levels are depleted. Consequently, almost all production costs of the year are expensed that year. • Although the effect is temporary, managers will be concerned if their performance evaluations are based on the company’s reported financial statements.
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CRITICISM 2: REPORTS DO NOT ACCURATELY REFLECT EFFECTS OF AUTOMATION

• Solution to criticism two: Better reports and measures
– Produce reports based on lean accounting principles.
• Report for each product all costs incurred to design, produce, sell, deliver, process customer payments, and provide post-sale support for that product. • Separate overhead costs from COGS. • Identify changes in inventory levels as a separate expense item.

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CRITICISM 2: REPORTS DO NOT ACCURATELY REFLECT EFFECTS OF AUTOMATION

• Solution to criticism two: Better reports and measures
– Produce reports based on lean accounting principles. – Develop resources to focus on issues important to production cycle managers.
• Examples:
– Useable output produced per time period. – Monitoring of product quality.

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THROUGHPUT: A MEASURE OF PRODUCTION EFFECTIVENESS
• Throughput = Productive Capacity x Productive Processing Time x Yield
– Productive Capacity = Total Units Produced / Processing Time
• Can be improved by:
– Improving machine or labor efficiency. – Improving factory layout. – Simplifying product design specifications.

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THROUGHPUT: A MEASURE OF PRODUCTION EFFECTIVENESS
• Throughput = Productive Capacity x Productive Processing Time x Yield
– Productive Capacity = Total Units Produced / Processing Time – Productive Processing Time = Processing Time / Total Time
• The opposite of downtime. • Can be improved by:
– Better maintenance to reduce machine downtime. – Better scheduling of deliveries to reduce wait time.
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THROUGHPUT: A MEASURE OF PRODUCTION EFFECTIVENESS
• Throughput = Productive Capacity x Productive Processing Time x Yield
– Productive Capacity = Total Units Produced / Processing Time – Productive Processing Time = Processing Time / Total Time – Yield = Good Units / Total Units
• Can be improved by:
– Using better raw materials. – Improving worker skills.
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THROUGHPUT: A MEASURE OF PRODUCTION EFFECTIVENESS
• Throughput = Productive Capacity x Productive Processing Time x Yield
– Productive Capacity = Total Units Produced / Processing Time – Productive Processing Time = Processing Time / Total Time – Yield = Good Units / Total Units

• EXAMPLE: Manster Co. produced 1,000 bottles of Zithmowash in a 10-hour period. During this period there was a total of 1 hour of machine downtime and waiting time for materials. One hundred of the bottles were defective.
– PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY = 1,000 bottles / 9 productive hours = 111.11 bottles / hour. – PRODUCTIVE PROCESSING TIME = 9 productive hours / 10 total hours = .90. – YIELD = 900 good units / 1,000 total units = .90 – THROUGHPUT = 111.11 x .90 x .90 = 90
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QUALITY CONTROL
• Information about quality control
–Quality control costs can be divided into four categories:
• Prevention costs
• Costs incurred to reduce product defect rates.

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QUALITY CONTROL
• Information about quality control
–Quality control costs can be divided into four categories:
• Prevention costs • Inspection costs
• Costs incurred to ensure products meet quality standards.

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QUALITY CONTROL
• Information about quality control
–Quality control costs can be divided into four categories:
• Prevention costs • Inspection costs • Internal failure costs
• Costs of rework and scrap when products are identified as defective prior to sale.

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QUALITY CONTROL
• Information about quality control
–Quality control costs can be divided into four categories:
• • • •
• Costs when defective products are sold to Prevention costs customers, e.g., warranty and repair costs, Inspectionliability costs, costs of customer product costs dissatisfaction, and Internal failure costs damage to reputation.

External failure costs

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QUALITY CONTROL
• Information about quality control
–Quality control costs can be divided into four categories:
• • • • Prevention costs have found that the most • Some companies important management decision involves Inspection costs switching from the Internal failure costs traditional "management by exception" philosophy to a "continuous External failure costs improvement" viewpoint. Continuous

– The improvement of qualitycomparing actual objective focuses on control is to performance to the ideal (i.e., four costs. minimize the sum of theseperfection).
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SUMMARY
• You’ve learned about the basic business activities and data processing operations that are performed in the production cycle, including:
– – – – Product design Production planning and scheduling Production operations Cost accounting

• You’ve learned how IT can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of these processes.

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SUMMARY
• You’ve learned about decisions that need to be made in the production cycle and the information required to make these decisions. • You’ve also learned about the major threats that present themselves in the production cycle and the controls that can mitigate those threats. • Finally, you’ve learned how the company’s cost accounting system can help in achieving the entity’s objectives.

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