Foot Anatomy

Bone Anatomy
• Tarsal Bones
– Calcaneus
• Sustentaculum Tali • Peroneal Tubercle

– – – – –

Cuboid Navicular 3 Cuneiforms 5 metatarsals 5 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)
• Exception

Division of the Foot
• Rearfoot • Midfoot • Forefoot

Hindfoot (Rearfoot)
• Subtalor Joint
– Talus and calcaneus articulation – Individual Bone Formation
• Calcaneus
– Calcaneal Tuberosity – Sustentaculum Tali

• Inferior Talus
– Three facets – Five functional articulation

Midfoot
• Composed of
– Navicular – 3 cuneiforms – cuboid

Forefoot
• 5 MT’s
– Proximally 1-3 articulate with cuneiforms – Proximally 4-5 articulate with cuboid – Bases articulate with:

• Phalanges

Articulations and Ligamentous Support
• Subtalor Joint
– Three facets – Motions of the Subtalor Joint
• Supination Components • Pronation Components

– WB vs NWB Status of Foot at Subtalor joint

Hindfoot Articulations and Ligamentous Support
• Subtalor Joint
– Ligamentous Support • Intra-articular Ligaments – Interosseous Talocalcaneal – Ligamentum Cervis – Medial Talocalcaneal – Lateral Talocalcaneal

Midfoot Articulations and Ligamentous Support
• Six Joints
– – – – – – Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Cuboideonavicular Intercuneiform Cuneocuboid Cuneonavicular

• Transverse Tarsal
– Comprised by calcaneocuboid & talonavicular

• Stability Related to subtalor joint

Midfoot Articulations and Ligamentous Support
• Ligamentous Support
– Talocalcaneonavicular Joint
• Plantar Calcaneonavicular (Spring Ligament) • Talonavicular • Bifurcate
– Calcaneonavicular – Calcaneocuboid

– Calcaneocuboid Joint
• Bifurcate Ligament
– Calcaneocuboid portion

• Plantar Calcaneocuboid • Long Plantar Ligament

Midfoot Articulations and Ligamentous Support
• Ligamentous Support
– Intercuneiform Joints
• Dorsal and Plantar Intercuneifrom Ligaments

– Cuneocuboid
• Plantar and Dorsal Cuneocuboid Ligaments

– Cuneonavicular Joints
• Plantar and Dorsal Cuneonavicular Ligaments

Forefoot Articulations and Ligamentous Support
• Tarsometatarsal Joint (Lisfranc’s Joint) • Intermetatarsal Joint • Metatarsalphalangeal Joint (MTP) • Interphalangeal Joint
– PIP – DIP

Forefoot Articulations and Ligamentous Support
• Ligamentous Support
– Intermetatarsal Joint
• Proximal • Distal

– MTP Joints
• Plantar Fascia • Plantar Ligament • MCL and LCL

– Interphalangeal Joints

• Plantar and dorsal join capsule • MCL and LCL

Arches of the Foot
• Function • Medial Longitudinal Arch • Lateral Longitudinal Arch • Transverse Arch

Arches of the Foot
• Medial Longitudinal Arch
– – – – – – Calcaneus Talus Navicular 1-3 cuneiforms 1-3 MT’s Function

Arches of the Foot
• Medial Longitudinal Arch continued
– Ligament Support
• Plantar Calcaneonavicular • Long Plantar Lig • Deltoid • Plantar fascia

Arches of the Foot
• Medial Longitudinal Arch continued
– Ligament Support
• Plantar Calcaneonavicular • Long Plantar Lig • Deltoid • Plantar fascia

Arches of the Foot
• Medial Longitudinal Arch continued
– Ligament Support
• Plantar Calcaneonavicular • Long Plantar Lig • Deltoid • Plantar fascia

Arches of the Foot
• Medial Longitudinal Arch continued
– Ligament Support
• Plantar Calcaneonavicular • Long Plantar Lig • Deltoid • Plantar fascia

Arches of the Foot
• Medial Longitudinal Arch continued
– Muscular Support
• Intrinsic
– Abductor Hallucis – Flexor Digitorum Brevis

• Extrinsic
– Tibialis Posterior – Flexor Hallucis Longus – Flexor Digitorum Longus – Tibialis Anterior – Flexor Digitorm Longus

Arches of the Foot
• Medial Longitudinal Arch continued
– Muscular Support
• Intrinsic
– Abductor Hallucis – Flexor Digitorum Brevis

• Extrinsic
– Tibialis Posterior – Flexor Hallucis Longus – Flexor Digitorum Longus – Tibialis Anterior – Flexor Digitorm Longus

Arches of the Foot
• Lateral Longitudinal Arch
– Composed of
• Calcaneus • Cuboid • 4-5th MT’s

– Ligament Support
• Long & Short Plantar • Plantar Fascia

Arches of the Foot
• Lateral Longitudinal Arch continued
– Muscle Support
• Intrinsic
– Abductor Digiti Minimi – Flexor Digitorum Brevis

• Extrinisic
– Peroneus Longus, Brevis & Tertius

Summary of Arches

Arches of the Foot
• Transverse Arch
– Formed By: – Ligament Support
• Intermetatarsal Ligaments • Plantar Fascia

– Muscle Support
• All intrinsic muscles • Extrinisic
– Tibialis Posterior – Tibialis Anterior – Peroneus Longus

Foot Muscles – Plantar Surface
• Superficial Layer
– Abductor Hallucis – Abductor Digiti Minimi – Flexor Digitorum Brevis

Foot Muscles – Plantar Surface
• Middle Layer
– Quadratus Plantae – Lumbricales

Foot Muscles – Plantar Surface
• Deep Layer
– Flexor Hallucis Brevis – Adductor Hallucis
• Transverse and Oblique Heads

– Flexor Digiti Minimi

Foot Muscles – Plantar Surface
• Interosseus Layer
– Plantar Interossei – Dorsal Interossei

Foot Muscles – Dorsal Surface
• Extensor Digitorum Brevis • Extensor Hallucis Brevis

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