UNDERSTANDING A SOCIAL SYSTEM A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways which includes all people and their relationships to one another and to the outside world.

Two points in interactions in a social system. even though its impact may be slight. on the behavior of the other. a change in one part of a system affects all other parts. . receiving input from it and providing output to it. the behavior of one member can have an impact. Simply stated. directly or indirectly. Social systems are open systems Any social system engages in exchanges with its environment .

. When a system is in disequilibrium. its parts are working against one another instead of in harmony.SOCIAL EQUILIBRIUM A system is said to be in social equilibrium when there is a dynamic working balance among its interdependent parts.

When an action or a change creates unfavorable effects.FUNCTIONAL AND DSYFUNCTIONAL EFFECTS functional effect when it is favorable for the system. dysfunctional effect. There is a need to determine possible functional or dysfunctional effects so that appropriate responses and measure can be anticipated and made. such as a decline in productivity. .

Employees functional or dysfunctional effects functional They can be: creative productive enthusiastic dysfunctional They can be tardy absent frequently unwilling to use their talents resistant to organizational changes. .

they need to receive clear expectation and promises of reward. in exchange. the organization needs to receive a commitment from employees.In order for employees to exhibit functional behavior. Furthermore. .

.with the social system. fair treatment (human dignity) etc. Employees agree to give loyality ..Psychological and Economic Contracts psychological contract defines the conditions of each employee’s psychological involvement –both contributions and expectations. They seek job security. creativity and extra effort but in return they expect more than economic rewards from the system.

The Result of the Psychological Contract & The Economic Contract Employee: -Expected gains -Intended contributions Psychological Contract Employee: If expectations are met -High job satisfaction -High performance -Continuance with organization If expectations are not met -Low job satisfaction -Low performance -Possible separation Employer: -Expected gains -Rewards ofered Economic Contract Employer: If expectations are met -Employee retention -Possible promotion If expectations are not met: -Corrective action. discipline -Possible separation .

knowledge and practices.Social Culture Culture is the behavior of society that influences one’s actions social culture is the environment of humancreated beliefs. . custom. Whenever people act in accordance with the expectations of others their behavior is social.

job-related type of work rank in organization non-job-related conditions those related to : culture ethnicity socioeconomics sex race .Cultural Diversity Employees are divided into subgroups .

. power and responsibility. It reflects a person’s position in the social system with its accompanying rights and obligations.ROLE the pattern actions expected of a person in activities involving others.

Each Employee Performs Many Roles A follower A stockholder A committee chairperson A leader And more! A spouse A subordinate A parent Who is an Employee? An accountant An advisor An consumer A staff person A specialist A golfer A worker A club president .

STATUS Status is the social rank of a person in a group. . “the desire for improvement and protection of status appears to be the basis of a sense of general responsibility” since status is important to people. . It is a mark of the amount of recognition. and acceptance given to a person. If it can be tied to actions that further the company’s goals. honor. then employees are strongly motivated to support their company. they will work hard to earn it.

Status Relationships High status people have more power and influence receive more privileges participate and interact more As a result. normally it is beneficial because it helps people cooperate with one another. . Though status can be abused. lower status members tend to feel isolated Status provides a system by which people can relate to one another as they work.

individual in higher rank has the authority to provide itself with surroundings just a little different from those of people lower in the structure.Status Symbols These are the visible. external things that are attached to a person that serve as evidence of social rank. .

such as vice president Employees assigned such as a private secretary . such as a club membership or company automobile Job title or organizational level. Interior decorations. such as carpeting draperies and artwork Location of workplace. such as a new vehicle or tools Type of clothes normally worn. such as a suit Privileges given.Typical Symbols of Status          Furniture such as mahogany desk or a conference table. such as a computer terminal or fax machine Quality and newness of equipment used. such as a corner office or an office having a window with a view Facilities at workplace.

.persons of equal rank should receive approximately equal status symbols. However there may be some variation between departments. because the work is different and rank is not directly comparable. such as production and sales.

Method of pay (hourly versus salary) -working conditions ( blue-collar and white-collar work. . . age.Sources of Status person’s: -abilities -job skills -type of work Other sources : -amount of pay. -seniority.

Education Working Conditions Job Level Method of Pay Abilities STATUS Age Job Skill Seniority Pay Occupation Major sources of status on the job .

Significance of Status It helps determine who will be an informal leader of a group. . it definitely serves to motivate those seeking to advance in the organization.

It represent a key element of the work environment in which employees perform their jobs. This culture may have been consciously created by its key members or it may have simply evolved across time. . values and norms that are shared by an organization’s members.ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Organizational Culture is the set of assumptions. beliefs.

It helps stimulate employee enthusiasm for their tasks.Importance of Organizational Culture They give an organizational identity to employees –a defining vision of what the organization represents. which provides a sense of security to its members. They are sources of stability and continuity to the organization. Knowledge of the organizational culture helps newer employees interpret what goes on inside the organization. .

Communicating Culture If organizations create and manage their cultures. they must be able to communicate them to employees. especially the newly hired ones. Example of approaches: visions mission philosophy statements codes of ethical conduct . .

organizational socialization process of transmitting organization’s culture to its employees. . From the employee’s viewpoint. Viewed from the organization’S perspective. organizational socialization is like placing an organization’s fingerprints on people or stamping its own genetic code on them. it is the essential process of learning the ropes to survive and prosper within the organization.

The important point is that socialization can be functional for both members/employees and the organization. . Individualization occurs when employees successfully influenced the social system or culture of their organization.

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