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It is any chemical element or compound in the diet that supports normal reproduction, growth, lactation, work or maintenance. water a source of N in the form of essential amino acids or other nitrogenous compounds. fat to supply essential fatty acids. mineral elements fat and water soluble vitamins a source of energy
Minerals – Cobalt – Zinc Enzyme carboxipeptidase and alkaline phosphatase. Feeding – LI -35-40 % Fermentation – caecum & colon Crude fibre % Iron Inj. Flushing . Pigs – Highly Prolific Growth Pattern ADG 100 Kgs in 143 days Nutrient Spec Energy – DE to ME Loss of Energy as gas Quality of Protein Pregnancy Lactation Ilial digestibilities.
Animal species and the GIT Age of the animal Physiological state Level of productivity within that physiological state .
• • • • • • • DE is preferable in describing energy req DE more precisely estimated and easy to measure than ME Me consists 0.96 of DE ME = DE * (96 .[ 0.83 kcal ME/g of N for each gram N retained above maintenance or below maintenance Not necessary in growing animal .202 * % CP] ME decreases with poor qty protein and also excess protein 7.
5-1% ME = 96% on DE .fecal. Easily determined Available for most of commonly used feed stuffs ME = GE . gaseous and urinary GE Loss of energy as gas = 0.
Growing pig DE= DEm + DEpr + DEf + DEHc Maintenance include needs for all body function and moderate function Various factors influence are Environmental temperature Activity level Group size . Stress .
Quality and quantity of protein effect ME&DE relationship ME = DE x (96-[0.ME decreases N content of urine increases – ME decreases ME corrected to N equilibrium ss .202 x %CP]) Poor quality protein – ME decreases Excess protein .
= ME – HI HI – heat produced by digestion and metabolism of nutrients and fermentation in the intestinal tract NE : ME = 0.72 :1 NE .66:1 to 0.
sex and body condition of the pig Environmental conditions under which the animal is maintained % of energy retained as proteins . breed.Factors influencing NE values Composition of feed stuff Level of feed intake Balance of nutrients in the diet Age .
Cold thermo genesis influence energy requirement when ambient temp below critical temp. Critical temp(Tc) – that point below which an animal must increase heat production to stay warm increase rate of metabolic heat production Factors that alter rate of energy exchange between animal and its environment will alter Tc .
326W+23.period (25-60kg) – additonal 80kcal of ME required to compensate each 1o C below Tc Finishing period(60-100kg) – 125 kcal ME Thermoneutral zone – heat production stable DE intake reduced by 0.65(Tc-T) Growth . Energy cost for cold thermogenesis – DEHc(kcalDE/day) = 0.above upper critical temp.017% for each 1o C rise of effective ambient temp.
gain during pregnancy Environmental and managemental parameters Long .term reproductive efficiency – minimize weight and fat loss during lactation Pregnant sow – requirement varies with Live wt. Target wt.
gain Increase energy intake during pregnancy (upto 6 Mcal DE /day) – increase birth wt. Gain of 25kg throughout pregnancy Increase in the wt.20kg Total 45 kg gestation wt. .of placenta and other products of conception should be approx.
4% in maintenance energy cost .increase in average birth wt.of pigs by 50g For each 1oC below sow’s lower critical temp.(18-20o) – increase of approx. Increased feed intake during early gestation – no increase the litter size Increased feed intake during late gestation.
– – 1.3McalDE/kg Efficiency of utilization – 65% Energy required for milk production = 2Mcal /kg of milk. Milk .
. Introduction Pigs need not specifically need protein. Ten of the 20 amino acids required are considered as dietary essentials because the pig is not able to synthesize them at all. but rather require amino acids for the formation of muscle and other body proteins.
Genotype –same energy level –females around 10% higher than castrate males – finishing phase(60-100kg) Effect of level of feeding – restricted feeding – relative requirement -high Sex .
Energy level of feeding Dietary fibre level –1-1.5% fall in apparent protein digestibility –each 1% increase in C.F Use only one diet during growing/ finishing -20-60 kg -reduce the level of fat in the animal .
Require for young pigs Cystine – from methionine Phenylalanine –converted to tyrosine Tyrosine – satisfy atleast 50% of total aromatic a.required for pregnancy Proline – not dietary requirement for all the stages. Arginine-growth of young pigs Histidine .a .
imbalance. Departure from the pattern of ideal protein Swine – relatively tolerant of quite wide variation –pattern of amino acids Toxicity. . antagonism Toxicity –excess of individual amino acids Very rare Four amino acids –lysine.tryptophan.and threonine methionine.
Methionine and tryptophan –highest toxicity Excesses of lysine and threonine –well tolerated in young pigs .
a . But extent of disproportion is less Exacerbation of the deficiency of the most limiting amino acid Corrected by addition of that a. Imbalances Excessive intake .
– excesses of one a.a increases of requirement of a structurally related a.a Arginine –lysine antagonism Leucine-isoleucine-valine antagonism – minor importance Antagonisms .
mammary gland. other reproductive organs –500g N Daily retention of N –5g Pregnancy .– deposition of nitrogen in the uterus.
retain higher proportion of dietary protein Daily allowance –140-180 g cp Lysine requirement 0.5% of the diet at feed intake of 2 kg/d.10g lysine /d . Greater efficiency .
genetic potential in milk production Nitrogen utilization –influenced by milk yield I. age or stage of lactation.e stage of lactation In early stages of lactation –N utilization – large amount of the urinary losses. Litter size.milk yield minimum .
9 0.Total AA Lysine % Met % M+C % Threonine % Tryptophan % Linoleic acid % 3265 26 3265 23.12 0. mg Vitamins 0.55 100 4 0.7 3265 20.14 0.5 3265 13.47 0.5 15 10 3.22 0.5 0.27 0.68 0.01 0.1 0.3 100 0.5 1750 200 11 0.39 0.3 1.5 12.4 0.52 0.74 0. total % % Available P % Iron .36 0.1 1.6 0.65 0.66 0. mg Manganese.5 9 3 15 1300 150 11 0.1 1.18 0. mg Zinc.6 0.22 0.32 0.8 0.19 0.45 0.5 7 7 2 5 1300 150 11 0.7 0. Kcal/Kg Protein % True Ileal .1 0.15 50 Vit A IU Vit D IU Vit E IU Vit K mg Niacin mg Pantothenic acid mg Riboflavin mg Vitamin B12 ϥg 2200 220 16 0.18 0.63 0.23 60 2 0.5 10 1300 150 11 0.15 50 0.1 0.45 0.31 0.1 0.5 7 7 2 5 .76 0.52 0.24 0.32 80 3 0.84 0.25 80 0.4 100 4 0.5 10 8 2.19 50 2 0.5 0.83 0.43 0.34 0.9 3265 18 3265 15.1 Minerals Ca % Phosphorus.NRC 1998 Swine Live Weight (Kg) Intake 3 to 5 5 to 10 10 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 80 80 to 120 ME . mg Selenium.5 17.15 0.15 60 0.5 20 12 4 20 2200 220 16 0.34 0.58 0.7 0.3 100 0.15 40 2 0.