Bioremediation through

PHYTOREMEDIATION
Paula Denice C. Bagunu CAS-02-601P

What is Bioremediation?
O Bioremediation is the use of

microorganism metabolism to remove pollutants. Technologies can be generally classified as in situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site, while ex situ involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere.

Biostimulation.bioremediation treatment process that is performed in the upper soil zone or in biotreatment cells. in the form of molasses).soil vacuum extraction. such as phosphorus. It is used for removal of oily phase contaminants above the watertable.introduction of a group of natural microbial strains or a genetically engineered variant to treat contaminated soil or water. or carbon (e.treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants that mitigate the environmental problem Bioventing. nitrogen.involves the modification of the environment to stimulate existing bacteria capable of bioremediation.involves filtering water through a mass of roots to remove toxic substances or excess nutrients. sediments. Contaminated soils.the extraction of specific metals from their ores through the use of living organisms. This can be done by addition of various forms of rate limiting nutrients and electron acceptors.g. . Bioaugmentation. Bioleaching.Forms of Bioremediation O O O O O O O Phytoremediation. or sludges are incorporated into the soil surface and periodically turned over (tilled) to aerate the mixture. Land farming. oxygen. Rhizofiltration.

Control and Remediation .Phytoremediation : An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention.

has limited potential. environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). is often expensive. these conventional approaches to remediation often make the soil infertile and unsuitable for agriculture and other uses by destroying the microenvironment. Additionally. surface water and ground water) not only affects natural resources but also causes a major strain on ecosystems.O Around the world. . lack of vision. The build-up of toxic pollutants (metals. Remediation of contaminated sites using conventional practices. there is an increasing trend in areas O O O O of land. military and agricultural activities either due to ignorance. Hence there is the need to develop and apply alternative. and is usually only applicable to small areas. taking into account the probable end use of the site once it has been remediated. surface waters and groundwater affected by contamination from industrial. such as „pump-and-treat‟ and „dig-and-dump‟ techniques. or carelessness. radionuclides and organic contaminants in soil.

sediments. . in place of mechanical cleanup methods. low levels of contamination. sludges.Overview O Phytoremediation is the direct use of living green O O O O plants for in situ. or containment of contaminants in soils. Phytoremediation is: A low cost. Most useful at sites with shallow. Useful for treating a wide variety of environmental contaminants. removal. surface water and groundwater. solar energy driven cleanup technique. or in some cases. Effective with. degradation. or in place.

O Phytoremediation can be defined as “the efficient use of plants to remove. .What is Phytoremediation? O Phytoremediation („phyto‟ means plant) is a generic term for the group of technologies that use plants for remediating soils. sediments and water contaminated with organic and inorganic contaminants. chemical or physical activities and processes of the plants. sludges. detoxify or immobilise environmental contaminants in a growth matrix (soil. water or sediments) through the natural biological.

soil or water. Poland.smelt activities lead concentration was highlylead to Further research and development will wider acceptance in theuse and then picked up by a increased and soil of phytoremediation. and landfill leachates. as well as transport systems that can take up nutrients or contaminants selectively from the growth matrix. O Phytoremediation has been studied extensively in researchCabbage plantationdemonstrations. It can also be used for river basin management through the hydraulic control of contaminants.O Plants are unique organisms equipped with remarkable metabolic and absorption capabilities. O Phytoremediation can be used to clean up metals. solvents. pesticides. As a result of a smelter currently limited to a small number of projects. O Plants have evolved a great diversity of genetic adaptations to handle the accumulated pollutants that occur in the environment.(Photo: IETU) . number of crops in the surrounding areas. crude oil. polyaromatic hydrocarbons. explosives.abut full-scale and small-scale growing close to zinc applications arein Silesia.

organic pollutants or contain and stabilize metal contaminants by acting as filters or traps. or degrade. contaminated sites. To remove pollutants from soil. or remediate. sediment and/or water. .How does Phytoremediation work? O There are several ways in which plants are used to clean up. plants can break down.

