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taken from two Greek words demos (people); kratos rule or strength A form of government where supreme power

power is held completely the people under a free electoral system people refers to a community of persons working together for a common purpose

majority rules- characteristic feature


has its origin in Athens, Greece & is considered as the last form of government

Representative- officials are chosen thru


elections Direct- citizens participate in decision making personally Socialists- believe in a form of participatory & workplace democracy

Anarchist accepts the direct democracy Eroquois accepts both participatory &

representative form of democracy Sortition- a.k.a. democracy without election process of choosing decision makers via a random process, e.g. jury selection

Consensus requires only the consensus

of the group rather than the great majority Interactive utilizes information Technology to involve voters in law making, provide a system for new laws & for prioritizing proposals

man as an Autocentric being


the only animal who can choose between courses of action he alone can say NO in the face of the greatest temptation or adversity enjoys Political Freedom how can man be free when he is bound to obey
moral & positive laws?

human freedom is never absolute; liberty & duty are governed by principle of justice; our freedom stops when other freedom starts

the basic tenets of democracy as good government:

Laws of the state are in consonance with natural law

Binding in conscience

the right of the people to rule themselves is exercised by the elected officials

Notion of Vicariousness
in giving elected officials with authority man do not surrender their right for selfgovernment elected officials are rulers invested with real authority or right to govern

Notion of Vicariousness
how can people delegate authority & keep it at the same time?

applicable for material things


NOT applicable for IMMATERIAL things like MORAL RIGHTS, AUTHORITY, TRUTH & LOVE the more they are shared the PURER & more enduring it becomes

Notion of Vicariousness
elected officials exercise with genuine authority Authority solicits POWER authority can obliged people to obey them have right to be obeyed for the sake of the COMMON GOOD laws enacted by duly elected officials are binding in conscience

MAN & STATE relation in a DEMOCRATIC FORM OF Government


True democracy strikes the middle ground between: Rulers & the constituents Individual & group Private & common good Individual liberty & state control Freedom & Law

MAN & STATE relation in a DEMOCRATIC FORM OF Government


over emphasis on state importance, belittles individual & leads to fallacy of collectivism or totalitarianism over emphasis importance of individual, belittles the state & leads to individualistic anarchism

Christian Democracy
characterized by the concept of PERSONHOOD & COMMON GOOD man is a person which transcend individuality & finds fulfillment only in group life man is a person with dignity as Imago Dei

Right to Revolt
unjust laws are not binding conscience; are not according to reason & natural law thus NOT to be obeyed
resistance to unjust laws is justifiable defense

man possesses inalienable & inviolable right to defend his natural right has moral obligation to defend his right against unjust or aggressor rulers has the right to revolt against unjust rulers

Right to Revolt
conditions where revolution is justifiable; government becomes substantially tyrannical ( has lost sight of the common good) constitutional procedures of reforms & redress have failed reasonable probability that revolution will be successful great majority consider the government as substantially tyrannical

Capital Punishment
the state has the right to inflict capital punishment if the common good demands it the State has NO right to take away life BUT there are instances when OFFENDERS, because of their CRIMES , have FORFEITED the exercise of their RIGHT to life justly condemned offenders because of their criminal acts has FORFEITED their right to live

Capital Punishment
Death penalty is a necessary means to deter men from atrocious crimes the State has the right to inflict death to preserve its existence against the most dangerous elements of the society unabated commission of heinous crimes calls for its imposition