Inside of a computer…
What happens when you turn your computer on? What loads? Where are applications stored? How are do they run? In what form is information stored in a computer? What is the location in memory where they are stored called? How much information is stored in one location? How does the RAM communicate with the Hard Drive? How do they get power?

Internet Basics .

This lesson includes the following sections: • The Internet: Then and Now • How the Internet Works • Major Features of the Internet • Online Services • Internet Features in Application Programs .

Even if part of its infrastructure was destroyed. called backbones.The Internet: Then and Now • • • The Internet was created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the U. The Internet uses high-speed data lines. enabling any user on any network to exchange data with any other user. ARPANET. The Internet is a network of interconnected networks.S. Department of Defense for scientific and military communications. to carry data. Internet Internetworking: the process of connecting separate networks • • . Smaller networks connect to the backbone. NSFnet. data could flow through the remaining networks.


How the Internet Works • • • • TCP/IP Routing Traffic Across the Internet Addressing Schemes Domains and Subdomains .

• • .How the Internet Works . if it uses TCP/IP. No matter what type of computer system you connect to the Internet. The protocol used by the Internet is the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. it can exchange data with any other type of computer. or TCP/IP.TCP/IP • Every computer and network on the Internet uses the same protocols (rules and procedures) to control timing and data format.

• • . The Internet includes thousands of host computers (servers). they connect to a smaller network that is connected to the Internet backbone. Instead. which provide data and services as requested by client systems.How the Internet Works Routing Traffic Across the Internet • Most computers don't connect directly to the Internet. When you use the Internet. The request and data are broken into packets and travel across multiple networks before being reassembled at their destination. your PC (a client) requests data from a host system.

plus information on the sending and receiving machines and how the packet relates to the other packets – Packets travel independently and possibly on different routes through the Internet – Packets are reassembled into the message at the receiving machine.The Operation of the Internet • Packets of information flow between machines governed by common rules (protocols): – Internet protocol (IP) – Transport control protocol (TCP) • Internet is a packet-switching network – Messages are decomposed into packets. . containing part of the message.


called an Internet Protocol (IP) address. • . a computer must have a unique address.117. Each IP address has four parts – each part a number between 0 and 255.104. An IP address might look like this: 205.How the Internet Works Addressing Schemes • • In order to communicate across the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric identifier.46.

) • The picture below illustrates two computers connected to the Internet.8.nnn. your computer with IP address 1.255.nnn. The Internet is represented as an abstract object in-between.nnn where nnn must be a number from 0 . This address is known as an IP address.2.3. .7.4 and another computer with IP address 5. more on this later. (IP stands for Internet Protocol. Internet addresses are in the form nnn.Where to Begin? Internet Addresses • Because the Internet is a global network of computers each computer connected to the Internet must have a unique address.6.

your computer has a unique IP address.• If you connect to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP). If you connect to the Internet from a local area network (LAN) your computer might have a permanent IP address or it might obtain a temporary one from a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server. . In any case. if you are connected to the Internet. you are usually assigned a temporary IP address for the duration of your dial-in session.

More on domain names and address resolution later. It's called ping. The ping program will send a 'ping' (actually an ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo request message) to the named computer. if you enter a domain name ( Also. .yahoo.1 If you are using Windows. get to a command The ping program will count the time expired until the reply comes back (if it does). The pinged computer will respond with a reply.Check It Out instead of an IP address. Type ping www. ping will resolve the domain name and display the computer's IP address. there is a handy program to see if a computer on the Internet is alive. start a command prompt window. www.The Ping Program IF you're using Microsoft Windows or a flavor of Unix and have a connection to the Internet. probably after the sound made by older submarine sonar systems. If you're using a flavor of Unix.

The protocol stack used on the Internet is referred to as the TCP/IP protocol stack because of the two major communication protocols used.e.4 and you want to send a message to the computer 5.3.Protocol Stacks and Packets So your computer is connected to the Internet and has a unique address. Every computer needs one to communicate on the Internet and it is usually built into the computer's operating system (i. Therefore the message must be translated from alphabetic text into electronic signals. the message must be transmitted over whatever kind of wire connects your computer to the Internet. Let's say you've dialed into your ISP from home and the message must be transmitted over the phone line. How is this accomplished? Through the use of a protocol stack. transmitted over the Internet.2. Windows. Unix.). The TCP/IP stack looks like this: .7. etc.8!".8. How does it 'talk' to other computers connected to the Internet? An example should serve here: Let's say your IP address is 1. then translated back into alphabetic text.7.6. The message you want to send is "Hello computer 5.6. Obviously.

Converts binary packet data to network signals and back. IP directs packets to a specific computer using an IP address. TCP directs packets to a specific application on a computer using a port number. (E.g. e-mail. ethernet network card.) . etc. FTP.Protocol Application Protocols Transmission Control Protocol Layer Internet Protocol Layer Hardware Layer LayerComments LayerProtocols specific to applications such as WWW. modem for phone lines. etc.

• A domain name identifies the type of institution that owns the computer. . An Internet server owned by IBM might have the domain name ibm. such as products. and identify them with the Internet Works Domains and Subdomains • In addition to an IP address. most Internet hosts or servers have a Domain Name System (DNS) address. which uses words. • Some enterprises have multiple


Major Features of the Internet • • • • • • The World Wide Web E-Mail News Telnet File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Internet Relay Chat (IRC) .

allowing users to view and navigate different types of data. • • • Every Web page has an address. HTML allows designers to link content together via hyperlinks.Major Features of the Internet The World Wide Web • The World Wide Web is a part of the Internet. which supports hypertext documents. a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). . A Web page is a document encoded with hypertext markup language (HTML) tags.

your browser follows the URL’s path to a folder named “norton.This address is for an Internet server that uses The hypertext transfer protocol. This site belongs to a company named Glencoe. This site is on the part of the Internet known as the World Wide Web.” . To find the specific Web pages that accompany this book.” then to a subfolder named “online.

and receive e-mail messages. To use e-mail.Major Features of the Internet . a user must have an e-mail address. send. which you create by adding your user name to the e-mail server's domain name. • . you need an e-mail program and an account on an Internet mail server with a domain name.E-Mail • • Electronic mail (e-mail) is the most popular reason people use the To create. as in jsmith@aol.