O The root system provides an enormous surface area that absorbs and accumulates the water and nutrients essential for growth. in which the principal mechanisms for preventing contaminant toxicity are found. as well as other non-essential contaminants. .O The uptake of contaminants in plants occurs primarily through the root system. deep-lying contaminated ground water can be treated by pumping the water out of the ground and using plants to treat the contamination. In addition. O Researchers are finding that the use of trees (rather than smaller plants) is effective in treating deeper contamination because tree roots penetrate more deeply into the ground.

changes in chemical composition. release of organic substances. O Root exudates. and/or increase in plantassisted microbial activity.O Plant roots also cause changes at the soil- root interface as they release inorganic and organic compounds (root exudates) in the rhizosphere. by themselves can increase (mobilise) or decrease (immobilise) directly or indirectly the availability of the contaminants in the root zone (rhizosphere) of the plant through changes in soil characteristics. .

O Phytoremediation is an in situ remediation technology that utilises the inherent abilities of living plants. in some cases in place of mechanical conventional clean-up technologies that often require high capital inputs and are labour and energy intensive. solar-energy driven clean-up technology.O Phytoremediation is an alternative or complimentary technology that can be used along with or. It is also an Experimental phytoremediation crops in Canada (Photo: Environment Canada) ecologically friendly. . based on the concept of using nature to cleanse nature.

for example. The pollutants remain absorbed in or adsorbed to the roots. Rhizofiltration — filtering water through a mass of roots to remove toxic substances or excess nutrients. as in the stimulation of atrazine degradation by hornwort. typically by organisms that associate with roots. by limiting the leaching of substances from the soil. often resulting in their inactivation. Phytovolatilization — removal of substances from soil or water with release into the air. Phytostimulation — enhancement of soil microbial activity for the degradation of contaminants. Phytostabilization — reducing the mobility of substances in the environment. degradation (phytodegradation). Phytostimulation can also involve aquatic plants supporting active populations of microbial degraders.Forms of Phytoremediation O O O O O O Phytoextraction — uptake and concentration of substances from the environment into the plant biomass. . This process is also known as rhizosphere degradation. sometimes as a result of phytotransformation to more volatile and/or less polluting substances. Phytotransformation — chemical modification of environmental substances as a direct result of plant metabolism. or immobilization (phytostabilization).

. copper. for phytoremediation. these plants appeared to be the best at removing large quantities of chromium. Chinese mustard. In laboratory tests with metals loaded onto artificial soil (a mix of sand and vermiculite). also known as mustard greens. lead. and leaf mustard.Plants used in Bioremediation O Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata- two members of the mustard family. juncea. Indian mustard. and Brassica nickel.

mays. and animal feed O University researchers from the UK reported in the May 1999 issue of Nature Biotechnology that transgenic tobacco plants can play a role in cleaning up explosives. cornflakes.O Zea mays .can take up incredibly high levels of lead. corn flour. yielding such products as corn meal. a monocot in the Poaceae or grass family. Z. beer. . cooking oil. is the most important cultivated cereal next to wheat and rice.

Phytotech. a Princeton. and as a Helianthus sp. in margarine. or Asteraceae. Helianthus was planted on a styrofoam raft at one end of a contaminated pond near Chernobyl. while the strontium concentrations were 2. It also produces an oil that is used for cooking. Helianthus sp. H.000 times that of the water. family and has edible seeds. paint additive. tuberosus was used by Native Americans as a carbohydrate source for diabetics. NJ- based company.. O Subsequently. Helianthus is in the composite. .. that could remove as much as 95% of toxic contaminants in as little as 24 hours.000 times that of the water. reported that it had developed transgenic strains of sunflowers. and in twelve days the cesium concentrations within its roots were reportedly 8. Inc.O In February 1996.

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Phytoremediation of Textile Process Effluent by Using Water hyacinth Figure 2. In a present investigation phytoremediation of textile process effluent by using water hyacinth has been carried out in the studying reduction of COD and metals from textile process effluent. It has been observed that there is a reduction of 80% in COD and about 25 to 45% reduction in metals after 18 days period (KIT's College of Engineering Campus) . Water hyacinth plant in 2 liters of a zinc solution.

