Italian Renaissance

1300-1600

Italian States
• The civilization of the Italian Renaissance was urban, centered on towns that had become prosperous from manufacturing, trade, and banking. • Italians had acquired considerable wealth, and some of this wealth was used to support writers, scholars, and artists.

• During the Renaissance, Italy remained divided politically. In northern Italy, the city-states of Florence, Milan, and Venice became major centers of the Renaissance civilization. • Rome dominated the Papal States of central Italy, while the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies embraced most of southern Italy.

Italian States • Florence • Papal States – Oligarchy – Renaissance – Medici family Popes – Savonarola • Julius II • Milan – Kingdom of the – Condottiere Two Sicilies – Spanish empire • Poor land • Venice • Spanish empire – Great Council • Doge – Monopoly on spice and luxury trade .

Renaissance Literature • Tuscan Triumvirate .poem of 14 lines (8 and 6) • Literary humanism • Benvenuto Cellini – Autobiography • Lorenzo Valla – Linguistic/historical analysis – Giovanni Boccaccio • Decameron .• Niccolo Machiavelli – The Prince --> vernacular – Dante Alighieri • Divine Comedy • Bladassare Castiglione – The Book of the Courtier – Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) • Italian sonnet .

Italian Renaissance Art • • • • • • • • Religious scenes focused on expressions Holy as human God‟s beauty in world Neo-Platonism Nude body Uniqueness .self-portraits Pagan myths as Christian icons Individual-secular-profane .

Giotto • Religious subjects in more human fashion and realistic setting • Illusion of depth .

Masaccio • Used light and shade to perspective • The Holy Trinity .

Sandro Botticelli • • • • • Vivid colors Classical mythology The Adoration of the Magi The Birth of Venus Primavera .

Leonardo da Vinci • First Italian artist to use oil paints • Mona Lisa • The Last Supper • The Virgin of the Rocks • Religious matter in secular and humanized fashion .

Leonardo da Vinci • Studying fossils • Anatomy from dissections • First accurate description of human skeleton • Remained on paper .

Raphael Santi • Humanized Madonna paintings • Sistine Madonna • School of Athens .

Michelangelo Buonarotti • Sistine Chapel – Nine scenes of OT from Creation to Flood • • • • • • The Last Judgment David Moses Pieta Dying Slave Night .

Michelangelo Buonarotti .

Titian • Tiziano Vecellio • Most famous Venetian painter • One painting a month • “Titian” red • The Assumption of the Virgin .

• The Northern Renaissance was infused with a more Christian spirit than in Italy. where there had been often an almost open revolt against Christian ideals.The Northern Renaissance • The influence of the Italian Renaissance gradually spread northward. .

Renaissance in Germany and Low Countries • Printing press w/ moveable type – Johannes Gutenberg – 1456 .the Bible – Rapid spread of knowledge .

• Christian Humanism – Unite classical learning w/ Christian faith – Erasmus • „Prince of the Humanists‟ • Praise of Folly • Rejected Luther .

Flemish Painting • Jan and Hubert van Eyck – First to use oil paints – The Adoration of the Lamb – Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride .

• Hieronymus Bosch – Nightmarish fantasy worlds – Garden of Earthly Delight .

• Peter Brueghel – Earthly and lively activities of peasants – Peasant Wedding – Children’s Games .

German Painting • Albrecht Durer – Mastery of expression – Woodcuts – Self-Portrait .

• Hans Holbein the Younger – Portraits • • • • Henry VIII Erasmus Thomas More The Ambassadors .

Elizabethan Literature • Edmund Spenser – Leading poet • Christopher Marlowe – playwright – Brief career – Doctor Faustus • William Shakespeare – Most famous playwright • Ben Jonson – Last major literary figure .

Spanish Renaissance • Cardinal Fransciso Jumenez de Cisneros • Miguel de Cervantes – Don Quixote • Felix Lope de Vega – Most prolific playwright • El Greco – Greatest painter of SR – Studied with Titian – Intense religious mysticism – Mannerism • El Escorial .

Luther posts 95 Theses • 1534 .Act of Supremacy • 1555 .The Protestant Reformation • 1517 .Peace of Augsburg .

” Romans (1:17) – Justification by faith • Johann Tetzel – Indulgence controversy • 95 Theses • Diet of Worms .Martin Luther • Planned to be a lawyer • Religious conversion to Augustinian monk • Theology teacher at university of Wittenberg • “The just shall live by faith.

3. 4. 2. “Justification by faith” “Sola scriptura” Baptism and holy communion Priesthood of believers German translation of Bible Abolished monasteries and celibacy of clergy . 5. 6.Lutheranism 1.

Lutheranism .

Lutheranism • Peasants‟ Revolt • Holy Roman Emperor Charles V • Diet of Augsburg • Peace of Augsburg – German prince right to determine religion of his state • Lutheran or Roman Catholic • No recognition of Calvinists or Anabaptists – Lutheranism dominant in northern Germany and Scandinavia .

Calvinism • Ulrich Zwingli – Humanist and Catholic priest – Sacraments only symbolic ceremonies – Rejected celibacy of clergy – Emphasized simplicity in worship – Killed by Catholic forces • John Calvin – Protestant – Exile in Geneva – Institutes of the Christian Religion – Predestination • Salvation by election – Puritanism • Theocracy .

Spread of Calvinism • Switzerland • France – Huguenots • John Knox – Presbyterians • England – Puritans • Netherlands • Max Weber‟s theory of the “Protestant work ethic” .

Anglicanism • King Henry VIII – Divorce of Catherine of Aragon – Thomas Cramner • Edward VI – 42 Articles • More Protestant • Cramner‟s Book of Common Prayer • Act of Supremacy – King head of Church of England – Six Articles • No papal supremacy • Bloody Mary – Executed Cramner – Married Philip II • Sold monasteries • Supported by English people – Papal taxes – “Babylonian Captivity” – Monastic land • Elizabeth I – Last Tudor – 39 Articles – Opposition • Pilgrims .Separatists • Mary Queen of Scots • Philip II • Execution of Thomas More .

Anabaptism • Radicals of the PR • Rejection of infant baptism • Active in Peasants‟ Revolt • Thomas Munzer • John of Leyden • Menno Simons – Mennonites .

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