Combinations of microorganisms with water hyacinths must be seriously considered in developing filtration systems for removing toxic trace chemicals.O In studies where the ability of the water hyacinth to remove lead. cadmium. Division of Agricultural and Food Sciences.) . the plant removed approximately 65 per cent of lead. 50 per cent of cadmium. such as heavy metals and carcinogenic materials. Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama. Guatemala City. Guatemala. (Leonardo Lareo and Ricardo Bressani. and 65 per cent of mercury from water polluted with 10 ppm of lead and 1 ppm of mercury and cadmium . One hectare of water hyacinth plants is potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hectares from water polluted with this chemical . and mercury was tested.

Because inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus are accumulated to a large extent in the roots (roots represent 20 per cent of the wet weight of the plants). . Water hyacinth root compost has nevertheless been used with good results as a propagation medium for house plants. but this apparent drawback offers potential for additional benefit. For maximum effectiveness. Thus.Other uses of Water Hyacinths O O The results of several studies show plants such as the water hyacinth use appreciable amounts of the inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus found in domestic sewage. Water hyacinths are serving that purpose in several locales and a number of other communities are considering adoption of the technique. or organic fertilizer. Water hyacinth compost (total plant). presents a problem because the fiber is not degraded. They can also be heat treated to produce consumer energy in the form of methane gas. they may find further utility as high protein animal feed. however. this quality signifies a second possible use for the water hyacinth as 'compost'. Water hyacinths thrive on sewage. which can be established at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment facility. the plants have exciting promise as a natural water purification system. And if an economical way of drying the plants can be developed. Harvested plants can be and are being used as fertilizer. they absorb and digest waste water pollutants. converting sewage effluents to relatively clean water. Pollution gorged water hyacinths must be harvested at intervals.

.What are the advantages of Phytoremediation? O the cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes both in situ and ex situ O the plants can be easily monitored O the possibility of the recovery and re-use of valuable metals (by companies specializing in “phyto mining”) O it is potentially the least harmful method because it uses naturally occurring organisms and preserves the environment in a more natural state.

which in itself does not resolve the problem of contamination) the survival of the plants is affected by the toxicity of the contaminated land and the general condition of the soil. . slow growth and low biomass require a long-term commitment with plant-based systems of remediation. it is not possible to completely prevent the leaching of contaminants into the groundwater (without the complete removal of the contaminated ground. into the plants which then pass into the food chain. especially metals. from primary level consumers upwards or requires the safe disposal of the affected plant material. bio-accumulation of contaminants.What are its limitations? O O O O O phytoremediation is limited to the surface area and depth occupied by the roots.

alpine pennycress. and arsenic. one major disadvantage of phytoremediation is that it requires a long-term commitment. or air. water. as opposed to mechanical cleanup methods such as soil excavation or pumping polluted groundwater. and pigweed[disambiguation needed ] have proven to be successful at hyperaccumulating contaminants at toxic waste sites. Contaminants such as metals. this technology has become increasingly popular and has been employed at sites with soils contaminated with lead. Phytoremediation refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyperaccumulators to bioaccumulate. have been mitigated in phytoremediation projects worldwide. as the process is dependent on plant growth. solvents. However. Over the past 20 years. . Many plants such as mustard plants. and bioaccumulation capacity. O O Phytoremediation is considered a clean. tolerance to toxicity. uranium.or render harmless contaminants in soils. reducing the impact of sites where polychlorinated biphenyls have been dumped during manufacture and mitigation of on-going coal mine discharges. Examples where phytoremediation has been used successfully include the restoration of abandoned metal-mine workings. and crude oil and its derivatives. cost-effective and non-environmentally disruptive technology. degrade. pesticides.Applications O Phytoremediation may be applied wherever the soil or static water environment has become polluted or is suffering ongoing chronic pollution. hemp. explosives.

The End Have a Nice Day everyone ☺ .

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